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Theory and Design


of
Reinforced Concrete
Tanks
1988
By
DIPL. ING. M. HI L AL DR. SC. TECHN.
PROFESSOR, FACULT OF ENGINEERING
CAIRO UNIVERSITY, GIZA.
Published by 1. MARCOU &: Co.
M, Abdel Khalek Sarwat Street - Cairo
'\..'\, ,/
PREFACE
This new revised edition includes the- following additions
1) Detennination of fixing and connecting moments in fixed and
continuous surfaces of revolution. Chapter IV.
2) The application of the data given in the previous article appears in
the design of the Inze tank given in Chapter VI.
3) The design of circular flat plates with overhanging cantilevers and
eventually central holes under different load conditions is shown in
Chapter VI in a numerical example of a circular water tower
300 m3 capacity,
-1) Bunkers and Silos being a natural continuation to tanks and con-
tainers are dealt with in Chapter IX.
5) The 'statistical behavior of pump rooms is similar to that of' under
ground tanks; the discussion of some examples is given in Chapter
X.
6) Temperature stresses in walls of tanks, bunkers, silos and pump
rooms are shown in Chapter XII.
The author hopes that these additions open new scopes in the theory
and design of reinforced concrete tanks and containers and may be of
benefit to both graduate and undergraduate students in the faculties of
engineering and practicing structural engineers.
January 1972. M. BILAL
..
INTRODUCTION
Reinforced concrete and eventually prestressed concrete are generaL1
the most convenient materials for liquid tanks arid containers.
Due. to the internal pressure of the liquid stored in such structures,
the walls and floors are mainly subject to tensile forces, bending
moments and eccentric tension which cause in most cases critical tensile
stresses on the surface of the different elements facing the liquid. If such
elements are designed according to the general principles adopted in
ordinary reinforced concrete, cracks will be developed and the liquid
contained in toe tank has "the possibility to penetrate under its hydros-
tatic pressure through the cracks and cause rusting of the steel reinforce-
ment. Therefore, special provisions must be taken to prevent the forma-
tion of l such cracks. Such provisions generally lead to an increased
thickness of the walls towards their foot and at their other corners. If
the effect of this increase is not considered, it may lead to serious
defects so that a thorough investigation is absolutely essential.
Porous concrete or concretes containing honey combing or badly
executed joints lead to the same possibility of rusting with all its ill
effects to" the structure. Therefore, dense, water-tight concrete is one
of the essential requirements of liquid tanksr and containers, the
necessary provisions required in the careful design of the mix and in
the execution of the structure must be taken.
The protection of the finished concrete structure by convenient
plastering, painting or casing as well as its thorough curing must be
carefully studied.
The previous investigation gives some points showing that liquid
containers are delicate structures and need, due to their intensive use in
structural engineering, special care and knowledge in the design, execu-
tion and protection.
The present work is concerned with the theory and design of liquid
tanks and containers giving the necessary provisions aiming to satisfy
the final goal of structural engineering by designing safely, economically
and efficiently. It is designed to adapt the teaching requirements in our
universities and higher schools for undergraduate and advanced studies.
It gives the practicing designer a simple, scientific and basic reference
not only in liquid containers but also in many other fields such as sur-
faces of revolution, high towers, circular beams, rectangular and cicular
flat plates, deep beams, beams on elastic foundation, pyramid roofs, etc.,
as they are needed in design of tanks and containers. The statistical
behavior of bunkers and silos is similar to that of tanks; for this reason, it
has been decided to show their design in a separate chapter of this
edition.
11
In preparing this book, it was taken for Rr;;nted that the reader
has a thorough knowledge of the strength of materials and fundamentals
of reinforced concrete that is usuailfy covered by our faculties of
engineering. It lays thereon the foundation of a thorough understanding
of the basic principles of reinforced concrete and eventually prestressed
concrete tanks presented and developed in a simple systematic clear
manner.
One of the main aims of this book is to show that careful scientific
. designs based on sound theoretical basis do not need neceassarily com-
plicated calculations and, in most cases an attempt has been made to
simplify complicated derivations as much as possible and to give simple
practical relations carefully derived and easy to remember .for other-
wise complicated problems. In complicated cases. for which solutions
could not be derived without going beyond the limit of the usual standard
in structural engineering studies or in cases which need tedious or
lengthy calcutions, the final results only were given and where possible
simplified by design tables and curves..
Using these methods of simplifying the presentation, the author was .
able to discuss a big number of problems in a detailed manner facing and
proposing solutions for the defferent difficulties that may arise in the
'.
design.
In this manner, a complete treatment of the design fundamentals is
given and fully discussed and illustrated with numerical examples and f:111
constructional details showing the engineer how to attack structural
problems with confidence,
The book includes the followin; '. main chapters
Chapter I gives a short account on the production of dense. water-
tight concrete.
Chapter II deals with the design of sections under different kinds of
stresses. The effect of shrinkage on symmetrical sections is also included.
In order to have sufficient safety against cracking, the final stresses in
the different elements are generally low, so that the elastic theory which
is taken as a basis for the design is justified.
The design of circular tanks with sliding, hinged, fixed and con-
tinuous base are shown in Chapter III. In this chapter, the theory of
Lame for thick cylinders and the theory of Reissner for determining
the internal forces in circular tank walls fixed at the base and sbject to
hydrostatic pressure are given. The design of such tanks can be made
by a very quick and simple manner if the simplified methods proposed
by the author are used. The tables published by the American Portland
Cemerr' Assoctation for circular tanks and circular plates are also in-
cluded.
iii
..
Chapter IV is devoted to the roofs and floors of circular tanks
It includes the membrane theory of thin s'tlrfaces of revolution'and the
internal forces in circular flat plates.
Prestressed concrete may give a convenient economic solution for
big circular tanks;for this purpose, the fundamentals of circumferential,
longitudinal and dome prestressing as may be used for liquid containers
are given in Chapter V.
In order to show the application of the theories of circular tanks,
circular plates domes and cones, three detailed examples are illustrated
in Chapter VI. The first example shows the design of a paste container
and the other two show different types of water towers.
Chapter VII gives a thorough investigation of rectangular tanks
calculated according. to the approximate strip method and according to
the methematical theory of flat plates, for which purpose, the internal
forces in flat rectangular plates supported on three and tour sides subject
to uniform and triangular loads as determined by Czerny for different
conditions at the supports, are given.
Tanks directly built on the ground are dealt with in Chapter vp:1I.
The theory of beams on elastic foundations and its application to some
tank problems are shown in two numerical examples.
The design of bunkers and silos according to the classic theories and
the new researches is dealt with in Chapter IX.
The behavior of pump stations is similar to empty underground
tanks. Some examples are shown in Chapter X.
Some complementary designs, required for tank problems, showing
stress distribution, internal forces and design of deep beams, pyramid
roofs and temperature stresses in walls are given in Chapter XI.
v
CONTENTS
Pille
1. PRODUCTION OF WATER-TIGHT CONCRETE
1.1. Composfton, Mixing and Cmpaction.
1.2. Admixures 2
1.3. Curing
3
1.4. Surface Treatment. Paints and Casings. 3
IL DESIGN OF SECTIONS -i
II.I. Notations -i
II.2. Requirements and. Allowable Stresses 6
II.3. Sections Subject to Axial Tension 7
II.4. Sections Subject to Simple Bending 12
II.5. Sections Subject to Eccentric Tension
or Compression 13
r
III. DESIGN OF CmCULAR TANKS 17
IIU. Fundamental Types of Joints of Walls 17
Ut2. Design of Walls with Sliding:Base' 19
III.3. Theory of Thick Cylinders 23
"
III.4. Tank Walls Fixed to Floor : 28
I1I,5. Tank Walls Continuous with Roof or Floor 53
IV. ROOFS AND FLOORS OF CIRCULAR. TANKS 65
IV.1. Introduction 65
IV.2. Internal Forces in Circular Flat Plates 69
IV.3. Membrane Forces in Surfaces of Re"olution 86
V. PRESTRESSED CIRCULAR TANKS 97
v.i. Introduction 97
V.2. Circumferential Prestressing 99
V.3. Vertical Prestressing 102
V.4. Dome Prestressing 105
V.5. Example 1015
VI. EXAMPLES OF CmCULAR TANKS 115
VI.l. Paste Container 115
VI,2. An INZE Water Tank: of Capacity 850 m
3
128
VI.3. Water Tower 300 m3 Capacity 157
Page
..,tI. DESIGN OF RECTANGULAR TANKS
177
VII.l. Deep Tanks Resisting "Hydrostatic Pressure
Horizontally
177
VII.2. Walls Resisting Hydrostatic Pressure in Vertical
Direction 186
VII. 3. Walls and Floors Resisting Hydrostatic Pressure
in Two Directions 193
VIlA. Counterlorted Walls 253
VIII. TANKS DIRWTLY BUILT ON THE GROUND 265
vnu. Tanks on Fill or Soft Weak Soils 265
VnI.2. Tanks on Rigid Foundation 26B
VIlI.3. Tanks on Compressible Soils 269
IX. BUNKERS AND SILOS 287
IX.I. Definitions 287
IX'.2. Layout of 8ilo-Cella 288
IX.3. Determination of Pressure Intensmes According
to Classic Theory 290
IXA. Pressure Intensities According to German
Specifications 294
IX.5. illustrative Example 300
IX.6. Design of Walls and Floors 302
IX.7. Foundations 307
IX.8. Constructional Details 311
IX.9. Appendix: Circular Cement Silos 312
X. PUMP STATIONS 317
X.I. Pump Station for Residue Channel 317
X.2. Settling Tank of Steel Filing 319
X.3. Main Pump Station 319
XI. COMPLEMENTARY DESIGNS ~
321 XI.1. Wails Acting as Deep Beams
XI.2. Design of Pyramid Roofs 337
348 J:CI.3. Temperature Stresses in Walls
XII. APPENDIX 31i3
Tables of Trigonometric and Hyperbolic Functions
1
1. PRODUCTION OF WATER-TIGHT CONCRETE
Dense concrete, free from cracks or honey combing is the main
requiIement for water-tightness. Porous concrete having cracks on the
liquid sia.e allow the liquid in the tank, under its hydrostatic pres-
sure penetrate through the ana. cause rusting of the steel
reinfQrcemen-c leading to all its serious effects on the structure.
Uense water-tight concrete can be achieved CRreful selection
of aggregates, suitable granular composition, use of low water cement
ratio, sufficient and thorough mixing, compaction and

curing.
I/e give, in the rollowing, a short accoune about the main fac-
.,
tors the density and water-tightness of concrete.
1.1. <.iOMPOSlorION. MIXING AND <.iOMPACTION
Dense concrete can be produced if the voids are reduced to a
'.. ,:
minimum, such a provision can be attained through the choice. of a
convenient mix composed of fine aggregates ( smaller than 5 mms), me-
dium aggregates ( between 5 mms and 10 !!DDS ) and coarse aggregates
( over 10 mms ). The maximum grain size is to be according to the
thickness of the element in which it is used and preferably not more
than 30 mms in reinforced concrete water structures.
In normal cases, the cement content in the mix is generally 350
kg. per cubic meter finished concrete, in small tankS and in casElS of
low stresses, the cement dose may be reduced to 300 kgs/m
3
Richer
doses with a maximum of 400 kgs/m
3
may be used for big under-gXound
tanks in wet medium. The Use of hi3b. ceaean doses in dry weather under
2
, ..... ..
normal ccnditions is not recommended because the shrinkaGe tensile
stresses causing cracks in the concrete increase with the increase of
the
It is to use the least possible amount of mixing
water giving 500d plastic concrete. The water-cement ratio to be
cified depends on the method of - by hand or by mechanical
vibration - and on the nature of the concrete constituents, in this
respect figures based on a slump test are recommended. Excess of mi-
xing water is to be avoided as it leads to porous concrete due to the
evaporation of the sl.lI'plus water not needed for the chemical action,
and increases the strains.
In big tanks, the use of mechanical mixers with automatic water
control is essential.
To produce dense compactiou is necessary as it
compensates for the POSSible gaps in the granulometric of
the The use of surr-ace and immersion vibrators gives sa-
tisfactory results.
1.2 AD:,;IXTURES
r. Some admixures have a mechanical effect on concrete While others
nave a chemical effect. Admixures having a mechanical lubricating ef-
fect anczease the workability of concrete mixes, thus allowing a re-
J..n the water wh1Ch 1n turn resuits in an increase in
the and water-tightness of concrete (e.g. baraplast and
I}f
airclltrainillg asents ) .n.dmixures having chemical effects on the con-
crete are to be used only when tests prove that they have no ill
on the concrete or the steei throughout their lifetime.
Other ad.'lIixures help to seal the pores in the concrete, their
is to be considered only as an addition to the water - tight-
ness attaineu by the above steps and not any as a
replace::Ient.
3
I.3. CURL'IG
Concrete undergoes a VOlume change during hardening, itshrin1t.s
in ory and swells under Shrinkage causes stres-
ses in the concrete. If such stresses are developed and act on rresn
concrete of low streng"th, they cause shrinkage cracks. Itis absoLu-
velJ essential to prevent such stresses trom being developed until
the concrete has gained sufficient strength to resist them. This can
be done by intensive curing of fresh concrete ( keeping it continous-
ly wet ) starting immediately after the rinal setting of the concrete
and for a minimum period of 15 days.
1.4. SURFACE TREATMENT. PAINTS AND CASINGS
The most effective surface treatment is cement mortar plaster
composed of,GOO to 650 kgs cement per cubic meter sand and applied by
the cement gun. The thickness maybe chosen 1.5 to 2.0 cns , It is
recommended to apply such a plaster on side facing the liquid after
filling the tank with water for 7 days. The surface should be thorou-
ghly cleaned by wire brushes before the application af the cement gun.
In this manner, the preliminary cracks which may appear after the
first filling of the tank will be sealed by the plaster. Moreover,the
plaster will not be subject to a big part of the plastic strains due
to water pressure.
Paints e.g. Darafluate, baranormal, paints etc)
may also be used either directly on the concrete surface or on the
cement plaster. The use of special paints whose Object is to close
the surface pores ( such as glass paints, plastic paints, watertignt
casings, lining With sheets - e.g. stainless steel or water
tight tiling) may be of advantage.
Any material for water-tightness either as admixure or surface
treatment must not be used unless it is proved by experiments to be
suitable for the purpose.
- 4
II. J) E S I G N 0 Ii' SEC T IONS
II.1. NOTATIONS
\1 = vompressive strength of stanC1ard concrete cube after
c28
28 days.
crt = Axial tensile strength of concrete.
atb = Bending strength of concrete.
r( = Allowable axial compressive stress of concrete.
"'co
= Eventually.er = allowable compressive bending stress a
cb c
of concrete.
= Tensile stress on concrete.
-, = Max. tensile concrete stress in bending.
ers = Allowable stress in steel.
N = Normal force acting on a section.
T =Teusile force acting on a section.
A = Area of a section ( general ).
=
Area of concrete section
=
Area of steel reinforcement.
Modulus of elasticity -( general ).
=
~ o u u s of elasticity of concrete.
=
=
Modulus of elasticity of steel.
n
= E
s
/ E
c
=modular ratio.
e:
=
Strain ( general ).
=
Strain of concrete.
=
Strain of steel.
= Strain due to shrinkage of concrete.
=
Strain due to creep of concrete
5
b = Breadth of a rectangular section.
t = Total depth of a section.
d = Theoretical depth of a section =distance between center of
gravity of tension steel and outside fiber of zone.
= As / A =Ratio of tension steel in a section
c
= As / b t in case of axial forcea acting on a rectangular
section.
= As / b d in case of bending moments acting on a rectangular
section.
Yo = Distance of c.g. axis from putside fiber in tension zone.
=
A + n As = virtual area of a reini'orced concrete section.--
c
=
Section modulus, for a rectangular section Z =b til-/- 6
Zv = Section modulus of the virtual section.
I =Moment of inertia of a section, for a rectangular section

Iv = Moment of inertia of the virtual s6ction.
M = Bending moment acting on asection.
M
s
= Bending moment about tension steel = N. e
s
1I1
f
= Fixing mome nt
e = M/ N = eccentricity of normal force N trom c.g. axis.
e = eccentricity of normal force Nfrom tension steel.
s
k
l
= Coefficient for determining the theoretical depth d of a rein-
forced concrete section subject to bending moment
d =Ic
l
y'M / b or eccentric forces d =k
l
VMs / b
k
2
=Coefficient for determining the of the tension steel
As in a reinforced concrete section subject to bending moment
M
s N
As =M/ d or eccentric forces As = +-
- as
( +) for eccentric tension and ( -) for eccentric com -
pression.
0:
= / As = ratio of compression steel to steel.
11.2. REQUIRE1.iENTS AND AJU)WAELE STRESSES
Sections of containers must be so designed that no cracks
in concrete are allowed in the fibers facing the liquid, because if
such cracks are allowed, the liquid in the container will penetrate
through these cracks & cause rusting of the steel reinforcement which
must be prevented all possible means.
In order to satisfy this requirement, the concrete dimensions
must be chosen so that the tensile stresses in concrete- if they take
place on the liquid side - are smaller than its strensth.
But as the tensile strength of concrete cannot be garanteed and
because the above mentioned provision does not include aDY factor of
safety for the tensile strength of the tension steel rein-
forcement must be designed to carry all the tensile stresses i. e.
the concrete in tension is neglected - Stage II -
'.
The axial tensile strength of concrete. at may be assumed a
factor of the prism strength according to the relation :
0'-t =0.7 to 1 Vo'cp
..
The building Research Institute in Egypt gives for at the fol-
lowing relation :
The tensile bending strength of concrete, is double as

