Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 82

A

PROJECT REPORT

ON

BUS RESERVATION SYSTEM

Submitted in partial fulfillment for the

Award of degree of

Post Graduate Diploma

In

Information Technology (2008-10) Submitted By: BRIJ MOHAN DAMMANI 200852200
Information Technology
(2008-10)
Submitted By:
BRIJ MOHAN DAMMANI
200852200
(2008-10) Submitted By: BRIJ MOHAN DAMMANI 200852200 Submitted to: Symbiosis Centre for Distance Learning, Pune

Submitted to:

Symbiosis Centre for Distance Learning, Pune 411016, Maharashtra, India

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

A project like this takes quite a lot of time to do properly. As is often the case, this project owes its existence and certainly its quality to a number of people, whose name does not appear on the cover. Among them is one of the most extra ordinary programmers it has been my pleasure to work with Mr. Ankur Kaushik, who did more than just check the facts by offering thoughtful logic where needed to improve the project as a whole.

logic where needed to improve the project as a whole. We also thank to Mr. Sh.

We also thank to Mr. Sh. Hardayal Singh (H.O.D. -MCA Deptt. Engineering College Bikaner) who deserves credit for helping me done the project and taking care of all the details that most programmers really don’t think about. Errors and confusions are my responsibility, but the quality of the project is to their credit and we can only thank them.

the project is to their credit and we can only thank them. We are highly thankful
the project is to their credit and we can only thank them. We are highly thankful

We are highly thankful and feel obliged to Milan Travels staff members for nice Co- Operation and valuable suggestions in my project work.

We owe my obligation to my friends and other colleagues in the computer field for their co-operation and support.

We thank God for being on my side.

for their co-operation and support. We thank God for being on my side. For more details

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Contents

Chapter 1

Introduction

Chapter 2

Development model

Chapter 3

System Study

Chapter 4

Project Monitoring System

Chapter 5

System Analysis

Chapter 6

Operating Environment

Chapter 7 System Design Chapter 8 System Testing Chapter 9 System Implementation Chapter 10 Conclusion
Chapter 7
System Design
Chapter 8
System Testing
Chapter 9
System Implementation
Chapter 10
Conclusion
Chapter 11
Scope of the Project
Chapter 10 Conclusion Chapter 11 Scope of the Project For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Introuction

In bus reservation system there has been a collection of buses, agent who are booking tickets for customer’s journey which give bus number and departure time of the bus. According to its name it manages the details of all agent, tickets, rental details, and timing details and so on. It also manages the updating of the objects.

and so on. It also manages the updating of the objects. In the tour detail there

In the tour detail there is information about bus, who has been taking customers at their destination, it also contain the detailed information about the customer, who has been taken from which bus and at what are the number of members he or she is taking his/her journey.

the number of members he or she is taking his/her journey. This section also contain the
the number of members he or she is taking his/her journey. This section also contain the

This section also contain the details of booking time of the seat(s) or collecting time of the tickets, this section also contain the booking date and the name of agent which is optional, by which the customer can reserve the seats for his journey

In Bus no category it contains the details of buses which are old/new. New buses are added with the details with bus no, from city to the city, type of the bus, rent of a single seat, if the bus has sleeper than the cost of sleeper, if the cabin has the facility for sitting than the cost of cabin seats, tour timings of the new bus has also been stored. How many buses are currently given and available in office?

How many buses are currently given and available in office? In seats specification, it gives the

In seats specification, it gives the list of given issued and currently available seats and contain the information about seats like sleeper, cabin etc.

The main objective of this project is to provide the better work efficiency, security, accuracy, reliability, feasibility. The error occurred could be reduced to nil and working conditions can be improved.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Development model

Software Process Model

Our project life cycle uses the waterfall model, also known as classic life cycle model or linear sequential model.

as classic life cycle model or linear sequential model. System/Information Engineering Analysis Design Code
System/Information Engineering Analysis Design Code Test The Waterfall Model The waterfall model encompasses the
System/Information
Engineering
Analysis
Design
Code
Test
The Waterfall Model
The waterfall model encompasses the following activities:
System/information Engineering and Modeling

1.

System Engineering and Analysis encompass requirements gathering at the system level with a small amount of Top-level design and analysis. Information Engineering encompasses requirements gathering at the strategic business level and at the business area level.

strategic business level and at the business area level . 2. Software requirements analysis For more

2. Software requirements analysis

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Software requirements analysis involves requirements for both the system and the software to be document and reviewed with the customer.

3. Design

Software design is actually a multi-step process that focuses on for distinct attributes of a program: data structure, software architecture, interfaces representation and procedural detail. The design process translates requirements into a representation of the software that can be accessed for quality before coding begins.

that can be accessed for quality before coding begins. 4. Code Generation Testing Support Code-Generation phase

4.

Code Generation Testing Support
Code Generation
Testing
Support
before coding begins. 4. Code Generation Testing Support Code-Generation phase translates the design into a

Code-Generation phase translates the design into a machine-readable form.

5.

Once code has been generated, program testing begins. The testing focuses on the logical internals of the software, ensuring that all statement have been tested, and on the functional externals; that is, conducting test to uncover errors and ensure that define input will produce actual results that agree with required results.

6.

produce actual results that agree with required results . 6. Software will undoubtedly undergo change after

Software will undoubtedly undergo change after it is delivered to the customer. Change will occur because errors have been encountered, because the software must be adapted to accommodate changes in its external environment or because the customer requires functional or performance enhancements.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

System Study

Before the project can begin, it becomes necessary to estimate the work to be done, the resource that will be required, and the time that will elapse from start to finish. During making such a plan we visited site many more times.

3.1 Project planning objectives

site many more times. 3.1 Project planning objectives The objective of software project planning is to

The objective of software project planning is to provide a framework that enables the management to make reasonable estimates of resources, cost, and schedule. These estimates are made within limited time frame at the beginning of a software project and should be updated regularly as the project progresses. In addition, estimates should attempt to define best case and worst case scenarios so that project outcomes can be bounded.

case scenarios so that project outcomes can be bounded. 3.2 Software Scope The first activity in

3.2

Software Scope

The first activity in software project planning is the determination of software scope. Software scope describes the data and control to be processed, function, performance, constraints, interfaces, and reliability.

3.2.1 Gathering Information Necessary for Scope

. 3.2.1 Gathering Information Necessary for Scope The most commonly used technique to bridge communication gap

The most commonly used technique to bridge communication gap between customer and the software developer to get the communication process started is to conduct a preliminary meeting or interview. When I visited the site we have been introduced to the Manager of the center, there were two other persons out of one was the technical adviser and another one was the cost accountant. Neither of us knows what to ask or say; we were very much worried that what we say will be misinterpreted.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

We started to asking context-free questions; that is, a set of questions that will lead to a basic understanding of the problem. The first set of context-free questions was like this:

What do you want to be done? Who will use this solution? What is wrong with your existing working systems? Is there another source for the solution?

working systems? Is there another source for the solution? Can you show us (or describe) the

Can you show us (or describe) the environment in which the solution will be used? After first round of above asked questions. We revisited the site and asked many more questions considering to final set of questions.

dimensions:
dimensions:
questions considering to final set of questions. dimensions: Are our questions relevant to the problem that

Are our questions relevant to the problem that you need to be solved?questions considering to final set of questions. dimensions: Are we asking too many questions? Should we

Are we asking too many questions? Should we be asking you anything else?
Should we be asking you anything else?Are we asking too many questions?

too many questions? Should we be asking you anything else? 3.2.2 Feasibility Not everything imaginable is

3.2.2 Feasibility

Not everything imaginable is feasible, not even in software. Software feasibility

has four

Technologyis a project technically feasible? Is it within the state of the art?

technically feasible? Is it within the state of the art? Finance – Is it financially feasible?

Finance Is it financially feasible?

Timewill the project be completed within specified time?

Resourcesdoes the organization have the resources needed to succeed?

After taking into consideration of above said dimensions, we found it could be feasible for us to develop this project.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

3.3 Software Project Estimation

Software cost and effort estimation will never be an exact science. Too may variableshuman, technical, environmental, politicalcan affect the ultimate cost of software and effort applied to develop it. However, software project estimation can be transformed a black art to a series of systematic steps that provide estimates with acceptable risk.

steps that provide estimates with acceptable risk. To achieve reliable cost and effort estimates, a number

To achieve reliable cost and effort estimates, a number of options arise:

1. Delay estimation until late in the project (since, we can achieve 100% accurate estimates after the project is complete!)

2. Base estimates on similar projects that have already been completed.

estimation.
estimation.

3.

4.

Use relatively simple decomposition techniques to generate project cost and effort estimates.

Use one or more empirical models for software cost and effort

Unfortunately, the first option, however attractive, is not practical. Cost estimates must be provided ―Up front‖. However, we should recognize that the longer we wait, the more we know, and the more we know, the less likely we are to make serious errors in our estimates.

