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PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION

OF
BOILERS

Project Report
Submitted by


ADITYA KUMAR AGARWAL
121705

Under the guidance of

Mr. BIRBAL TANWAR


In partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING



DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING









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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project work entitled Project Report on Boiler Process
control and instrumentation is an authentic record of my own work carried out
at Alstom India Limited, Sector-127, Noida as requirements of Five weeks
internship for the award of degree of B.Tech, Electronics Engineering,
Vishwakarma Institute of Technology,Pune, under the guidance of Mr. Birbal
Tanwar during May26th to June 30th, 2014.


ADITYA KUMAR AGARWAL
121705
ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING


DATE: 30
th
June 2014


Certified that the above statement made by the student is correct to the
best of our knowledge and belief.




Mr. BIRBAL TANWAR
Head Electrical, C&I
Boiler Department
ALSTOM India Ltd, Noida


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It gives me immense pleasure to take this opportunity to thank ALSTOM India
Limited, Noida along with Mr. ABHISHESH SINGH (HR, Boiler Business) for giving
me such a great opportunity to do project in their esteemed organization. I
consider it my privilege to have carried out my project under this well-known
quality conscious organization. Being a renowned company in India as well as
abroad, I got a glimpse of corporate culture and ethics along with the hard work
carried out by the employees here for successful completion of a project.

I would like to take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to my Project
Head, Mr. BIRBAL SINGH TANWAR (HEAD ELECTRICAL,C&I DEPARTMENT) for his
constant guidance, valuable suggestions and moral support.

I would like to express my sincere gratitude and indebtness to my mentor Mr.
KUNAL KUMAR for his invaluable guidance and enormous help and
encouragement, which helped me to complete my internship successfully. His way
of working was a constant motivation throughout my internship term. I would like
to thank him for answering my queries from time to time and for making me
understand the various parts of Boiler.

I acknowledge gratefully the help and suggestion of ALSTOM employees and
fellow trainees who were always help me with their warm attitude and technical
knowledge, inspite of their busy schedule and huge workload.

Finally, no word will be enough to express my deepest reverence to family and
friends without whose enthusiasm and support ,I wouldnt have been able to
pursue my goals.

ADITYA KUMAR AGARWAL





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Table of Contents
DECLARATION ......................................................................................................... 1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................. 2
INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 7
OUR VALUES ........................................................................................................... 7
MY VIEWS: ........................................................................................................... 8
HISTORY .................................................................................................................. 8
BUSINESSESS ......................................................................................................... 11
RANKINE CYCLE ..................................................................................................... 16
CARNOT CYCLE: ..................................................................................................... 19
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RANKINE CYCLE AND CARNOT CYCLE ............................ 20
BOILER SECTION: ................................................................................................... 21
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT: ............................................................................ 21
HR DEPARTMENT: .............................................................................................. 22
FINANCE DEPARTMENT: ..................................................................................... 23
ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT: ...................................................................... 24
ONGOING PROJECTS: ............................................................................................ 25
CUSTOMERS: ......................................................................................................... 25
ALSTOM IN INDIA .................................................................................................. 25
FACTS AND FIGURES.............................................................................................. 26
BOILERS ................................................................................................................. 27
CLASSIFICATION OF BOILERS: ............................................................................. 28
Fire tube boilers ..................................................................................... 28
Water tube boilers ................................................................................. 28
COMPONENTS OF BOILERS: ............................................................................... 29
Feedwater system.................................................................................. 30


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1. Feedwater heater ............................................................................... 30
2. Deaerators .......................................................................................... 31
3. Economisers ....................................................................................... 31
Steam system ........................................................................................ 32
1. Steam and mud drums ........................................................................ 32
2. Boiler tubes ........................................................................................ 32
3. Superheaters ...................................................................................... 32
4. Attemperators .................................................................................... 33
5. Condensate systems ........................................................................... 34
Fuel system ............................................................................................ 35
1. Feed system for gaseous fuels ............................................................ 35
2. Feed system for solid fuels ................................................................. 36
PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&ID): ............................................. 37
PROCESS LEGEND: .............................................................................................. 39
BASICS ................................................................................................................ 41
ABBREVIATION TABLE: ....................................................................................... 42
EQUIPMENT TABLE: ........................................................................................... 43
KKS TAGING PROCEDURE: .................................................................................. 44
Purpose.................................................................................................. 44
Requirements to be met by the Identification System KKS .................... 44
Structure and Application of the Power Plant Identification System ...... 45
INSTRUMENTATION IN BOILERS: ........................................................................... 45
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT ......................................................................... 46
Thermocouple ....................................................................................... 46
Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) ................................................ 47
Thermistor: ............................................................................................ 48


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PRESSURE MEASUREMENT: ............................................................................... 48
Bourdon tube-type detectors: ............................................................... 49
Diaphragm ............................................................................................. 50
Bellows .................................................................................................. 50
1. Rectangular section bellow .................................................................... 50
2.Round section bellow: ............................................................................ 51
3. Profile bellow ........................................................................................ 51
4. Pipe joint bellow .................................................................................... 52
5. Industrial rectangular section bellow ..................................................... 52
FLOW MEASUREMENT ....................................................................................... 53
Turbine Meter ........................................................................................ 53
Magnetic Flow Meter............................................................................. 53
Orifice Plate ........................................................................................... 54
Venturi Meter ........................................................................................ 54
Dall tube: ............................................................................................... 55
Pitot tube: .............................................................................................. 55
LEVEL MEASUREMENT: ...................................................................................... 56
Open Tank Level Measurement: ............................................................ 56
Closed Tank Level Measurement: .......................................................... 56
PROCESS CONTROL IN BOILERS: ............................................................................ 57
TYPES OF PROCESS CONTROL LOOPS ................................................................. 57
Feedback Control ................................................................................... 58
Feedforward Control ............................................................................. 59
Feedforward-plus-Feedback Control ...................................................... 60
Ratio Control .......................................................................................... 61
Cascade Control ..................................................................................... 62


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1. Why cascade control? ......................................................................... 62
2. Requirements for cascade control: ..................................................... 62
INSTRUMENT LIST ................................................................................................. 63
INPUT-OUTPUT LIST .............................................................................................. 67
PROJECT DETAILS .................................................................................................. 69




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INTRODUCTION
Alstom is a French headquartered multinational company which holds
interests in the electricity generation and rail transport markets.
Alstom is a global leader in the world of power generation, power
transmission and rail infrastructure and sets the benchmark for innovative
and environmentally friendly technologies
It is also a major rail vehicle manufacturer, active in the fields of passenger
transportation, signalling and locomotives, with products including the AGV,
TGV, Eurostar, and Pendolino high speed trains, in addition to suburban,
regional and metro trains, and Citadis trams.
Alstom's headquarters are located in LEVALLOIS-PERRET, west of Paris. Its
current CEO is PATRICK KRON.
OUR VALUES
TRUST: It is built on the responsibility given to each decision maker and
the openness of each individual to his or her professional environment,
ensuring transparency, which is vital in the management of risk.
TEAM: Alstoms business is based on delivering projects whilst working in a
team. This requires our collective discipline and efforts to execute them
successfully, and networking to ensure we take full advantage of all the
competencies available.
ACTION: Alstom commits to delivering products and services to its
customers which meet their expectations in terms of price, quality and
delivery schedules. To meet our commitments to our customers, action is a
priority for all of us. Action is built on strategic thinking, speed of execution
to differentiate us from our competitors and the ability to report ensuring
the achievement of our business objectives