.. ..
much as its tensile strength 0t i.e. 0tb =20
t
=1.4
to
2io'cp
The
average value to be used in the design is generaJ.ly not bigger than
3/4 this value.
0tb =1.0 to 1.51/
a
cp
The code of practice for the use of reinforced concrete in
buildings gives
t1 In structures where no cracks in tension are allowed I the per-
missible tensile stress of concrete maybe
- -
7
O't = O'CO/4 for axial tension and C1'tb = for 'tension in bendinr;".
For normal water structures, the values of the design stresses in con-
crete and steel can accordingly be
Values of & c1
t b
recommended for design purposes are given in tilfl
-following table
Values of O't & G
tb
for different concrete mixes
cement cube tensile stress of
Case of Design "dose strength
concrete kJ:!:/cm
2
:l:l:g/1ll
3
kg/crrl
Axial...tension Bendillg
at
ct
tb
Shrinkage is not taken
'00
160 10 15
I
into consideration 350 200 12
l
400 250 15 20
-
Shrinkage"is taken 300 160 14 18
!
into consideration 350 200 16 20
,
-
400 250 20 25
The allowable stresses in steel subject to tensile stresses can
be chosen as follows I
For normal mild steel if
=
1400 kg/cm
2
s
For deformed high grade steel a
=
2000 kg/cm
3
s
For deformed cold twisted steel
o's =
2200 lcg/cm
2
On condition that the cube strength
2
of concrete CT
c28
>200 kg/cm
2
In cased'C28.("200 kg/cm
2
o's = 1200 kg!cm
11.3 SECTIOtffi SUBJECT TO AXIAL TENSION
11.3.1.StabilityDesign
The steel alone must be su:fi'icient to resist all the tensile
forceT acting on the section
Le. As = T/a
s
(1)
.8
II.,3.2. Safety Against Cracking
The tensile stress in concrete 0t must be smaller than its
tensile strength 0t
(2)
A =.The area of tbe required concrete section
c
As = Area of steel rein:forcement determined from
equation (1)
n = Modular ratio = 10 ( no cracks in concrete
Stage I )
11.3.3. Effect of Shrinkage
-0- -c-
i rl
i I
I
I
I'
\
I .
t ~
I

i
l II
i I:J
ts+4D.t/Ec
1r ...1 !
1
I
1
Fig. II-l
The effect of shrinlrege in a s;ylIletrically reinforced eleIOOnt
can be determined as follows : ( Fig. 11.1 )
Figure (a) represents a s;ylIletrically reinforced concrete block
Of unit lengtb. If tbe bars are left out as in figw:oe (b); shrinkage
will sborten tbe concrete block a distance The presence of =E
Sb
tbe steel bars prevents some of tbe sbortening of tbe concrete and
';;be block sbortens s<E
s b
only; Le. the steel shortens a distance
E
s
and accordingly is subject to compressive stresses Os ,while the
concrete will elongate a distance =e::
s h
- e:: and accordingly willbe
s
sUbject to tensile stresses crt
The element being not subject to any external i'orces, the sum
of: tbe stresses on tbe secticn must be equal to zero.
The stresses insteel &. concrete can be calculated in tbe
following canner :
9
Strain due to shrinkage
= Est
Final strain insteel
=Eo
c
= cI;, / E
s
crt
Final strain in concrete :;
= E
c
E h - -
s E
c
Both materials are subject to the same final strain E =E
s c
or
or
As no external forces act on the element. then
(4)
Equations (3) & (4) give
A - (E
Sh
E
s
- n 0t ) As =0
c
'E
sh
E As
s
or
=
tension (5a)
A
c
+ n As
G<;.uation (4) gives
c
i.e.
=t
A
Os A'
s
A.
,.,.
E
sh
E
s c
=
compression (5b)
'<s
A. + n As
c
I'n this manner. the tensile stress in concrete due to a tensile
force T and shrinkage i.'3 given by :
T + E As E
sh s
=
(6)
A + n A$
c
in which
=
Strain due to shrinkage = 0.0002 to 0.0003 ( 0.2 to 0.3 mm/m) E
Sh
.,
E
=
Modulus of elasticity of steeL = 2100 t/c:r-....
s
n
=
liodular ratio in stage I = 10
The area of steel As and the thickness t of a rectangular section
of breadth b =1 m. can be determined as follows :
-v
10
A ~ =T'IG and A = b t =100 t
s c
Introducing these values in equation (6), we get :
T +sh ED T/O
S
~ h E
s
+ C1 - n at
=
or t = -- 'J'
100 t + n T/o
s
100 as at
Assuming further tbat
.eh = 0.00025
then
t in ems :for T in tons/m
For this thickness, the area of steel can be given as :
T
for Os = 1.4 t/cm
2
we get
= 7
s
A =0.9 t
(8)
~
As in cm
2
for tin ems i.e. J1 = 0.9 % of section
Example 1
To illustrate the- effect of shrinkage assume :
T ::: 40 tim, = 0.00025 E = 2100 t/cm
2
n :: 10 b =100 cm E
Sh s
& Os ::: 1400 kg/cm
2
then
the 'thickness t = 0.8 T
=
0.8 x 40 = 32 cas
2
reinforcement
As =
0.9 t :: 0.9 x 32
=
28.8 cm or
2
As =
T/d
=
40/1.4-
=
28.5 cm
s
chosen 14 d:> 16 mm/m ( As =28
cm
2
)
ep
7 16 mm/m on each side
T + E
Sh
E As
s 4-0000 + 0.00025 x 2100000 x 28
and crt
=
::
A
c
~ n As
100 x 32 + 10 x 28
1./0000 + 14700 5 l ~ 7
= =
:: 15.? kg/cm
2
tension!<16 kg/cm
2
3480 )480
This example shows that the efiect of shrinkage on the tensile stres-
ses of concrete is about 3?% of the effect of the direct tensile force
T.
11
Taking the effect of shrinkage into consideration, itis possible to
prove that the concrete tensile stress at and respectively the possi-
bility of cracking increases with decreasing steel stress as follows:
T + E
s h
E
S
As
It has been proved that
O't
= but As = T/a
s
A
C
+ n As
Os + E
s h
:E
s
then T
at
=
A
c
Os +
nT
Assuming for exampLe T = 40 tim then t = 0.8 x 40 = 32 cms and
.A. = 100 :x: 32 = 3200 cm
2
wi th sh = 0.00025 & E = 2100 t/cm
2
c s
we get
Os + 0.00025 x 2100000 40 d t 21000
s
C
t
=-=---------- x 40000
=
3200 O's + 10 x 40000 . 3.2 d + 400
s
Taking O's =700 to 00 kg/cm
2
the corresponding O't will be as
follovlS :"
Os
700 800 I 1000 11200 1400 1600 1800 2000 co kg/cm
2
O't
18.6
17.9117.0 1
16
. 3 15.6 15.4 15.1 14.8 13.33kg/cIf]
N.B. for o's = CO As =0 i.e. plain concrete wall.
This means that if the steel stress is reduced from 1400 to 700 kg/cm
2,
the concrete tensile stress is increased from 15.6 to 18.6 ~ m
Which is about 20 %increase.
From the preVious investigation, one can see that the lower the
allowable stress in steel, the bicger the amount of the reinforcement
and the sooner the concrete Will crack. From this point of view it is
desirable to use higher allowable steel stress, and it is recommended
to choose as ) 1400 kg/cm
2
The use of lower stael stress d in order to reduce the tensile
s
strains in concrete has now no meaaing so long as the section is de-
signed such that at -< O't
12
II .4. SECTIONS SUBJECT TO SIMPLE BENDING
If the tension side of the section is not facing the liquid,
the section is designed as ordiJ:lary reillforced concrete without a:t:JY
special precautions. If the tension is on the liquid side, it must
have :
a) Adequate resistance against cracking and
b) Adequate strength.
In order to satisfy condition (a) the section may be designed
as plain concrete with the stress a
t b
=M/Z
I
In case of rectangular sections Z =b t
2
/ 6 Be
tb
=
6 M/ b t
2
For normal conditions
O'tb
=
18 kg/cm
2
& b
=
1 m, thus,
(9) t in ems for M in kgm
In order to satisfy condition (b) proceed according to normal princi-
"
ples of reinforced concrete design as follows :
For the value of t determined according to equation (9),
calculate the value of k
l
from the relation
d =k
l
l ~ where d =t - 2.5 to 4 ems.
For this value of ~ and the corresponding stress in steel (e.g.
0a =1400 kg/cm
2
& ex =0 ), determine ~ then
The tension steel As can however be taken as a factor of the concrete
section determined according to equation (9) as follows, :
/---
or
'rhe tension steel :
As = 11 / ~ d where ~ ~ 1300 kg/cm
2
for er =1400 kg/cm
2
t=V
rJ
/ 3
or
s
Asswning further that d =0.9 t we get
Values of k
l
and k
2
fer different 0c O's and a are given ill
text-books ot reinforced concrete design.,
13
2

; t x 100
As
=
- = 0.26 t
1300 i 0.9 t
therefore
or
(10)
Exam:01e 2: Simple Bendinflj
Rectangular section to M=6000 kgm with tension on
liquid side. Determine t and As. AssUIIle b = 1 m,'0tb = 18 k.fS/cm
2
2
and Os = 1400 ks/cm
Solution
For safety against cracking ( a ) too depth of the
section t isfirst to be determined according to equation ( 9 )
thus, t =VfJ / 3 =V6000 / 3 = .45 ems
Having determined the thickness t, the steel reinforcement can be cal-
culated to satisfy condition b (adequate strength) according to stage
II as followS t
t = 45 cms then d = 41 ems and
41
= k
1
i 6000 i.e.

0.53
for Cf =1400 kg/cm
2
, . n =15 , a =0
we get
s
er =31.5 kg/cm
2
& =1282 kg/cm
2
80 that
c
6000 =11.4 cm
2
chosen 6 q> 16 mm/m
1282 x 0.41
According to equation (10) t
As = 0.26 x 45 =11.7 cm
2
chosen 6 q> 16 mm{m
II-5. SECTIONS SUBJECT TO ECCENTRIC TENSION OR COI.fi'RESSION
If the resultant stress on the liquid side is compression, the
section is to be designed as ordinary reinforced concrete. But ifthe
resultant stress on the liquid side is tension, the section must have
(a) adequate resistance to cracking and (b) adequate
To satisfy condition (a), the section may be designed as plain
14
concrete such that I
!
z
For rectangular sections
.
!
.A.
(11)
6 l! +
(12)
i;""?-
As a good approximation take
t = YJi"1"3 . 1.5 to 2.5 cms (13)
t in cms Min kgm
Positive sign for eccentric tension and negative sign tor eccentric
compression. The amount of increa.se or decrease depends. on theJClagni-
tude of N inproportion to M.
To satisfy condition (b) calculate the area of steel reinfor-
cement required the section as an ordinary reinforced concrete
'.
sectionwith breadth b = 1 mand depth d = t - 2.5 to 4 cms.
Example 3: Eccentric Tension
Rectangular section subject to M=6000 kgm N=8000 kgs
(tension) with the tensile stresses on liquid side. determine t and
Assume b = 18 \tg/cm and =1 m, CJ
t b
2
=
To condition (a) safety against cracking
t = tiM / 3 + 2 cms
,
=V 6000 / 3 + 2 =47 ems
Check of the tensile stress in concrete
6 M N 6 % 6000 8000 2
=-=--:2 + - = :::2 +
= 16.3 + 1.7 18 kg/em
<1
tb
b t b t 4r 100 x 47
To satisfy condition (b) adequate strength:
e = ! = QQQ. =.0.75 m.
N 8000
15
e = e 1 * 0.04 :a 0.75 - 0.235 + 0.04 :a 0.555 m < e
c
2
d
=
or 43 =. 1t
1
'; 11'1'10 i.e. k
1
=0.645

For C1 = 1400 kg/cm.
2
, :a 0 a11d n= 15 ...e get I
s
C1 =
24 a11d 1300 lcg/cm.
2
so that
c

!of
!.. = _.--;11:...;11..;.11;;.0__ 8000
= --.JL.,.. + + -- =7.95 + 5.7 =13.65 cm2

O's 1300 Jr: 0.43 1400
7 mm./m
Example 4: Eccentric Compression
Same section subject to M =6000 lcgm and N = 8000 kg ( )
To satisfy condition (a) : safety against cracking
t =y'M / 3 - 2.0 cms =-y'6000 / 3 - 2 = 45.0 - 2 = 43 ems
Check of teWli1a stress in concrete
_ 6 x 6000 8000
0'
tb - 2 = 19.5 - 1.86
(43) 100 x 43
To satisfy condition (b) : adequate strength
e =?:! =. 6000 = 0.75 ems.
N 8000
a + ! 0.04
=
0.75 + 0.215 0.04
=
0.925 m >e
as = -
2
M N e 8000 :It 0.925 7400 kg.m
>M
= = =
s s
d
=

or 39 = k
1
f 7400
i.e. = 0.455
For
O's
1400 kg/cm
2
(l = 0 and n = 15 ...e get
=
38 kg/cm
2
and k
2
=
1264 kgjcm
2
so that
O'e
M . 2
s 7400
=--.
QQQ = 15 - 5.7 =9.3 em
As
= -
1264 x 0.39 14-00
as ? SJ 13 mm/zg.
It is however recommended to begin .t.he choic.e of the
thickness satisfying condition (a) (Stage I) and then to determine the.
'16
steel reinforcements satiSfying condition (b) (Stage II) as in pre -
vious examples.
The effect of the steel reinforcements on the value of crt may
be te.ken into consideration as can be seen from the following example:
Example 5: (Fig. 11.2)
Assume that inexample 3 given before for case of eccentric
tension, the max. thiCKness available is 44 cms only, then:
t = 44 cms e =0.75 me e =0.75 - 0.22 + 0.04 =0.57 m <e
s
M
=
8000 x 0.57 =4560 kgm (M
s
rzr:
d or 40
= kl"V Me
I
= V
4
5
60 i.e.
=0.593

For er
6 =
1400 kg/cm
2
a: =0
and
n =15 we get
O'c =
27.5 kg/cm
2
and
1;:2
=
1294 kg/cm
2
so that
"
4560
+ QQQ =8.8 + 5.7 =14.5 cm
2
8 'cp 16 mm/m
1294 % 0.4 1400
2
i.e. actual As =16 cm
Check of max. tensile stress in concrete O'tb
A..v =A
c
+ n As
2
=100 % 44 + 10 % 16 :: 4560 cm
2
=100% 44 + 10 % 16 % 4 / 4560
2
Fig. II-2
=21.37 cms
3
Iv =100 % 44 + 4400
2
%-0.63 + 10 % 16 x 17.3r2 =743021
12
743021
21.37
\
N M
8000
6000 % 1000
O'tb
=- +-
=
+ = 1.76 + 17.24
A
v
Zv
4560
34774
=' 19 kg/cm
2
17
III. DES I G N 0 pel R C U L ART A N K S
IILl FUNDAMENTAL TYPES OP JOINTS OP WA.LI.S
111.1.1. Introduction
In this section, our will 'be limited to circular li-
quid containers, other forms will be dealt with later.
The structural behavior of circular cylinderical tank walls,
to the action of hydrostatic pressure varies according to the
type of joint between wall and other elements (base and roof if any).
There are three ma.i..u. types of : free (or sliding), fixed and
hinged. case inpractice can be analysed by combination of these
cases.
111.1.2. Free Joint (Sliding Joint) ( Fig. III.l )
No restraint for motion of wall due to liquid pressure.
Sliding base Free top liquid pressure &
elastic line
Fig. III-l
For this type of joint the elastic line of the wall is a straight
line and the wall resists the liquid pressure by ring action.( i.e.
by horizontal strips only). 3ith respect to base, no indeterminate
stresses are created.
11:5 cement
mortar
t---:H .. I
"18
To ensure water tightness in the joint a copper plate may be pla-
ced to join the wall and floor, neoprene plates may also be used.
III.l.';. Fixed Joint (continuous Joint)
I
I
I
I
I
I
1
.d
,(

.!:?l

I. wH ..I
Continuous bose
Continuous top Liquid pressure &
elastic line
Fig. 1II-2
In this case, nO allowance for motion or rotation is allo-
'.
wed for wall base (or top). Wall will carry liqUid pressure partly
by rin!) and partly by cantilaver action (combined resistance by both
.vertic82 and horizontal strips). There is a connecting between
wall .and base. To obtain the required fixation, vertical reinforce-
ment' extends across the joint as ShOWIl. Good bond qualities are ob-
tained by the following procedure :
After the concrete is placed and has stiffened
ly but is not thoroughly hardened - about 6 hours - clean the joint
surface with a pressure water jet. Then cover the joint and keep it
continuously wet. Just before new concrete is placed, flush the old
surface with 1 : 2 portland cement mortar. Vibrate the new concrete
and keep it moist for several days.
It may sometimes be desirable to avoid transmitting moment
between wall and base ; in such cases ;;'i;: use' a hinged joint which al-
lows for rotation as sholvn in (a) and (b).
19
I
, I
,
I
I
\
I
\ ,
Ib)
te ) r wH ,
Lead plate Rotating base
Liquid pressure&
elastic line,
Fig. II1-3
Awall rigidly connected to the may however be conside-
red hinged ifthe soil:underneath is liable to rotate as shown in
case c.
III. 2 DESIGN OF NALIB WITH SLIDING BASE ( FiS. III.4 )
Liquid pressure Px at any depth x is given by :
=
w.x and =wH in which
Px
P
max
3
w
=
weight of liquid / m
For a with sliding base, the full water pressure will be
resisted horizontally by ring action, thus:
or (14)
Ifthe thickness of the wall t is small in
proportion to the radius R, the ring tension
may be assumed as uniformly distributed over
T
x
the
H
cross-section which can be designed as sho\1TI in
1I.2, i.e.
T
x
=p R = w x R
x
As
= T /
Os
kg/cm
2
For O's =
1400
:sh =
0.00025
at
E
s
at
=
=
T
max
=.. :t R'
T + (sh,E
s
As
=
A
c
+ n As
16
2100 t/cm.
2
and
mox.

O'2R
x ,Tx
t
we set:
n
=
10
Fig. III-4
20
t ems = 0.8 T tons/m
In deep i r u l ~ tankS,' ~ i t the wall rigidly connected to
the floo:. the liquid pressure will be mainly resisted by ring action.
Due to the fixation of the wall to the floor. the horizontal displa-
cement of the wall at its foot cannot be fully developed and the
pressure resisted by ring action will decrease to zero at the point
of fixation. The small part of the liquid pressure at the foot of the
wall that bas not, been resisted in the horizontal direction by ring
actioiL vh.llbe resisted in the vertical directionby cantilever'action
creating bendins moments in the walL In this case. the max. ring
tension T takes placo at 0.8 to 0.9 E a;nd is given by
max
T =0.80 to 0.90 wH R
max
The fixing moment at the base of the wall may be estimated from the
relation:
w H D t
max
=
7.5 to 8
which wi.ll be, proved later.'
In both equations, bigger values
are to be chosen for deeper tanks. The
mentioned bending moments affect only
a small part, generally not exceeding
Hila at the foot of the wall.
'Fig. 111.5 shows the ring tension
,
o
x
and cantilever moments of a deep circu-
lar tank subject to liquid pressure.
Example :
<,
Deep water tank: H. = 12 ma.
Fig. III-5
and D =8 as, iVall fixed to floor. Max.
ring tension at 0.9 H is givenby :
D2R.
wHR
tI r Mf I 100=....__....
BendinQ moments
21
T = 0.9 w H R = 0.9 x 12 x 4 = tons'
max
Required thickness t = 0.8 T =,0.8 x = cms.
As the wall is mainly sUbject to ring tension which increases
with the depth, the section of the wall will be chosen trapezoidal
with a minimum thickness at the top of 20cms "anda maximum thickness
at the bottom t given by :
max
t
max
= 0.8 w H R = 0.8 x 12 x 4 = ems chosen 40 cms.
Thickness available at position of max. ring tension ( 0.9 H) is
given by 20 + 0.9 x 20
= cms > cas,
Ring reinforcements at different depths is given in the following
table.:
1 2

lI-
5
Strip No. 0-2m 2-4m 4--6m 6-8jIl 8-l2m from top
Pmax
2 4 6 8 10 t / m
2
I
8 16 I
24 40 t / m
I
I
T = Pmax R
Total As = T/l.4 5.7
11,4
171
ISteel on each
sid.e = A
s
/2
Iaciriforcement
i
2.85
6CP 8
I
5.7
7<P 10I
8.55
74J 13
22.8
11.4
3.516
+
3.5!13
2
28.5 cm
2
cm
716 m:n/m
1 x 12 x 8 x 0.4-
:he fixing moment at the base is given by
7.5
=5.1 m.t.
:.:a.:(. thickr.ess of wall required to resist this moment can be determi-
equation (9) as folloW3 :
= V';d
f
/ 3 = V5100 / - 41 em
22
i.e. the maximum chosen thickness of 40 c ~ is convenicnt.
Vertical tension stcel on the inside surface of the wall at its base
can be determined from equation (10), thus
2)
chosen 6 q> 16 ( 12 cm
e
::: 0.26 t = 0.26.x: 41
=
Details of Reinforcements
0
of a Deep Circular Tank
0
C'oI
~
-,..... ~ .
.
~
o c8m E
f
:;
rt)
N
8
...
e
o
o
j
~
%
I')
6.-e"ln/ m 6 ~ 8 "'nIm. ~
..
..
E
I')
+
~
!Q
....
~
.
~

lD
..;.
e
...
8
<i
~
5
l
c
0
... ~ ~ ~
..

e

;
~
a::
~
_
-
~
][
-
... _ ~
~ _ 6,,10 m""I'l '\
[7
10040'
\J/

Fig. IIl-6
23
Other vertical reinforcements necessaryto bind the rings and to re-
sist shr-Lnkage stresses and eventual field bending moments may be
chosen:> 20 %of max. ring reinforcements and not less than 5l 8 mmlm.
In our case Uf/5 = 5100/5 = 1020 kg m
wall at position of max. field moment =33 ems
=
=
1300x: .30
20 %of max. rings ( 7 <P 16 mm/m ) = 14 x 0.2 = 2.8 cm
2
Choose 6 <P 8 mm/m on outside and inside surfaces of wall. The details
of reinforcements in the lower part of the wall are shown in fib\U"e
IIL6.
IIL3. THEORY OF THICK CYLINDERS
If the thickness of the wall t of a circular tank is not small
in prci.'ortion to the radius H, the stress crt due to T will not be uni-
formly distributed over the cross-section. Lamb has solved this pro-
blem in 1852 as follows Fig. IlL7
f,..df,
ft dR

" r!It
Fig. III-7
The stress distribution at on the cross-section of a thick wall
of a circular tank subject to hydrostatic pressure p can be determined
ifwe consider the equilibrium of an element of' a tauk: enclosing an
angle d'll as shown. Ass\IDe
H
=
radius of any fiber inside the wall.
R
i
=
radius of inner face of wall.
radius of outer face of wall.
R
=
o
"
24
& E:
=
radial stress and strain
Or
r
& E
=
tangential stres::; and strain
Vt
t
1
Poisson's ratio
1
.;.
1
for concrete

=
m
= =5" b
Due to symmetry in shape and loading we have
intangential direction
dOt =0
and
in radial direction the shearing force Q = 0
Due to equilibrium in radial direction, we get the following
relation :
( Or + ) (R + dR) d'i' - Or R - at dB dill = 0
U
r
R dljl + dO'r R dljl + Or dR dljl + dar dR dIP - err Ii dljl-
- at dR dljl = 0
Reduc ang by dljl end neglecting dO'r dR being a small value of the se-
cond degree, we get :
dar R =crt dR + "r dR
dear R)
at =
dE (15)
According to theory of elasticity, one can express the relation bet-
ween stresses and strains in the following manner
e:
r
= -
E
1
(
iJ
r
-
?
)
1
( )
E:t
= - O't -
l
'(16)
E
These i;wo equations give
E
) )
Or =
HE
1
t
)
E