The second option can work reasonably well, if the current project is quite similar to past efforts and other project influences (e.g., the customer, business conditions, the SEE, deadlines) are equivalent. Unfortunately past experience has not always been a good indicator of future results.

has not always been a good indicator of future results. The remaining options are viable approaches

The remaining options are viable approaches the software project estimation. Ideally, the techniques noted for each option be applied in tandem; each used as cross check for the other. Decomposition techniques take a ―divide and conquer‖ approach to software project estimation. By decomposing a project into major functions and related software engineering activities, cost and effort estimation can be performed in the stepwise fashion.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Empirical estimation models can be used to complement decomposition techniques and offer a potentially valuable estimation approach in their own right. A model based on experience (historical data) and takes the form

D = f (vi)

Where d is one of a number of estimated values (e.g., effort, cost, project duration and we are selected independent parameters (e.g., estimated LOC (line of code)).

independent parameters (e.g., estimated LOC (line of code)). Each of the viable software cost estimation options

Each of the viable software cost estimation options is only as good as the historical data used to seed the estimate. If no historical data exist, costing rests on a very shaky foundation.

If no historical data exist, costing rests on a very shaky foundation. For more details please

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Project Monitoring System

4.1 PERT Chart:

Program evaluation and review technique (PERT) and critical path method (CPM) are two project scheduling methods that can be applied to software development. These techniques are driven by following information:

These techniques are driven by following information: Estimates of Effort A decomposition of the product

Estimates of Effort A decomposition of the product function
A decomposition of the product functionEstimates of Effort

The selection of the appropriate process model and task set Decomposition of tasksof Effort A decomposition of the product function Start Requirement Analysis May 17, 2010 Design May

process model and task set Decomposition of tasks Start Requirement Analysis May 17, 2010 Design May
Start Requirement Analysis May 17, 2010 Design May 24, 2010 Coding June 10, 2010
Start
Requirement
Analysis
May 17, 2010
Design
May 24, 2010
Coding
June 10, 2010
May 17, 2010 Design May 24, 2010 Coding June 10, 2010 PERT chart for this application

PERT chart for this application software is illustrated in figure 3.1. The critical Path for this Project is Design, Code generation and Integration and testing.

is Design, Code generation and Integration and testing. Integration and test July 20, 2010 Finish Aug
is Design, Code generation and Integration and testing. Integration and test July 20, 2010 Finish Aug

Integration and test July 20, 2010

Finish Aug 15, 2010

Integration and test July 20, 2010 Finish Aug 15, 2010 Documentation and Report Aug 1, 2010
Integration and test July 20, 2010 Finish Aug 15, 2010 Documentation and Report Aug 1, 2010

Documentation and Report Aug 1, 2010

Figure 4.1 PERT charts for ―Bus Reservation System‖.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

4.2 Gantt Chart:

Gantt chart which is also known as Timeline chart contains the information like effort, duration, start date, completion date for each task. A timeline chart can be developed for the entire project. Below in figure 4.2 we have shown the Gantt chart for the project. All project tasks have been listed in the left-hand column.

Start: May 17, 2010. Planned Actual Planned Actual Notes Work tasks start start complete Complete
Start: May 17, 2010.
Planned
Actual
Planned
Actual
Notes
Work tasks
start
start
complete
Complete
1.1
Identify needs and benefits
Meet with customers
Wk1,d1
Wk1,d1
Wk1,d2
Wk1,d2
Identified needs and constraints
Wk1,d2
Wk1,d2
Wk1,d2
Wk1,d2
Established Product Statement
Wk1,d3
Wk1,d3
Wk1,d3
Wk1,d3
Milestone: Product statement defined
Wk1,d3
Wk1,d3
Wk1,d3
Wk1,d3
1.2
Defined
Analysis
Desiredoutput/control/input (OCI)
and
design
Scope modes of interacton
Wk2,d1
Wk2,d2
is
more
Documented (OCI)
Wk2,d1
Wk2,d3
time
FTR: reviewed OCI with customer
Wk3,d3
Wk3,d5
consuming.
Revised OCI as required
Wk4,d1
Wk4,d2
Milestone: OCI defined
Wk4,d3
Wk4,d5
1.3
Defined the function/behavior
Milestone: Data Modeling completed
Wk5,d1
Wk5,d2
Wk5,d5
1.4
Isolation software elements
Coding
Wk5,d1
Wk6,d1
W7,d5
Reports
Wk7,d6
W8,d6

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

1.5 Integration and Testing

W9,d1

W9,d3

1.5 Integration and Testing W9,d1 W9,d3 W11,d3

W11,d3

1.5 Integration and Testing W9,d1 W9,d3 W11,d3

Finish: Aug 15, 2010

Figure: 4.2 Gant chart for the Bus reservation System. Note: Wk1week1, d1day1.

chart for the Bus reservation System. Note: Wk1 — week1, d1 — day1. For more details

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

System Analysis

Software requirements analysis is a process of discovery, refinement, modeling, and specification. Requirement analysis proves the software designer with a representation of information, function, and behavior that can be translated to data, architectural interface, and component -level designs. To perform the job properly we need to follow as set of underlying concepts and principles of Analysis.

as set of underlying concepts and principles of Analysis. 5.1 Analysis Principles Over the past two

5.1 Analysis Principles

Over the past two decades, a large number of analysis modeling methods have been developed. Investigators have identified analysis problems and their caused and have developed a variety of modeling notations and corresponding sets of heuristics to overcome them. Each analysis method has a unique point of view. However, all analysis methods are related by a set of operational principles:

methods are related by a set of operational principles: 1. The information domain of a problem
methods are related by a set of operational principles: 1. The information domain of a problem

1. The information domain of a problem must be represented and understood.

2. The functions that the software is to perform must be defined.

3. The behavior of the software (as a consequence of external events) must be represented.

4. The models that depict information function and behavior must be partitioned in a manner that uncovers detail in layered (or hierarchical) fashion.

5.

The analysis process should move from essential information toward implementation detail.

from essential information toward implementation detail. By applying these principles, we approach the problem

By applying these principles, we approach the problem systematically. The information domain is examined so that function may be understood more completely. Models are used so that the characteristics of function and behavior can be communicated in a compact fashion. Partitioning is applied to reduce complexity. Essential and implementation vies of the software are necessary to accommodate the logical constraints imposed any processing requirements and the physical constraints imposed by other

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

system elements.We have tried to takes above said principles to heart so that we could provide an excellent foundation for design.

5.1.1 The Information Domain

All software applications can be collectively called data processing. Software is built to process data, to transform data from one form to another; that is, to accept input, manipulate it in some way, and produce output. This fundamental statement of objective is true whether we build batch software for a payroll system or real- time embedded software to control fuel flow to an automobile engine.

software to control fuel flow to an automobile engine. The first operational analysis principle requires an
software to control fuel flow to an automobile engine. The first operational analysis principle requires an

The first operational analysis principle requires an examination of the information domain and the creation of a data model. The information domain contains three different views of the data and control as each is processed by a computer program:

data and control as each is processed by a computer program: (1) information contend and relationships

(1) information contend and relationships (the data model) (2) information flow, and (3) Information structure.

To fully understand the information domain, each of these views should be

considered.

Information content represents the individual data and control objects that constitute some larger collection of information transformed by the software. For example, the data object, Status declare is a composite of a number of important pieces of data: the aircraft’s name, the aircraft’s model, ground run, no of hour flying and so forth. Therefore, the content of Status declares is defined by the attributes that are needed to create it. Similarly, the content of a control object called System status might be defined by a string of bits. Each bit represents a separate item of information that indicates whether or not a particular device is on- or off-line.

that indicates whether or not a particular device is on- or off-line. For more details please

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Data and control objects can be related to other data and control objects. For example, the date object Status declare has one or more relationships with the objects like total no of flying, period left for the maintenance of aircraft an others.

Information flow represents the manner in which date and control change as each moves through a system. Referring to figure 6.1, input objects are transformed to intermediate information (data and / or control), which is further transformed to output. Along this transformation path, additional information may be introduced from an existing date store ( e.g., a disk file or memory buffer). The transformations applied to the date are functions or sub functions that a program must perform. Data and control that move between two transformations define the interface for each function.

two transformations define the interface for each function. Input Intermediate Output Transform Transform Objects
Input Intermediate Output Transform Transform Objects #1 data and Object(s) #2 control Data/Control Store
Input
Intermediate
Output
Transform
Transform
Objects
#1
data and
Object(s)
#2
control
Data/Control
Store

Figure 5.1 Information flow and transformation.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

5.1.2 Modeling

The second and third operational analysis principles require that we build models of function and behavior.

Functional models. Software transforms information, and in order to accomplish this, it must perform at lease three generic functions:

this, it must perform at lease three generic functions: Input Processing And output. The functional model

Inputthis, it must perform at lease three generic functions: Processing And output. The functional model begins

Processingit must perform at lease three generic functions: Input And output. The functional model begins with

And output.
And output.
lease three generic functions: Input Processing And output. The functional model begins with a single context

The functional model begins with a single context level model (i.e., the name of the software to be built). Over a series of iterations, more and more functional detail is gathered, until a through delineation of all system functionality is represented.