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MY VIEWS:
TRUST: Every employee has faith on others and is committed to their work.
The work environment is quite good and the work is completed within the
specified time.
TEAM: Team work is an essential part of any organisation and is thoroughly
followed in Alstom. Every department works as a team and that helps in the
overall growth of the Organisation.
ACTION: Everyone is dedicated towards their work and action is given the
highest priority. The action is also strategically thought so as to minimize the
time and increase the efficiency and productivity of an individual so as to
prosper the overall growth of the organisation.
HISTORY
YEAR POINTS OF NOTE
1928 The beginning of Alsthom was from the merger of the French
heavy engineering interests of the Thomson-Houston Electric
Company (then General Electric), the Compagnie franaise pour
l'exploitation des procds Thomson Houston, (or Compagnie
Franaise Thomson Houston, CFTH) and Socit Alsacienne de
Constructions Mcaniques (SACM), with its first factory in
Belfort.
1969 Compagnie Gnrale d'Electricit (CGE) becomes majority
shareholder of Alsthom.
1977 Alsthom constructs the first 1300MW generator set for the
Paluel power station which set a world record with an output of
1500 MW.
1978 The first TGV is delivered to SNCF. The TGV went on to break
world rail speed records in 1981 (380 km/h) and 1990 (515.3
km/h), and achieved the world endurance record for high-speed
train lines in 2001, travelling from Calais to Marseille (1067.2 km)
in 3 hours and 29 mins.
1988-89 Alsthom acquires 100% of the rail transport equipment division


9

of ACEC as ACEC Transport.
1991 Alstom's parent CGE is renamed Alcatel Alsthom Compagnie
Gnrale d'Electricit, or Alcatel Alsthom
1994 Rail vehicle manufacturer Linke-Hofmann-Busch (LHB), formerly
part of Salzgitter AG group, is acquired by GEC Alsthom
1998 GEC Alsthom acquired Cegelec (electrical contracting) as Alstom
Power conversion.
1999 Alstom and ABB merge their energy businesses in a 50-50 joint
company known as ABB Alstom Power.
Alstom sells its heavy duty gas turbine business to General
electric.
2000 Alstom acquires ABB's share in ABB Alstom Power.
Alstom acquires a 51% stake in Fiat Ferroviaria, the Italian rail
manufacturer and world leader in tilting technology.
2003 (April) Alstom sells its industrial turbine business (small to
medium gas turbines 3-50MW, and steam turbines to 100MW)
to Siemens for 1.1 billion.
In 2003 Alstom was undergoing a financial crisis due to poor
sales and debt liabilities. Alstom's share price had dropped 90%
over two years, and the company had over $5 billion of
debt. Subsequently Alstom was required to sell several of its
subsidiaries including its shipbuilding and electrical transmission
assets as part of a 3.2 billion rescue plan involving the French
state.
2004 January: Alstom sells its T&D activities to Areva.
Alstom sells Alstom Power Rentals to APR LLC later becoming
APR Energy LLC
Alstom sells the diesel locomotive
manufacturer Meinfesa (Valencia, Spain) to Vossloh AG.
Alstom receives EU-approved French government bailout worth
2.5 billion.
2006 Alstom sells its Marine Division to the Norwegian group AKER
YARDS. Alstom commits itself to keeping 25% of the shares until
2010.
Alstom sells Alstom Power Conversion which
became Converteam Group in a leveraged buy-out (LBO) deal
funded by Barclays Private Equity France SAS
.



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2007 Following a new Graphic Chart, the Group name is now written
"alstom", with the exception of the legal entities which are
written with Alstom in capitals, e.g., Alstom S.A.
April: on a test run in France, TGV Est set the world speed record
for rail vehicles of 574.8 km/h.
25 June: Acquired the Spanish wind turbine manufacturer
Ecotcnia, and was named Alstom Ecotcnia until April 2010,
when the Ecotcnia name was dropped. The new entity legal
name is Alstom Wind.
2009 Alstom acquired 25% +1 share of Russian Transmashholding.
2010 Alstom announces opening of a wind turbine assembly facility
in Amarillo, Texas.
Alstom re-acquires the Electric power transmission Division of
Areva SA, which had previously been sold to Areva in 2004. A
new division is created called Alstom Grid.
Alstom inaugurates new hydropower manufacturing facility in
China
.

2011 Alstom and the Iraqi government sign a memorandum of
understanding regarding the construction of a new high-speed
rail line between Baghdad and Basra.
2012 Alstom begins construction of factories at:
1.Sorel-Tracy, Quebec, Canada (passenger rail vehicles)
2. Cherbourg (Turbine blades in association with LM Power, wind
turbine towers)
3. Ufa, Russia, joint venture with RusHydro.
2013 November Alstom announced it planned to raise 1 to 2 billion
through sale of some non-core assets, plus the possible sale of a
stake in Alstom Transport, and also cut 1300 jobs.
2014 1. (29 April) Reuters reports that the board of Alstom accepts a
10billion ($13.82billion) bid from GE for its energy operations,
whilst remaining open to alternative unsolicited bids.
2. (5 May) General Electric posts offers to buy 1/4 of the shares
in Alstom's Indian power and distribution companies: Alstom
T&D India Ltd. and Alstom India Ltd. at 261.25 and 382.20 rupees
a share (value $278 million and $111 million respectively) subject
to its bid for Alstom SA being successful.



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BUSINESSESS
1. POWER:-
RENEWABLE POWER
Hydroelectric Power:
#1 hydro motor generator installed base
Leader of the pumped-storage equipment market
Alstoms technology equips the worlds 5 highest capacity hydro
installations in operation, amongst other record-breaking dams
Leading R&D capabilities: a one-of-a-kind worldwide network of
Global Technologies Centers.

Wind Power:
Supply and installation of onshore wind turbines: reaching new
heights of efficiency and reliability
Supply and installation of offshore wind turbines: designed for the
industrys most challenging environmental conditions
Wind services: a full range of operation and maintenance services
Technical assessment including wind farm design
Project authorisation including permit applications
Project financing

Solar Power:-
Alstom developed CSP (concentrated solar power), because of its
potential for large-scale, efficient power generation. Requiring clear
skies and strong sunlight, at least 1900kWh/m
2
/y, CSP is the ideal fit
for plants located on the Sun Belt. It is also ideal for centralized on
grid or industrial applications with adequate tariff structures. Thanks
to the option of storage capacity that it offers, CSP allows you to have
power long after sunset or on days with some cloud coverage.





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Geothermal Power:-
Alstom pioneered the commercial exploitation of geothermal power
in New Zealand in the 1950s. Today, were at the cutting edge of
geothermal innovation, with an extensive portfolio of proven
technologies, plus the ability to create custom-made solutions for the
most challenging geothermal applications.

Biomass Power:-
Alstoms wide range of experience includes burning all types of fuels
in boilers, including biomass. We receive, handle, store and process
biomass materials, ready for direct injection into boilers. Alstom has
been retrofitting biomass co-firing systems for nearly two decades.
Youll benefit from greatly reduced CO
2
emissions with our biomass-
fired steam power plants.