=----..:' (E
t
)
t ) (17)
1 -.r
Due to 1ihe
deformation of the wall of the tank caused by the hylU'osta-
tie
pressure, the radius Ii will be
increased by the radial displacement
y i.e. it will be ( R + J)' Therefore the strain in rUdial
E
r
is given by
(18)
':Ie have further ;
Circumference of tank before deformation
= 2 rt R
Circumference of tank after deformation = 21t(R+y)
Increase in length of circumference
= 2"y
Strain intangential direction
E:t = 2 It y/ 2 It R or
Et = y/R
(19)
Substituting the values of E and E:
t
as given by equations 18 &
r
19 in equations 17, we get
V
E
(....s;r
+ .) :r ) )
r
=
2
1 -., dR R )
) (20)
E
(
1-
+ )
Cit =
1
R em
Introducing these values in equation 15, we get
1.. + =--!!(R9J:+-,y) or
R .dR dR dR
2
1.+ .) &
= 9::. + R 9 + .} 9:I. i.e
R dR dR dR dR
R
2
+ R.9ii: _ s = 0 (21)
dR dR
Thesolution of this differential equation is
(22)
inwhich
01 and C are the intesration constants. Differentiating equation 22
2
with respect to R, we get :
26
Substituting these values in the elements of equation 21, we get:
Which means i?hat the solution is correct.
of 01 & 02 Fig. IIL8
i) For R
.
=R.
:L
Or =-
p
ii) For R
=R
e
Or =
0 (no outSide pressure)
therefore
Fig. III-8
E
=
( z )
=
E
2
( 1 -
c
2 + e
c
2)
Or
1
1
+
dR R 1

7" I?
'.
E
1 + e )
2
(
1 - =
2 [ 1
(
-
:::-2"
)J
1 -.) R
Because of condition ii, we have
(1 - ) and
Because of condition i we have
o
E
- P =
1 -i
These
two equations give

1 -
1
(1+,))
( 1 - -::t- )
=
p
:L
or
R
o
E IT
0
R
2
1 -
e
i
1 =p (23)
E
7-
0 :l.
1
R
2

+
:? 0 :L
and
2 = P (24)
E
Rf
27
Therefcre
:::
C
2
C
2
O't =
2
( il. +

&.)
=
E
[
C
+ -:::2 + (C
1
- 2 ) ]
1 R d.R 1 -l
1
R R
E
r
2
=
-::l
LC
1
(
1 + )

( 1 - yJ
1 R
R
2
E
-
i J.....ti..
.,
Ri
=

[ P 1
2 ,,2
(1+"') +
;.>
1
'"'
E R - tt
i
R E H-
R
2
o 0
- i
or
R
2
R
2
i
O't =P
2
( 1 + -;T ) (25) Hyperbola
R
2
- R
i
R
0
.lhich gives the formula of Lame for stress distribution on the cross-
section of thick cylinders subject to internal pressure p. There fure
the stress at the inner surface of the tank :
R
2
+
o
(25a)

R - R.
o
and at the outer surface: R =R
o
2 R
Z
=P
R
2
i
(25b)
_
o
Assuming R =A R
i
we get
.
.
o
2 ,2
cr'ti
+ 1
A
2
+ 1 =P -...."...-- and --
=
cr
t o
? "
)..2 _ 1 :\- - 1 a
t o
2
For:\ =1 1
A =1.2 "
" =
1.22 difference not big
;\=2
:1 "
stresses are Graphically represented
in fiB;ure III. 9
0",
ab:bc
?i;. 1II-9
..-." ....
28


= 1/2 CT\;O
For R = co
This means that the stresses are bigger at the inside surface of the
tank. In reinforced concrete circular walls with one mesh , the ring
reinforcement is to be placed nearer to the inner surface of the wall
and inwalls with double meshes the inner rings may be bigger than the
outer ones.
Inreinforced concrete circular tanka R <1.2 R
i
( 1. e. x<1.2)
o
which means that the error by use of cylinder formula ( crt =Tit) is
less than. 10'%.
For very thin cylinders R
i
::: R :! R the formula of Lam l gives
o
the same result as the cylinder formula.
) =p


2 R
i
t
=P R
i
= !
t t
:/hereas in relatively thick plain concrete circular walls, avera-
ge tensile stresses calculated according to the cylinder formula
give serious not allowed errors.
III.4. TANK WALLS FIXED TO FLOOR
111.4.1 Theory of Reissner and Lewe Fig. III.10
D = 2R
I
! ...
,

\X
H
I
----
-t liq:.l.iJ. prcssuz-e
j--r:,-..:.x:-'.-'- .:.;;....--
Fig. Ill-IO

29
The liquid Px at any depth x will be counteracted by the
COlllbined resistance of rings and cantilevers, thus
(26) inwhich
P = the part of the_liquid pressure resisted inthe horizontal di-
r
rection by ring action.
Pc = the part of the liquid pressure resisted in the vertical direc-
tion by cantilever action.
The value of P
r
can be determined as follows :
Strain in tangential direction E
t
=i (refer to equation 19)
Stress in tangential directicn
at =E
t
E
=
:I.E
R
(27)
Ring ten.::; ion T
=
at t
x
=y.t
R x
E (28)
Pressure Z'eaisted by ring action p =1:.
r R
This equation means that ifwe know too equation of the elastic
line of the wall. we can find P
r
and respec:tively Pc The equation
of the elastic line can be determined as follows :
It is known from the general theory of elasticity that the rela-
tion between the external force q, the shearing force Q. , the bending
moment Mand the deflection y are
6 __
4-
- M/ E I ,
dM
=Q t
q / E I (0)
dx dx dx d.x
inwhich q = force acting on wall in radial direction
( Fig. IlL11)
q
=
wxR d'4l - at t d'4l
bu'';
at =
1.E then
x
R
q
=
wx:::\ ill
-
1.E t dlj)
=
( wxR- 1.. t E ) dlj) but
x
R x
R
R to'
x
I
=
12
Fig. III-ll
Substituting these values inthe differential equation of the
elastic line - 30 - we Bet :
R dljl t
3
x
( w x R - Z t E) dljl or E
R x
d4- w R
2

12 dx E t
x
A.ssuming a tank with constant wall thickness t and putt ing
12 E4-
K :

(31) we get:
n =4F and =
. 4-
H
H4-
wR
2
+ y - -.
x 0 (2)
-;;;:r
.-4 =
dx E t
This equation gi.ves the final form of the differential equation
of the elastic line. Its solution gives the value of :: and respecti-
vely Pr and Pc or the ring tension T and the cantilever moment M.
The solution of the differential equation 32 is given by
wR
2
+ ";'2
) cos nf + ) y =
) (3)
) sin
3: t
inwhich A ' A ,B & B are 4- integration constants to be deter-
l 2 l 2
from the conditions at the supports. The derivatives y are
given by I

.. -.... \
- It.2 - I
(B
B -nf )
1 e + 2 e C03
w a
2
H
+
E t 11
H
2
d
2
(A - A e-ne)
sin




=-
l 2
+ Dl e - B
2
e . coz
H
3
d
3
.}'
(A
+ A.:2
sin
nf
eng
- A

=
l
- (A
l
C03
n'f
2

R
2
= - (y - w ---- x)
E t
which means tL:..t soLutri.on Ls correc t.
'.rhe intesration co necancs an open t ank t'Lv::ed at t;;e baa-s car, be
deter:uined fro:u tl-r.> following co::.ditions :
a) at base x = Ei
Y
=
Co
S!
=
0
dx
2
b) at top x
=
0 1.:
= =
o d-,
=
= 0
I d)t

2
From condition b ;'.: ec
d "
=
0 or 13
-
3
2
0
:ix
2 1
=
and
r.'3'
f
Qoc .:::.....,.
= 0
or (11.
-
l,.2) + (3 + B .= 0
1 1 2)

::::r: ',':e
-Q+-
and A -
2 thus
:'8 Lat i.ons
:::""' 4 =
E
2 1
=

-'1
";)

(
nr
-nE )
+:a e" + e ..
1
2
R
sin n + \'/-- X or
E t
n t
A (enf + ) cos +B
1
[ e- )
y =
1
R
2
\7
sin nf - 2 e-
nt
. cos J
+--x
E t
and
sin + w R
2
H
E t n
-n
a. t tr:e base x =H, = 1 , Y =0,
=O. and e
dx
"
Ass1.Uning
li
"" 1
li >10 . .
.
n
=
1/3::X: 1 x 100 = 4-.2
R t
- 4-.2 =0.018 , neglectedI
e
n n wR
2
H
and
Y =0 =A
1
e cos n + B
1
e sin n +
E t
2
:_:1: :.Y. n n wR H
. =0 =A
1
e (cos n - sin n) + B
1
e (sin n + cos n) +
n dx Etn
The solution of these two equations gives
11.
1
= -
w R
2
H
(cos n + sin n-
)
E t en
L )
) (34- )

wR
2
H )
B
1
=
+ (cos n - sin n
)
E t en
n
I
tuting these constants in the equation of y, we can find the
rin
o
tension and respectively the load distribution.
33
The second derivative of y gives the bending 1D.0ment because
M
=-
, .The moment at the toot can be
determined from the
dx E.I
relation
cos
For x =H we get:
M
f
=
2 n
2
fiT"
E I ant
(A
1
sinn - B
1
cos n)
2 n
2
=
7
E I
[-
wR
2
H
(cos n
E t
+ sinn -
sin n)
n
sinn J
- [
wR
2
E t
H (cos n - sinn - cos
n
n J.
or
=- 2 n
2
I. wR
2
2 Sin
2
n
(cos n sin n + sin
n - """'""=--=
t H n
2
2 cos
+ cos n - sin n cos n _ n)
or
2
.. 2
'
W R ( 1
t
3
n
I
1 --)
. but I
=-
2 n
=-- then
'"'f' tr
n
12'
W R
2
lI
f
2 n
2 t
3
!L=.-.1
=-
or
12 t H 'n
wR
2
t
2
" 2 n (n - 1)
::11'
=
12 H
Calculating the max. shearing force at the base from the
Q we get :
=- E I
:...' .
. t2
o _.7 -, 2 n
2
(2 n - 1) .
"'maX - 12 H2
(6)
In the same way other cases can be calculated to their
ed
6e
conditionse.s.
i
;4
) the edge conditions for an open ta.'lk hinGed at the base axe
d
2
at base x :: H y =
.
0 and M
=
0 or
=
0

d2'V ' ' 3
at top x =0
M = 0 & Q
=0
or 0
=
0

dx
ii) the edge conditions for a wall fixed at top & bottom are
2;i
at base x
=
H y =0 and
=
0
dx

at top x =0 y = 0 and
=
0
dx
The shape of the elastic lL?1e, load distribution curve aDd the ben-
ding moment diagram for the case of an open tank fixed at the base are
as shown in 111.12
H
\
Elcstic- line Load distribution Bending moments
Fif,. III-12
H the wall vtes: fixed at its upper ed,se, the main ordinates 0:1:
the will be practically not affected, and a small fixing mo-
ment - shown dotted - will be created at the top.
Nben exa.miuing the load distribution curve. we n,otice that the
pressure at the bottom of the vIall is res:Lsted by the cantillever ac-
tion &ld as the deflection at the base by full fixation :Ls equal to
z.:ro, therefore the load resisted horizontally by rint5 action must be
equal to zero. In the upper portion of the wall Pc assumes negative
values. If no such load of were acting near the top of
the wall. the cantilevers should the"'", r',: ceav.e r;reatest 'deflec-
35
tion, but obviously this cannot be the case owing to the restraillt
afforded by the rings, and ill consequence of the load being zero at
the water level the deflection ~ r the upper most ring must be nil.
Dimensionillg :
The maximum bending moment at the foot of the wall causes ten-
sile'stresses on the water side., In order noe to have cracks causing
rusting of the steel, the working tensile bending stress in concrete
must not exeed its tensile strength i.e. for a rectangular section
with breadth b = Lm, cr = 6 M
f
/ t
2
t b
Substitutillg for M
f
the value given in equation 35 we get:
R
2
0'tb =w -. n (n - 1 ) or
H
v
a
'
H
.
n = 0.5 + ~ + 0.25 (37)
R
G
w .
then
"
Knowing that n = ilK where x:
4 .
=y;
or
R n
. (38)
t = 1.73
Reissner &: Lewe found that all tanks With equivalent values of
K ( or n ) have similar load distribution curves. Accordingly they
. .
gave a series of curves far load distribution and respectively the
ri:c.g tension as well as the cantilever moments in walls of open cir-
cular tanks fixed to floor and having rectangular or triangular sec-
tion as a factor of K or n. in. the following manner ( Figure III.13
)
t
..
~
Ring tension. T
=Co
wHR
=
Co P R
where
Co =y .
A- t
BendLng m.oment M
= 15 w R
2
t
2
/ 12 H where (3
4
2t
3
= ~
K
-;:7
x
36
and in which
In order to use these curves proceed as follows :
1) Deteriine the value of n from equation 37, namely
l
otb H
=0.5 + + 0.25 inwhich
R w
O'tb c: 18 kg/cm
2
for normal cases and w =0.001 kg/err? for water
2) Calculate the thickness at the foot of the wall from equation 38
which gives
t =1.73
then choose a convenient profile for the wall.
3) To determine the ring tension in the'wall draw for the calculated
.value of ( n ) a vertical line to meet the projection line for
interpolation in a point - a -; through - a - draw ahorizontal
line to meet the maxima curve in- b -. This last point - b -
gives the apex of the distribution curve ifthe wall were rectan-
gular. For trapezoidal walls, linear interpolation is sufficient.
Having drawn the load distribution curve, the ring tension in eve-
ry section can be determined from the relation :
T c: Co P R
4) To draw the bending moment diagram, itis recommended to determi-
ne the maximum fixing moment from equation 35, namely:
2 2
" wR t 2n(n 1)
"'f=- -
12R
In the same wayas given under (3) determine the apex of the
,
positive part of the bending moment diagram for a rectangular wall.
Ifthe wall trapezoidal multiply the maximum positive value by
( t I t)3 where t is the thickness of the wall at of
x
x
OPE)I CIRClIl.I1R TIi/.//(.:5
wI/as FUEO I/T BOTTOH
r UI'. H Il
R/)I(1 11.15/01./
(, .. Y ..L. it.
>- t
0,':1.1' ",sP
D.2.
D.3

<, !v"
1'.
I I
----- -
K.
1% II"
ltilli

t
f


nW

<,
,
I!!
f--
it-


_FilII eM'VI,
___Dotted ell",
" _._._.. ..
-

-c<

). .
/111
f
k- t .
.. _.._. ur
"-
IJ
I
II
\



5
.L
'I
H"r J.fl.
\ / \

I
II
J
It-.
IV
/ -
I--b 6.71' 11.61' 6.91' ({J
1/
r-,
'i
-
r-j-


/ Il_
11
V


/
V

A
1,/
l/

/ Y

V
,;9'



t:---::




.,L' ......:::
"


0,,0.
J:=.:::'
.....
t---
R

l--.
/ I 100.
4
if!:.::::.
l:::-:::::
1ft

Il- r::.;:::::-
--....::::

-

taoer:':
1----- --
--, .-
l-
Il-
t!-
-- I
i
8 /0 IZ 14 Ii 18
D.'
D.7
D.B
0.9
I."
:1 4
n--
w. WI(fltT P'- Llt?/J
ol1 .t: ....
MOMEMTS
1'1.
[
. ...-,..L!.
EEIJD/IJQ
"1' " tJ
'"
/0
So
I
70
[.e] "':;
t 3 " S
n-
:Pig. 111-13
l
37
maximum positive moment. fhe curves show that the cantilever action
increases for diminishing values of K ( or n ) i.e. the scaller the
height, the big.;er the radius and the stiffer the wall. By R = cz> ,
K = 0 ( the limiting case of a straight cantilever) the water pres-
sure is resisted totally by cantilever action.
Example
It is required to design the wall of a cylind.erical reinforced
concrete open water tank, 5.0 IDS deep and 20 IDS diameter. Assume the
wall to be fixed to the floor.
Solution
H =5.00 IDS R = 10.00 me
II
_! O'tb
n =0.5
+
Y'-R""'2<-=--- + 0.25
=0.5 +
x 59
0
+ 0.25 =3.53
w 1000 x .001
t = or t =35 ems 1.73
-
Choose thickness at top 20 ClllS and at bottom 35 ems.
From the curves of Reissner ( Fig. III.13 ), find
for n 3-.53 =0.5
and
=
0.4-25 at thus
=
Co Tma.x '

T
=
Co 'II H R =0.4-25 X 1 X 5
X 10 =21.25 tons/m
max
acting at 2.5 ms from top surface.
The max. ring rei..n:foreement is given by
T
max 21.25
em
2;m
max. As =
= =
15.2
as
1.4
chosen 12 13 mm/m (
15.9
em
2
) on both sides Le. 6 <p 13 mm/m
As
=
on each side. Thickness of wall at position of max:. ring tension is
given by :
t = 20 35 = 27.5 ems
x
2
;8
The max. tensile stress i.n concrete taking shrinkage i.oto con.sidera-
tion is given by
T + E:
s h
E
As
max s
i.n which
t =
. A +
n As
c
=
0.25 mm/m E
=
2100 t/cm
2
Be n
=
10 then E
s h s
= 21250 + 0.00025 x 2100000 x 15.9 =
21250 + 8350 =10.2 kg/cm
2
27.5 x 100 + 10 x 15.9 2909
The m.x. fix:ing moment is given by
wR
2
t
2
1 x 10
2
x .35
2
x 2 x
= .2n(n-l)
=-
12 H 12 x 5
( 3.53 - 1) = - 3.67 m t
calculating the necessary vertical reinforcement in the
wall of a tank, the effect of the compression due to the own weight
of the wall may be without afecting the sa:rety of the wall
as it causes a reduction of the thickness of the concrete insections
sUbject to ten.si1e stresses on the water side and reduces the area of
the tension reinforcement which can be determined at the foot of the
wall as follows
"t
=
35 cms therefore d
= 35-3 =
32 cms and
r--
32 =:
k
l
11 3670 i.e. k
l
=
0.53
2,
Assuming
as =
1400 \(g/cm n =15
and a
=0 we get
=
31 kg/cm
2
and
=
1284 kg/cm
2
so that
c

As = =
3670
= 9.0 cm'2: chosen 7 l} mm/m
1284 x .}2
to equation 10, we get
2
AS = 0.26 t = 0.26 x 35 =9.1 cm -thesame result !
max. positive bending moment, we get for a wall of constant thick-
ness
12 x 54-
P =5.5 and lies a-t; = e'.6 where t =29
x
1 x 10
2
X.O.35
2
= x -- x (

12 x 5
35
= 0.64 m.t.
26
=
k
l
k
l
= 0.975 a
c
low,
=
1300 kg/cm-
)
640 2
As = =
1.9 cm chosen 5 l 8 =/m
1300 x .26
It is however possible to construct the wall with constant thick-
ness of 25 ems and provide itwith a haunch 10 x lj.O ems at base. II:.
this case the effect of the haunch on the ring and the posi-
tive bending mom.ents may be neglected determined intt.e
manner :
For t =25 ems
r:;;;: 4-:
=1200 and
n =V K/4- =V
1200
/lj.
=4..16
.,
For max. ring tension, the curves of Reissner sive
& _= 0.545
= 0.48 X 5 x 10 = 24- tons
-
=17.2 cm
2
/m
f1 ..
2
chosen 7 13 mm/m on each side ( 18.5 cm
I E_
I
(J
=24-000+ 0.00025 x 2100000 x 18.5
, -
t e ei .
100 x 25 + 10 x 18.5
..... ""
l"j fJ
.. .e-
=24000 + 9750 =12.6 kg/cm
2
.g.,.go. - ....
lD! G: _.
2680
i '
lieI
max positive bending moment ! I qj-9-
I : -,..,
we get : I -l-.
' " e
T
0
and
I
! \
For n =4-.16
I n I
J
L,
= .0.48
III-l4-
0.10
\!t13
4-0
1 x 10
2
X 0.25
2
= 0.74 mt
12 x 5
=
7
40
= 2.6 chosen 6 9 8 mm/m
1300 x 0.22
details of reinforcement are shown in Fig. 111.14
111.4.2 Simplified Methods for Determining the }<'ixing iJoment,
Shearing Force and the Thickness of the Wall at the base.
R
2
It has been proved in equation 38 that. t =L 73 from
R n
which one can determine the value of n, thus :
=
1.315 H
n

