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Experiment A:

Friction factor,f vs Volumetric flow rate, Qset graph

Pipe 2 has the highest value of friction factor compared to pipe 3 because it has the
smaller inner diameter which is 10mm. So, there will be a greater friction between the wall of
pipe and the fluid influents the flow of fluid. The flow rate of pipe 2 and pipe 3 and increases
with the decrease of friction factor. This means the fluid flows at higher rate with lower
friction factor.

Pressure drop, P vs. Volumetric flow rate, Q graph
Based on the graph that we obtained, the values of flow rate increases exponentially
with the change of pressure drop. Pipe 2 has the highest pressure drop while pipe 3 has the
lowest pressure drop. This is due to the diameter difference from pipe 1 and pipe 3 Since
pipe 2 has the smaller diameter which is 10mm, the pressure drop is greatest while pipe 3
has lowest pressure drop with largest diameter which is 17mm. Pipe 3 has higher pressure
drop than pipe 2 because of the roughness of the inner surface in pipe 3. This roughness
increases the friction of the inner surface to the fluid flows in pipe 3.

Reynolds number vs Qset graph
The Reynolds number increases with the increase of flow rate, Qset. From the equation,
Re=pvD /
Where, Re = Reynolds number
p = density
D = diameter
= viscosity
Reynolds number is directly proportional to the velocity of fluid flow, so the Reynolds number
also related to the flow rate in proportional manner as shown in the graph that we obtained.

Friction Loss vs. P graph
From the graph pipe 2, pipe 3, have the similar trend. When the change of pressure
increases, the friction loss increases. It can be observed that pipe 2 has the lowest friction
loss than pipe 2.
Head loss measured vs. Friction Head loss calculated graph
The head loss measured is directly proportional to the friction head loss calculated.
The ratio of head loss measured to friction head loss calculated is approximate to 1
throughout the graph for pipe 2 and pipe 3 . This means more than one method can be used
to find the value of head loss either by measurement or calculation.

Experiment B
Pressure drop, P vs. volumetric flow rate, Qset for venturi
From the graph, we can conclude that the greater the volumetric flow rate, the higher
the pressure drop.

Graph Qset vs. Qcalc
This graph gives us the relation among of Q
and Q
, where Q
is equivalent to
. As Q
decreases, Q
will decreases.
Experiment C
Friction loss in valves and fittings are being determined.

The flow also loses energy (or pressure) as it goes through fittings, such as valves, elbows,
contractions and expansions. This loss in pressure is often due to that the flow separates
locally as it moves through such fittings. The pressure loss in pipe flows is referred to as
head loss. The head losses associated with fittings such as elbows, tees, couplings, etc. are
referred to as minor losses.
The resulting pressure drop recorded are even less than 1.0 m

, which is even nearly

negligable. Such losses are calculated using

, where K is the loss coefficient that

should be determined experimentally
While conducting both experiments, there are some errors that can be highlighted.
One of these errors is parallax error. This error happens when the eyes are not
perpendicular to the scale reading of measuring cylinder.
There are some leakage occurs in the pipe. This thing will affect our experiment to
get accurate value of flow rate and head loss.
Personal error also included. Pipe V1 is not opened at constant rate manually by our
hand. Time keeper do not alert with the rising of water volume.

In order to increase the efficiency of the experiment conducted, several
recommendations should be implemented. First and foremost, the valve 1 (V1) must be
ensured to be opened slowly and steadily. Avoid from opening the valve abruptly in order to
prevent the phenomenon called water-hammering into a system. Water-hammering usually
will cause damage towards the fittings in the pipeline.
Next, all the pipes that were being utilized in the experiment must be ensured are
connected properly and tightly. This is done in order to avoid leaking of the pipes that might
affect the accuracy of the results obtained such as the flow rate and head loss.
Furthermore, the person who took the time whil e the volume of water i s
being measured must be alert with the increment of the water volume. This is
done to prevent error that might decrease results accuracy. Besi des, there
must be only one time keeper.
In addition, the experi ment shoul d be repeated for several times to get the
average values of the data obtained. Thus, more accurate and reliable results could
be obtained. Moreover, the trap bubbles must be removed first before running the
experiment. Plus, the eyes of the observers must be ensured to be perpendicular to the
meniscus level of the measuring cylinder when taking the readings.


The friction head loss in difference pipe diameter and difference type of tube was
determined from measuring the drop and flow rate. . In Experiment a, the fluid flows at lower
rate with highest friction factor. Pipe 3 has highest friction factor but in between pipes has
smooth roughness, pipe 1 has highest friction factor. In Experiment b, the flow rate of orifice
meter is greater than the flow rate of venturi meter as the pressure drop increases. The
objective of the experiment is achieved. resulting pressure drop recorded are even less than
1.0 m

, which is even nearly negligable. Such losses are calculated using

where K is the loss coefficient that should be determined experimentally