Ocean Energy:- Ocean energy is a major growth area in renewable
power. Alstom is the only company that offers proven products for
both the tidal and offshore wind markets.
Tidal Energy: - Tidal power offers an inexhaustible supply of
energy, free of greenhouse gas emissions once installed. It also
has the advantage of being totally predictable, as tidal currents
result from perfectly known astronomical phenomena. Alstom is
at forefront of developing tidal stream turbine technology in
order to take advantage of the significant energy potential in our
tides, and in 2013 Alstom acquired the significant technology and
expertise of Tidal Generation Ltd (TGL).
Offshore Wind Power: - Alstom has installed the worlds largest
offshore wind turbine off the Belgian coast, the Haliade 150-
6MW.This is the largest offshore wind turbine ever installed in
sea waters. Thanks to its 150-metre diameter rotor (with blades
stretching 73.50 metre), the turbine is more efficient since its


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yield is 15% better than existing offshore turbines, enabling it to
supply power to the equivalent of about 5,000 households.
NON RENEWABLE POWER:
Coal and Oil Power:-
Alstom provides an extensive product portfolio with cutting edge
technologies with reduces carbon emission by upto 35%.
Coal and oil power plants: Improve fuel flexibility, plant efficiency
and reduce emissions from fossil fuels with a coal and oil power
plant from Alstom
Steam turbines: leading the way in efficiency and reliability
Turbogenerators: The highest standards of performance at a cost-
effective price
Boilers: Reliable, clean fossil fuel combustion
Air quality control systems: Reducing emissions from combustion
processes
Carbon capture and storage (CCS): To provide optimum efficiency as
well as environmental and commercial benefits to power plant
operators worldwide, the next generation of Alstoms steam power plant will
be available with technology capable of capturing up to 90% of the CO2
emissions.

Gas Power:-
Alstom has been helping the operators of gas-fired power plants to
balance fluctuating fuel prices and availability with environmental
concerns for more than 75 years.
Gas power plants
Gas services
Gas turbines
HSRGs(Heat recovery steam generators)

Nuclear Power:-


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Alstom equips 30% of the worlds nuclear power plants with its
reliable turbine generator sets. Our equipment is currently in 40% of
todays nuclear plants. Teams at Alstom work at maximizing the
power output delivered by all the reactors by increasing the efficiency
of the power conversion systems.
Turbine Islands
Steam Turbines
Services
Turbogenerators

2. TRANSPORT:-
Trains:-
Metro Metropolis
Tram way Citadis
Tram way Citadis compact
Tram trains Citadis Dualis and Regio Citadis
Regional train Coradia
Suburban train XTrapolis
Locomotive prim a II
Very high speed train duplex
Very high speed AGV


Services:-
Maintenance
Modernization
Parts and repair
Support services
Systems:-
Infrastructures
Integrated Solutions


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Signaling:-
Urban control system
Atlas signaling solution
Iconis integrated control Centre
Smart lock interlocking
Passenger information and entertainment
Security


3. GRID:-
Smart solution:-
Smart grid
HVDC super grid
Facts
Renewable
Network management:-
Generation
Transmission
Distribution
Demand response
Telecommunication
Oil and gas
Consulting and system integration
High voltage products :-
Turnkey substation
Gas in capsulated substation
Air insulated switchgears
Power transformers


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RANKINE CYCLE

The Rankine cycle is the fundamental operating cycle of all power plants where an
operating fluid is continuously evaporated and condensed. The selection of
operating fluid depends mainly on the available temperature range. Figure 1
shows the idealized Rankine cycle.
The pressure-enthalpy (p-h) and temperature-entropy (T-s) diagrams of this cycle
are given in Figure 2. The Rankine cycle operates in the following steps:
1-2-3 Isobaric Heat Transfer. High pressure liquid enters the boiler from the
feed pump (1) and is heated to the saturation temperature (2). Further
addition of energy causes evaporation of the liquid until it is fully converted
to saturated steam (3).
3-4 Isentropic Expansion. The vapor is expanded in the turbine, thus
producing work which may be converted to electricity. In practice, the
expansion is limited by the temperature of the cooling medium and by the


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erosion of the turbine blades by liquid entrainment in the vapor stream as
the process moves further into the two-phase region. Exit vapor qualities
should be greater than 90%.
4-5 Isobaric Heat Rejection. The vapor-liquid mixture leaving the turbine (4)
is condensed at low pressure, usually in a surface condenser using cooling
water. In well designed and maintained condensers, the pressure of the
vapor is well below atmospheric pressure, approaching the saturation
pressure of the operating fluid at the cooling water temperature.
5-1 Isentropic Compression. The pressure of the condensate is raised in the
feed pump. Because of the low specific volume of liquids, the pump work is
relatively small and often neglected in thermodynamic calculations.

The efficiency of power cycles is defined as




18




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CARNOT CYCLE:
The Carnot cycle is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle proposed by Nicolas
Lonard Sadi Carnot in 1824 and expanded by Benoit Paul mile Clapeyron in the
1830s and 40s. It can be shown that it is the most efficient cycle for converting a
given amount of thermal energy into work, or conversely, creating a temperature
difference (e.g. refrigeration) by doing a given amount of work.



Stages of the Carnot Cycle

The Carnot cycle when acting as a heat engine consists of the following steps:
1. Reversible isothermal expansion of the gas at the "hot" temperature, TH
(isothermal heat addition or absorption). During this step the expanding gas makes
the piston work on the surroundings. The gas expansion is propelled by absorption
of quantity Q1 of heat from the high temperature reservoir.
2. Isentropic (reversible adiabatic) expansion of the gas (isentropic work output).
For this step the piston and cylinder are assumed to be thermally insulated, thus


20

they neither gain nor lose heat. The gas continues to expand, working on the
surroundings. The gas expansion causes it to cool to the "cold" temperature, TC.
3. Reversible isothermal compression of the gas at the "cold" temperature, TC
(Isothermal heat rejection). Now the surroundings do work on the gas, causing
quantity Q2 of heat to flow out of the gas to the low temperature reservoir.
4. Isentropic compression of the gas (isentropic work input) Once again the piston
and cylinder are assumed to be thermally insulated. During this step, the
surroundings do work on the gas, compressing it and causing the temperature to
rise to TH. At this point the gas is in the same state as at the start of step 1.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RANKINE CYCLE AND CARNOT CYCLE
The main difference between that Rankine Cycle and the Carnot Cycle is that heat
transfer across the system boundary of Carnot Cycle is isothermal (constant
temperature), and heat transfer across the system boundary in a Rankine cycle is
isobaric (constant pressure). The Rankine cycle is a better model for most real
systems because a constant pressure heat exchanger is a better approximation for
how heat transfer is accomplished in most real systems than heat transfer to/from
constant temperature "heat reservoirs."