The max. i'i:d.ng moment is given according to equation 35 by
the relation :
2n(n-1)
SUbstituting for t the value given in equation 38, we get
2 2 2
mf =- w R t 2 n (n - 1)
12 H R ne:. .
wH (2 R) t n - 1
=
6.95 n
6.95
Assuming
1
=
1 _ 1.
n
w B D t (40)
we get
?J.
f
=
1
The shearing force at the base of the wall is given accor _
ding to equation 36 by the relation :
w R
2
t
2
2
12 H2 2 n (2n - 1 )
But acccr-dang to e quatron 38 t
2
= a:
R n
41:
Substituting this value of t
2,
inthe equation of ,
we ge-c
2 n -
1
Assuming
=
and substituting, we get
2
C
2
n
wH
2
=
C
2
(41)

2
It is further known that the bending tensile stress at the foot
6 ;'If
of the wall is given by
: O"tb =
t
2
Assuming cr
tb
= 18 kg/cm
2
=
180 t/m
2
and sUbstituting for ill
f
the value given inequation 40, Vie get
6 VI H D t 12 w H R
180
= or
=
t C
l
C
l
, ,
_1_ "
AssUl'ling further
=
C: j;h:n
t =03 wHR
'15 C
l
3
In order to get t in ems for w in t/m
3
(equals. 1 for water),
H and R in meters, we should have :
(42)
in which C
3
,
=100 C
3
=
15 C
l
The values of r.l
f
' and t at the base of a wall fiXed to
the floor as given by equations 40, 41 and 42 depend on the value of
n which in turn depends on the magnitude of the thickness t. In this
manner a method of trial and error is to be applied i.e. we have first
to assume a convenient value for t, then determine the corresponding
value of n according to equation 39. Applying equation 42, it is pos-
sible to check the assumed value of t.
It is however possible to avoid these trials inspecial cases
e.g. water tanks in the following Equation 3?'gives :
'42
/'
-!Otb H
n =0.5
+ ~
+ 0.25
R w
Assuassuming
tb
=180 t/m
2
and w =1 tim} , then
n =0.5 + f180 :2 + 0.25 which means that
n is a factor of. ~ or
no; H
R 7
The following table and curves, fig. 111.1.5 give the values of
01 ' 02 &03 cs factors of n in general or as factors of H/R2 for the
special cases in which w =1 t/m
3
( e.g. water tanks ).
Fig. ill- 15
1).1 /.11 (JJ
LW-t I
f I Ii IIII
I I I
I 'I I II
j l r H ~ I \ 1'1 4
i
.I'
1 I 1 Ho'-l. 1 I I
III I I ~ 'Jlllll i Iii I
II I I Tit-Tf.Nr-l.
I, I i
II I
2
'2 1,4
1.2 1,0
0.8 10.6
0.4 0.2 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0.01
/R
,
i
I
12.5110.9
I
\
I
n 16.4 15.2 13.9 9.00 6.5014.77 4.32 3.82 3.2} 2.46 1.9}
1
7.55[7. 6517.82
.
7.40 7.44- 7.49 8.22 8.80 9.04 9.4 10.1 11.7 14.4
2 .118 .127
I I
.211 .284 .375 .409 .455 .525 .646 .769 . 138 .154 .175
3 .900 .895 .890 .882 .870 .852 .812 .756 .736 .708 .663 .570 .462
Circular tanks may be divided into 3 categories :
a) Deep tanks with big depths, small diameters and thin walls, where
43
n is bigger than 8. The convenient cross section for the wall is tra-
pezoidal with a min. thickness at the top of 20 - 25 cms and a max.
thickness at the bottom
t = 0.8 to 0.85 ~ HR.
max
The max. ring tension
t max =0.8 to 0.90 w H R at 0.8 to 0.90 H
f;rom top
The max. fixing moment at base :
wHD t
, ,1' max
''''''f =-
7.5 to 8
The max. field moment is about :
b) Shallow tanks with small depths, big diameters and thick Walls,
n is smaller than ca 2.5. A small part of the water pressure is re-
sistedby ring tension and the wall behaves mainly as a simple ca.'1.ti-,
lever.
c) Medium tanks which lie between the previous two categories. 'rhe
convenient section for the wall is rectangular and provided with a
haunch at the base.
The max. ring tension
T = 0.5 to 0.75 w H Rat 0.5 to 0.75 H from top
max
The corresponding thickness of wall : t
Cms
=0.8 T tons
=
0.4 to 0.6 w H R
The max. thickness at base t
max
=
0.8 to 0.7 w H R
w H D t
The max. fixing monenf at base ~
=
max
8 to 10
The max. field mom.ent : M ~ U
f
/ 5
max
The max. ring tension and its position in rectangular walls of
circular tanks fixed at the base and subject to liquid _pressure have
been Biven by 'N.S. Gray in his b?ok Reinf'orced Concrete ',7ater Towers, ft
Bunkers Silos and Gantries
ft
in the following curves (Fig. 111.16):
vRwes MI1X RIIJ(f - TEIJP0/,l
1 .IrS POStr,OIJ
Fig. III-16
l.tH'
7S
1<1 i
.SD
_i.-l
'IS
o
()
/.0 .3.0 ,4.0

""...
IT u
IJ If
L--

!Z-I-
\
I--"
l- f-'
Ill-
10-
\ ./' V
--
I--"

V ./ V L>

\ V V /' l---
--
\1\ V X ./
......... I
.,-t!
J<.> /' <, ./
r_.
...
t"'I'.R
V\
"""'-
IX..
\
1< '"S
I
)( <, I><
.........
'r---.&-w.l4J.
/I 1/ .,/'" ...........
......
.....,
<, ...... r-.. -
Il
1/ /
1--....... r
I /
-
-
-
-
t--
(l
I--
-

,
....
II/.D e
Applications
We show in the following the direct application of
the given simplified method for determining the internal forces in,
. open circular water tanks with walls fixed at base.
1). Depth E =10
m
Diameter D =10 m w =1 tim;
H I R
2
= 10 I 25 = 0.4
the corresponding n =9 i.e.' case of deep tank.
According to table 01 =7.8
Wall is chosen trapezoidal: 20 cos thick

at its top end, the thick-
ness at the base is given by
tI:lB.X =
3
wHR
=
0.855 x 1 x 10 x
5 =42.75
cms chosen 42 em.
.,
wHD
tIlla%
1 x 10 x 10 x 42
5.40 m.t,
"'f = = =
7.8
1
;'1 -+
=i.l
f
/ 5 =
1.08 m.t.
max
45
2
= 0.211 X1 x 10
= 10.5 t
2
According to Gray Fig. III.16
Average thickness of wall t = }1 cms
g 10 10
=- =}2
!
=
-=
1,
Co =
0.8 , C
=
.225
t O.}l D 10
T
max
= Co w H R =
0.8 x 1 x 10 x 5 =
40t
x' =CH
=
0.225 x 10 =. 2.25 IDS trom base
2) Depth H = 5 m , diameter D = 20 m w= 1
For section at base
= = 0.5
medium tank:
. R'::
10
According to table C
1
= 9.7 =0.685
t =C
3
wH R c 0.685 x 1 x 5 x 10 =34.25 cms chosen 35 cms
max

=-
= - - =- }.6 m.t.
9.7

Mmtx = - =..l.:.. =0.72 m.t.
5 5
Tba wall ,Will be chosen of constant thicknes:3 25 ems and provided with
....
a haunch at the base of 10 x 4-0 cms , The max. ring tension and its
position can be determined according to curves ot Gray, thus :
n =
2.:..92.-
=20
g, = i = 0.25 .
.
.
t 0.25 D 20
T
max
=Co w H R =0.51 x Ix 5 x 10 =25.5 tons at 2.35 ms trom base
The shear at the base for a \vall 25 ems thick can be calculated as
follows :
=
1.315 H = 1.315 x 5
n
= 4.16
y' R t 100x 25
The corresponding value of C
2
is given by 0.4-25 and
2 2
Q w H
=0.4-25 x 2: = 5.} tons
"'maX = 2
2 2
The use of thiS method for detElrmin.i.ng the internal forces in
walls of circular tanks is very convenient, because when one is used
to it, he can easily estimate coefficients C
l
required
::lining the fixing moment, C required for c.eterminiug the max . thick-
3
ness of the Co required for determining the max. ring tension
without appreciable errors which may affect the design as 'carr be seen
from the following example
5) It is required to design the wall of an open circular tank 7 IllS
deep and 15 ms diameter. Make a quick estims.te and check the results:
a) Estimate:
This tank is a medium one, its diameter tWice its depth then
the max. ring tension may be estimated by :
=0.65 w =0.55 x 1 x 7 x 7.5 = 34 ton
'Wall thickness ( equation 7 )
T ..
t =0.8
max
=0.8 x 34 = 27 cms
Max. ring reinforcements
= ...2:!:-
=
24.5 ems 6 4> 16 mm/mon each side
1.4
t.la.x. thickness at base
t
max
= 0.8 wE R = 0.8 x 1 x 7 x 7.5 = 42 cms
The wall is chosen 27 cms and provided with a haunch 15 x 50 cms at
the base.
The fixing moment :
wED t
1 x 7 x 15 x .42
=
max
= =- 5.50
m.t.
8 8
Thickness requu-ed to resist this moment safely
t
rnax
=i' 13 = Y5500 1 ; = 42.7 ems
i.e. chosen thickness of 42 cms is convenient
Vartical steel required at base:
41
u 5500 2
A. :I z
=
11 C't:l.
6 cP 161m
s
~ d
1300 x .385
Max. field moment
M+ :I / 5 5$00 / 5
=
1100 kgm
max
U
f
=
Vertical reinforcement required
M+
max
1100 2
= = =,; .50 em 7 8 mm/m
~ d 1300 x .24
~ :
Section aD base
~ R ~ ~ : 0.125
7.5
A.ecording "to "table 03 =0.77
t
max
=03 w H R =0.77 x 1 x 7 x 7.5 =40.5 cm
Chosen thickness eu: 42 cms is convenient.
The corresponding value of n is given b1' :
= 1.315 H 1.315 x 7
n
=
=5.20 giving C
1
=8.65
VR "t 17.5 x 42
max
So "tha"t
=- w H D t =_ 2 x 15 x .42 = 5.10 m"t
8.65 8.65
The "thickness required to resis"t this momen"t is given by :
"t = 1
5100
= 41 cms < 42 cms
max 3
A.ccording "to Gray t ( t =27 cms )
g,
=
-L
=
26. g,
=-L = 0.465 c =0.65 c
=
.,;4
t .27 D 15
0
T
max
=
Co w H R
=
0.65 x 1 x 7 x 7.5
=
34 t at
Xl
=
C H
=
0.34 x 7
=
2.4 JJlS from base
The internal forces are shown in figure IIL17
The details of reinforcements are similar to those shown in figure
IIL14
48
If the wall of the tank were free at top and hinged at bottom,
the maximUJ:l ring tension will be increased by ca 10% in deep tanks
and 20 to 25 % in medium tanks and its position moves a SI!lB.ll distan-
ce towards the base of the wall. In this case moment l.l:r
-r-"
I
c
o.

.:
Bending Mom. Ring Tension
::t:
I -----=t-
I E'
Diag. Diag.
Fig. III-17
I. Nf.
'2 !It
t<--------""""'---
will be equal to zero and the field moment will be increased to
ca I 3 The distribution of the ring tension and cantilever moments
io. will have the form shown in fig. 111.19.
111.4.; - Tables of the Portland Association
The American Portland Cement A.ssociation has published the
following series of tables
E
giVing the ring tension and cantilever mo-
in rectangular walls of cylindertcal tankS free at top and fi-
xed or hinged at bottom for different cases of loading. The tables
mel ude f'lI!'ther a lot of data very useful. in the design of circular
tanks.
Illustrative Example
'rhe use of the " Portland Cement Association" tables will be
explained in the follOWing example :
Figure III.1B shows an open cylinderical reinforced concrete wa-
ter tank 5 ms deep and 20 ms diameter. It is requi=ed to determine
the internal forces ror the cases :
E "Circular Concrete Tanks without Prestressing ". Concrete Informa-
tion of the Portland Cement Association. ST - 57 - 1.
Table. Table /I
Tenalon In clrcutar ring. Ten.lon In circular rln.,
Triangularload
Trlangutarload
rindb , freetop
: .,

QI

.
Hinged be, fre.top
r - elMt )( willi
Po,itj\ll "0"j"dlul.. 1111110" -, --
r... tlle")( "."" .':..: "I - ..
Po l' .... 'Ill" In.lin"" I"",ton

,
CMfnc.,nla at poInt
H' I CMm,,,11.t
i ,. O.OH O.HI O.'H
O.IH D.IH m G.GH I a.IH I O.2H O.:-H I O.4H I G.SH 0.111 0.9H 0,1" 10.1" O.>H ..L..," IUH 10.'H
11,4 .0.'4' .0.1J4 .0.1'10 .0.101 0.012 .0.OAa .0,04' .0.029 .0.004 "7:":;;;; .0.4401.0JU1.0.]$2 .O,J.:I61.0.284 ..0.21 $ .o.,n .0.111
Ul!. .0.283 ..0.239 .0.21 .0.190 ,0160 .0.110 .0.091 .0.0Il O9.423 _0.401 .0.311 .0.330 .0.791 .0.2"9 .0.N2
. !,} .0.11l ..0.211 .0.2$4 .0.21" ..0.209 .0.110 .0.142 .. 0.099
.0.010
.00UI
I 6 .O.2U .0.2611 .0.268 .0.U6 .O.2!1O ..0.210 .O.'U .0.13"
.0.0,. 1.2 .O.HO .0.Jl51 .0.JlI2 .o.nl .0.J"J .0.309 .o.ne
.0.011 "I .0.271 .0..10) .0.).. 1 .0.369 .0.3U\.0.3.8' "O.ll2 .0.JI4 .0.2JJ
2.U .0.234 .0.21J .O.2U .0.21$ .0.214 .0.231 .tI.172 2.0 .0.260 .c.aa 0.37J .0.411 .0.4)4 .0.41' .O.la' .0.210

J.O .0.134 .0.20J .0.261 .0.322 .0.357 .0.3&2 .0.))0 .0.262 .0.tH .0.210 J.O .0.Ci7" .0.119 .0.211 '0.4'" .0.479
4.0 .0.017 .0.11.... .0.)39 .04U) .0.429 .0."0' .0.))4 .0.2'0 .0.073 ".0 .0.011 .0.131 .0."') .0.)61 .0... 19 .0.2!!'
!I.O .0.02'" .rl.137 .O:H:' .0.).41 .0.421 .0."11 .0.469 .0.39'1 .0.092 -0.001 .0.114 .O."!! .O.HI .0.419 .0.:'62 .0.117 .0.601
.0.""
1.0 .0.0'1 .0.lIt .0.2J...0.3 ..... 0.....1 .0.!lO" .0 .0.4047 .O.JO' .0,112 .0.327 6.0 0.011 .O.IOJ .0.2U .0.J4J .0.dJ .0.639 .0.1")
1.0 -0.011 .0.104 .0.211 .. .0.4"3 .0.!I34 .0.!!1!> .0.311 .O.UI .0.617 .0.Jlb
10.0 0.011 .0.098 .0.201 .0.323 ..0."31 .0.601 .0.589 .0 0 .0.'79
12.0 .0.091 .0.202 .0.312 .0."29 .0.121 .0.1331.0 94 .0.2'1
1".0 -0.002 .0.098 .0.200 .0.S06 .0."20 .0.539 .0.13' .0.666 .. I .0.....' ii:iEi ii:E! I Iiii;i ii'Hr :H* :::::;
1e.0 0.000 .0.099 .0.1" .0.304 .0.412 .0.&.41 .0.681 ,021!1 1611 '0.00" 0.100 .0.191 .0.299 -O."OJ .O.UO .0.11" .0.171 .0.IU6
TableIII
Ten.lon In olrcularrlngl
O '
Rectangularload
rindltase. free top
1..':" :,':
T - coet'. )( pR
C) . :.
POttll"'. lion Indic,I l.n,lon , .
m


I0.011 0.111
0."
0.8 .0.921
1.2 .1.211 .1,011
1.6 .. .1.1.. 1
2.0 .1.144
J.O .1.160 .1.112
4.0 .1.0U .1.013
s.e .I,OJ1 .1.0014
6.0 .1.010 ..1.024
1,0 .. 0.989 .1.005
10.0 .0.919 .0.991
12.01.0.994 .0.997
14.0 .0.991 .O.t'l
16.0 .1.000 .0.99'
0.211 O.JII 0."11 0.611 I 0.111
.. 0.4JI .:J.HJ .0.271 .0.206 ..0.092
.. 0.195 .O.GGO .0.41!! .0.269 .0.119
.0.941 .0.101 .0.Jl1 .0.241
1.00' .0.6111 '0.742 .O.GOO .0.H9 .0.294
.1,0011 .0.'29 .0.lI06 .0.661 .O.!l14
.1.081 .0.991 .0.'12 .0.796 .0.&.48 .0.4!1, .O.OSI
.1.051 .1.029 .0.971 .0.U1 .0.748 .0.!lS3 .0.322 .0.IO!l
.1.041 .1.0"2 .0.'4' .0.629 ..0.H9 .0.111
.1.0)lI .1,034 .0.98l1 .0.879 .0.194 .0.4)0 .0.149
.1.022 .1.038 .1.0014 .1.025 .0.78S .. .0.189
.1.010 .. 1.023 .1.039 .1.0010 ..0."8 .0.S!lt .0.226
.1.003 .1.014 .1,031 .1.0013 .. 1.022 .0.911 .0.262
.1.000 .1.001 .1.022 .1.040 .I.OU .0.94' ..0.294
.O.t,t .1.00) .1.01$ .1.032 .1.040 .0,916 .0.J21
Table V
-"-
Tension In rlnga . '
,0 .
Shear/ M V,applied fittop
o
rlxed bas_, ,,.ee toP.
.: :.
T - eeet. )( VJt/1I
Po.ill.... 110" I,.dlclt..t.",io""
ID