Behavioral models. Most software responds to events from the outside world. This stimulus/response characteristic forms the basis of the behavioral model. A computer program always exists in some state- an externally observable mode of behavior (e.g., waiting, computing, printing, and polling) that is changed only when some even occurs. For example, in our case the project will remain in the wait state until:

in our case the project will remain in the wait state until: We click OK command

We click OK command button when first window appears An external event like mouse click cause an interrupt and consequently main window appears by
An external event like mouse click cause an interrupt and consequently main window appears by asking the username and password.We click OK command button when first window appears

This external system (providing password and username) signals the project to act in desired manner as per need.consequently main window appears by asking the username and password. For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

A behavioral model creates a representation of the states of the software and the events that cause software to change state.

5.1.2 Partitioning (Divide)

Problems are often too large and complex to be understood as a whole, for this reason, se tend to partition (divide) such problems into parts that can be easily under stood and establish interfaces between the part so that overall function can be accomplished. The fourth operational analysis principle suggests that the information, functional, and behavioral domains of software can be partitioned.

and behavioral domains of software can be partitioned. In essence, partitioning decomposes problem intoits

In essence, partitioning decomposes problem intoits constituent parts. Conceptually, we establish a hierarchical representation of function or information and then partition and uppermost element by

or information and then partition and uppermost element by (1) exposing increasing detail by moving vertically
or information and then partition and uppermost element by (1) exposing increasing detail by moving vertically

(1) exposing increasing detail by moving vertically in the hierarchy or (2) Functionally decomposing the problem my moving horizontally in the hierarchy. To issulstate these partitioning approaches let us consider our project BBuuss RReesseerrvvaattiioonn SSyysstteemmHorizontal partitioning and vertical partitioning of BBuuss RReesseerrvvaattiioonn ssyysstteemm is shown below.

Horizontal partitioning:

y s s t t e e m m is shown below. Horizontal partitioning: B B

BBuuss RReesseerrvvaattiioonn SSyysstteemm

s s e e r r v v a a t t i i o o

System configuration

Password acceptance

Interact with user

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

During installation, the software (Bus Reservation System) used to program and configure the system. A master password is programmed for getting in to the software system. After this step only user can work in the environments (right cornor naming operation, administration and maintenance) only.

Vertical partitioning of BBuuss RReesseerrvvaattiioonn SSyysstteemm function:

v v a a t t i i o o n n S S y y

BBuuss RReesseerrvvaattiioonn SSyysstteemm

s s e e r r v v a a t t i i o o
Username and Password Acceptance Rejection Interact with user
Username and Password
Acceptance
Rejection
Interact with user

Configure system

Fail Retry

Acceptance Rejection Interact with user Configure system Fail Retry For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Operating Environment

6.1 Hardware Specification:

Server Side:

Core 2 Due 2.4GHz and AboveEnvironment 6.1 Hardware Specification: Server Side: 2 GB of Random Access Memory and Above 160 GB

2 GB of Random Access Memory and AboveSpecification: Server Side: Core 2 Due 2.4GHz and Above 160 GB Hard Disk Client Side: Pentium-IV

Due 2.4GHz and Above 2 GB of Random Access Memory and Above 160 GB Hard Disk

160 GB Hard DiskDue 2.4GHz and Above 2 GB of Random Access Memory and Above Client Side: Pentium-IV 1.5MHs

Client Side:

Pentium-IV 1.5MHs and Above 512 MB of Random Access Memory and Above 80 GB Hard
Pentium-IV 1.5MHs and Above
512 MB of Random Access Memory and Above
80 GB Hard Disk

Software Specification:

Environment: .NET Framework 3.5 Technologies: ASP.NET, C# Database: MS Access Software: Visual Studio 2008, Notepad ++ OS: Windows server 2003 R2, Windows XP SP2 Browser: IE7, IE8, FF 3.5

6.2.1 Front-end Environment (.NET Framework)

6.2.1 Front-end Environment (.NET Framework)

The Internet revolution of the late 1990s represented a dramatic shift in the way individuals and organizations communicate with each other. Traditional applications, such as word processors and accounting packages, are modeled as stand-alone applications: they offer users the capability to perform tasks using data stored on the system the application resides and executes on. Most new software, in contrast, is modeled based on a distributed computing model where applications collaborate to provide services and expose functionality to each other. As a result,

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

the primary role of most new software is changing into supporting information exchange (through Web servers and browsers), collaboration (through e-mail and instant messaging), and individual expression (through Web logs, also known as Blogs, and e-zines Web based magazines). Essentially, the basic role of software is changing from providing discrete functionality to providing services. The .NET Framework represents a unified, object-oriented set of services and libraries that embrace the changing role of new network-centric and network- aware software. In fact, the .NET Framework is the first platform designed from the ground up with the Internet in mind.

designed from the ground up with the Internet in mind. Microsoft .NET Framework is a software

Microsoft .NET Framework is a software component that is a part of several Microsoft Windows operating systems. It has a large library of pre-coded solutions to common programming problems and manages the execution of programs written specifically for the framework. The .NET Framework is a key Microsoft offering and is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform.

 Easy application deployment and maintenance

Easy application deployment and maintenance

Benefits of the .NET Framework

The .NET Framework offers a number of benefits to developers:

A consistent programming model A consistent programming model

Direct support for security Direct support for security

Simplified development efforts Simplified development efforts

support for security  Simplified development efforts The .NET Class Library is a key component of
support for security  Simplified development efforts The .NET Class Library is a key component of

The .NET Class Library is a key component of the .NET Framework it is sometimes referred to as the Base Class Library (BCL). The .NET Class Library contains hundreds of classes you can use for tasks such as the following:

Processing XML Working with data from multiple data sourcesof classes you can use for tasks such as the following: Debugging your code and working

Debugging your code and working with event logsfollowing: Processing XML Working with data from multiple data sources For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Working with data streams and files Managing the run-time environment
Managing the run-time environmentWorking with data streams and files

Developing Web services, components, and standard Windows applications Working with application security Working with directory services
Working with application security Developing Web services, components, and standard Windows applications Working with directory services
Working with directory servicesDeveloping Web services, components, and standard Windows applications Working with application security

The functionality that the .NET Class Library provides is available to all .NET languages, resulting in a consistent object model regardless of the programming language developer’s use.

Elements of the .NET Framework

language developer’s use. Elements of the .NET Framework VB.NET VC#.NET VC++.NET JSCRIPT.NET ASP.NET Window
VB.NET VC#.NET VC++.NET JSCRIPT.NET ASP.NET Window Forms Web Server Web Form Visual Studio.NET .NET Class
VB.NET
VC#.NET
VC++.NET
JSCRIPT.NET
ASP.NET
Window Forms
Web Server
Web Form
Visual
Studio.NET
.NET Class Library
System
Data
I/O
Security
Common Language Runtime
Common Type System

The .NET Framework consists of three key elements as show in below diagram

Operating System

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Components of the .NET Framework

Common Language Runtime .NET Class Library Unifying components

Runtime  .NET Class Library  Unifying components 1. Common Language Runtime The Common Language Runtime

1. Common Language Runtime

Library  Unifying components 1. Common Language Runtime The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is a layer
Library  Unifying components 1. Common Language Runtime The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is a layer

The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is a layer between an application and the operating system it executes on. The CLR simplifies an application's design and reduces the amount of code developers need to write because it provides a variety of execution services that include memory management, thread management, component lifetime management, and default error handling.

The CLR is also responsible for compiling code just before it executes. Instead of producing a binary representation of your code, as traditional compilers do, .NET compilers produce a representation of your code in a language common to the .NET Framework: Microsoft Intermediate Language, often referred to as IL. When your code executes for the first time, the CLR invokes a special compiler called a Just In Time (JIT) compiler, Because all .NET languages have the same compiled representation, they all have similar performance characteristics. This means that a program written in Visual Basic .NET can perform as well as the same program written in Visual C++ .NET.

as well as the same program written in Visual C++ .NET. 2 .NET Class Library The

2 .NET Class Library

The .NET Class Library containing hundreds of classes that model the system and services it provides. To make the .NET Class Library easier to work with and understand, it's divided into namespaces. The root namespace of the .NET Class

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Library is called System, and it contains core classes and data types, such as Int32, Object, Array, and Console. Secondary namespaces reside within the System namespace.