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BOILER SECTION:
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT:
1. ELECTRICAL, CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERING:-
Role of C&I Department is to:
Design P&I (PROCESS &INSTRUMENTATION) DIAGRAM
Create I/O List
Create Instrument list
Create Electrical load list
Create Technical Specification chart & Datasheet
Create Single Line Diagram(SLDs)
Create Lighting Scheme
Create Lightning scheme(ILLUMINATION)
Create Logics(OLCD,CLSC,BMD)

2. PRESSURE PART:
Various pressure parts like SH, RH, Valves and pipes are designed.

3. GA(General Arrangement) Group:
The 2d and 3D models and layouts of boilers are designed in this
section.

4. STRUCTURE:
Boiler specifications and structure are done in this section.

5. FIELD OPERATION:
The field support i.e. erection and commissioning is done in this section.

6. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT:
Supply chain management is a cross-functional approach that includes
managing the movement of raw materials into an organization, certain
aspects of the internal processing of materials into finished goods, and
the movement of finished goods out of the organization and toward the
end consumer. The purpose of supply chain management is to improve


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trust and collaboration among supply chain partners, thus improving
inventory visibility and the velocity of inventory movement.
Main function of supply chain management is as follows:

Inventory Management
Distribution Management
Channel Management
Payment Management
Financial Management
Supplier Management

7. PROCESS/EQUIPMENT:
Under this section Boiler processes and Equipment like fan, pump and
APH are designed.
HR DEPARTMENT:
This department manages the companys most valuable resource i.e. its
employees. It performs various functions like Recruitment, safety, employee
relations, training and development etc. Following are its some of the most
important functionalities:-

MANPOWER PLANNING: It involves the planning for the future and
finding out how many employees will be needed in the future by
the business and what types of skills should they possess.
JOB ANALYSIS AND JOB DESCRIPTION: It involves process to collect
correct information about the duties, responsibilities, necessary skills and
work environment of a particular job.
RECRUITMENT WAGES AND SALARIES: It involves recruitment of best
people in an organisation as organisations success depends on quality of
workforce.
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL: It includes reviewing of the performance of
the employees recruited on a regular basis. The main focus is to measure
and improve the actual performance of the employee.
LABOUR MANAGEMENT RELATIONS: It ensures that the labour
management relations are cordial and in case of any conflict, it will play


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an important role in resolving the issue by bringing them to negotiation
table.
DISMISSAL AND REDUNDANCY: It takes firm actions against employees
who are not following organizational code of conduct, rules and
regulations. This can result in the dismissal of the employee.

FINANCE DEPARTMENT:
The finance department is responsible for management of the
organizations cash flow. It prepares the companies cash account, pays the
salary etc. Following are its some of the most important functionalities:-

BOOK KEEPING PROCEDURES: Keeping records of the purchases and sales
made by a business as well as capital spending.

PREPARING FINAL ACCOUNTS: Profit and loss account and Balance
Sheets

PROVIDING MANAGEMENT INFORMATION: Managers require ongoing
financial information to enable them to make better decisions.

MANAGEMENT OF WAGES: The wages section of the finance department
will be responsible for calculating the wages and salaries of employees
and organising the collection of income tax and national insurance for
the Inland Revenue.

RAISING FINANCE : The finance department will also be responsible for
the technical details of how a business raises finance e.g. through loans,
and the repayment of interest on that finance. In addition it will
supervise the payment of dividends to shareholders.



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ADMINISTRATION DEPARTMENT:
The administrative department covers a wide range of functions such as
departmental support in HR, finance, IT support and general running of an
organisation. The main functions of an administration department of an
organization are:

To process paperwork for external suppliers.

To process paperwork and information for internal people. This could
be anything from looking after the basic bills to the internal post.

Looking after the internal communications so that all members of the
organization are aware of what is going on within the organization.

Organizing any deliveries or suppliers coming into the offices for the
day for any reason.

Arranging company extras such as company cars and any hotels for
business trips that may be needed.

Sending out any mail on behalf of the company. This could be for
different stakeholders, customers or even for staff.




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ONGOING PROJECTS
NTPC Barh II Supercritical Boilers 2 x 660 MW - under execution*
APGENCO Krishnapatnam - Supercritical Boilers 2 x 800 MW - under
execution*
Jay Pee - Bara - Supercritical Boilers 3 x 660 MW - under execution*
NTPC Mouda - Supercritical Boilers 2 x 660 MW - under execution*
NTPC Nabinagar Supercritical Steam Turbine Islands and Boilers* 3 X
660 MW - under execution
BHEL Gadarwara Super Thermal Power Plant* - 2 X 800 MW under
execution
CUSTOMERS
National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC).
Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited.
Rajasthan Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd.
NSL Orissa Power and Infratech Private Ltd.
Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited.
ALSTOM IN INDIA
Alstom has been associated with Indias progress for a century and has a
long-standing reputation for providing highly innovative and sustainable
solutions for meeting the countrys energy and transport requirements.
Since its inception in the year 1911, the company has been at the forefront
of leading-edge technology at every level. The company works with a
number of strategic partners in India to offer a wide range of solutions for
every sector Power, Transport & Grid.
ALSTOM India statistics:
Around 9,000 employees in India .Three R&D Centers in Bengaluru (Power
and Transport), Vadodara (Power) and Hosur (Grid). Two engineering
centers at Noida and Kolkata.


26


FACTS AND FIGURES
93002 employees at end of March 2014
21.5 billion orders in 2013-14
20.3 billion sales in 2013-14
Present in more than 100 countries
Sales 2013-2014 : 20.3 billion


27

BOILERS
A Boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The heated or
vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating
applications.
Instrumentation and controls in a boiler plant encompass an enormous range
of equipment from simple industrial plant to the complex in the large utility
station.
The boiler control system is the means by which the balance of energy & mass
into and out of the boiler are achieved. Inputs are fuel, combustion air,
atomizing air or steam &feed water. Of these, fuel is the major energy input.
Combustion air is the major mass input. Outputs are steam, flue gas, blow
down, radiation & soot blowing.




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CLASSIFICATION OF BOILERS:
Fire tube boilers :
In fire tube boilers hot gases are passed through the tubes and water
surrounds these tubes. These are simple, compact and rugged in construction.
Depending on whether the tubes are vertical or horizontal these are further
classified as vertical and horizontal tube boilers. Due to large quantity of water
in the drain it requires more time for steam raising. The steam attained is
generally wet, economical for low pressures .The output of the boiler is also
limited.


Water tube boilers:
In these boilers water is inside the tubes and hot gases are outside the tubes.
Feed water enters the boiler to one drum. This water circulates through the
tubes connected external to drums. Hot gases which surround these tubes will
convert the water in tubes in to steam. This steam is passed through tubes and
collected at the top of the drum since it is of light weight. The entire steam is
collected in one drum and it is taken out from there. As the movement of
water in the water tubes is high, so rate of heat transfer also becomes high
resulting in greater efficiency. They produce high pressure, easily accessible


29

and can respond.

COMPONENTS OF BOILERS:
The main components in a boiler system are Economiser, Evaporator, Superheater,
Reheator, Attemperator . In addition, there are sets of controls to monitor water
and steam flow, fuel flow, airflow and chemical treatment additions.
More broadly speaking, the boiler system comprises of a feedwater system, steam
system and fuels system. The feedwater system provides water to the boiler and
regulates it automatically to meet the steam demand. Various valves provide
access for maintenance and repair.
The stem system collects and controls the steam produced in the boiler. Steam is
directed through a piping system to the point of use. Throughout the system,
steam pressure is regulated using valves and checked with steam pressure gauges.
The fuel system includes all equipment used to provide fuel to generate the
necessary heat. The equipment required in the fuel system depends on the type of
fuel used in the system.