111 CooK,cl.tll. AIpoinl'


Vi 0.011 I 0.111 0.211 I O.JH I 0.411 I i 0.811 I 0.7/f I O.s"'-;
0." - - I.J2 - 1.01 _ 0.88 - - 0.41 _ 0.)1 - 0.11 - 0.01 .. 0.02
0.1 .. J.O' - - 2.0.. _ 1.ST .. - 0.10 - - 0.21 - 0.1l - 0.03
1.2 - 3.n - 3.11 - 2..... - 1.19 .. 1.2S - 0.11 - 0.48 - 0.25 - 0.10 - 0.02
1.6 - 4.51 .. - l.GO - 1.10 t,11 - 0.61 - O.JIS _ 0.15 - 0,0:' - 0.01
2.0 - !I.12 - J.lIJ - 2.&lI - 1.14 _ 1.02 - 0.52 - 0.21 "O.O!l 0.01 0.01
J.O - 8.J2 ".J1 - '2.10 - 1.4J _ - 0.02 0,19 O.IJ 0.04
4.0 - 1.J4 - 4.13 - 2.liO - LID , 0.1' 0.28 0.J8. 0.3J 0.19 0.06
S.O - 8.22 0.0(1 0.41 0.50 0.37 0.20 - 4." - 2...... - 0.1' 0.11
6.0 - '.0'2 - !I.11 - '1.27 - 0.)4 0.!l9 .. O.!lJ O.H 017 0.01
8.0 -10.42 - S.36 - - 0.02 0.63 0.66. 0.48 0.24 0.0' 0.01
10.0 -11.61 .:.6.4) - 1.4J .o.J6 .. 0.11 0.82 0.33 0.12. 0.02 0.00
12.0 -12.16 - - 1.0J .. 0.63 0.13 0.$2 0.21 0.04 - 0.0'2 0.00
U.O - - 0.81 0.80 0.11 0."2 .O.IJ 0.00 - 0.03 0.01
16.0 -14.14 - - 0.33 .. 0.'6 0.16 0.J2 O.O!l . 0.04 - 0.05 - 0.02
When11'1'11 t.bleIt uudror ah .., apphod It Ihe b....... l'Iite the loC) II n...d. O.OHi.
the bonum o/lhe Will a.." 1.0H 1.11'1. lop. Shur...:lItlO In"'ltd I. pCIII""", ol.ll ...lrd i'
""O'l......
Table IV
Ton51on In circular,.Inga
o O ','
Rectangularload ', 0 .-
" , ..
Hinged ba..e, 'reotop
. "
r - c:u.I. )( I,1t
e- '
,.... 0"".... "0"" i',...tiC"1I1I 1.....'0"
m, .-
H" CIMKlCi."..at peNnt
Iii 0.011 10.111 10.211 I 0.311 ,1_0_.'_I_I,.0_'_"':"'.J.1_0_'"_I-J,.I_0._'_"_1;.-0_. ",_, I 0.911
I-- --.--..-", "
0.4 .1.41" .1.J"O .0,'01 .0.764 .0.015 .0.4U .0.311 .O.It.4
01 .1.42J .1.J02 ,,,.Iel .LO!.I .0.'1.30 .0.791 ..0.149 .0.11,.,
1.2 .1.HO .1.181 .1.062 .0.'51 .0.143 .0.109 .0.558 .O.JAG .U.19lj
1.6 .1.'171 .1.20J .1.1"1 .1.OG9 .0.1:.4 .0.614 .. 0.43J .0.2....
2.0 .1,20S .1.160 .1.121 .I,01J .1.011 .O.1l4 .0.819 .0.(;09 .0.4S0
>.0 .1,014 .1.01' .1.08' .1.11'" .1.006 .0.919 '0.119 .o.!ln .O.JIO
'.0
.1.017 1.031 .1.061 .1.0'9 .0.91' .0.6'"
',0.0.992 .1,014 .I.on .1.0)6 .1.06t .1.062 .1.0U .0.9OG .0.103 .O.lt4
'.0
.0.t89 ..1.00) .1.02J .1.043 LOlJJ .'.066 .1.039 .0.9H .0.741 .0.427
'.0 .0.'8' .0.'96 .1.001 .. 1.024 .1.043 .1.01S.. .. 1.06' .0.997 .0.821 .0.... 6
10.0 .0.992 .0.99S .1.000 .. 1.011 .1.021 .1.0$2 .. 1.06t .I.OJO .0.171 .0.&J3
12.0 .0.99l1 .0.991 .0."7 .1.002 .1.011 .1.041 .. 1.064 .1.0!lO .0.120
14.0 .1.000 .0.991 .0.997 .0.'99 .1.001 .1.0Jl .'.0$9 ,1.061 .o.tn .0.61J
18.0 .t.00'1 .1.000 .0.998 .0.199 .1.003 .1.021 ... t .Of4 1.0.911 .0.lIJG
Table VI
'
Ten.lon In circular ,.Ing_
O ' :
Momont/ m ., M. appllod atb... . ,
, .
HIngod ba5e, 'reetop ,
, E
.
T - n." )( loiN/I"
Po.,I,.... 1'01" l""dlC:III."".lon
m... . ..
..---l
0.711 O.lIlI 0.'" 0.$11 I 0.811 0.11/ 0.211 0.311 0.4"
I,p 0.10 .. 0.44 2.JO .. 2.12 1.91 1.6t 1.4' 0." 2.10
.. l.lI .. 0.10 .. 2.10 .. 2.02 1.9S I.7S .. 2.06 2.10 .. 2.14 0.1 2.02
2.8(1 7.22 .. I.n 1.2 1.01 1.42 1.79. 2.0J .. 2.48 2.U 2.10
.. 0.7t' 1.4J 2.04. 2.72 .. J.2I J." J.!lt
'.0 .. O.SI
1.6 0.12
: t
0.22 1.10 2.0'2. 2.!l0 3.61 4.JO 4.S4
lI,SS 4.13 S.S6 6.!l1 _ 0.11 0.4J J.O - 1.78 ....
.. 1.61 '." I.l" 4.31 8." 1.04 .. 2.41 a - 1.11 - 1.00 0.01 4.0 I."
.11.0.1 8.02 .. 6,60 '.41 .. 0.4S !I.O - 1.!l4 - I.OJ - 0."2 "Ill J.1l
.10.21 .. 13.01 .11,41 - 1.21 U<
6.0 - 1.04 - 0.16 - O.!I'
.11.J2 .. ll1.06 5.87 2.0!l - 0.02 - 0.87 S.O - 0-, 24 - - 0.73
\0.0 0.21 - 0.23 _ 0.14 .. 0.14 - 0.13 0.82. 4.11 .. II.IJ .1t.41 .20.87
12.0 0.)1 _ - 0.46 - 0.111 1.15 - 0.18 J.52 .11.27 ..21.10 .07S.13
14.0 .. 0.28 0.001 - 0.21 - 0.18 1.2t - 0.S1 .2.2'9 .IO.!I$ .. .)0.J4
1".0 0.22. 0.01 - 0,01 _ 0.64 - 1.28 - 1.)0 1.'2.t.67 .24.$3
.Whlllthl.I.bl.i. uudtor mom.n' IC)plt.d ItIlielop.... hlleIhelop I. hl"OIMt.0.011
i. Il'Ie bollo'" of Ih III ond 1.011 II the lOp. Mo",.tli .",hed I'."ed9- II ta.llI....
.. he" 11 ou, rd rotatlo" At that e"o
'.
--

,UU,tf Will
Mom.ntlIn cyllndrlc:a. w.1I
Mom.ntaIn 11
Te!..ngul.rload
.. ', _ 0 '. Trapezoidal lo .. d
Fixed base, tre. Hinged base.freetop ', x
::."_X
01
w"::' Mom.. - cMf. X vII' M.m - co-'. )( ( ..1/
1
+pili'
.-.l1t _:
Ii'll' I"dicdt .,.lon In th.o",t.ld. POliU....ign Indic.'..'.1'.101' III th.o",l.'d.
ItI
W

'/1'] Coo..,, , "----- Co.Rici.n' , poll"


/I'
- -----------------_._-- -_.
0.111 0.611 0.711 1.011
'"
0.2/1 I0.311 !0.411 0.111 0.'"
..
f--
._0101 .0.\12 0." ... OOO:!! .0014 .0021 .0001 -.1)042 -.O'SO -.0302 .0:\29 .01"6I 0. 002'0 .OH1 .01.1 .0]'"

0.1 .0011 -e, oon .006] +.0010 .0010 .0(2) -.0061 -.0224 .OU7 .0019 dIU6.. 1.01l3 . 0201 .0]19 .03'2'9 .0192 ...
I.,
'.OUI

1.2 .0012 .0042 .0071 .0103 .0112 .00')0 .0022 -.0101 0) II .0602 ... 1)(\18 . e .Oln . .MII e , 0111 .0131 .02'f6 -..01"0

.0011 .00 .. 1 .0111 .001) .0107 0121 -.U7]} .02]'2 OUtt -.OO!'!I L'i <1")1' .0044 , 0091 . .0211 . . I."

..OO]:!! z.o .0010 .0061 .0099 .0120 .ooJ3 .0199 ..0145 +.0'15 -.0021 -.Oll!'! .04)6 ... .007] +.0114 .0219 .0001 .OI:!!1 .0205

3.o .0006 .0047 .(08) 0Ui] ..0111 ..0024 .0071 .Qf}90 .0097 .0077 -.Oll] ....... .0018 ..0040 .00!)2 .0121 .0012 .0119 3.

... .0012 .0028 .0047 .0060 1.1077 OUOI .nOO7 .0016 ..00lll .0109 .0118 .OUOJ .. 9.ooJJ .00"7 -.0ll1l0 .01111

, .o I . ..0008 . 00IG .Q(II'i .OQCJ4 +.0071 .00046 . .unoo .00)4 e , .onlo .0002 .0000 .00''' ,"

. ()())J .OOJ!) 0062 .0061 '.0001 .0008 .00.12 +.1I04G _.()(I)I ".ool'J ..ootl2 .0019 .0011 .001' .0000 .OOOU '.IlVl:'1 -.004'

I .o . OU)8 9.0002 +.OOOB .0016 .OtI76 .OO:JU 1.0 .e000 .O('W .0002 .oocc .0010 .00!7 .OU5" .0029 .014ti .0022

I
.004] Id.U 0004 10,1) .0000 .0011

0 .0000 .0000 . 0001 .0007 .no'1'<t -.0002 ..002$ 00"5 0019 .00211 -.0012 ..0112 .O<lOO
-'"
'Z
.
.000) 12.0 .0000 ... OQQI . 00lJ) .0011 +.0032 .nun .UOOI .0002 .001] .00'lJ .0000 .0021i 110 .0000 -.0001 .OOW
".OUO'\......
_.00]] .onoo .()(If_) .0001 .0076 .0000 .OUOO .000 .0(1) -.0001 -.0001 .0001 .000. .0012 1".0 .0000 .0008 .oou -.0001 .0090 14.0

. 0071 .0000 .()Ot)0 0012 16.0 -.0001 .Q/'Cll .0019 1$.0 .1.k)uO -.0001 0i)(J" 0008 -.0001 .0002 9.001.1 .0019 .0000 +.000" .00"0

Table IX
Momenta In cyllndrlc:a. wall
Rectangularload
n:lled base, froe top
Mom. - (.oof. X pili
POlil,w. algn lndu;.' 101'.101' in tho "",I,i,lo
. .
I.

:. 0
r .<:
.:.: . - :.
1
.1 -.: .'
11
,
--------------------"---f1--------....,------------=--1
Io.;-;r.211 -1.'1/ fD.W I,;,;;'
':;;;1' :.;).j;'
0.8 .0000 -.1)IJt.1G -.00'2! -.0083 -.011:; -.OJ62 .n',')4 .l)')l7 _.1J1!) .-.1K.1!1
1.2 '.000' ,.0020 .00]7 .OO:!') -.000'> -.OOU9 -.UV7 -.04GI -.1178
I.G .0011 9.00J6 0062 .0077 .OQr,8 9.0011 -.0093 -.0!'!2') .081G
'.0 .0010 .OO)G OOG' _.0018 .00111 _.OJII') -.011']
J.O ..0007 . 0026 00!1 0014 ... (t()!)1 . 008] . (1042 .0051 -.un) _.1)48.\
00,0 .00Q4 . .00JJ .0066 . -.lKU] - 016!,
).0 . 0002 e , ()(.O8 +.oo,!) . 0035 e .GO:!!I .0061 ,.0007 -.0101 -. "').1
... 0004 .0011 002'2 9.0036 . 00 ..9 .00." OUI7 -.0073 - 01 ....
0001 . 000l ... oooll 0018 OOJI . 00lll . 002" -.0181
... 0001 .0000 1'.000'2 O(t()!) +.0021 0030 0021j -.001? -.Ot47
17.0 .0000 .0000 -,OUOI .0000 000" 0014 .001.. .00:'2 ..(,0.2 -.OI:!J
I ... d .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0002 .0010 .0018 . 00'21 ..h007 ..
':l=
16.0 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0001 .OOOG .001'2 .0020 -.oon!!
Table XI
r--'---------.--------------,
MomentsIn cylindricalwall
Momont/M M, applied atl;Jaao
Hlngod baae, top .
Mom. - eeet, X '"
Po.,Iiv"n 1",liCo1lI.lI 10,.,iol\ In ouhldo
---'-"-'
//'/ CoalfiClGnh at poin'
ui I 0.211-1 0.311 I L ..I 0.611 I
.O.G!):! .U.tl41 .!.OOU
OlJ .OUO'! .0.041> .0.090 .0.1(,...0.'2!.3 .0.l1) 10.8::'4 .1.000
1.2 0006 .0011 .0.003 .0:206 .O.JIG ..0.6Ilo .0.802 .1.000
1r.;.0001 .0011 .0.0]'\ .0.078 .0.1)2 .0.39] .1.000
10'.0lI'12 _OIW/'1 .0.012 +O.OJ" .0.096 .0.340 .0.7..8 .1.001)
\lIf 0007 002:! 0.030 ('''_"9 .n.olo .0.Oft7 .0,2;'7 .n.....!i .r!;')" .100tJ
1I00Ill 0.CI-I4 0.014 .O.J"I"
)0 1)007 -0011 -OOlOj 0.01) .0.09r ..0.1'"16 ,O.fil.l+i ,1.rlOO
(,0 000" 4UOIII 0.0"0 .(\.1"': U.OJ7 .11.">7/ (Illl'
10 0001 000') 0.022 -O.(JoI" O.Utoti O.OlI4' .0.04:01 .0.l/d .1.I)Il(.l
100 0000 000' 0.00') -0.028 -0.0:>3 -O.OG. -OOJ' .1l.121 .U.4G1 .1.QoJO
11.0\ OlJ("O 0.000 -O.OlIJ 0.016 -0.0..01 ".064 0.1>151 .0.Oltl ,0."7" .1.000
140 0.000 0.000 0.000 -0.001l -0O;'!) _0.060 .0.0"1l .. 0.)87 ..1.000
lG.U 0.000 0.000 .0.002 0.00) -0.0"/' -0.066 .1.000
.WtUIr'l U....",III. II u..oll 'a, mum.l"t ;lP(lhOll alll.olup, ....h'l.. '"elup h.n')..,1,0011
i,Ihe t,-,lIom 0' the ....olff afl." 1.0ll it. 1110."1). Mom.'" a"plleu al ;Ill lulQIt it "u.. .....
t
....hon 11'.""0'0"'1....01,.1foloillon e' Il\ill (IlJ]O.
Table X
Moments In cylindric... wall
ShoAr / m V, applied attDp
rbed b;tSO, froe top
Mo.... _ tll'f. X "11
"II" ten,'o" In oul."I.
.. 3:<"- Q
Q._-_.
: x .
. .
1OE
,
tI' ': C""/It,.",,,._t p(1I"I
10.61110.111 jWll0.9I1...1.-!.01l
.,....,.._.__ ..._. __ ...._. -- .........,_., .. - -". ,---- .. -
.0.171
.O..
11 .0.082
1.1; .0.079 d).I22
2.U .0.071

5.0/,0.I)G-4 ,u.07lJ
li Q .0.OG2 ,O.Q70
.o.ose
10.0 .O.oc.] .0.041
11.0 .0.0..9 .O.tJ-t2
I
.1)2"Q ,O]OU
.0.2011 .o.no
.0.1:17 .0.164
.0.139 ..0.138
..0.116 .0.11') .0.10)
I
.0.067 .O.1l41 .0.018
.0.O!loG .. I).OJ.' .0.018
.0... n2 .0.44'
.0.224 .0.'21l .n.219 .0.214 .U:OUIl
90.14) .0.117 .0.1116 90.0114 .0.(1'.:'
.0.OB1 .0.0.\0 .0004
.0.080 .O.OM .0.OJ1 .0.COIi - 1.01'1

.0.01l +0.00) .e.oea _n.OO7 0.011
.0.006 0.000 -0.00.1 0.00"
.0.011 ,0.0'4'1 .0.00110000 -0.002 -0.00] -u.oca 0.001
.0,0r.1 .0.012 ..0002 -0.002 -0002 -0.001 O.()I'IO
.0.012 .0.007 0000 -0.002 0001 -0.001 O.OOU 0.0l1O
::::
Wl\.nthi.1.111. I, /Uf .h.a,.ppli.d.llheb........ hilo 'h.1.. ,.1. n ......0.01111
Itl" hull"ul\'U' til..... illl .ltd 1.01/ i.thu toop.Sh.aracllng In ....rd I. PO,IUW Quh...,dII
l1.. u""i ve.
Table XII
Moments In circularslabwIthoutcenter.upp.ort
Uniform 10ilLl
X ,.HI
Po,iliwe "0"in.lie.l). Pm"' ....lUn in ...,I.u;.
.n I L .. .1
R.rt,... 1,lIl1molll,. "',.
,."I ..73 1.067[.:.0"1., I ..0"1 .0031 '.'" 1 ....I .087 I "'"
7>I..74 I ..071 I .....I0 " 1.'>0 I .39 1..,.-r.:o"T .008 1 -.0

TableXIII
Morn."uI"clroularsl.hwithe."t4rtupport
Uniform load
F'hrnd edge
Mo ..._- )(' rRI
Po.,I1....ID" I"dlul,.00".,.,..,1,"I" I".d.. d
0.06 -0.2100
I
-0.0275
I
0.10 -O.I41J -0.01;'4
0.16 -a.lou
0.20
0.7&
--_.
._-
I
0.05 -0.0417 -0.0700 -D.OM1
0.10 -0.0787 0.04'1
O.H! -0.01.'"
0.'0

O.JOR I ....R I
Tabl" XIV
MCU11enh h, olroulAr._.bwithoont..r eupport
Uniform load
lUnged ada.
Mu,.... - CO"" X pRI
Po.ltI.... Illt;l" 1"111,..,,,. oump,."lnn I., .... ,1....., 1""....1
0.10

0.70

--0,1040 ----f'-- 0.01'1511 -O.Onl .. _-- -.---.-------" .(1.1)1,)4 .O.02!'1 -_.- .O.U??II -0.0171 .. 0 Illl""
00'
0.10 -0.0768 IU.nti1l4 0.0'1)') -0.01'" -O.ot! ,0,00'0 .n.otJ.4!,o.0I971 ,0,01111 / ..0.", .."I ,O.IU4!J
-0.OJ74 -0.(1)16 -0.0470 -0.001" .0.(JO'n .0.0163 .0.01118 .n.OI71 .n.012.1
0.'0

-0.021J -0.Ol67 -0.0.133 -0.01114 -O.OCM' .O.uIJ2 .0.0141 .0.fIl0'

.0.0734 -0.0263 _O.OnI4 .0.ooJ8 .O.IHOJ .0.1.11.'\2 .O.O":! .0.,,,.1'.
Table XV
Mnments In etre...I;1r .lAbwlth centersUf),lort
Moment/,..., M, applied ateoduo I
edge
Mu",. - co.'. >< M
Po.iIIv. -.iO" Indlc.ll)1 com.,r...lon In lop lul'.c.
----
TableXVI
Shul"iltba'.of cylindrical 11
(I,ia"v",I..,.
,- - c_I.X ,.11 (t.ctlilnout.. t'
"'III (""-'".a' ba..,
1'01,11... ,i",,, iftd.cat h .,aelll1g 1,,_lIcj
r"
H' f,l..nyul",luad, I R'cllf1Ql"'" lOla,
,,,
"udb.... 'Iudboll.
-
.o.ns .o.ns 0.'
.o.n. 0.'
.0.460 .0.JJ9 I.'
... .0.407 0.117
.0.299 .0,l10 '.0
.0.262 .O.JIO '.0
.O.2J6 .0.211 '.0
.0.'l13 .0.:143 '.0
.0.197 .0.22'1 '.0
.0.174 .O,lt3 '.0
..0.16. 10.0 .. 0.17'1
12.0 'O.IH IO.U'
140 .O.lltt .0.147
0 .0.127 .0.111
Table XVIII
StlHl'leuof c)'lIndrlcal wall
Nearedge far edge fn.
_ eoel. X 1:",11
n
Coerrlt:i.nt Cmel.nt
iJi tn
I I I
,
0.11.)
0.'
0.13Y
0.'
0.111 0.'2'70

T,i."v"".'0, 0.,0) O.J.. u 12 MtUlnll.1

',cl.""",I.,101. .0 1.010 0.399


.1.dU
hU'I,.d lI ... 1.101 , .e 12
'.
14 1.1" '.0 .0.1'"
1.:11 0.6JS
.0.120
'0 .0.ll4
1.00
.0104 -2.2
.0.189
-J.II
.0,lll

-J.n
.0,121 4.10
.0.110 -4."9
-).1' .0.098
.0.011 Ul
O.Or., 6)
.O,01J -6.n
7.}6 .0.06'
TableXIX
Table XVII
StlHneuof cirClul8r pliltea
With C4l'lter aupport
.. - co.l, X K"/H
Lu.u' - till',X {
LOolld on centeraupportfor c:lrc:ul ..r .Iab
0.10
_-o-,,--r--':;O-j--o-.,-,-
...:!.!:.._I__ I---
I I
(/I) 0.10 0,1.) O:ZO
C".l. I 0.'2'0 I
0.3u, 0.33'2 ( O.HI I 0.317
HI.,,,..IJ 1.320 1.317 1-483 1.!lo42
F... iJ o,n, 1.007 1,1t.l1 1.100
Withoutcenter'upport
COfO'._ 0.104
.11 1.1."lIa
I
6.16 1.66 I 9.:9 ... 10.1'
.;
Tabl. XX. fo, Values of W'/DI G,oal.,than 16 (Ext.n,ion 01TaLf.,1'0XI,XVI anJ XVIII)
I TABLE I
TABl "
I
TABLE 111
I
j
TABLE IY
II' .
CootrICl4nl1 a, polnl CG6I'fiC10.,(. at paJnl Co.ftki.ntaat point Oi Coerr!cle.,lt "t point
_. __ .1011
I I
I
.toll
I
.!lSII .7>11 I.IDII
I

I
.9011
I

.. '20 .0116 .0.M.4 I.0.S20 .Q.J'2S ..O.ln .0.112 .0.117 .0.603 .O.l'" .il.,4, .06'2'9 .0.]1, .0.12' .1.061 .1.011