Examples of nested namespaces include the following:

System.Diagnostics: Contains classes for working with the Event Log System.Data: Makes it easy to work with data from multiple data sources System.IO: Contains classes for working with files and data streams

Contains classes for working with files and data streams The benefits of using the .NET Class

The benefits of using the .NET Class Library include a consistent set of services available to all .NET languages and simplified deployment, because the .NET Class Library is available on all implementations of the .NET Framework.

is available on all implementations of the .NET Framework. 3. Unifying components Until this point, this
is available on all implementations of the .NET Framework. 3. Unifying components Until this point, this

3. Unifying components

Until this point, this chapter has covered the low-level components of the .NET Framework. The unifying components, listed next, are the means by which you can access the services the .NET Framework provides:

ASP.NET Windows Forms

Visual Studio .NET

ASP.NET

 Windows Forms  Visual Studio .NET ASP.NET After the release of Internet Information Services 4.0

After the release of Internet Information Services 4.0 in 1997, Microsoft began researching possibilities for a new web application model that would solve common complaints about ASP.

. ASP.NET introduces two major features: Web Forms and Web Services.

1. Web Forms

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Developers not familiar with Web development can spend a great deal of time, for example, figuring out how to validate the e-mail address on a form. You can validate the information on a form by using a client-side script or a server-side script. Deciding which kind of script to use is complicated by the fact that each approach has its benefits and drawbacks, some of which aren't apparent unless you've done substantial design work. If you validate the form on the client by using client-side JScript code, you need to take into consideration the browser that your users may use to access the form. Not all browsers expose exactly the same representation of the document to programmatic interfaces. If you validate the form on the server, you need to be aware of the load that users might place on the server. The server has to validate the data and send the result back to the client. Web Forms simplify Web development to the point that it becomes as easy as dragging and dropping controls onto a designer (the surface that you use to edit a page) to design interactive Web applications that span from client to server.

Web applications that span from client to server. 2. Web Services A Web service is an
Web applications that span from client to server. 2. Web Services A Web service is an
Web applications that span from client to server. 2. Web Services A Web service is an

2. Web Services A Web service is an application that exposes a programmatic interface through standard access methods. Web Services are designed to be used by other applications and components and are not intended to be useful directly to human end users. Web Services make it easy to build applications that integrate features from remote sources. For example, you can write a Web Service that provides weather information for subscribers of your service instead of having subscribers link to a page or parse through a file they download from your site. Clients can simply call a method on your Web Service as if they are calling a method on a component installed on their system and have the weather information available in an easy-to-use format that they can integrate into their own applications or Web sites with no trouble.

into their own applications or Web sites with no trouble. Introducing ASP.NET For more details please

Introducing ASP.NET

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

ASP.NET, the next version of ASP, is a programming framework that is used to create enterprise-class Web applications. The enterprise-class Web applications are accessible on a global basis, leading to efficient information management. However, the advantages that ASP.NET offers make it more than just the next version of ASP. ASP.NET is integrated with Visual Studio .NET, which provides a GUI designer, a rich toolbox, and a fully integrated debugger. This allows the development of applications in a What You See is What You Get (WYSIWYG) manner. Therefore, creating ASP.NET applications is much simpler.

Therefore, creating ASP.NET applications is much simpler. Unlike the ASP runtime, ASP.NET uses the Common Language

Unlike the ASP runtime, ASP.NET uses the Common Language Runtime (CLR) provided by the .NET Framework. The CLR is the .NET runtime, which manages the execution of code. The CLR allows the objects, which are created in different languages, to interact with each other and hence removes the language barrier. CLR thus makes Web application development more efficient.

CLR thus makes Web application development more efficient. In addition to simplifying the designing of Web
CLR thus makes Web application development more efficient. In addition to simplifying the designing of Web

In addition to simplifying the designing of Web applications, the .NET CLR offers many advantages.

Some of these advantages are listed as follows.

Improved performance:

The ASP.NET code is a compiled CLR code instead of an interpreted code. The CLR provides just-in-time compilation, native optimization, and caching. Here, it is important to note that compilation is a two-stage process in the .NET Framework. First, the code is compiled into the Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL). Then, at the execution time, the MSIL is compiled into native code. Only the portions of the code that are actually needed will be compiled into native code. This is called Just In Time compilation. These features lead to an overall improved performance of ASP.NET applications.

to an overall improved performance of ASP.NET applications .  Flexibility: For more details please visit

Flexibility:

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

The entire .NET class library can be accessed by ASP.NET applications. You can use the language that best applies to the type of functionality you want to implement, because ASP.NET is language independent.

Configuration settings:

The application-level configuration settings are stored in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) format. The XML format is a hierarchical text format, which is easy to read and write. This format makes it easy to apply new settings to applications without the aid of any local administration tools.

without the aid of any local administration tools.  Security: ASP.NET applications are secure and use

Security:

the aid of any local administration tools.  Security: ASP.NET applications are secure and use a
the aid of any local administration tools.  Security: ASP.NET applications are secure and use a

ASP.NET applications are secure and use a set of default authorization and authentication schemes. However, you can modify these schemes according to the security needs of an application. In addition to this list of advantages, the ASP.NET framework makes it easy to migrate from ASP applications.

Creating an ASP.NET Application

After you've set up the development environment for ASP.NET, you can create your first ASP.NET Web application. You can create an ASP.NET Web application in one of the following ways:

Use a text editor:

in one of the following ways:  Use a text editor: In this method, you can

In this method, you can write the code in a text editor, such as Notepad, and save the code as an ASPX file. You can save the ASPX file in the directory C:\inetpub\wwwroot. Then, to display the output of the Web page in Internet Explorer, you simply need to type http://localhost/<filename>.aspx in the Address box. If the IIS server is installed on some other machine on the network, replace"localhost" with the name of the server. If you save the file in some other directory, you need to add the file to a virtual directory in the Default WebSite

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

directory on the IIS server. You can also create your own virtual directory and add

the file to it.

Use the VS.NET IDE:

In this method, you use the IDE of Visual Studio .NET to create a Web page in a WYSIWYG manner. Also, when you create a Web application, the application is automatically created on a Web server (IIS server). You do not need to create a separate virtual directory on the IIS server.

Characteristics

Pages

virtual directory on the IIS server. Characteristics Pages ASP.NET pages, known officially as "web forms", are
virtual directory on the IIS server. Characteristics Pages ASP.NET pages, known officially as "web forms", are

ASP.NET pages, known officially as "web forms", are the main building block for

as "web forms", are the main building block for application development. Web forms are contained in

application development. Web forms are contained in files with an ASPX

extension; in programming jargon, these files typically contain static (X)HTML

markup, as well as markup defining server-side Web Controls and User Controls

where the developers place all the required static and dynamic content for the web

page. Additionally, dynamic code which runs on the server can be placed in a page

within a block <% -- dynamic code -- %> which is similar to other web

development technologies such as PHP, JSP, and ASP, but this practice is

generally discouraged except for the purposes of data binding since it requires

more calls when rendering the page.

Note that this sample uses code "inline", as opposed to code behind.

<%@ Page Language="C#" %>

to code behind. <%@ Page Language="C#" %> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN"

"http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">

<script runat="server">

protected void Page_Load(object sender, EventArgs e)

{

Label1.Text = DateTime.Now.ToLongDateString();

}

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

</script>

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"> <head runat="server"> <title>Sample page</title> </head> <body> <form id="form1" runat="server"> <div> The current time is: <asp:Label runat="server" id="Label1" /> </div> </form>

</body>

</html>

</form> </body> </html> Code-behind model It is recommended by Microsoft for dealing

Code-behind model

</body> </html> Code-behind model It is recommended by Microsoft for dealing with dynamic
</body> </html> Code-behind model It is recommended by Microsoft for dealing with dynamic

It is recommended by Microsoft for dealing with dynamic program code to use the

code-behind model, which places this code in a separate file or in a specially

designated script tag. Code-behind files typically have names like MyPage.aspx.cs

or MyPage.aspx.vb based on the ASPX file name (this practice is automatic in

Microsoft Visual Studio and other IDEs). When using this style of programming,

the developer writes code to respond to different events, like the page being

loaded, or a control being clicked, rather than a procedural walk through the

document.

ASP.NET's code-behind model marks a departure from Classic ASP in that it

ASP.NET's code-behind model marks a departure from Classic ASP in that it

encourages developers to build applications with separation of presentation and

content in mind. In theory, this would allow a web designer, for example, to focus

on the design markup with less potential for disturbing the programming code that

drives it. This is similar to the separation of the controller from the view in model-

view-controller frameworks.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Example

<%@ Page Language="C#" CodeFile="SampleCodeBehind.aspx.cs" Inherits="Website.SampleCodeBehind" AutoEventWireup="true" %>

The above tag is placed at the beginning of the ASPX file. The CodeFile property

at the beginning of the ASPX file. The CodeFile property of the @ Page directive specifies
at the beginning of the ASPX file. The CodeFile property of the @ Page directive specifies

of the @ Page directive specifies the file (.cs or .vb) acting as the code-behind

while the Inherits property specifies the Class the Page derives from. In this

example, the @ Page directive is included in SamplePage.aspx, then

SampleCodeBehind.aspx.cs acts as the code-behind for this page:

{ protected override void Page_Load(EventArgs e) { base.OnLoad(e); } }
{
protected override void Page_Load(EventArgs e)
{
base.OnLoad(e);
}
}

using System;

namespace Website

{

public partial class SampleCodeBehind : System.Web.UI.Page

}

In this case, the Page_Load () method is called every time the ASPX page is

requested. The programmer can implement event handlers at several stages of the

page execution process to perform processing.

stages of the page execution process to perform processing. User controls ASP.NET supports creating reusable components

User controls

ASP.NET supports creating reusable components through the creation of User

Controls. A User Control follows the same structure as a Web Form, except that

such controls are derived from the System.Web.UI.UserControl class, and are

stored in ASCX files. Like ASPX files, a ASCX contains static HTML or

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

XHTML markup, as well as markup defining web control and other User Controls. The code-behind model can be used.