30


Feedwater system
The water supplied to the boiler, which is converted into steam, is called
feedwater. The two sources of feedwater are condensate or condensed
steam returned from the process and makeup water (treated raw water)
which must come from outside the boiler room and plant processes.
1. Feedwater heater
Boiler efficiency is improved by the extraction of waste heat from spent
steam to preheat the boiler feedwater. Heaters are shell and tube heat
exchangers with the feedwater on the tube side (inside) and steam on the
shell side (outside). The heater closest to the boiler receives the hottest
steam. The condensed steam is recovered in the heater drains and pumped
forward to the heater immediately upstream, where its heat value is
combined with that of the steam for that heater. Ultimately the condensate
is returned to the condensate storage tank or condenser hot well.


31

2. Deaerators
Feedwater often has oxygen dissolved in it at objectionable levels, which
comes from air in-leakage from the condenser, pump seals, or from the
condensate itself. The oxygen is mechanically removed in a deaerator.
Deaerators function on the principle that oxygen is decreasingly soluble as
the temperature is raised. This is done by passing a stream of steam through
the feedwater. Deaerators are generally a combination of spray and tray
type. One problem with the control of deaerators is ensuring sufficient
temperature difference between the incoming water temperature and the
stripping steam. If the temperature is too close, not enough steam will be
available to strip the oxygen from the make-up water.
3. Economisers
Economisers are the last stage of the feedwater system. They are designed
to extract heat value from exhaust gases to heat the steam still further and
improve the efficiency of the boiler. They are simple finned tube heat
exchangers. Not all boilers have economizers. Usually they are found only on
water tube boilers using fossil fuel as an energy conservation measure.
A feedwater economiser reduces steam boiler fuel requirements by
transferring heat from the flue gas to incoming feedwater. By recovering
waste heat, an economiser can often reduce fuel requirements by 5 per cent
to 10 per cent and pay for itself in less than two years.
A feedwater economiser is appropriate when insufficient heat transfer
surface exists within the boiler to remove combustion heat. Boilers that
exceed 100 boiler hp, operating at pressures exceeding 75 psi or above, and
those that are significantly loaded all year long are excellent candidates for
economiser retrofit.




32

Steam system
1. Steam and mud drums
A boiler system consists of a steam drum and a mud drum. The steam drum
is the upper drum of a watertube boiler where the separation of water and
steam occurs. Feedwater enters the boiler steam drum from the
economizers or from the feedwater heater train if there is no economiser.
The colder feedwater helps create the circulation in the boiler.

The steam outlet line normally takes off from this drum to a lower drum by
a set of riser and downcomer tubes. The lower drum, called the mud drum,
is a tank at the bottom of the boiler that equalizes distribution of water to
the generating tubes and collects solids such as salts formed from hardness
and silica or corrosion products carried into the boiler.
In the circulation process, the colder water, which is outside the heat
transfer area, sinks and enters the mud drum. The water is heated in the
heat transfer tubes to form steam. The steam-water mixture is less dense
than water and rises in the riser tubes to the steam drum. The steam drum
contains internal elements for feedwater entry, chemical injection,
blowdown removal, level control, and steam-water separation. The steam
bubbles disengage from the boiler water in the riser tubes and steam flows
out from the top of the drum through steam separators.
2. Boiler tubes
Boiler tubes are usually fabricated from high-strength carbon steel. The
tubes are welded to form a continuous sheet or wall of tubes. Often more
than one bank of tubes is used, with the bank closest to the heat sources
providing the greatest share of heat transfer. They will also tend to be the
most susceptible to failure due to flow problems or corrosion/ deposition
problems.
3. Superheaters
The purpose of the superheater is to remove all moisture content from the
steam by raising the temperature of the steam above its saturation point.


33

The steam leaving the boiler is saturated, that is, it is in equilibrium with
liquid water at the boiler pressure (temperature).
The superheater adds energy to the exit steam of the boiler. It can be a
single bank or multiple banks or tubes either in a horizontal or vertical
arrangement that is suspended in the convective or radiation zone of the
boiler. The added energy raises the temperature and heat content of the
steam above saturation point. In the case of turbines, excessive moisture in
the steam above saturation point. In the case of turbines, excessive
moisture in the steam can adversely affect the efficiency and integrity of the
turbine. Superheated steam has a larger specific volume as the amount of
superheat increases. This necessitates larger diameter pipelines to carry the
same amount of steam. Due to temperatures, higher alloy steel is used. It is
important that the steam is of high purity and low moisture content so that
non-volatile substances do not build up in the superheater.
4. Attemperators
Attemperation is the primary means for controlling the degree of superheat
in a superheated boiler. Attemperation is the process of partially de-
superheating steam by the controlled injection of water into the
superheated steam flow. The degree of superheat will depend on the steam
load and the heat available, given the design of the superheater. The degree
of superheat of the final exiting steam is generally not subject to wide
variation because of the design of the downstream processes. In order to
achieve the proper control of superheat temperature an attemperator is
used.
A direct contact attemperator injects a stream of high purity water into the
superheated steam. It is usually located at the exit of the superheater, but
may be placed in an intermediate position. Usually, boiler feedwater is sued
for attemperation. The water must be free of non-volatile solids to prevent
objectionable buildup of solids in the main steam tubes and on turbine
blades.
Since in attemperator water comes from the boiler feedwater, provision for
it has to be made in calculating flows. The calculation is based on heat


34

balance. The total enthalpy (heat content) of the final superheat steam must
be the mass weighted sum of the enthalpies of the initial superheat steam
and the attemperation water.
5. Condensate systems
Although not a part of the boiler, condensate is usually returned to the
boiler as part of the feedwater. Accordingly, one must take into account the
amount and quality of the condensate when calculating boiler treatment
parameters. In a complex steam distribution system there will be several
components. These will include heat exchangers, process equipment, flash
tanks, and storage tanks.
Heat exchangers are the places in the system where steam is used to heat a
process or air by indirect contact. Shell and tube exchangers are the usual
design, with steam usually on the shell side. The steam enters as
superheated or saturated and may leave as superheated, saturated, or as
liquid water, depending on the initial steam conditions and the design load
of the exchanger.
Process equipment includes turbines whether used for HVAC equipment, air
compressors, or turbine pumps. Condensate tanks and pumps are major
points for oxygen to enter the condensate system and cause corrosion.
These points should be monitored closely for pH and oxygen ingress and
proper condensate treatment applied.




