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CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK


SECURITY

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Contents:
Abstract

• Introduction

• Network Security Problems

• Key process Techniques

• Advanced cryptographic technique

 Steganography

• Cryptographic technologies

 Based on layers
 Based on algorithms

• Applications of cryptography

• Application of network security

• Conclusion

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CRYPTOGRAPHY

NETWORK SECURITY

CRYPTOGRAPHY AND preceded by information gathering.


NETWORKSECURITY Movie gangsters “case the joint”;
soldiers “scout the area”. This is also
ABSTRACT
“SECURITY” in this true in the cyber world. Here the “bad
contemporary scenarios has become a guys” are referred to as intruders,
more sensible issue either it may be in eavesdroppers, hackers, hijackers, etc.
the “REAL WORLD” or in the “CYBER The intruders would first have a
WORLD”. In the real world as opposed panoramic view of the victims network
to the cyber world an attack is often and then start digging the holes.

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Today the illicit activities of security breaches and eavesdroppers, the


the hackers are growing by leaps and technological prowess has been
bounds, viz., “THE RECENT ATTACK stupendously developed to defy against
ON THE DNS SERVERS HAS each of the assaults. Our paper covers
CAUSED A LOT OF HULLABALOO the ADVANCED technical combats that
ALL OVER THE WORLD”. However, have been devised all through the way,
fortunately, the antagonists reacted thus giving birth to the notion of
promptly and resurrected the Internet “NETWORK -SECURITY”. Various
world from the brink of prostration. antidotes that are in fact inextricable
Since the inception of with security issues are – Cryptography,
conglomerating Computers with Authentication, Integrity and Non
Networks the consequence of which Repudiation, Key Distribution and
shrunk the communication certification, Access control by
world,hitherto, umpteen ilks of security implementing Firewalls etc.
breaches took their origin. Tersely
quoting some security ditherers – To satiate the flaws in the network
Eavesdropping, Hacking, Hijacking, security more and more advanced
Mapping, Packet Sniffing, 1Spoofing, security notions are being devised day
DoS & DDoS attacks, etc. by day. Our paper covers a wide
Newton’s law says “Every action has got perspective of such arenas where the
an equal but opposite reaction”. So is contemporary cyber world is revolving
the case with this. Nevertheless the around viz.
pay great amounts of lip service to
. Introduction: security but do not want to be bothered
with it when it gets in their way. It’s
Network security deals with the
important to build systems and networks
problems of legitimate messages being
in such a way that the user is not
captured and replayed. Network security
constantly reminded of the security
is the effort to create a secure computing
system. Users who find security policies
platform. The action in question can be
and systems to restrictive will find ways
reduced to operations of access,
around them. It’s important to get their
modification and deletion. Many people

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feed back to understand what can be Cryptography enables you to store


improved, the sorts of risks that are sensitive information or transmit it
deemed unacceptable, and what has been across insecure networks (like the
done to minimize the organizations internet)
exposure to them. Network security So that it cannot be read by anyone
problems can be divided roughly into expect the intended recipient. While
four intertwined areas: cryptography is the science of securing
Secrecy, Authentication, data, cryptanalysts are also called
Nonrepudation, and Integrity control. attackers. Cryptology embraces both

• Secrecy has to do with cryptography and cryptanalysis.

keeping information out of the


hands of unauthorized users.

• Authentication deals with KEY PROCESSTECHNIQUES:


whom you are talking to before
revealing sensitive information
or entering into a business deal.

• Nonrepudation deals with


signatures.

• Integrity control deals


There are three key process techniques.
with long enterprises like
They are:
banking, online networking.
• Symmetric-key encryption
• A symmetric-key encryption
These problems can be handled by using
• Hash functions
cryptography, which provides means and
methods of converting data into
unreadable from, so that valid User can
access Information at the Destination.

Cryptography is the science of Symmetric-key encryption


using mathematics to encrypt and (one key):
decrypt data.

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There is only one key in this private key remains private. Data
encryption. That is private key. This encrypted with the public key can be
key is only used for both encryption decrypted only using the private key.
and decryption. This is also called as Data encrypted with the private key
private-key encryption. In this can be decrypted only using the
method the sender encrypt the data public key. In the below figure, a
through private key and receiver sender has the receiver’s public key
decrypt that data through that key and uses it to encrypt a message, but
only. only the receiver has the related
private key used to decrypt the
message.