Programmers can add their own properties, methods, and event handlers. An event bubbling mechanism provides the ability to pass an event fired by a user control up to its containing page.

Template engine

by a user control up to its containing page. Template engine When first released, ASP.NET lacked

When first released, ASP.NET lacked a template engine. Because the .NET framework is object-oriented and allows for inheritance, many developers would define a new base class that inherits from "System.Web.UI.Page", write methods here that render HTML, and then make the pages in their application inherit from this new class. While this allows for common elements to be reused across a site, it adds complexity and mixes source code with markup. Furthermore, this method can only be visually tested by running the application - not while designing it. Other developers have used include files and other tricks to avoid having to implement the same navigation and other elements in every page.

the same navigation and other elements in every page. ASP.NET 2.0 introduced the concept of "master
the same navigation and other elements in every page. ASP.NET 2.0 introduced the concept of "master

ASP.NET 2.0 introduced the concept of "master pages", which allow for template- based page development. A web application can have one or more master pages, which can be nested. Master templates have place-holder controls, called ContentPlaceHolders to denote where the dynamic content goes, as well as HTML and JavaScript shared across child pages.

well as HTML and JavaScript shared across child pages. Child pages use those ContentPlaceHolder controls, which

Child pages use those ContentPlaceHolder controls, which must be mapped to the place-holder of the master page that the content page is populating. The rest of the page is defined by the shared parts of the master page, much like a mail merge in a word processor. All markup and server controls in the content page must be placed within the ContentPlaceHolder control.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

When a request is made for a content page, ASP.NET merges the output of the content page with the output of the master page, and sends the output to the user. The master page remains fully accessible to the content page. This means that the content page may still manipulate headers, change title, configure caching etc. If the master page exposes public properties or methods (e.g. for setting copyright notices) the content page can use these as well.

Performance

notices) the content page can use these as well. Performance ASP.NET aims for performance benefits over

ASP.NET aims for performance benefits over other script-based technologies (including Classic ASP) by compiling the server-side code to one or more DLL files on the web server. This compilation happens automatically the first time a page is requested (which means the developer need not perform a separate compilation step for pages). This feature provides the ease of development offered by scripting languages with the performance benefits of a compiled binary. However, the compilation might cause a noticeable but short delay to the web user when the newly-edited page is first requested from the web server, but won't again unless the page requested is updated further.

again unless the page requested is updated further. The ASPX and other resource files are placed

The ASPX and other resource files are placed in a virtual host on an Internet Information Services server (or other compatible ASP.NET servers; see Other Implementations, below). The first time a client requests a page, the .NET framework parses and compiles the file(s) into a .NET assembly and sends the response; subsequent requests are served from the DLL files. By default ASP.NET will compile the entire site in batches of 1000 files upon first request. If the compilation delay is causing problems, the batch size or the compilation strategy may be tweaked.

the batch size or the compilation strategy may be tweaked. Developers can also choose to pre-compile

Developers can also choose to pre-compile their code before deployment, eliminating the need for just-in-time compilation in a production environment.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Database Queries

The most common operation in SQL databases is the query, which is performed with the declarative SELECT keyword. SELECT retrieves data from a specified table, or multiple related tables, in a database. While often grouped with Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements, the standard SELECT query is considered separate from SQL DML, as it has no persistent effects on the data stored in a database. Note that there are some platform-specific variations of SELECT that can persist their effects in a database, such as the SELECT INTO syntax that exists in some databases.

as the SELECT INTO syntax that exists in some databases. SQL queries allow the user to

SQL queries allow the user to specify a description of the desired result set, but it is left to the devices of the database management system (DBMS) to plan, optimize, and perform the physical operations necessary to produce that result set in as efficient a manner as possible. An SQL query includes a list of columns to be included in the final result immediately following the SELECT keyword. An asterisk ("*") can also be used as a "wildcard" indicator to specify that all available columns of a table (or multiple tables) are to be returned. SELECT is the most complex statement in SQL, with several optional keywords and clauses, including:

SQL, with several optional keywords and clauses, including: The FROM clause which indicates the source table
SQL, with several optional keywords and clauses, including: The FROM clause which indicates the source table

The FROM clause which indicates the source table or tables from which the data is to be retrieved. The FROM clause can include optional JOIN clauses to join related tables to one another based on user-specified criteria.

tables to one another based on user-specified criteria. The WHERE clause includes a comparison predicate, which

The WHERE clause includes a comparison predicate, which is used to restrict the number of rows returned by the query. The WHERE clause is applied before the GROUP BY clause. The WHERE clause eliminates all rows from the result set where the comparison predicate does not evaluate to True.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

The GROUP BY clause is used to combine, or group, rows with related values into elements of a smaller set of rows. GROUP BY is often used in conjunction with SQL aggregate functions or to eliminate duplicate rows from a result set.

The HAVING clause includes a comparison predicate used to eliminate rows after the GROUP BY clause is applied to the result set. Because it acts on the results of the GROUP BY clause, aggregate functions can be used in the HAVING clause predicate.

functions can be used in the HAVING clause predicate. The ORDER BY clause is used to

The ORDER BY clause is used to identify which columns are used to sort the resulting data, and in which order they should be sorted (options are ascending or descending). The order of rows returned by an SQL query is never guaranteed unless an ORDER BY clause is specified.

never guaranteed unless an ORDER BY clause is specified. The following is an example of a
never guaranteed unless an ORDER BY clause is specified. The following is an example of a

The following is an example of a SELECT query that returns a list of expensive books. The query retrieves all rows from the Book table in which the price column contains a value greater than 100.00. The result is sorted in ascending order by title. The asterisk (*) in the select list indicates that all columns of the Book table should be included in the result set.

SELECT *

FROM Book

should be included in the result set. SELECT * FROM Book WHERE price > 100.00 ORDER

WHERE price > 100.00

ORDER BY title;

The example below demonstrates the use of multiple tables in a join, grouping, and aggregation in an SQL query, by returning a list of books and the number of authors associated with each book.

SELECT Book.title, count (*) AS Authors

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

FROM Book

JOIN Book_author

ON Book.isbn = Book_author.isbn

GROUP BY Book.title;

Example output might resemble the following:

Title

Authors

---------------------- -------

the following: Title Authors ---------------------- ------- 3 1 2 1 1 SQL Examples and Guide The
3 1 2 1 1
3
1
2
1
1

SQL Examples and Guide

The Joy of SQL

How to use Wikipedia

Pitfalls of SQL

How SQL Saved my Dog

(The underscore character "_" is often used as part of table and column names to separate descriptive words because other punctuation tends to conflict with SQL syntax. For example, a dash "-" would be interpreted as a minus sign.)

a dash "-" would be interpreted as a minus sign.) Under the precondition that isbn is

Under the precondition that isbn is the only common column name of the two tables and that a column named title only exists in the Books table, the above query could be rewritten in the following form:

SELECT title, count (*) AS Authors

FROM Book

NATURAL JOIN Book_author

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

GROUP BY title;

However, many vendors either do not support this approach, or it requires certain column naming conventions. Thus, it is less common in practice.