35

Fuel system
Fuel feed systems play a critical role in the performance of boilers. Their
primary functions include transferring the fuel into the boiler and
distributing the fuel within the boiler to promote uniform and complete
combustion. The type of fuel influences the operational features of a fuel
system
The fuel feed system forms the most significant component of the boiler
system.
1. Feed system for gaseous fuels
Gaseous fuels are relatively easy to transport and handle. Any pressure
difference will cause gas to flow, and most gaseous fuels mix easily with air.
Because on-site storage of gaseous fuel is typically not feasible, boilers must
be connected to a fuel source such as a natural gas pipeline. Flow of gaseous
fuels to a boiler can be precisely controlled using a variety of control
systems. These systems generally include automatic valves that meter gas
flow through a burner and into the boiler based on steam or hot water
demand.
The purpose of the burner is to increase the stability of the flame over a
wide range of flow rates by creating a favourable condition for fuel ignition
and establishing aerodynamic conditions that ensure good mixing between
the primary combustion air and the fuel. Burners are the central elements of
an effective combustion system.
Other elements of their design and application include equipment for fuel
preparation and air-fuel distribution as well as a comprehensive system of
combustion controls. Like gaseous fuels, liquid fuels are also relatively easy
to transport and handle by using pumps and piping networks that link the
boiler to a fuel supply such as a fuel oil storage tank. To promote complete
combustion, liquid fuels must be atomized to allow through mixing with
combustion air. Atomisation by air, steam, or pressure produces tiny
droplets that burn more like gas than liquid. Control of boilers that burns


36

liquid fuels can also be accomplished using a variety of control systems that
meter fuel flow.
2. Feed system for solid fuels
Solid fuels are much more difficult to handle than gaseous and liquid fuels.
Preparing the fuel for combustion is generally necessary and may involve
techniques such as crushing or shredding. Before combustion can occur, the
individual fuels particles must be transported from a storage area to the
boiler. Mechanical devices such as conveyors, augers, hoppers, slide gates,
vibrators, and blowers are often used for this purpose. The method selected
depends primarily on the size of the individual fuels particles and the
properties and characteristics of the fuel.
Stokers are commonly used to feed solid fuel particles such as crushed coal,
TDF, MSW, wood chips, and other forms of biomass into boilers. Mechanical
stokers evolved from the hand-fired boiler era and now include
sophisticated electromechanical components that respond rapidly to
changes in steam demand. The design of these components provides good
turndown and fuel-handling capability. In this context, turndown is defined
as the ratio of maximum fuel flow to minimum fuel flow.
In the case of pulverized coal boilers, which burn very fine particles of coal,
the stoker is not used. Coal in this form can be transported along with the
primary combustion air through pipes that are connected to specially
designed burners.
A burner is defined as a devices or group of devices for the introduction of
fuel and air into a furnace at the required velocities, turbulence, and
concentration to maintain ignition and combustion of fuel with in the
furnace. Burners for gaseous fuels are less complex than those for liquid or
solid fuels because mixing of gas and combustion air is relatively simple
compared to atomizing liquid fuels or dispersing solid fuel particles.
The ability of a burner to mix combustion air with fuel is a measure of its
performance. A good burner mixes well and liberates a maximum amount of
heat from the fuel. The best burners are engineered to liberate the
maximum amount of heat from the fuel and limit the amount of pollutants


37

such as CO, NO
x
, and PM that are released. Burners with these capabilities
re now used routinely in boilers that must comply with mandated emission
limitations.
PIPING AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&ID):
A piping and instrumentation diagram/drawing (P&ID) is a diagram in
the process industry which shows the piping of the process flow
together with the installed equipment and instrumentation.
The purpose of P&IDs is to provide an initial design basis for the boiler.
The P&IDs provides the engineering requirements to identify the
measurements and functions that are to be controlled. It may be used
to define the number of inputs, outputs and list of all the instruments
and functions.
SAMPLE P&ID OF LOW PRESSURE STARTUP SYSTEMS (For reference
only)


38




39

PROCESS LEGEND:
The process legend provides the information needed to interpret and
read the P&ID. Process legends are found at the front of the P&ID. The
legend includes information about piping, instrument and equipment
symbols, abbreviations, unit name, drawing number, revision number,
approvals, and company prefixes. Because symbol and diagram
standardization is not complete, many companies use their own
symbols in unit drawings. Unique and unusual equipment will also
requires a modified symbol value.


40




41

BASICS



42

ABBREVIATION TABLE:
FC Flow Controller LCV Level Control Valve
FI Flow Indicator LRC Level Recording Controller
FS Flow Switch LG Level Gauge
FIC Flow Indicating Controller LR Level Recorder
FCV Flow Control Valve LT Level Transmitter
FRC Flow Recording Controller LS Level Switch
LIC Level Indicating Controller
PC Pressure Controller
PG Pressure Gauge TC Temperature Controller
PI Pressure Indicator TT Temperature Transmitter
PR Pressure Recorder TE Temperature Element
PS Pressure Switch TI Temperature Indicator
PIC Pressure Indicating Controller TR Temperature Recorder
PCV Pressure Control Valve TS Temperature Switch
PRC Pressure Recording Controller
PDI Pressure Differential Indicator
PDR Pressure Differential Recorder
PDS Pressure Differential Switch
PDT Pressure Differential Transmitter
PT Pressure Transmitter
PTD Pressure Transducer


43

EQUIPMENT TABLE:



44

KKS TAGING PROCEDURE:
To planning, setting-up and operating power plants it is absolutely necessary to
use a standardized identification system.
The KRAFTWERK-KENNZEICHEN-SYSTEM(KKS) is such a system.
The engineering of power plants with modern human-engine-communication
needs a common language in all sectors of engineering today, like applications in
civil, mechanical, electrical and control and instrumentation engineering.
Reliability and operational efficiency make more and more higher conditions to the
planning, setting-up and operating of power plants.
Increasing plant-power and a higher degree of automation presuppose a powerful
increase of technical data and information.
IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM FOR POWER PLANTS
Purpose
The power plant identification system is applied to clearly identify plants,
systems, parts and components to their purpose, type and location. The
contents are based on the Identification Systems for Power Plant (KKS)
published by VGB- Technical Association of Large Power Plant Operators.
Requirements to be met by the Identification System KKS
In order to perform the set tasks the identification system must be capable of
satisfying the following requirements:
Determination of all installations and sub-systems,
An adequate number of reserve codes must be available for future
developments in power plant engineering.
The classification of installations and sub-systems must be generally
applicable to all types of power plant; all individual circuits and
arrangements must, however, be clearly identifiable.
Clear identification of all sub-systems.


45

An identification used in a power plant must be non-recurring,
Subdivision with graded details and a fixed meaning for the data
characters.
various areas of application,
Independent identification of various systems must be possible
Ease of recognition ensured by clarity and an acceptable length for the
identification. Plausibility check facility, especially for data processing,
Existing standards, guidelines and recommendations must be taken into
account

Structure and Application of the Power Plant Identification
System
The KKS consists of three types of identification:
The process-related identification identifies installations and equipment
according to their assigned task in the power plant process,
The point of installation identification identifies the points of installation
within an installation unit (e.g. cubicles, consoles, panels),
The location identification identifies the rooms and floors, or other
installation sites, for installations and equipment in building structures.
INSTRUMENTATION IN BOILERS:
A device, such as a photoelectric cell, that receives and responds to a signal or
stimulus. A device, usually electronic, which detects a variable quantity and
measures and converts the measurement into a signal to be recorded elsewhere.
A sensor is a device that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal
which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. For example, a mercury
thermometer converts the measured temperature into expansion and contraction


46

of a liquid which can be read on a calibrated glass tube. A thermocouple converts
temperature to an output voltage which can be read by a voltmeter.
For accuracy, all sensors need to be calibrated against known standards.
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
Attempts of standardized temperature measurement have been reported as early
as 170 AD by Claudius Galenus. The modern scientific field has its origins in the
works by Florentine scientists in the 17th century. Early devices to measure
temperature were called thermo scopes. The first sealed thermometer was
constructed in 1641 by the Grand Duke of Toscani, Ferdinand II. The development
of today's thermometers and temperature scales began in the early 18th century,
when Gabriel Fahrenheit adapted a thermometer using mercury and a scale both
developed by Ole Christensen Rmer. Fahrenheit's scale is still in use, alongside
the Celsius scale and the Kelvin scale.