Private Key method


Private Key method
Asymmetric-key encryption (two
Public key method
keys):
Hash functions:
There are two keys in this encryption.
An improvement on the public key
They are:
scheme is the addition of a one-way
• Public key
hash function in the process. A one-
• Private key
way hash function takes variable
length input. In this case, a message
Two keys – a public key and a
of any length, even thousands or
private key, which are
millions of bits and produces a fixed-
mathematically related, are used in
length output; say, 160-bits. The
public-key encryption. To contrast it
function ensures that, if the
with symmetric-key encryption,
information is changed in any way
public-key encryption is also some
even by just one bit an entirely
times called public-key encryption.
different output value is produced.
In public key can be passed openly
As long as a secure hash function is
between the parties or published in a
used, there is no way to take
public repository, but the related
someone’s signature from one

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Its goal is to prevent the detection of


documents and attach it to another, secret message.
or to alter a signed message in any Steganography uses techniques to
way. The slightest change in signed communicate information in a way
documents will cause the digital that is a hidden. The most common
signature verification process to fail. use of Steganography is hiding
information image or sound within
the information of another file by
using a stegokey such as password is
additional information to further
conceal a message.
There are many reasons why
Srteganography is used, and is often
used in significant fields. It can be
used to communicate with complete
freedom even under conditions that
ADVANCED are censured or monitored.
CRYPTOGRAPHIC The Steganography is an effective
TECHNIQUE means of hiding data, there by

STEGANOGRAPHY protecting the data from


unauthorized or unwanted viewing.
INTRODUCTION: But stego is simply one of many
Over the past couple of year’s ways to protect confidentiality of
Steganography has been the source data. Digital image steganography is
of a lot of discussion. Steganography growing in use and application. In
is one of the fundamental ways by areas where cryptography and
which data can be kept confidential. strong encryption are being
Steganography hides the existence of outlawed, people are using
a message by transmitting steganography to avoid these policies
information through various carriers. and to send these messages secretly.

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Although steganography is become CRYPTOGRAPHIC


very popular in the near future. TECHNOLOGIES
Based on layers:
WHAT IS STEGANOGRAPHY?
The word steganography comes
• Link layer encryption
from the Greek name “stegnos”
(hidden or secret) and “graphy” • Network layer encryption

(writing or drawing”) and literally • IPSEC, VPN, SKIP

means hidden writing. • Transport layer


Stegenography uses techniques to • SSL, PCT (private
communicate information in a way Communication Technology)
that is hidden. • Application layer
The most common use of • PEM (Privacy Enhanced
Steganography is hiding information Mail)
image or sound within the • PGP (Pretty Good Privacy)
information of another file by using a • SHTTP
stegokey such as password is
additional information to further Cryptographic process can be
conceal a message. implemented at various at various layers
starting from the link layer all the
WHAT IS STEGANOGRAPHY
way up to the application layer. The
USED FOR?
most popular encryption scheme is SSL
Like many security tools,
and it is implemented at the transport
steganography can be used for
layer. If the encryption is done at the
variety of reasons, some good, some
transport layer. If the encryption is done
not so good. Steganography can also
at the transport layer, any application
be used as a way to make a substitute
that is running on the top of the transport
for a one-way hash value. Further,
layer can be protected.
Steganography can be used to tag
notes to online images.
Based on algorithms:

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 Secret-key encryption is practically


algorithms (symmetric impossible.
algorithms)
• DES (Data APPLICATIONS
Encryption OF CRYPTOGRAPHY
Standard)—
56bitkey • Defense service
• Triple DES— • Secure Data Manipulation
112bitkey • E-Commerce
• IDEA • Business Transactions
(International • Internet Payment Systems
Data Encryption • Pass Phrasing Secure
Algorithm)— Internet Comm.
128bitkey
• User Identification
Systems
 Public-key encryption
• Access control
algorithms (Asymmetric
• Computational Security
algorithms)
• Secure access to Corp
Data
Diffie-Hellman (DH): Exponentiation is
• Data Security
easy but computing discrete algorithms
APPLICATIONS OF NETWORK
from the resulting value is practically
SECURITY
impossible.

Computer networks were


• RSA:
primarily used by university
Multiplication of
researchers for sending email,
two large prime
and by corporate employees
numbers is easy
for sharing printers. Under
but factoring the
these conditions, security did
resulting product
not get a lot of attention.

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decide whether what is


proposed will be conflict with
your security policies and
But now, as millions of practices.
ordinary citizens are using Security is
networks for: everybody’s business, and only
with everyone’s cooperation,
• Banking intelligent policy, and
• Shopping consistent practices, will it be

• Filling achievable.

their tax Cryptography

returns protects users by providing


functionality for the encryption
of data and authentication of
other users. This technology
CONCLUSION:
lets the receiver of an
Network security is a very electronic messages verify the
difficult topic. Every one has a sender, ensures that a message
different idea of what can be read only by the
“security” is, and what levels intended person, and assures
of risks are acceptable. The key the recipient that a message has
for building a secure network is not be altered in transmit. The
to define what security means Cryptography Attacking
to your organization. Once that techniques like Cryptanalysis
has been defined, everything and Brute Force Attack. This
that goes on with. The network paper provides information of
can be evaluated with respect Advance Cryptography
to the policy. Projects and Techniques.
systems can then be broken
down into their components,
and it becomes much simpler to
BIBOLOGRAPHY:

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• “Computer Networks ”,
by Andrew S.Tanunbaum
• “Fighting Steganography
detection” by Fabian
Hansmann
• “Network security” by
Andrew S.Tanenbaum
• “Cryptography and
Network Security” by
William Stallings
• “Applied Cryptography”
by Bruce Schneier,
JohnWillley and Sons Inc
• URL:
http://www.woodmann.co
m/fravia/fabian2.html.
• URL:
http://www.jjtc.com/stegd
oc/sec202.html.

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