Data retrieval is very often combined with data projection when the user is looking for calculated values and not just the verbatim data stored in primitive data types, or when the data needs to be expressed in a form that is different from how it's stored. SQL allows the use of expressions in the select list to project data, as in the following example which returns a list of books that cost more than 100.00 with an additional sales_tax column containing a sales tax figure calculated at 6% of the price.

containing a sales tax figure calculated at 6% of the price. SELECT isbn, title, price, price
containing a sales tax figure calculated at 6% of the price. SELECT isbn, title, price, price
containing a sales tax figure calculated at 6% of the price. SELECT isbn, title, price, price

SELECT isbn, title, price, price * 0.06 AS sales_tax

FROM Book

WHERE price > 100.00

ORDER BY title;

Some modern day SQL queries may include extra WHERE statements that are conditional to each other. They may look like this example:

SELECT isbn, title, price, date

may look like this example: SELECT isbn, title, price, date FROM Book WHERE price > 100.00

FROM Book

WHERE price > 100.00

AND (date = '16042004' OR date = '16042005')

ORDER BY title;

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Chapter 7 For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Chapter 7

Chapter 7 For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
Chapter 7 For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
Chapter 7 For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

System Design

System Design E-R DIAGRAM: BUS RESERVATION SYSTEM Give services Divided BUSES Work area Care of For
E-R DIAGRAM: BUS RESERVATION SYSTEM Give services Divided BUSES
E-R DIAGRAM:
BUS RESERVATION
SYSTEM
Give
services
Divided
BUSES
Work area
Work
area
RESERVATION SYSTEM Give services Divided BUSES Work area Care of For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
RESERVATION SYSTEM Give services Divided BUSES Work area Care of For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Care of For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

DIFFERENT examine Full of Works TYPE OF BUSES SLEEPER OR SEATS WITHOUT DEPARTMENT SLEEPER The
DIFFERENT
examine
Full of
Works
TYPE OF
BUSES
SLEEPER
OR
SEATS
WITHOUT
DEPARTMENT
SLEEPER
The following DFD shows how the working of a reservation system could be
smoothly managed:
WORK AREAS
DEPTT WITH ITS
BUSES
AGENT
RESERVED
BUSES
RECORDS
AGENT
DAILY
VISITING
ENTRY REC
AGENT
For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
AGENT
DETAILS

REPORT

AGENTBASICINFO FEEDBACK PASSANGERIFNO STATIS TIMELIST DETAIL DESCRIPTION OF DATA FLOW DIAGRAM : We have STARBUS
AGENTBASICINFO FEEDBACK PASSANGERIFNO STATIS TIMELIST DETAIL DESCRIPTION OF DATA FLOW DIAGRAM : We have STARBUS

AGENTBASICINFO

FEEDBACK

PASSANGERIFNO

STATIS

TIMELIST

DETAIL DESCRIPTION OF DATA FLOW DIAGRAM:

We have STARBUS as our database and some of our tables (relation) are

such as AGENT_BASIC_INFO, FEEDBACK, PASSANGER_INFO, STATIS and

TIMELIST

AGENT_BASIC_INFO, FEEDBACK, PASSANGER_INFO, STATIS and TIMELIST STARBUS For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

STARBUS

AGENT_BASIC_INFO, FEEDBACK, PASSANGER_INFO, STATIS and TIMELIST STARBUS For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
AGENT_BASIC_INFO, FEEDBACK, PASSANGER_INFO, STATIS and TIMELIST STARBUS For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
AGENT_BASIC_INFO, FEEDBACK, PASSANGER_INFO, STATIS and TIMELIST STARBUS For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
AGENT_BASIC_INFO, FEEDBACK, PASSANGER_INFO, STATIS and TIMELIST STARBUS For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
AGENT_BASIC_INFO, FEEDBACK, PASSANGER_INFO, STATIS and TIMELIST STARBUS For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

AGENT_ID In our table AGENT_BASIC_INFO we have following field such as agent_id, agent_name, agent_name, agent_fname,
AGENT_ID In our table AGENT_BASIC_INFO we have following field such as agent_id, agent_name, agent_name, agent_fname,

AGENT_ID

In our table AGENT_BASIC_INFO we have following field such as agent_id,

agent_name, agent_name, agent_fname, agent_shop_name, agent_shop_address,

agent_shop_city, agent_phon_number etc.

agent_shop_address, agent_shop_city, agent_phon_number etc. AGENT_BASIC_INFO AGENT_NAME AGENT_FNAME AGENT_SHOP_NAME

AGENT_BASIC_INFO

agent_shop_city, agent_phon_number etc. AGENT_BASIC_INFO AGENT_NAME AGENT_FNAME AGENT_SHOP_NAME AGENT_SHOP_ADDRESS

AGENT_NAME

agent_phon_number etc. AGENT_BASIC_INFO AGENT_NAME AGENT_FNAME AGENT_SHOP_NAME AGENT_SHOP_ADDRESS
agent_phon_number etc. AGENT_BASIC_INFO AGENT_NAME AGENT_FNAME AGENT_SHOP_NAME AGENT_SHOP_ADDRESS
agent_phon_number etc. AGENT_BASIC_INFO AGENT_NAME AGENT_FNAME AGENT_SHOP_NAME AGENT_SHOP_ADDRESS

AGENT_FNAME

AGENT_SHOP_NAME

AGENT_SHOP_ADDRESS

AGENT_NAME AGENT_FNAME AGENT_SHOP_NAME AGENT_SHOP_ADDRESS AGENT_SHOP_CITY AGENT_PHON_NUMBER For more details please

AGENT_SHOP_CITY

AGENT_PHON_NUMBER

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com AGENT_MOBIL_NUMBER

AGENT CURRENT BAL

In our FEEDBACK table we have fields like name, Email, Phon, Subject, Comment, and User_type.
In our FEEDBACK table we have fields like name, Email, Phon, Subject, Comment, and User_type.
In our FEEDBACK table we have fields like name, Email, Phon, Subject, Comment, and User_type.

In our FEEDBACK table we have fields like name, Email, Phon, Subject,

Comment, and User_type.

we have fields like name, Email, Phon, Subject, Comment, and User_type. For more details please visit

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Email
Email
Name
Name
Phone
Phone
Subject
Subject

FEEDBACK

User_type
User_type
Comment
Comment
Email Name Phone Subject FEEDBACK User_type Comment In our table PASSANGER_INFO we have filed like bill_no,

In our table PASSANGER_INFO we have filed like bill_no, c_name, c_phone,

c_to, c_from, c_time, Ttalseat, Seatnumber, Amount, Agent_id and Status.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

C_name C_phon Bill_no C_to Status PASSANGER C_from _INFO Agent_id C_time Amount Seat_no Total_seat In the
C_name
C_phon
Bill_no
C_to
Status
PASSANGER
C_from
_INFO
Agent_id
C_time
Amount
Seat_no
Total_seat
In
the
table
of
TIME_LIST
we
have
fields
such
as
Sno,
Satation_name,

Rate_per_seat, Time, Reach_time and Bus_number.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Station_name
Station_name
Sno
Sno
Rate_perSeat
Rate_perSeat

TIME_LIST

Time
Time
Station_name Sno Rate_perSeat TIME_LIST Time Bus_number Reach_time PROCESS LOGIC : : For more details please visit
Bus_number Reach_time
Bus_number
Reach_time
Sno Rate_perSeat TIME_LIST Time Bus_number Reach_time PROCESS LOGIC : : For more details please visit

PROCESS LOGIC::

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

As the privatization of buses is increasing thus the need of its smooth

management is also increasing the more we could facilitate the customers,

the more they are comfortable with us, the more customers we have visiting

our reservation unit .the above tables and modules facilitates many logics

like:

Number of buses in one unit

Number of computers in particular department

Number of users in a department

particular department  Number of users in a department  Which bus has what tour on
 Which bus has what tour on which day   What are the schedule
Which bus has what tour on which day
What are the schedule for buses
Schedule of a particular bus
How many buses are there
Each bus has how many seats
How many seats are occupied
Advance booking for seat
Bills for different customers
booking for seat   Bills for different customers  Which seat has booked by agent

Which seat has booked by agent

What are time table for different buses of different department

How much money is collected in a particular day

of different department How much money is collected in a particular day For more details please

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

1. Index page

1. Index page TollFree number of the other city. Display advantage of the StarBus Links for
1. Index page TollFree number of the other city. Display advantage of the StarBus Links for

TollFree number of the other city. Display advantage of the StarBus Links for Agent list and seat status. Links for Feedback, FAQ, Terms and Conditions.

This webpage is the starting page of the Website. It gives the followings:

 

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

2. Status.

2. Status. As in the above image the Status webpage is displaying:  Accessed by anyone.
2. Status. As in the above image the Status webpage is displaying:  Accessed by anyone.

As in the above image the Status webpage is displaying:

Accessed by anyone.

Information about the booking which seat is booked and which is empty.

Information about the booking which seat is booked and which is empty. For more details please

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

3. Agent name.

3. Agent name. As in the above image the Agent name webpage is displaying : 
3. Agent name. As in the above image the Agent name webpage is displaying : 

As in the above image the Agent name webpage is displaying:

Accessed by anyone.

Contains information about name, address and phone number of the agent.

Contains information about name, address and phone number of the agent. For more details please visit

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

4. Feedback

4. Feedback As in the above image Feedback webpage is displaying:  This page is access
4. Feedback As in the above image Feedback webpage is displaying:  This page is access

As in the above image Feedback webpage is displaying:

This page is access by any user

Anyone can give feedback related to the site or services.

Links for Terms and Condition’s and Policy and Privacy.

 Links for Terms and Condition’s and Policy and Privacy. For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

5. FAQ

5. FAQ As in the above image FAQ webpage is displaying:  This page is access
5. FAQ As in the above image FAQ webpage is displaying:  This page is access

As in the above image FAQ webpage is displaying:

This page is access by any user

Contain information about tour and services of web site. Such as how many agent office are there and what is the mode Of the pament.

as how many agent office are there and what is the mode Of the pament. For

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

6. Privacy Policy:

6. Privacy Policy: As in the above image the Privacy and Policy webpage is displaying: 
6. Privacy Policy: As in the above image the Privacy and Policy webpage is displaying: 

As in the above image the Privacy and Policy webpage is displaying:

This page is access by any user

This page say that when customer using our services, we required information about customer his/her name, age, route and email so that we can inform them to there email also.

age, route and email so that we can inform them to there email also. For more

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

7. Terms and Conditions.

7. Terms and Conditions. As in the above image the Terms and Conditions webpage is displaying:
7. Terms and Conditions. As in the above image the Terms and Conditions webpage is displaying:

As in the above image the Terms and Conditions webpage is displaying:

Accessed by anyone.