Thermocouple
A thermocouple is a junction between two different metals that produces a
voltage related to a temperature difference. Thermocouples are a widely used
type of temperature sensor and can also be used to convert heat into electric
power.



47


Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)
Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD), as the name implies, are sensors
used to measure temperature by correlating the resistance of the RTD element
with temperature. Most RTD elements consist of a length of fine coiled wire
wrapped around a ceramic or glass core. The element is usually quite fragile, so
it is often placed inside a sheathed probe to protect it. The RTD element is
made from a pure material whose resistance at various temperatures has been
documented. The material has a predictable change in resistance as the
temperature changes; it is this predictable change that is used to determine
temperature.




48

Thermistor:
A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with
temperature, more so than in standard resistors. The word is a portmanteau of
thermal and resistor. Thermistors are widely used as inrush current limiters,
temperature sensors, self-resetting overcurrent protectors, and self-regulating
heating elements.
Thermistors differ from resistance temperature detectors (RTD) in that the
material used in a thermistor is generally a ceramic or polymer, while RTDs use
pure metals. The temperature response is also different; RTDs are useful over
larger temperature ranges, while thermistors typically achieve a higher
precision within a limited temperature range, typically 90 C to 130 C.


PRESSURE MEASUREMENT:
Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure and
vacuum. Instruments used to measure pressure are called pressure gauges or
vacuum gauges. Pressure gauge was discovered by Otto Von Guericke.
A pressure gauge is used to measure the pressure in a vacuumwhich is further
divided into two subcategories, high and low vacuum (and sometimes ultra-high
vacuum). The applicable pressure range of many of the techniques used to
measure vacuums has an overlap. Hence, by combining several different types of


49

gauge, it is possible to measure system pressure continuously from 10 mbar down
to 1011 mbar.
The SI unit for pressure is the Pascal (Pa), equal to one newton per square meter
.This special name for the unit was added in 1971; before that, pressure in SI was
expressed in units such as N.m-2.
Bourdon tube-type detectors:
The majority of pressure gauges in use have a Bourdon-tube as a measuring
element. (The gauge is named for its inventor, Eugene Bourdon, a French
engineer.) The Bourdon tube is a device that senses pressure and converts the
pressure to displacement. Since the Bourdon-tube displacement is a function of
the pressure applied, it may be mechanically amplified and indicated by a
pointer. Thus, the pointer position indirectly indicates pressure. The Bourdon-
tube gauge is available in various tube shapes: curved or C-shaped, helical, and
spiral. The size, shape, and material of the tube depend on the pressure range
and the type of gauge desired. Low-pressure Bourdon tubes (pressures up to
2000 psi) are often made of phosphor bronze. High-pressure Bourdon tubes
(pressures above 2000 psi) are made of stainless steel or other high-strength
materials. High- pressure Bourdon tubes tend to have more circular cross
sections than their lower-range counterparts, which tend to have oval cross
sections. The
Bourdon tube most commonly used is the C-shaped metal tube that is sealed at
one end and open at the other.



50

Diaphragm
Diaphragm valves are used on shut-off and throttling service for liquids,
slurries and vacuum/gas. The seal is achieved by a flexible membrane, usually
elastomer, and possibly reinforced with a metal part. The membrane is tensed
by the effect of a stem/compressor with lineal movement until contact is
made against the seal of the body. The operating parts of the diaphragm valve
are isolated from the flow. This makes this valve suitable for viscous flows and
also hazardous, abrasive and corrosive flows as its sealing system avoids any
contamination towards or from the environment. Diaphragm valves are
available in a wide variety of metals, solid plastics, plastic, rubber and glass
linings. They are well suited to the handling of multiple chemical applications
both clear fluids as well as slurries. The diaphragm valve has an extended use
for applications at low pressures and slurry fluid where most other kinds of
valves corrode or become obstructed. It is a quick opening valve.
There are two types of diaphragm valves:
Straightway: named also Straight-Thru is only used for on/off services
Weir: The Weir Diaphragm valve can be used for either off/on or throttling
services.


Bellows

A bellows is a device for delivering pressurized air in a controlled quantity to a
controlled location.
Types of industrial bellows:
1. Rectangular section bellow: They are utilized specifically in the electrical
and automobile industry.


51




2.Round section bellow: The round section bellow are used for covering
heavily stressed and movable round machine parts such as shafts, spindles and
lead screws pistons.


3. Profile bellow: Profile bellow is lightweight, accurate and durable that can
be used in a wide range of electrical industries.






52


4. Pipe joint bellow: The pipeline bellow is used in numerous industries that
require movement of water at high pressure in a controlled manner.


5. Industrial rectangular section bellow: Industrial bellows find use in the
protection of gear rods from dirt and dust in all kinds of automobiles. They are
normally used as covers on parts which are critical and need protection from
dust.





53

FLOW MEASUREMENT
Flow measurement is the quantification of bulk fluid movement. Flow can be
measured in a variety of ways. Positive-displacement flow meters accumulate a
fixed volume of fluid and then count the number of times the volume is filled to
measure flow. Other flow measurement methods rely on forces produced by the
flowing stream as it overcomes a known constriction, to indirectly calculate flow.
Flow may be measured by measuring the velocity of fluid over a known area. Both
gas and liquid flow can be measured in volumetric or mass flow rates, such as liters
per second or kilograms per second.

Turbine Meter
In a turbine, the basic concept is that a meter is manufactured with a known
cross sectional area. A rotor is then installed inside the meter with its blades
axial to the product flow. When the product passes the rotor blades, they
impart an angular velocity to the blades and therefore to the rotor. This
angular velocity is directly proportional to the total volumetric flow rate.
Turbine meters are best suited to large, sustained flows as they are susceptible
to start/stop errors as well as errors caused by unsteady flow states.
Magnetic Flow Meter
Measurement of slurries and of corrosive or abrasive or other difficult fluids is
easily made. There is no obstruction to fluid flow and pressure drop is minimal.
The meters are unaffected by viscosity, density, temperature, pressure and
fluid turbulence. Magnetic flow meters utilize the principle of Faradays Law of
Induction; similar principle of an electrical generator. When an electrical
conductor moves at right angle to a magnetic field, a voltage is induced.



54

Orifice Plate
An orifice plate is a plate with a hole through it, placed in the flow; it constricts
the flow and measuring the pressure differential across the constriction gives
the flow rate. It is basically a crude form of Venturi meter, but with higher
energy losses. There are three type of orifice: concentric, eccentric, and
segmental.



Venturi Meter
A Venturi meter constricts the flow in some fashion, and pressure sensors
measure the differential pressure before and within the constriction. This
method is widely used to measure flow rate in the transmission of gas through
pipelines, and has been used since Roman Empire times. The coefficient of
discharge of Venturi meter ranges from 0.93 to 0.97.




55

Dall tube:
The Dall tube is a shortened version of a Venturi meter, with a lower pressure
drop than an orifice plate. As with these flow meters the flow rate in a Dall
tube is determined by measuring the pressure drop caused by restriction in
the conduit. The pressure differential is typically measured using diaphragm
pressure transducers with digital readout. Since these meters have
significantly lower permanent pressure losses than orifice meters, Dall tubes
are widely used for measuring the flow rate of large pipeworks.