"
.U.746
.0'0'I.o.m
.Q.3n .0.U7 .0.111 .0.8.3' .0793 .0.647 .0.3n .0.911 .O.IU'J .0.'904 .0.00 .0.149 .1.0M .1.039 .0.'4) .0J'47 .0.477
J2 ,0,781 .0.lGa .0.643 .. .0.112 .0.114 .0.861 .0.147 .O.nl .0.4]8 .'.0'26 .0.111 .0.189 .1.064 .1.061 .0.991 .0.8:PI ..0.411
.0 .0.800 .(1.131 ,0.211 .o.m .0.860 .0.1160 .o.n. 0.413 ,1,D-l0 ,09')6 ..0.1:" .o.ne ...1.061 .1.L1.3O .0.111 .. O.W
.. .U.191 .0.121 .0."3 0.791 ...... ,0.900 .0.'20 .1.04) .1.0n .0.911 .0.26'2 .1.041
"'.0G4
i.eso .0.92'0 .0.617
.. .0.76..] .0lJl!l.0.I-Z4 .0.636 .0.111 .O.a;lj .0.911 .0.8!'1'2 .1-().I0 .0.'4') .0.loS .0,2'i4 .1.021 .1061 .. 0.9!Q l "0.113
TABLE \I TA(jl \II TAOLE vu TABLE VIII
!E.
Co-If,cl."u.atpoint CooI'fI.cI.nl.a .t CLlGlf!ci."11.atPOlnl COIlnc;I."I,.,poInt ,,,
.0011 .1011
.2011 .nll .10/1 .'JOII svn .10/1 .111/
I .9011 1.0011 .tvu .8011

.
20 r....
- .aa U(I
- .. 0.2'2: .IS.JO
'11.'
16.9 43,3 H.3 .oon . 0014 -.0018 -.OOGJ .,0006 ...0014 . 0020 ...00'24 ..0020
24 -1'.04 -10.14 1.00
0.61 .13.20 .2S.' 40.1 61.8 .. 4S.3 . 001'2 ...0011 . 0..>01 -.0011 . 000$ noIO .,001$ . 002Il 0017
-Io.n - 3.70 - 0...
1.21
.. 1.10
23.'l
..
lIS.4 13.8
. 0007 OOO? ...0007 _.0001 -.0040 .0000 .000S 0000 . 0014 ...001]
40 -2J.14 -10.11 1.11 .o.n
1.6a
3.11 'I 1.1 .. .. 17.9
'3.1
0.0002 . 0006 _.C,JOS -.OOJ'2 .0000 . 0003 0.0006 .0011 ...0011
41 -10.67 - 1.00 .. 1.'21 .. '.68 - 0.70 .14.' .4S.1 .. 17.2 ..10).0 .0000 .,0001 .0006 _.rJOO) -.00'10 .0000 e ,OO(U ...... 0001 ...0010
be -IO.U - I.JI 1.10 1.12 - 3.40

'.'
.. 41.2 84.0 .. .0000 .0000 . 0004 .0001 .0000 .0000 OOOJ ...DOU7 0.0001
TADLE IX
'.0011 I
TABLE X TABLE XI I TABLE XVI TABLE
Lei
Cc.oetrIe'.nl. at point eoemc:l.nla"t p<llnl
I
Coel'ficlgn!l al pollli
XVIII
III
lT'L I
-
,iOII .1011 ,UI/ ,2011 .&011 .'011 ,'I'" t.OOli
fl1t flud Hlng_d at Edv_ Stinntl..
'-
'0 .0015
0.0013 1..0002
-.00'24 -,0013 .0.012 .O.OJl:l .0.033 .0.0'l1 .0.014 .0.095 .0.'296 .0.601 .1.000 ..0.1'4 .0.1'12 .0.012 -&.20 1.4310
24 . 0012 .,00" . 0004 -.0011 -.roel 0.031 .0.035 .0.011 .0.011 .0.009 -0.037 .O.OH .o.sn .1.000 .0.101 to.l11 .O.OM - 8.9-4 I ....
J2 . 0008 lXlO!t e ,0006 .0010 -.0041 .0.0211 .0.0'29 .0.020 .0.011 .0.004 -0.061 .0.0Q2 .0.111 .1.000 10.089 .0.090 .0.04. -io.JO
'''101 .0 . .OV07 .0007 -.OOOS -.0037 .0.0'211 .0.02S .0.0Q0I .0.001 -0.017 -0.0)1 .0.12) .0.457 .1.000 .0.080 .0.011 .0.04) 2.026
.. . 0004 0Cl0G 0006 .OOOJ .0031 .0.014 .0.011 .0.011 .. O.OOJ 0.000 -<l.D61 .0.04l .0.4'24 .1.000 .o.un ..O.Oli .0.039 -12.16 2.220
be .00U2 0004 I. -.000' .0.013 .0.011 .0.001 .0.002 0.000 -0.... .O.G-II .0.387 .,.000 .0.061 .0.07. .0.038 -1171 2.400
fQll,lQlnt. not.hown in Ih_ .... In
n"
..
49
1)
2)
3)
~ o t t o m
"
II
edge sliding
"
"
hinged
fixed
-
ozR .20 1ft
t
\ Fig. III-IS
1) Top Edge Free and Bottom Edge Slidng
H :: 5.00 IDS and R :: 10 ms
The maximum wall thickness can be determined according to equation 7
from the relation
t = 0.8 w H R
max
thus
t ~ 0.8 x 1 x 5 x 10 :: 40 cms
max
:"..
As the water pressure increases with the depth, ~
.i.e!.fully
resisted by ring action, it i.e! convenient to choose a trapezoidal wall
with. a minimum thiek:ness t :: 20 ems at top and a manmum thickness of
40 ems at bottom.
Table 1 Ring Tension in Cylinderieal Tank Hall withFree Top &8li-
ding Base T::xR
Distance from
[top edge x 0 0.2H 0.4R
..
0.6H 0.8H
..
1.OH
!Ring Tension
~ tim 0 10.000 20.000 30.000 40.000 5O.0CO
2) Tou Edge Free Bottom EdGe Hinged
As the max. ring tension and bendi.ng !!lo:,:ent take place at the mid-
dle part of the wall, itis recomL1ended to choose a wall of constant
thicmess with
(26)
In our ease .. i
1; .;". {).5x.5%10"=25 ems
2.
52
Therefore ,.. H =---"---
=5
. D t 20 x 0.25
Ring tension per meter height will be computed by
by the for B
2
I Dt'=5.0 taken from table ir t PmaxE
=
5 x 10 = 50 tim
Bending moments in the vertical wall strips 1
m
wide are computed by
multiplying the coefficient given intable VIII by
:.:
It has to be noted. that :
* The coefficients are given that point O.OB denotes the top
and :point l.OH "the.base of the wa1.1.
3 The positive ring forces are tensile while the negative are com-
pressive ..
* Positive bending moments cause tensile stresses in,the outer sur-
face and compressive stresses in the inner surface of the wall.
. '.
Table 2:RiDg Tension & Bending MO!:!eI:ts iIi. Cy1ind.erica1.. Tank Wall
with Free Top and Hinged Base.
0.2H 0.3li!0.4H 0.5H. 0.6H 0.7H O.SH 0.9B
:.OH :.lH
+ + + 1+" + .. +
+ II +
II .008 .114 .235 .'356 .617 I.606 r , ::;03 .2Cl4
sian Ttim _ +
+ + + + + +
+ 1+
.0.4 5.70 11.7517.8 23.45 28.1 30.85 30w5 25.1 14.7
Coet. + + + + +. + +. '. + +
VIII .00 .00 .0001 .0006 .0016 .0034 :0057 .008' .0094 .007c
+'
+ + + '+ + + + +
pmt/m .00
.075 .20 1.425 .712 1.00 1.:).72 .975
51
aeaction at base ( coefficient table XvI )
:: 0.121 w g2 :: 0.121 xlx25 :: 3.0 tim'
....
The max. ring tension in the wall T
mai
'== 30.85 tonS' and acta' at
o.6H :: 3.(;0 as frol!l the top edge: The required"ring reinforcement o.t
x :: 0.6H is given by
T 30850
As = = =
22 ems 16 q:> 13 Dlln/I:1 ( 8eP 13 ID.I!l/m on each
O's
1400
side) 21.2 cI!I
2
The tensile stress in concrete, including shrinkage, is by
T + E
(J sh 5
As
30850 + 0.00025 x 2100.')00 x 21.2
::
t
=
A + Do As 100 x 25 x 10 x 21.2
c
;0850 + 11100
::
419'30 2
=
:: 15.5 kg/cm safe.
2500 + 212 2712
The max moment
u
+ :: 1172 kgm and acts at x :: O.SH 4 InS.
"max =
from top
d :: t :: 22 ems d or
- 3 25 - 3 = = k1"V'M
22 :: k
1
V
11
72
i.e k
1
:: 0.G43
-. ,-
2 2
For (J
s
=
1400 kg/cm ,et=0 ,
O'c =
25 kg/cm &.
ltz
=
1,00 and
tit 1172
choose .;) q; 10
= =-
k d 1300 x .22
2
: To";) Edge Free. Bottom Edge Fixed :
In this case, the water pressure will be resisted by ring ten-
sion in the direction and cantilever action in the verti-
cal The rna.x.:' ring tensic!J. and max. positive moment '.'lill btl
smaller thall b. case 2. wall hine;ed. at baseI While relatively big
fiXing mouent s Ylill be induced at the fued bottom ed[;e of the wall.
For reasen, it is to choose for this case a
wall of constant thi.ckne s s t =25 cms sti.ffened \'lith a haunch ( ca
10 x 40 at its foot.
Due to the existance of the haunch, it is recommended to deter-
the fixing mo:nen-c and respectively the thickness of tha wall at
its foot either by method of Reissner Or by the simplified method
given before while ,ring tension aDd. positive moments can be deter-
mined from the p.e.A. tables neglecting the effect of the haunch.
ThUS,
For section at base Refer to examp'le2 in the simplliied me-
thods
3600 2
= 8.8 cm . 7 e.p 13 mm.
1284- x .32
The ring tension per meter height will be computed by multiply-
ing P =5 %,10 =50 tim by the for H
2
I D t taken
max
from table 1. The positive bending moments in the vertical';'wall! strips
1 m wide are 'computed by multiplying the coefficient given in table
>,
H
2
VII by P = 5 x 52 :: 125 mt/m.
max
The ring tension and the cantilever moments at. the 'different
depths of the wall are given in table 3 in which all the values are
determined from the P.C.A. tables for H
2
I D t = 5 with the exception
of the fixing moment at the foot of the wall which equals - 3.6 mt as
given in example 2 page 45
Ta.ble 3. Ring Tension & Bending in Cylinderical Tank Wall
with Free Top & Fixed Base.
Point
O.OE
O.lH 0.2H 0.3H 0.4H 0.5H 0.6H 0.7H 0.8H 0.9H
r
Ring Coef + + + + + + + + + +
I .025 .137 .245 .346 .428 .477 .469 .398 .259 .092
Ten.
T + + .+ + + + + + + +
tim 1.25 6.8512.25 J.7.3 121.4 23.85 23.45 19.9 12.9 4.6
,
Coef. +. + + + + + + + + +
II .00 .0002 .OOOE .0016 .0029 .0046 .0059 .006 .003 .006
fiLM.
M + + + + + + + + 1-
1!lt/m .00 j" .025 .10 .20 .36 58 .74
.74- .
.3.5 1.7
2
shear at base of wall equals p H x coef. of 0.21; for HID t =5
from table XVI. i.e. =0.21; x 5 x 5 =5.;; tim.

I
!
e:
.'
OJ
:
0,
"
e
o
..
Cantilever moments Fig. III-19 Ring tension
rhe ring ten.'lion and cantilever moments !'or the 3 cases are shown
in figure III.19.
In cases of tank walls monolithically cast with the floor sup-
ported on clayey soils liable to unknown rotations, it is
to design the section at the foot of the wall for the max. possible
negative bending moment M = - 3600 kgm - case of total fixation, the
max. positive bending moment M = 1172 kgm. and the ring tension
t
T = 31 t are to be taken from the case of a inged base i.e. .we ma-
max
ke the design for the hatched values shown in figure. The tension in
the floor due to cantilever action = 5.33 tim'
111.5. Tank 3alls Continuous with Roof or Floor
ifhen the bottom of the wall and the edge of the floor slab
are made continuous as shown in figure III.20, the elastic deformation
of the floor slab tends to rotate the lower point of the wall and in-
troduces a moment M in the corner. 'The procedure for obtaining M,
is so much like distribution applied to continuous frames, on-
ly there is no ca:rry over m9m&ntS. The data in tables nuzaber-s XVIII
and XIX of the p.e.A. , a:re which denote requi-
red to cause a unit rotation at the edge of the yrail and tile floor
slab. Only relative values of stiffness are required in this appli-
50 tim
cution. The sho\vn fig. 111.20 gives a good explanation for
problem. The nain steps for the solution are
1) Determine the fixing moment
P-.t the bottom of. wall and at
the edge of the floor,
..
aasumi.ng
joint between wall and floor to-
.
taly fixed. The two fi.xi.ng mome- f
nts are generally not equal.
:
2) The difference between the
rwo fixing moments will be dis -
tributed between wall and floor
by distribution method
.2!l D-2R _to.o
m
E
0

%:
I
.
2.5
m

\ 1 t/
/
e
10 "Ct -;->0.,
.-?:"

-.
rf '"
I
ci 0

Ie-
I . rtf
I
Fig. 111-20
,
I-- .
-

according to the relative stiffness and distribution factors of both


wall and floor
.3) iind out the effects of the distributed mo:o.ents on .both and add
it to the solution of fixed joiJit.
Determine the concrete dimensions and steel reinforcements such
"tha.t there is adequate strength and suf'ficient safety against crac -
Exanple
A reinforced concrete water tank 10 me diameter and 5.0 rns deep
is supported oIl( a cy1inderical wall at its outside edge & on a central
column at the centre as shown in fig. III. 20. The wall is free at it.'3
top edge and continuous with the floor slab, at its bottom edge. The
column capital is 1.5 m diameter, and the drop panel, 50 CIllS thick
l
is 2.5ms diameter.
It is reqUired "to clarify- the effect of continui"ty between vaL
and floor on both of "tliem.
.2
55
3tep 1: Fixed End of Wall &Floor
The fixed end aonenb of the 'Mall is c01!1!-,uted by multiplyin
o
the"
coefi. given in table VII for the corresponding t at 1.0 H by
P:nax h.2 =5 x 52 =125
= 52
=10 coeff. ( table VII ) at 1.0 H=- 0.0122
Dt 10 % .25
M =- 0.0122 % 125 =- 1.53 mt.
The radial moments of the floor slab are efiected by the drop panel,
but since the ratio of the panel area to the total slab area is about
1/20, its effect on the loads and moments may be neglected and the
coefficients given in table XIII, XIV &. 'l:.V can be used.
load/m
2
floor slab = weight of water + ownweight
p = 5.0 + 0.35 x 2.5 = 5.875 t/m
2
The radial fixed end moment equals the coefficient of 0.049 from ta-
ble XIII for clD =1.5/10 = 0.15 at point 1.0 Rmultiplied by p R
2
i.e. M - 0.049 x 5.875 x 52 = - 7.2 mt.
Step 2: The Connecting I.lornent
The fixed end moments of the wall ( - 1.53 mt ) and floor
( - 7.2 mt ) being not equal, the difference will be diatributed bet-
ween wall and floer slab according to their relative stiffness, thus:
3
/ H =25
3/500
The relative stiffness of the wall equals t = 31.25
multiplied by coefficient taken fro:ll table XVIII for H
2
/ D t = 10.
i.e. 31.25 x 1.01 = 31.56
The relative stiffness of the floor slab equals t3 / R = 35
3
,I 500 =
85.75 by coefficient taken table XIX for clD = 1.5/10
=0.15
i.e. 85.75 x 0.332 =28.47
The distribution factors are
56
31.56

for wall = = 0.523
31.56 + 60.03
28.47 23.47.
for floor : = =
0.477
31.56 + 28.47 60.03
The. final connecting moment will be by moment dis-
tribution as follows: ( fig. 111.21 ).
-Vall Floor Fixer,. end Connecting
moments moments
Distribution Factor 0.523 0.477 -
/"

mt ,.--.4. 5
mt
Fixed end +1.53
mt
l2:
2

Distributed I.1ownt +2.97 +2.70 )
+4.50 -4.50 FiC;.1E.21
Tbe damping of the bending moments makes the simple mo-
ment distribution shown su.f1'icient 1'01' deteJ-'Jlinins the connecting mo-
,-
ment in the corner.
.3tep 3 Ring TenSion & Cantilever of ;'iall
Ring tension per meter beight cantilever moment for ln strip
will be calculated 1'or a wall wi+-h fixed base, subject to
water pressure plus effect of an induced moment equal to - 2.97
a) Ring tension due to triangular water pressure wili be computed
by coefficients table 1 for ( / Dt ) 10 by
=
Pmax. R =5 x 5 =25.
b) Ring tension due to an induced moment of - 2.97 mt will be com-
puted by multiplying coefficient from table VI for / Dt =10 by
R / H
2
=_ 2.97 x 5 = 0.594
52
c) Cantilever moaent due tc triangular water pressure will be cca-
puted by t1ul t iplying coefi ic ieot from table VII for E
2
/ Dt =10 by
2
=5 x =125 P
tIaX
H
d) due to an induced t:lo::ent of - 2.97 mt Will be
57
computed by multiplying coefficient from table XI for H
2
I Dt =10
by M=- 2,. 97 mt.
The final value will be as given in. the following table and figure
Ill.22 :
'-
"',-.,---------------,----------------,
I
Ring Tension
Cantilever :';[oment
I
s:l i. I
'f"I Coeff. Coeff. , T T T poefi. Coeff. M I M I ill
o Table Table tim tim total able Table mt/mmt/m total F'
p., *' VI due due in VII XI due due, in
to .eo tim i to to I nt/t
t:. load moment load IDOlOOnt I load momentA load
+
I
I
- I
oH 0.011 0.21 0.265 0.124 .000 0.000 lo.ooq 0.000
I '
+ + + + !
I
o.ooelo.oool .1H 0.098 0.23 2.46 0.1}6 2.596 .oco
+ +
1 .2H 0208 0.64 5.20
.3H

.6H
.7H
.8H
.9H
H
+ +
0.323 0.94 8.10
+ +
0.437 0.73 Po1.00
+ + +
0.82 13.55
+ + +
0.608 4.79 5.20
+ + +
0.589 11.63 14.73 '
+
+ I +
0.440 19.48 11.00
+ + +
0.179 20.87 4.47
o o a
0.38
+ +
5.58
0.56
+ +
8.66
0.43
+
11.43
0.49 '13.06
+
2.84
+
12.36
6.82
+
7.91
11.55 0.55
12.4-0 7.93
o o
.000
+
.0001
+
.0004
+
.0007
+
.0019
+
+
.0028
.0012
.0122
+ + + I
0.002' b.ooo 0.006 0.006
1
- +
I +, +1!
"
0.027: 0.0'+0, 0.009 p.Ol}
+ ! + +
0.028b.050 0.084 0.134
- + + +
0.053 0.088 0.15
e
0.24'7
+ + +
0.067 0.238 0.200 0.438
1
+ + +
+ +
0.369 0.019 0.123 0.350
+
0.467 0.150
+
1.0CO 1.530 2.97C 4.500
58
or
SheltI' at base
Q 0.158 PH -+- 5.81 U / H
=
0.158 x5 x 5 -+- 5.81 x 2.97 I 5
=
OIl
456
E
.....
E
OIl
.... ....
II -'
OIl
"500
2l\
Cantilever moment
Rino tension
Fig. 111-22
Step 4 Radial and Tangential inFloor Slab :
The radial moments are computed by selecting coefficients for
clD = 0.15 from tables nIl& xv , and multiplying them by p R
2
=
=
,.95 + ,.45
=
7.4 tim
- --,6cpa"hvrn-
I
I :Ti
lIll
-l6>IO"'"'1
m
I e
E
.....
u.ce
CD 0
-e-
..
5.875 x 25 =147 mt/m ( for fixed
moment at edge :
Radial moments in the last
line are for a segment havi.:lg an
arc 1 mlong at the edge ( point
1.OR ). They are obtained b
J
mul-
tiplying the original moI:ient per
meter by the fraction indicating
its distance from the centre,for
illustration 5.3, x 0.6 =3.2 mt
moments in the 2 last lines
of the table are plotted in
edge ) and by M=2.7 mt/m for
Fig. II1-23
59
III.22 The radial I:1o::ent around the colUI:1Il is relatively
high, and toe actual value is oniy =0.7 theoretical 0.7(16 + 4-.})
=14 mt. It is however recolltilended, in this case to enlar,;e the co-
lumn capital as shown by the dotted line fig. III.2} so that :
at 0.1 H 0.15 H 0.2 H 0.25 H
thickness 75 cm 66.66 cm 58.33 cm 50 CI:1
Point AOR .30R .60R .20B .25B .50R .15R .70P' .9GR 1.OR
Coef.f T.XIII + .+ + + + + - - - - -
Fixed,
10-2
x 10.9 2.00 0.02 2.20 0.06 2.69 2.16 5.21 2.93 1.69 4-.9
Coef! Table + + + + + + + - - - -
I
,xv, M at edge
1.59
.90(1 .280 .0.78 .510 .6'53 1.0 .7se .930 , .323 .545
!::adial Lloment + + + + + + - - - - -
3ixed Edge 2.48 16.0 4.}1 0.03 }.23 0.09 3.18 7.2 2.94- 7.67 3.95
+ + + +
I
+ + + Radial
- - - I - ,
2.14- 0.21 1.38 2.43 2.7 0.76 0.87 1.47 1.79
1:.1 at
edge 14.302.51
+' + + + I',eotal Radial I
-
+ + - - - -
) 2.23 4.5 :.:oment I:J:,;/m 5.18 4.27 0.75 Itt-.O 8.50 0.73 5.33 3.50
+
..'
+ + Total Radia:l. + + + - - -
- -
}.20 3.00 1.78 0.68 tt-.5 0.22 2.Q4. 1.10 1.38 2.59 3.05
The tansential moments are computed by selecting coefficients
2
for clD =0.15 from tables XIII & Y::'{ and multiplying them by w R =
147 kgm/m ( for fixed edge ), and by M =2.7 mt/m (tor mO!ll.ent at ed-
ge ). '.In.-.llm
The total tangential ben-
ding moments are plotted in
figure 111.24. The effective
depth within the drop panel
is 46 centimeters instead of
32 ems. in tlle rest of the
I
J. Fig. 1II-24