Useful for customer

Contain information when to reach the starting point and what should do, in case when our ticket is lost.

the starting point and what should do, in case when our ticket is lost. For more

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

8.

Login page

8. Login page As in the image Login webpage is displaying:  Accessed by the agent.

As in the image Login webpage is displaying:

Accessed by the agent.

Agent entered its user name and password and click on login.

Agent entered its user name and password and click on login.  Contain link for Forget

Contain link for Forget Password.

9. Forget Password Page

Contain link for Forget Password. 9. Forget Password Page Identity Confirmation. As in the image Forget
Identity Confirmation.
Identity Confirmation.
Password. 9. Forget Password Page Identity Confirmation. As in the image Forget Password webpage is displaying:

As in the image Forget Password webpage is displaying:

It required user name who forget its password and then click on Next button.

And also provide link for administration and other.

10.

 And also provide link for administration and other. 10. As in the above image Identify

As in the above image Identify Confirmation for user webpage is displaying:

The Question you have select at the time of registration.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

You need to enter the answer for that question.

After click on Next button. You will get your password on the show password webpage.

11. Ticket Booking page.

on the show password webpage. 11. Ticket Booking page. As in the above image the ticket
on the show password webpage. 11. Ticket Booking page. As in the above image the ticket

As in the above image the ticket booking page is displaying:

 

Only accessed by the agent. Select the destination, departure date and time.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

11. Select Seat page

11. Select Seat page As in the above image the Select Seat page is displaying: 
11. Select Seat page As in the above image the Select Seat page is displaying: 

As in the above image the Select Seat page is displaying:

 

Only accessed by the agent. Red seat indicates booked seat. You can choose rest of the seat. It will be converted into green seat.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

12. Customer Information page

12. Customer Information page As in the above image the Customer Information webpage is displaying: 
12. Customer Information page As in the above image the Customer Information webpage is displaying: 

As in the above image the Customer Information webpage is displaying:

 

After selecting the seat. Agent enters the name and phnumber of the customer.

Click on Go button for printing the ticket.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

13. Ticket Print page

13. Ticket Print page As in the above image the Ticket print webpage is displaying: 
13. Ticket Print page As in the above image the Ticket print webpage is displaying: 

As in the above image the Ticket print webpage is displaying:

 

This page prints the Customer ticket. This contain customer information such as name, destination, Number of seat.

These also reduce the agent balance.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

14.

Search Ticket.

14. Search Ticket. Only accessed by the Agent and Administration. Using PNR number, Agent can search
14. Search Ticket. Only accessed by the Agent and Administration. Using PNR number, Agent can search

Only accessed by the Agent and Administration. Using PNR number, Agent can search the ticket.

As in the above image the Ticket Search webpage is displaying:

As in the above image the Ticket Search webpage is displaying:   For more details

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

15.

Ticket Cancellation

15. Ticket Cancellation Only accessed by the Agent and Administration As in the above image the
15. Ticket Cancellation Only accessed by the Agent and Administration As in the above image the

Only accessed by the Agent and Administration

As in the above image the Ticket cancellation webpage is displaying

Using PNR number, Agent can see the status ticket.

—   Using PNR number, Agent can see the status ticket. For more details please

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

16.

Change Password

16. Change Password As in the above image the Change password web page is displaying: Create
16. Change Password As in the above image the Change password web page is displaying: Create

As in the above image the Change password web page is displaying:

Create Agent:
Create Agent:

Only accessed by the Agent

is displaying: Create Agent:  Only accessed by the Agent  Agent can change password by

Agent can change password by entering the old and new password

Administrator Section:

by entering the old and new password Administrator Section: 17. For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

17.

by entering the old and new password Administrator Section: 17. For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

 Username  Password  Email  Security Question.  Security Answer. As in the
 Username  Password  Email  Security Question.  Security Answer.
 Username
 Password
 Email
 Security Question.
 Security Answer.

As in the above image the Change password web page is displaying:

Only accessed by the Administrator.

New agents are added by this page

Required following information:-

After click on Create user button it will send you on Agent Basic Information webpage.

Create user button it will send you on Agent Basic Information webpage. For more details please

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

18.

Agent Basic Information page

18. Agent Basic Information page  Name  Father’s Name  Shop Name  Shop City
 Name  Father’s Name  Shop Name  Shop City  Shop phone number
 Name
 Father’s Name
 Shop Name
 Shop City
 Shop phone number

As in the above image the agent’s Basic information web page is displaying:

Agents Basic Information are added by this page

Required following information are :-

by this page  Required following information are :-  Mobile Number  Deposit amount 19.

Mobile Number

Deposit amount

19. Agent List page

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

 Agent ID  Name  Shop Name  Shop City  Current Balance 
 Agent ID  Name  Shop Name  Shop City  Current Balance 
 Agent ID
 Name
 Shop Name
 Shop City
 Current Balance
 Mobile Number

As in the above image the agent’s List web page is displaying:

Only accessed by the Administrator.

Displaying Agent information such as:-

Administrator.  Displaying Agent information such as:- 20. Agent Deposit Amount Page For more details please

20. Agent Deposit Amount Page

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

As in the above image the agent’s Deposit Amount web page is displaying:  Only
As in the above image the agent’s Deposit Amount web page is displaying:  Only
As in the above image the agent’s Deposit Amount web page is displaying:  Only

As in the above image the agent’s Deposit Amount web page is displaying:

Only accessed by the Administrator.

Requires agent name and amount he wants to deposit.

 Requires agent name and amount he wants to deposit. Search Agent Page 21. For more

Search Agent Page

21.
21.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Bus List: Feedback List: For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Bus List:

Bus List: Feedback List: For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
Bus List: Feedback List: For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Feedback List:

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Chapter 8

Chapter 8 System Testing For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

System Testing

Chapter 8 System Testing For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
Chapter 8 System Testing For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
Chapter 8 System Testing For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

System Testing

Once source code has been generated, software must be tested to uncover (and correct) as many errors as possible before delivery to customer. Our goal is to design a series of test cases that have a high likelihood of finding errors. To uncover the errors software techniques are used. These techniques provide systematic guidance for designing test that

provide systematic guidance for designing test that (1) Exercise the internal logic of software components, and
provide systematic guidance for designing test that (1) Exercise the internal logic of software components, and

(1) Exercise the internal logic of software components, and (2) Exercise the input and output domains of the program to uncover errors in program function, behavior and performance.

errors in program function, behavior and performance. 8.1 Steps. Software is tested from two different

8.1 Steps. Software is tested from two different perspectives:

(1)

Internal program logic is exercised using ―White box‖ test case design techniques.

(2) Software requirements are exercised using ―block box‖ test case design techniques.

In both cases, the intent is to find the maximum number of errors with the minimum amount of effort and time.

8.2 Strategies

A strategy for software testing must accommodate low-level tests that are necessary to verify that a small source code segment has been correctly implemented as well as high-level tests that validate major system functions against customer requirements. A strategy must provide guidance for the practitioner and a set of milestones for the manager. Because the steps of the test strategy occur at a time when deadline pressure begins to rise, progress must be measurable and problems must surface as earl as possible.

must be measurable and problems must surface as earl as possible. For more details please visit

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Following testing techniques are well known and the same strategy is adopted during this project testing.

8.2.1 Unit testing: Unit testing focuses verification effort on the smallest unit of

software design- the software component or module. The unit test is white-box oriented. The module interface is tested to ensure that information properly flows into and of the program unit under test the local data structure has been examined to ensure that data stored temporarily maintains its integrity during all steps in an algorithm’s execution. Boundary conditions are tested to ensure that the module operated properly at boundaries established to limit or restrict processing. All independent paths through the control structure are exercised to ensure that all statements in a module haven executed at least once.

all statements in a module haven executed at least once. 8.2.2 Integration testing: Integration testing is
all statements in a module haven executed at least once. 8.2.2 Integration testing: Integration testing is
all statements in a module haven executed at least once. 8.2.2 Integration testing: Integration testing is

8.2.2 Integration testing: Integration testing is a systematic technique for constructing the program structure while at the same time conducting tests to uncover errors associated with interfacing. The objective of this test is to take unit tested components and build a program structure that has been dictated by design.