Pitot tube:
A Pitot tube is a pressure measuring instrument used to measure fluid flow
velocity by determining the stagnation pressure. Bernoulli's equation is used to
calculate the dynamic pressure and hence fluid velocity. Also see Air flow
meter.




56

LEVEL MEASUREMENT:
Open Tank Level Measurement:
The simplest application is the fluid level in an open tank. If the tank is open
atmosphere, the high-pressure side of the level side will be vented to
atmosphere. In this manner, the level transmitter acts as a simple pressure
transmitter .The level transmitter can be calibrated to output 4 mA when the
tank is at 0% level and 20 mA when the tank is at 100% level.

Closed Tank Level Measurement:
Should the tank be closed and a gas or vapour exists on top of the liquid, the
gas pressure must be compensated for. A change in the gas pressure will cause
a change in transmitter output. Moreover, the pressure exerted by the gas
phase may be so high that the hydrostatic pressure of the liquid column
becomes insignificant. For example, the measured hydrostatic head in a
CANDU boiler may be only three meters (30 kPa) or so, whereas the steam
pressure is typically 5 MPa. Compensation can be achieved by applying the gas
pressure to both the high and low-pressure sides of the level transmitter. This
cover gas pressure is thus used as a back pressure or reference pressure on the
LP side of the DP cell. One can also immediately see the need for the three-
valve manifold to protect the DP cell against these pressures. The different
arrangement of the sensing lines to the DP cell is indicated a typical closed
tank application. The effect of the gas pressure is cancelled and only the
pressure due to the hydrostatic head of the liquid is sensed. When the low-


57

pressure impulse line is connected directly to the gas phase above the liquid
level, it is called a dry leg.

PROCESS CONTROL IN BOILERS:
Instrumentation and controls in a boiler plant encompass an enormous range of
equipment from simple industrial plant to the complex in the large utility station.
The boiler control system is the means by which the balance of energy & mass into
and out of the boiler are achieved. Inputs are fuel, combustion air, atomizing air or
steam &feed water. Of these, fuel is the major energy input. Combustion air is the
major mass input, outputs are steam, flue gas, blow down, radiation & soot
blowing.
TYPES OF PROCESS CONTROL LOOPS
Feedback Control
Feed forward Control
Feed forward-plus-Feedback Control
Ratio Control
Split Range Control
Cascade Control


58


Feedback Control
One of the simplest process control schemes.
A feedback loop measures a process variable and sends the
measurement to a controller for comparison to set point. If the process
variable is not at set point, control action is taken to return the process
variable to set point.
The advantage of this control scheme is that it is simple using single
transmitter.
NOTE: This control scheme does not take into consideration any of the
other variables in the process.


Feedback loop are commonly used in the process control industry.
The advantage of a feedback loop is that directly controls the desired
process variable.
The disadvantage of feedback loops is that the process variable must
leave set point for action to be taken.



59

Feedforward Control
Feedforward loop is a control system that anticipates load disturbances
and controls them before they can impact the process variable.
For feedforward control to work, the user must have a mathematical
understanding of how the manipulated variables will impact the process
variable.

An advantage of feedforward control is that error is prevented, rather
than corrected.
However, it is difficult to account for all possible load disturbances in a
system through feedforward control.
In general, feedforward system should be used in case where the controlled
variable has the potential of being a major load disturbance on the process
variable ultimately being controlled.






60

Feedforward-plus-Feedback Control

Because of the difficulty of accounting for every possible load disturbance in
a feed forward system, this system are often combined with feedback
systems.
Controller with summing functions are used in these combined systems to
total the input from both the feed forward loop and the feedback loop, and
send a unified signal to the final control element









61

Ratio Control
Ratio control is used to ensure that two or more flows are kept at the
same ratio even if the flows are changing

Application:
Blending two or more flows to produce a mixture with specified
composition.
Blending two or more flows to produce a mixture with specified physical
properties
Maintaining correct air and fuel mixture to combustion







62



Cascade Control
Cascade Control uses the output of the primary controller to manipulate the
set point of the secondary controller as if it were the final control element.

1. Why cascade control?

Allow faster secondary controller to handle disturbances in the
secondary loop.
Allow secondary controller to handle non-linear valve and other final
control element problems.
Allow operator to directly control secondary loop during certain modes
of operation (such as startup).

2. Requirements for cascade control:
Secondary loop process dynamics must be at least four times as fast as
primary loop process dynamics.
Secondary loop must have influence over the primary loop.


63

Secondary loop must be measured and controllable.
INSTRUMENT LIST
It is theoretically possible to operate a boiler with manual control. Time is needed
for the boiler to respond to a correction and this lead to over correction with
further upset to the boiler. An automatic controller once properly tuned will make
the proper adjustment quickly to minimise upsets and will control the system
more accurately and reliably. Instrumentation systems are provided for the boiler
to achieve the following:
1. To measure the actual values of different parameters for which the boiler is
designed.
2. Safe working range of the different parameters are maintained.
3. To monitor one or more variables at a time and provide input for automatic
control.
4. In case of operator failure to take remedial action for an upset condition, it
protects the boiler by alarms and trippings.
5. To provide data on operating conditions before failure of the equipment for
analysing the failure.



64


WATER AND STEAM LEVEL INDICATOR

PRESSURE TRANSMITTERS
6. Instrument list consists of all the instruments like Transmitters, Switches,
Gauges/Indicators used at power plant site.


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7. This list contains the various information of instruments i.e. Tag no., service,
type, set points, ranges, make, model no., scope etc. of all instruments.
8. An instrument is device/sensor which is used for measurement.

TYPICAL FORMAT USED FOR INSTRUMENT LIST

INSTRUMENT LIST (For reference only):


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INPUT-OUTPUT LIST
1. The input-output list of boiler contains the list of instruments and equipments
which are interfaced/ controlled from DCS.
2. This list is used for DCS sizing.
3. Two type of signals- Digital and Analog.
4. Isolation valves are on-off valves and two command signals from DCS and two
feedback signals to DCS.
5. Control valves are analog valves and one command signal and one Position
feedback signal.
6. Switches send one digital signal to DCS.
7. Transmitters send one analog signal.














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INPUT/OUTPUT LIST (For reference only):



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PROJECT DETAILS

Student Details
Student Name ADITYA KUMAR AGARWAL
Registration
Number
121705 Section / Roll
No
ELEX/ I-04
Email Address adiagrawal1994@gmail.com Phone No
(M)
+91-8796024891
Project Details
Project Title BOILER PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION
Project Duration 5 WEEKS Date of
reporting
26/05/2014
Organisation Details
Organisation
Name
ALSTOM INDIA LIMITED
Full postal
address with pin
code
Engineering Department, 3rd Floor, IHDP Building, Plot#7,
Sector 127, Noida 201301, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Website address http://www.alstom.com/india
Supervisor Details
Supervisor
Name
Mr. KUNAL KUMAR
Designation Lead Engineer
Full contact
address with pin
code
Engineering Department, 3rd Floor, IHDP Building, Plot#7,
Sector 127, Noida 201301, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Email address kunal.kumar@power.alstom.com Phone No
(M)
+91-9990237510