I
\
floor slab, and if' the moze ntrs
...
r
60
ill that region arc reduced in the ratio 32/46 it is seen that the
critical occurs at the edge of the drop panel.
.60R .40R .80R .20P. .50R .70R .15R .25R .30R .90R Point
.-
I
...
+ + + Coeff.
tTl
.. XIII)
-
+ - - - - -
0.86 0.80 0.06 2.18 2.84 2.43 0.51 0.31 0.98 Fued,
10-2
x 1.77 0.57
-
.+
Goeff. Table + + + + - - - - -
.404 XV, rt. at edge .472 .100 .463 .251 .451 .319 .157 .263 .363 .035
+ lIoment I - + + + - - - - - -

4.18 1.4LJ 2.60 0.84 Fixed edge I;,.21 0.47 1.18 1.27 0.09 0.75 3.57
!
'rang. Moment
I - + + + - - - - -
+ I +
'"
at edge
iO.
86 0.68 0.27 0.10 0.42 1.09 0.98 1.22 1.27 1.25 0.71
-
.I. Total Tang. -. + + + + +
- - -
::oment mt/m 4.07 4.82 1.28 1.43 0.20 0.22 3.69 0.8S 1.69 1.55 5.45
Step 5; Design of the Different E1ement'!i
a) 3a11; rillg tension T
max
; 13.06 t at 0.5 H t =25 cm
max. ring reinforcements (0' :: 1400 kg/cri)
s
13060 9 2
= .3
6 10 1m on each side ( 9.4 cm )
1400
max. tensile stress ill concrete ( including shrinkage )
!ssuming E
sh
= 0.00025 E = 2100 000 kg/cm
2
s
13060 + 0.00025 x 2100000 x 9.4
=
100 x 25 + 10 x 9.4
13060 + 5740
= = 7.27
2594
'fhe max. positive mo!:.ent in wall
= 456 kgm at 0.7 H from top
Vertical reinforcement on
outside surface:
A = 456
=1.6 cm
2
chosen 5 8 mID (min).
s 1300 x .22
Section at foot of wall : max. negative coment M - = 4500 kgm.
max
61
=V
t
=
38.7 c::s chosen 40 C:lS
3
37 = le
1
-.I L:-500 k
l
=0.553 for =1400 kg/co.
2
4-50\:: 2
As = = 9.5 co. chosen
7 13 tmn/m
1280 x .;7
at top end of haunch
M=1550 kgm
1550
As
= = 5.44- co.
2
chosen 7 13 rmn/m O.K.
1;00 x .22
b) Floor Slab
The column load is determined by multiplying coefficients taken
from table XVII for clD =0.15 by P R
2
, for edge fixed, and. by =
2.7 mt/m, for induced moraent
Col. load when edge is fixed
=
147 t
Col. load due to induce mooent at edge 9.29 x 2.7 = 34 t
'1'0tal 181 t
Diam. of critical section for shear around theoretical capital is
1.50 + 0.50 =2.00 ms
Length of this section is given by
x 2.00 _ 6.28 ms
1
2
Load on area the section
5.675 x n x =18.5t
Q 162500
=
.87 b d 25600
Diam. of critical section for shear around drop panel::: 250 + 35=285 co.
Length of this section =rt x 2.85 = 9. ms
2
Load on area within the s:ection .9.875 X.Tt' .x: 1.425 = ;7.5 t
Q 18100G - 27500 143500
Shear stress "t = =
=
.87 b d 87 x 900 x 32 25000 .
Shear at edge of wall
= P
It" R-
?
- column load
. 2
5.375 x 3.14 x 5 -
181 = 460- 181=269 t
Length: of this section = 3.14.x: 10 = 31.4 mn
=
62
Shear stresses 1 = Q
=
269000 =3.10 Jq;lcm
2
.87 b d .87 x 3140 x 32
The horiz. reaction of the wall Q= 7.4 tim will be resisted by ring
reinforcement at the foot of the wall.
10 19 mm,
The max. positive radial moment =,5.33 mt.t=35 cm
=
5330
10 e 13 mm/m
1240 x .32 ,.
llax. - va B.M. at wall surface M- = 3500 kgm
, "
6 x 350000
O't =
=
17 kg/cm
2
2
100 x
35
32= k
l
y'3500 " .. k
1
= 0.54 0' ,=
30
=
1280
c
AS = __3",,5.:.;:0:.;:0:...-_ = 8.6 cm
2
chosen - 7
13 _=/m
1280 x .32'
Top radial reinforcements at middle
"max - =
14mt t = 65.66 CI:lS at r =75 ems
o =6 x 14 x 10
5
=19 kg/cm
2
'C 100 x 66.66
2
14000 2/m
=
18 cm total
As =
18 z ,Tt X 1.5
=
85cm
2
1250 x 63
If. -= 8.5 mt t
=
58.33 ems at
r =
1.00 m
6 x 2.5 x 10
5
'
=
15 kg/cm
2
at = 100 x 58.33
2
As = 8500
= 12.; em
2
1m total.A = 12.3 x Tt x 2 = ?8cm
2
1250 x .55
s
:.: -= 3.5 mt
t =35 cas at r = 1.25 ms
2
at = 17 cms
total As =8.6 x n oX 25 =67.5cri
63
:'he above ._t the total aao:..lI.t 0; the to:,
..,;.,-
dial reinfo::.'cet:e.:lt does ::.ot VaI'J' much in the part of tee 51.'ll:>
around the coLumn head so t:-.at the same nunbez- o bars :na"v be uced,
at snaller distWl.ces ii:I. the midJ.le and. at bL;;.,;er as we move
outwards. Therefore :
Use 32 fi' 19 mIll arranged as shown in fig. III.25 inwhich we.use 4
pes of bars ofthe following form:


/ 4 l<:' 19
4
32
19
a 19
i-,:ax. ring.reinfo::'cementG in lower
fiber at x =0.75 r
.. ,
A.
s
lZ:tang
1690
. 2
:::
= =4.4 cm
k
2
d 1300 x 0.3
Ring reinforcements in upper fiber at
fi'
x:
10 mm
@
=0.25 .r
15 cm
. III.25
4822
@
fi' 16 m.m 15 cms
1250 x G.}
Ring reinforcements inupper fiber at x .= 0.;5 r
2750
I} m.m @ 15 cms
1250 x O.}
c) Central Colu."1ll P =181 t, c:P = 60 cms, A. = 12 fi' 16 mm
s
P = O"c ( A. + n.A. ) or 181000 =O'c ( 2850 + 15 x 24 ) = 24 CI:lS
c s
or = 56 O.K.
The details of reinforcements are shown in fig. 111.26
It has to be noted.that in the given details, tent up bars have
been avoided because the shear stresses are low value = 6.35
kg/cm
2
), more over , such bars in walls are liable to move from their
position during concreting operations and the laying of straight bars
circular is easier.
64
R- D'
1.$ /1.
..;

I

..
aPLlNo; SHO/Y/,i/tf BCTTOH
R/1oI1': Or Pi 00,(;
LRP3 /N AU. ItO.'!
II00K$ AND 1'D IE

WnTER
rR,oRIt"/TY J7S,,'/
FiQ. IIr -26
65
TV .R 0 0 F S .A. N D FLOOR S 0 F C IRe U L .A. R TAN K S
IV.l. INTRODUCTION
Roofs and floors of circular tanks iIJaY be of the beam and slab
type as shown in figures IV - 1 a and b
-Ltl I ~
. .I '. .
"
Fig. IV-la
Fig. IV-lb
or of the flat slab type as shown in figure IV- 2. .
:Fig. IV-2
66
The determination of the internal forces in such sys tems inclu-
des no special difficulty as they follow the general rules of the theo-
ry and design of reinforced concrete.
They may also be composed of one circular slab with or Without
central support. The internal forces in these two types are given in
CROSS SECTIOAI
seCT/Oil R- R
SCT/ON $- B
SECT/O'" C-C
L ~ g IV-3a
67
. the table of the P.C.A. 'l?he method of shown i=:. the
numerical exazapLe just eX;Jlained. Circular slabs ma;y however be used
in circular tanks und.er different conditiOIlS of supports as shown. in
figures IV-3 a &. b. Figure a gives a 'to'lier in which circula:tl
slabs with and Without cantilevers and central holes are used for the
roof and the floor of the tank, the intermediate floors of the tower
and the foundation. Figure b shows a circular tank in which the roof
circular slabs are supported on circular beams and co Luzns arranged
along radial axes. The determination of the internal forces in such
i
j !

.
[I
J
Ii
I
I
,-J!
-
,.... ....., '-, L-, .- '--. .- r-
Fig. IV-3b
cases are given in article IV-2.
In :nany cases, the choice of a rei::..forced concr3te surface
of revolution - for exazpl.e a dome or a cone - results in an ul-
.tiJ:Jate saving in cost even wnen the ,p:-eater expenses of the'
"
, 68'
shuttering are taken in consideration. FigureIV-4 shows BJ+ Inze
tank 500q cubic meters capacity designed by the author and exe-
cubed at El Nasr City, Cairo. Figure IV-5 gives another x m p ~
"'f
8
..
o
o
...:
,v.
Reinforced concrete Inze water tower with conical roof
Fig. IV-4
of a circular reinf.'orced concrete reservoir covered by an B CI!lS thick
spherical dome. &.-
9
s
D
Reinforced concrete dome covering a circular tank
Fig. IV-5
69
IV-2. INTERlTAL FORCES L'i CI?CUL.l.R FLAT PU.TES
It Will be assuned that :
p = Uniform load per unit area.
P = Total load, concentrated load or live load per unit
t = Plate thickness.
E = Modulus of elasticity ( generally = 210 000 kg/ca
2
for concre-
te.)
V = l/m = Poisson's ratio. For concrete, itvaries between 1/10
and 1/5. It is generally assumed in the follOWing equal to
1/6." Some neglected its effect assume itequal to zero.
D
= Flexural rigidity of a plate.
12 (1- v2) =
6 = Deflection of the middle surface of the plate.
If! = Slope angle" "
" " " "
"
A = Roaction at the support.
= Radial shearinG force.

M
r
=
Radial bending moment.
tit =
Tangential bending moment.
a
=
Radius of plate from its middle ax:is to the support.
=
Span of a circular strip of a conti:Q.uouS 'p La be,
b =P a = radius of a specified circle on the plate.
r =p a =: radius of any circle on the plate.
All logarithms appearing in the following equations
JE
are natu-
ral (i.e. to the base e)
Reference
Beton-Kalender 1952 Volune II. Pa@& 271. Published by
"ililhelm. Ernst & Sonn. Berlin. Dusseldorf.
70
1) -Solid ?late Subjected to a Unifornly Distributed Load.
(Fig.IV.6)
2
Load p Total load P == P It a
P
--.r> A =-L
=-
2 It a 2 TC a
s.) Edr.:e
:--<.'!!
l.:r - --
P -[
1 + v - C3 + v )P
2J U - _P_- [1 + v - (1 + 3 v ) p2J
too: _-16 -rr
1611:
P Q2 2 - 2
P a
o (l-p ) (.2....::!:.l':'p )
p


- P
2)
64 It D 1 + 'I 16 n D 1 +v
P
.; =__(:2: + '. p
+ v
16 Tt
....r ;,.I "';t=- (1 + .3 v)
16 It
p
-
0.007
p --
_Oef2
3
p
..
..,
or
IV....5
71
2) Solid Circular Plate Subjected to a Load P Center
(Fig. Dr. 7)
= - -p-. 1:. for P >p, G.r =0 for p = 0, A =--L
2 It a p
,2 It a
a) Fixed. Edge
2
P a 2 2 Fa
6 = (1 - P. + 2 p In p) ., = - -.p 1n p
16 It. D 40ltD
M =_.-L [1 + (1 + v ) In p J)
r 4-Tr- )
for
:':t =- -p- [ v + (1 v) In p ]
4 It
1::>
!1 =M =- -'... - (1 + v) In13 for
p =C
r t
41t
b) Simnly Edge
2
P a Pa 1 I
6
=
[
+ 2jlnP] If' = --, p (-- 1np)
16 It D 1 + I{ -'-I- It D 1+v
.. P
=-- (1 + v ) 1n
)

4 r;,

)
for P::> '13
P "[
+ v) 1np
J)
)
'.ot = -- 1 -v-
(1
4 It )
"
r _ :'.f P
-
=-- [1 - (1+ v) In pJ
for p =0
4 It
p
.30lid Circular l-'late S.lb,jected to Partial :Uo3.d at t:Je
(:Fi.:;. IV.B)
2 2 2
Total load P = P 'Tt b = P n: a p A = P / 2 r:: a
?
for
if P
2 rt a
=
-
P 1
for p <- P:< 1

2 Tta p
a) Ed.)e
i) I:mer loaded Part
2
'__' P a [ 2 2
6 lnp-2
64 rrD
2 2
=
Pa
P ( f3 - 4 In j3-
16'yr D p
1\ =--l:.- [ (1 + v) - 4 In0) ...T p2]
r 1611
P
11 --- [ (1 + v) (p2_ A,ln 13) - 1 '2 3vp2J
-t - '16It
P
ii) Outer unloaded 'Dart p f' -< 1
2
5 = P a [(2 -p2; (1 _p2) + 2 ({J2+ 2/) In pJ
32 tr D
Pa
'P =
'.
p [a ,
2
(1 - ?)-4 In PJ
16 It D
P 2 . J
=-- [- 4 + (1 + v) ,...IS
2
+ (1+ v) (p - 4 Inp)
16 It P
'I P
[ -4,y-

(1+ 'tI) (13
2
_ 4 InP)J
:'t=- (1 - v ) --:-2 +
16 It P
b) Supnorted Edge
0
J3
'"
p
i) ID:ler loaded part
2
P a , 1 { 2
6 - -- 4 (3 + v) - (7 + 3 v) f3 + 4 (1+ v ) P--m p
- 64 ItD 1 +v
2 ] 2 1 +v
- 2
[
4 -(1 - v)P - 4 (1+ v,) In P p + -;z-
73
:; .
Pa
=
. -L., [4- - (1_11) 13
2
~ 1 +v) In p - l +
2
" P- J
16 It' D 1 +V
A
I"'
P
16 Tt
ii) Outer unloaded part
p " p < 1
2
P a
2 2
=
. 1 ~ '\I {[
2
(3 +v) - (
1 -,,)13 ] (l-lh 2 (1+")!3 lnp
32'IT D
+ 4- (l+v) p2 Inp }
2
Pa
-L{[4 -(1-'1) P ~ P -(1 +v) L - 4 (1+\/) P inP}
=
p
16 It D 1 +....
P
16 IT
P
16 Tt
a a
0.0 3
p
p
.....'
r=a
~
(a) (b)
Solid Circular Plate Subjected to Partial Uni.fOr!ll Load
at the Middle
Fig! IV-B
"
74
4,) 301id CircuJ.ar Plate Loaded b,r a :.in:;
;c load Pic A
=
P
P
'<.r=
0 fo!:' 0
.(. p
c
13 Q-r
PI3
=--
-?
for p 4 p .c
,
...
c.) Fi.....ced Edi>;e
i) Inner
C =
I; a'5 p [ 1
8 D
-
f+
p2
1n 13 +
(1
0
<
p

p
+ 2 In p) p2 J
:':r = L:
t
=- p (1 + v) (1 - i + 2 In 13)
ii) Outer part

e
'.\.
LL
3
P[(1 +
p"
) (1 - r?\ + 2
( p2)
In p ]
8 D
,pti 1
'P =
[2 ]
--p p (1 - 2) - 2 1n P
4 D '. - p
2-
"'r = - P4-a fJ [2 -(1 - v) - (1 + v) (13 2 In p ) J
0) .Sim.Dly Supported Edge
i) I:n.r.er part 0 c p < p
3
{j = ? e. .-L {C3 + v) (1 _ + 2 (1 + Y) p2 In 13
GD l'+v }
. . 2 ' ] 2
. -.[(1 - v)(l - jl ) - 2 (1 + V) In j3 p
.p = : : v [(1 - v)(l - j!2) - 2 (l + v) In: p]
75
3
6 = P a
8 D
2 )
'P =--
[ 2 - (1 - v) j3 --
(1 + v)
2
(1 + v)
? a
.L.L
p-
"J
]
4 D 1 +v
./i P a
2 1
r =- [(1 -v) 1) - 2
( 1 + v) In
pJ
p
4
Pi 'P
P= o.50 ....l...-_

I
! M:=:" I
6
IP ,
M
r lIllllJITJ;l]lJ11'rmmrrmIlJl:l"'1,
I
I
[
I
i
i
rrmmmrrm'J'l"l'!1T!'mTmTiiilT1l'11T!1Ti'7 P a M
t
0.156 I
!,"""'WIIIII:IIII'
I
I ' I
I .
I ! ..P
0.50 I. . 1',';; ,11:
I I ;
( ) ( b )
Solid Circular Plate Loaded'by a Ring Load
Fig. IV-9
a
r=ap I"""'"
I +
. 0.188
I
!
I
I
[lIlIlIl"'-10.031
I
76
5) Solid Ci:'Cul3.1' Plate 2u'tl;1t>ct",d to an Inter::.ediate :':J.a.ial R:'n;- ::c::e:rt
(Fig. IV-10)
~ = C A = 0
a) r'ixed :!X.r'e
i) !nnel' part
.. 2 2 2 2] t:a ~
B = - ~ r2 Ln !J + (1 - p) P lfl =- (1 - P-) P
4 D l 2 D
2
. 1.:
(1 + v ) (1 - ~ )
:'":r = ~ t =-
2
ii) Cuter pa:::'t
P<p ~ 1
~ l a
2
2 . 2 . l! a 2,
6 = - -- P(1 - P + 2 J.n p) lfl =- p (=P - p)
4 D .2 D
2
Ll = - ~ p2 [1 + v + (1 - v) 1') ] ,. 1: ~ [1 (1") 1 J
. t= - -;- + v - - 7
r. 2 P'-
- 0.042
( 8.
( b )
Fig. IV-10
??
[) =
lj. D
" -
.-J:......
"P =:::......::::.
2 D 1 + v
t ~ = Mt = ~ [1 + v + (1 _ 'oJ) ~ 2 J
ii) Oute!' part
2
1:: a 2
B
=
L
[(1 - v) (1 -p ) - 2 (1 + y) In
pJ
4- D 1 + v
~ a 1
L
[(1 - (1 + 'J)
'/I v) p +
2 D 1 +V
P 1
6) Sirm1;y Supported Solid Circular Plate Subjected to
Radial Ring t:Or,)9l!ts at its Edges
Fig. IV-ll
,- kg:;
Radial mcraerrt .:.0 ...
I!l
2
"
a
2
B (1 -p)
=
2 D (1 + v)
'I.!'
.... a
<P
= P
D (1 +v)
.,
v ~ .
'''r
= -t =
...
M
~
=
0 A
=
0
Fig. rv-ri
78
7) Circ'ilar Plate with a Circular Hole at the Center
to a Uniforoly Load p/o2 (Fig. IV-12)
:for 13 > 1 for < 1
2
Q... =- (r - )
-.I,: 2 p
a) Fixed Edfje
k (1 - v){32 + (1 +v) (1 + Inf3 then
assuming .
1
1 - v + (1 + v) P
'::l 0.4- [ 2 2 4- 2? ]
o= - - 1 + 2 (1 - k
1
- 2 ) (1 - p ) +p - 4- k
1
Inp-813 p""ln p
64 D
__ n a} [ :, 1 2 ]
Ijl .0;,.....=... (1 - k
1)
P :- (J+ k
1
-p + 4-j3 P l.n P
16 D
[0+v) (1- k
1)
C3 + ...... ) p2
12']
- (1 - v) k
1
p2+ 4- (1 + v ) p. In p
" :: d
(1 + v) (1 - + 4-" (1 + 3 v ) p
16 [
k
1)
? 2
2
+ (1 - v) + v) 13 In p ] Jr+ 4- (1 k
1
assunung + v + 4- (1 + v) In P] then
1 -fJ
"0 a4- { . 2
5
[0
+ v)
(1 _ 2
+
(1 - f)
= 6:D 1 +v
k
2
]
- (1 -
4-
In p- 8 P
2
p
2
Inf'
}
k
2
1 -v
1) a.3
2
.3 k
2 1
'P =- [_1 o +
v - + k
2)
p- P +-- -+4- P2 pln
p J
16 D 1 +v. .
1 v P -
.. =:L
[ (3 + v ) - .+ k (1 - Li + 4- (1 + v ) In pJ (1 p2)
"r 16 2
p
2
'? 0. ?
.- =-
.
(1 - v) (1 _ 213
2
) +
(1 +.3 ,,) (1 -s )