8.2.3

Validation testing: At the culmination of integration testing, software is

completely assembled as a package, interfacing errors have been uncovered and corrected, and a final series of software testsvalidation testing-may begin. Validation can be defined in many ways, but a simple definition is that validation succeeds when software functions in a manner that can be reasonably expected by the customer.

in a manner that can be reasonably expected by the customer. 8.2.4 System testing : System

8.2.4 System testing: System testing is actually a series of different tests whose

primary purpose is to fully exercise the computer-based system. Below we have described the two types of testing which have been taken for this project.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

8.2.4.1

Security testing

Any computer-based system that manages sensitive information causes actions that can improperly harm (or benefit) individuals is a target for improper or illegal penetration. Penetration spans a broad range of activities: hackers who attempt to penetrate system for sport; disgruntled employees who attempt to penetrate for revenge; dishonest individuals who attempt to penetrate for illicit personal gain.

who attempt to penetrate for illicit personal gain. For security purposes, when anyone who is not
who attempt to penetrate for illicit personal gain. For security purposes, when anyone who is not

For security purposes, when anyone who is not authorized user cannot penetrate this system. When programs first load it check for correct username and password. If any fails to act according will be simply ignored by the system.

Performance Testing
Performance Testing

8.3. Criteria for Completion of Testing

8.2.4.2

Performance testing is designed to test the run-time performance of software within the context of an integrated system. Performance testing occurs throughout all steps in the testing process. Even at the unit level, the performance of an individual module may be assessed as white-box tests are conducted.

Every time the customer/user executes a compute program, the program is being tested. This sobering fact underlines the importance of other software quality assurance activities.

importance of other software quality assurance activities. As much time we run our project that is

As much time we run our project that is still sort of testing as Musa and Ackerman said. They have suggested a response that is based on statistical criteria: ―No, we cannot be absolutely certain that the software will never fail, but relative to a theoretically sound and experimentally validated statistical model, we have done sufficient testing to say with 95 percent confidence that the probability of 1000 CPU hours of failure free operation in a probabilistically defined environment is at least 0.995.‖

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

8.4 Validation Checks

Software testing is one element of broader topic that is often referred to as verification and validation. Verification refers to the set of activities that ensure that software correctly implements a specific function. Validation refers to a different set of activities that ensure that the software that has been built is traceable to customer requirements. Boehm state this another way:

Verification: ―Are we building the product right?‖

Validation:

―Are we building the right product?‖

Validation: ―Are we building the right product?‖ Validation checks are useful when we specify the nature

Validation checks are useful when we specify the nature of data input. Let us elaborate what I mean. In this project while entering the data to many text box you will find the use of validation checks. When you try to input wrong data. Your entry will be automatically abandoned.

wrong data. Your entry will be automatically abandoned. In has to supply the password. This password
wrong data. Your entry will be automatically abandoned. In has to supply the password. This password

In

has to supply the password. This password is validated to certain string, till user

the very beginning of the project when user wishes to enter into the project, he

won’t supply correct word of string for password he cannot succeed. When you try

to

checks. If you supply the number (digits) for name text box, you won’t get the entry; similarly if you data for trainee code in text (string) format it will be simply abandoned.

edit the record for the trainee in Operation division you will find the validation

trainee in Operation division you will find the validation A validation check facilitates us to work

A

validation check facilitates us to work in a greater way. It become necessary for

certain Applications like this.

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Chapter 9

Chapter 9 System Implementation For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
Chapter 9 System Implementation For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

System Implementation

Chapter 9 System Implementation For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Specification, regardless of the mode through which we accomplish it, may be viewed as a representation process. Requirements are represented in manner that ultimately leads to successful software implementation.

9.1 Specification principles

A number of specification principles, adapted from the work of balzer and Goodman can be proposed:

1. Separate functionality from implementation.

be proposed: 1. Separate functionality from implementation. 2. Develop a model of the desired behavior of

2. Develop a model of the desired behavior of a system that encompasses date and the functional responses of a system to various stimuli from the environment.

of a system to various stimuli from the environment. 3. Establish the context in which software
of a system to various stimuli from the environment. 3. Establish the context in which software

3. Establish the context in which software operates by specifying the manner in which other system components interact with software.

4. Define the environment in which the system operates.

5. Create a cognitive model rather than a design or implementation model. The cognitive model describes a system as perceived by its user community.

6. Recognize that ―the specifications must be tolerant of incompleteness and augmentable.‖

7. Establish the content and structure of a specification in a way that will enable it to be amenable to change. This list of basic specification principles provides a basis for representing software requirements. However, principles must be translated into realization.

requirements. However, principles must be translated into realization . For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

9.1.2 Representation

As we know software requirement may be specified in a variety of ways. However, if requirements are committed to paper a simple set of guidelines is well worth following:

Representation format and content should be relevant to the

problem. A general outline for the contents of a Software Requirements Specification can be developed. However, the representation forms contained within the specification are likely to vary with the application area. For example, for our automation system we used different symbology, diagrams.

automation system we used different symbology, diagrams . Information contained within the specification should be
automation system we used different symbology, diagrams . Information contained within the specification should be
automation system we used different symbology, diagrams . Information contained within the specification should be

Information contained within the specification should be nested.

Representations should reveal layers of information so that a reader can move to the level of detail required. Paragraph and diagram numbering schemes should indicate the level of detail that is being presented. It is sometimes worthwhile to present the same information at different levels of abstraction to aid in understanding. Similar guidelines are adhered for my project.

aid in understanding. Similar guidelines are adhered for my project . For more details please visit

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Chapter 10

Chapter 10 Conclusion For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
Chapter 10 Conclusion For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Conclusion

Chapter 10 Conclusion For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

To conclude, Project Grid works like a component which can access all the databases and picks up different functions. It overcomes the many limitations incorporated in the .NET Framework. Among the many features availed by the project, the main among them are:

Simple editingfeatures availed by the project, the main among them are: Insertion of individual images on each

Insertion of individual images on each cellby the project, the main among them are: Simple editing Insertion of individual colors on each

Insertion of individual colors on each cellSimple editing Insertion of individual images on each cell Flicker free scrolling Drop-down grid effect Placing

Flicker free scrollingon each cell Insertion of individual colors on each cell Drop-down grid effect Placing of any

Drop-down grid effectof individual colors on each cell Flicker free scrolling Placing of any type of control anywhere

Placing of any type of control anywhere in the gridcolors on each cell Flicker free scrolling Drop-down grid effect For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

grid effect Placing of any type of control anywhere in the grid For more details please
grid effect Placing of any type of control anywhere in the grid For more details please

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 Scope of the Project For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
Chapter 11 Scope of the Project For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Scope of the Project

Chapter 11 Scope of the Project For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

Future scope of the project: -

The project has a very vast scope in future. The project can be implemented on internet in future. Project can be updated in near future as and when requirement for the same arises, as it is very flexible in terms of expansion. With the proposed software of Web Space Manager ready and fully functional the client is now able to manage and hence run the entire work in a much better, accurate and error free manner. The following are the future scope for the project: -

The following are the future scope for the project: -  The number of levels that

The number of levels that the software is handling can be made unlimited in future from the current status of handling up to N levels as currently laid down by the software. Efficiency can be further enhanced and boosted up to a great extent by normalizing and de-normalizing the database tables used in the project as well as taking the kind of the alternative set of data structures and advanced calculation algorithms available.
We can in future generalize the application from its current customized status wherein other vendors developing and working on similar applications can utilize this software and make changes to it according to their business needs.
Faster processing of information as compared to the current system with high accuracy and reliability.
Automatic and error free report generation as per the specified format with ease.
Automatic calculation and generation of correct and precise Bills thus reducing much of the workload on the accounting staff and the errors arising due to manual calculations.

With a fully automated solution, lesser staff, better space utilization and peaceful work environment, the company is bound to experience high turnover.

the company is bound to experience high turnover . A future application of this system lies
the company is bound to experience high turnover . A future application of this system lies

A future application of this system lies in the fact that the proposed system would remain relevant in the future. In case there be any additions or deletion of the

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

services, addition or deletion of any reseller in any type of modification in future can be implemented easily. The data collected by the system will be useful for some other purposes also. All these result in high client-satisfaction, hence, more and more business for the company that will scale the company business to new heights in the forthcoming future.

scale the company business to new heights in the forthcoming future. For more details please visit

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

References For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

References

References For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

References:

Complete Reference of C#References: Programming in C# - Deitel & Deitel www.w3schools.com http://en.wikipedia.org The principles of Software

Programming in C# - Deitel & DeitelReferences: Complete Reference of C# www.w3schools.com http://en.wikipedia.org The principles of Software Engineering –

The principles of Software Engineering – Roger S.Pressman Roger S.Pressman

Software Engineering – Hudson Hudson

MSDN help provided by Microsoft .NET– Roger S.Pressman Software Engineering – Hudson Object Oriented Programming – Deitel & Deitel For

Object Oriented Programming – Deitel & Deitel Deitel & Deitel

by Microsoft .NET Object Oriented Programming – Deitel & Deitel For more details please visit http://techbrij.com
by Microsoft .NET Object Oriented Programming – Deitel & Deitel For more details please visit http://techbrij.com

For more details please visit http://techbrij.com