.1.0
?
+ (1 + + 4- (1 + v) P- ln P ]
b) 3im,'ly 3uP'::lorted Edge
p
p=aB r=ap,
~ a
..-\:>.00
...
79
i
Circular Plate with a Circular Hole at 1ihe Center
Subjected to
a Uniformly Distributed Load p / m
-_.-._--
2
p
~ p a
1
~
"
i ~ 5 p
1.r""I""""""--+--__~ pa
2
'1" I
N
2
II!.:"'",!' t pa
,
I
~ p a
... 0.144-
1.225
I
l-m- 0 .1]1,.;..8 ,""""""
i :
+
I
Fig. IV-12
80
8) CireulaI' P1a.te with a CirelliaI' Hole at' the Center and Subjected
to a Ring Load a1onp, the Edge e = p
(Fig.:IV-1, )
Load P / m'
A =P j3 :f.'or 13 :> 1 A. =-P 13 :f.'or 13 > 1
a) Fixed Edge
k =p2 1 + (1 + v) In P
ASSUI:ling . then
, 1 - v + (1 + v)
p
'., 2
B
= 13 [(1
+ 2 (1 -p,) + 4 k
,
1n'p + 2 'p2ln P]
8 D
l'a 1
=
2
p[
k, (p -
) -
p 1n
]
'4> -
P
2 D
P


P [ - 1
+
(1 + -,v)
k, +
(1 .,II )
k 1
(1 + V). In
= -3 "'="' - pJ
p-
2
1
r.! J3 [ .- v + (1
+ v) k, - (1 - v) k, p2- (1
+ v) 1n p]
t
=
2
b) Si:::-:,l;y Sup'Dorted Edse
k
4
=( 1 + v) L then
1-rf
[
3
+"v - 2 k4 .
4 k
4 5
= P a'
13
(1 -fl) + - Inp+
2 P21n p ]
8 D 1 + v 1 - v
2 1 _ k tc
4 P a 4 1
<P
p [
p ---.
- - P In P ]
2 D 1 + II
1 - v
p
P a
!':r =
2
p
[ k
4

1)
- (1
+ II)
1n P J
P a
,'t = i3 [ 1 - v - k
4
1) - (1 + v) lnp
]
2
81 .
CircuJ.ar Plate with a Circular Hole at the Center
SUb;)ec'ted to
a.lUng Load. along the Inner Ring =r
B
0.034

!
! P
Pa
3
,0.229
a
Ioora:rib----i--__""-'
-to i
.1 1 i
1"----- --"""'1- 0.038, 0.718Inmn=--+--.mrmnmr' P a
9,,140, T " rr'l
"
I
I

p
I
" ( a )
( b )
6
p
t?
P=. o
o=a
"II
Pt t P

.
-- 'I'
b=a @
P
( a )
'( b )

.,
82
9) Plate a Circular Hole at Center ana Subjected to
Radial Ring on the Edge. p =
(Fib' IV-l4)
= 0
A =0
2
Assuning k = '3 then
5 1 - \/ + (1 +v) 2
2 2
t: a " a 1
5 = ----. k
5
(- 1
+P-2lnp)
- k
5
c; - p)
2 D
M = - :.I k [ 1 + V +. (1 - v )
=- 11 k
5
[ 1+ V' - (1- v) ?J.
r 5
6
M
M
M
M
( a ) ( b )
" Fig. IV-14
83
b) Simply Sup:'()l'ted Ed-se
Assuming
.; ,
'then,<
!.l' a
2
S
2
1
+
v _k 2
B =-- (l-p
lnp)
2 D 1 + v 1 - v
=t! a 1 +.... 1
( p
+_.-
)
D 1 + v 1 - v P
iO) Si..m.nly Sm)'()orted Circular Plate with a Circular Hole at the Center,
.and Subjected to Radial Ring Uorrents alorg the Sup'Jorted Edse
t 1
Assume rad.ial moment l:l an kg/m and k
7
= ~ then (Fig.IV-15)
.1. : ~
2
M a
I
(5
=--
~ 1 _ p2 _ 2 ~ ?2 In p)
2 D
,1 - y .
1 + v
-, i
tp
=l:! a ~
( p +.L..:!... ~ 2 1.)'
D 1 + v
1 - y9
6
<'
Fig. IV-15
II. RADIAL 1m:':E:1TS (M
t
) lUll) REACTIOnS OF CIRCU-
LAR FLll.T. PLA. TES CmlTI NUOUS OVER RING SUPPORTS AT EQU..u. DISTA1\CES (a)
,
a) Three equal b) Four egual snanEl
I
p=2.0 1.0 0
P=1.5 0.5 0 l' t/m
2
.
l'
t/m
2
pase 2 LUlll
l
1 ! I I X' ! j j l' I ! '1. I I
Case l? III' "1' I! I" :1" II!, '1
? 1
2 1
F
I
Case 2 I I I " '1' I I' ,'i? ' , , , " l I I
pase 2
j' ," '1" , , 'i' I "
a a a a a a
l
a
I I I
-1
I I l

P::o, M v
=1/6 v =1/6
r t-
..
BE:IDI!IG ::miEHTS BElIDIHG
Case 2
p
Case 1 Case 2
'.
Case 1
P
.LOi. M M 1:...: M. jlr
I!r.
r t r
"
"
0'
2.0 +.0129 -.0811 -.0135 -.013S o 1+ .0188 "".C835 1.5
1.6 .0847 +.0546 +.0578 +.0271 h0132 +.0049 +.0179 +.0093 1.3
1.1 +.0085 rt.0889 +.0119 +.0127 +.0225 f+.0330 1.5
1.0 +.04-49 +.0109 +.0057 fr.092;; +.0455 .0748 +.0053
.-
0.9 +.0042 +.0068 1.0 ....1069 -.0172 +.0506 -.0769 -.0314 ItOB75
....0;:,08 0.7 0.6 +.0080 +.0109 1+.0411 '-.0267 +.0179 -:.0097 rt
0
300

-.0591 0.5 +.0284 +.OllO -.0291 0.5 ft-.0137 +.0099
0.; +.0322- +.0044 h0535 -.04-+1 C.4 +.0104 -.0141 l!.O225
0.1 .0376 1-.03G5 0.1 \-.0035 -.0066 - ..0244- -.0676
. 2
.0077 -.0310
2 2
0.0 t-.03:57 1-.0357 L:ult p a ,1' a
2
l' a -.0057 1'a
2
2 2
p a p a REACTIOHS l' 0.
2
l' a
REACTIOHS Case 2 Case 1 Sup.
tiup. Case 1 Case .2 2 +0.5612 1+0.3655
2 + 0.3518 1 +1.20C1 + 0.4535
1
+ 1.1642 0 +0.670<;:
::ult
pa
+ 0.5898 +0.-+330
2
P a<:: ;.:ul-:;
1'a l' a 1'a 1'a
85
R.:illIAL MQ:.4E:i'1S (M) TALiGENTIAL (M ) AND REACTIONS OF CI"=L<.rJIJ..i-.
r ' t
FLAT ?LATES cozrrsuous OVEH. RING . SUP.20RTS AT EQUAL DISTAiWES ( a )
c) Five equal spans I d) Six equal spans
t
p =2.5 1.5 .5 b p tim
. p =3 2 lOp tim
pasel ' , , 'E' , , 'X" , '.x' ,,'I" , '1
r"'lf' ' , , '}" 'ii' "10 ' '"
, 3 2 1 I
Case2 ,! '1:' i , 'Ok' '!' 'X' I' '' , , !
, pase21' , L;&' , 'X' , 'X' , '&' "12 ' , ,
'I
a
I
a
I
a
I
a
I
a
l I f a I a f a 1 a I a f a I
V =1/6 P=0, , Mr::M"t;= - 00 ' v=1/6
BElIDIUG Zl!OL:EITTS , r:rm.1EHTS
Case 1 Case 2 Case 1 Case 2
p
P
i.1
r


r.:
.,
LT
.,

-r
t
"'r
.1;
"'t
2.5 0 +.0098 -.0787 -.0131
3.0 0 +.C081 -.0153
2.6 It .0814 +.0153 +.0354- +.0076
2.1 .0818 +.0159 +.03+8 +.0076
2.5 1t.078';1 +.0115 +.0426 +.e073 .
2.0 .0799 +.0118 +.0425 +.0075
2.4 ft-.0659 +.0066 +.0401 +.0052
1.9 .0:),/6 +.0058 +.0403 +.0051 2.0 1-.1106 -.0232 -.0852 -.0149 '
1.5 -.0254 -.0875 -.0155
1.6 +.0164 +.0062 .+.0521 +.
1.5 4-.0296 +.0069 +.0422 +.0084-
1.1 .0132 +.0082 +.0302 +.0115
1.4- . 0340 +.0058 +.0057
LO .0289 +.0094 +.0432 +.0107 ..
LO 1-.0660 -.0121 -.0753 -.0164-
0.9 \r.0375 fj-.OO'77 +.0069 0.6 fi-.0247 +.0120 +.0189 +eOllO
0.5 .O'j46 h0186 -.053'? -.0277 0.5 1-.0338 +.0095 +.0292 +.00;:8
0.1 .0029 fr.0039 -.0062 -.0052 0.4 fr.0357 +.0022 +.0327 +.004-0
0.0 ft-.C04-8 +.0048 -.0043 0.1 '-.0320 -.0809 -.0255 -.C6S:5
Uult p a
2
,2
2 2
l('ult
P a
2 2 2
. 2
P a P a
p& pa pc. pa
REACrrmrS
:3up. Case 1 Case 2 3up. Oase 1 Case' 2
"-
3 + 0.3675 + 0.4594
3 Lf-O.3725 +0.4675
2 +1.1500 +0
2 + 1.25 + 1.0255
1 +1.0420
1 + 0.7931 + 0.8765
0 +0.7373
+0.683!1-
2
J
,'.iult pa pa tpa pa pa P a-
86
:.IZMBRAliE FORCES SlJRFA.CES OF REVOLUTION 3[
It is assumed here that the of the shell is so small
that it can beconsiderdd as a membrane which can resist meridian and
ring forces, in the plane of the surface, only i.e. the bending mo-
:rents due to fixa"tion at supports, uns;ymmetrical loading and similar
effects are neglected
IV-.5.1. Notations.
Itwill be assumed that ( !ig. IV-16 )
...
'.
..
:e = radius normal to axis of revolution of any circular ring at any
plane z - z
R
l
= radius of cu-'"Vatu:re of meridian
R
2
= cross radius curvatrure al.ong the normal - to axis of rotation.
U.p (eve, =resultant meridian force per unit length of circumfe T
1)
.z-eace,
N
e
(evt. T
2
) =resultant ring force per unit of meridian
H = horizontal thrust of shell per unit length of circUl!lference
'.7
011
=Sum of vertical forces above z - z'(expressed through the ansle19)
\.
..is of rOt8tic.n
Fig. IV-16
if Refer to Hilal "Design of Reinforced Concrete HallS " First
Published by J. &Co. Cairo
-----
87 .:
/
IV-3.2.The t.ieridia.'1 Force
order to have equilibrium at an:y horizontal section z z ,
the vertical component of the meridian rorces be equal to the
vertical load above z - z pee meter run circumferio'.nce. Hence we get:
r.
( Fig. IV-17 )
11= Z
z---!!=-!e
Fig! IV-17
r
11
/
z

\
I
I
/ 2 Tt R = N'P sin 'P or
= \Vii' / 2 It R sin
But R =R sin , so that can also be given in the form.
2
N
Ill
(44)
The horizontal thrust H per unit length of circumference is
H = Will / 2 tt R tan \j' =N cos ljl (45)
. IV":",,,.,, The Ring Force
Assuming that the radial component of the external loads per
square meter suri'ace is p and considering the equilibrium of the ex-
. r
ternal and internal forces normal to the surface, one can prove that:
(46)
For a spheriCal surface R
l
= R
2
=a
and
N'9 + Me =Pra
"88
"'
For a conical surface R
l
=Cl;l and
N
e
=P
r
~
(48)
IV-3.4 ADplication to Popular Reinforced Concrete Surfaces of Revo-
lution.
a) Spherical Shells
The relation between a, R andy is given by (Fig. IV-18 )
a =.
R
2
+ :I
(49)
2 Y
The surface area of a spherical shell
z
is
A. = 2 na y (50)
i. e.
of a
itis equal to the
cylinder baving the
surface
same
area
radius a
and height s .
R
The internal forces due to a verti-
H
cal dead load glm
2
surface is shown
in figure IV- 19
W
=
g. 2 nay
If'
H
=
g a
cos Ij?
=
g a --.!..-
l+cos
III
a + z
(51)
(52)
.
Fig. IV-18
:>ad = g/m
2
surface
~
;----r
,
~
~
I
,
p
~
H
~
~
1 ga . ' ga '
r-i}' -I
Comp.- tension+
Comp.-., tension+
Fig. IV-19 ~ i g IV-20
89
a
(53)
(54)
N
e
= g a ( cos Ijl -
1
z -
a + Z
The internal forces due to a vertical load p/m
2
horizontal is
shown in fiSJre IV- 20
(55)
C OS I.O
H = p
a_
=,p z/2 (56)
2
NIjl =p a/2 =constant
N
e
=p a cos24l =-L (2 z2 _ a
2
)
(57)
2 2 a
The internal forces due to a liquid pressure as that shown in Fig.
IV-21 is given by :
Assuming w=weight 1 m
3
liqUid, 'then . I
I
. _ \1h
1
P =w ( h
l
+ a - a cos It) (58)
r
:-IT h
I a
. a [
p (1+2 cos 41)J(59
I
H..p = -'I. 6" 3hl+a
1+c06 ..p
L-coe p --_. --'--'-
N (5+4 cos'!')] (60)
e
=+ w: [3 h
1
+a
1+Oos <;>
Fig. IV-21
b) Conical Shells
The surface area of a conical shell (fig. IV-22 ) is given by :
A =21t3.s/2
(61)
The meridian force is

N = V\p 1 2 rr Y cos ..p
(62)
s
The ring force is
1 Sin
2..p
N
e
= p . y cos ..p
r
due to a vertical dead load
rY' / m
2
suriace are : 4> 1
O
Fig. IV-22
I
"90
(64) N
e
= s R
2
I y
(65) .
Internal forces due to a vertical
load p/m
2
horizontal are :
(66) N = p y 'cos
3
<fl I sin
2
(l
e
The internal forces in the conical floor of an Inze tank (fig. IV-23 )
are t
A.ssuming w =weight
I m'} liquidt then
Pr
=W ( h
2
- s sin IP )
(68)
p
" -P/sin'll
N
e
= w. s (2- - s ) cos <P
sin <P
2 pi
N = .. 2li [2 (l'} s'}) sin.p - '} (1 - s2)J
(70)
s 6 s s sin.p
h
where p is 'the of 'the cylindrical wall of the tank and the even-
1mal loads that ma:r be applied to it.
Since 'the cone can absorb forces only in the direction of its ge-
nerators, a ring must be provided at the foot of the It receives
a radial load P cot <P producing the hoop force
P t cos <p cat <p (71)
'Nhere the conical and spherical parts of the mee't, a ring
be prcvided Which resists, the difference of the com-
ponents of the meridian fore es in the cone and in the dome.
91
IV-3.5
, .
Edge Forces and Transition Curve.
, '
It is easy j;o prove that the upper zones of domes are subject
to zones. are
sils Fing caSe, the dome, or cone, does.not end with a ver-
. -' . -' . . -.
tical tangent, the ,horizontal thrust H
at the foot must be'resisted.by a ten -
sion ring Fig. 'IV-24
On.the other hand, the meridian for-
"
ces in domes.and conical r09fs due to
vertical dead and. live loads are always compressli..ve giving re;latively
low stresses.
In and flat spherical domes, will
be developed due to the big difference between the, high tensile stres-
ses in the footring and the or low
. .. '.. . . .
ses in the zones of-ihe shell. "the difference 'in
the strains between the ring and the zone _ the higher will be.
the bending moments. The shape and ma-
gnitude of the bending at. the -
footring can be according to
the values given in figure 1V- 25
j" ..
As' :the berrl:LDg"moments; are due to
the sudden change from 'high tens ile . Fig. IV-25
in the footriIi@! tensile
or :even compre!'isive the dome', they can be avoided if the
. . . . <l: ..':.: ... . ..
shape' of the meridian' 1schaD.ged in a conve
nient manner. This change can be done by a
...0'>-
..
transition curve (fig. 11[- 26 ) ,which when , /,
. ..". '" .c:: . L-
well chosen, gives a relief to stresses.
at the footrmg.' It is :recoumended'to'make
-. ..' '" . .
the change gradual fro:n footring to Shell. :
In order to decrease the stresses due to
92
the forces at the footrin
b,
it is recommended to increase the thick-

ness of the shell in the r e g.i.on of the transition curve.
I",' "" '_ '.',' .'
Fixed and Continuous Surfaces of Revolution
"':
Th:: .,beJ:!.ding morrerrt s "shown in figure IV-25 give oply a z ough esti1:la-
. . ::. .' (, '. , .
te, be. used in cases where the values of the
; .0;. '. . .....
are small.
.. . . .' '..
Su:-fac::ls of revolution in tanks are .:;enerally continuous with each
otmer , e.5_ the Inze tank shown in figure IV-4. The connecting moments
at, tbS joints can be deternined by the moment distribution method it'
the fixed end' moments and the relative st:Lffness of the eLement s mee -
!.
tinG at a joint are known;
'" E
:ie g:"ve in the , the .fixing mcmentis and the stiffness fac-
tOI' or some' simple cases, senerally me t with in tank problems.
"
waLl, of variable thickness C Fit;. H-27
4
Y3
Cl-v
2)
and ,;, v = 1/6
f R t
2
2
1.
II
II
,
I'IY
1\
II
II
II
t,

,
:,-..
ra
17'!

"/
HI
."
'R R
a:J.d
ToI
E t
2
(Lr
6
0
)
=
R
2 2
+
0
2
k
l
k
l
and 'the stiffness S is
S
=
2 t' k
l 2
't;llen Ir _ 1. 3068
, l-l'Pt
-' 2
tile .f ixin,; .ao.serrt is' :
For water pressure
',v R
2
'
Ar
o
= -- 7J'1 and
Et
2
Iif:nce
lJ '0
=2 k
2
1
Pig. IV-21
f:efer to ioiarkus Theorie und Berecnuag RotatioDSsJ!ll:lct.cischer 3a1;.werke" II
r....lb1ished by .Verner - Verlag. Dusseldorf.
93 -
lor ,a wall of (t
l
_
=t
_,2
=t) subject to hydrostatiq
pressure
2) Snherical dome of variable thickness ( Fii:). IV-28 )
A.ssume
k
2
=
t
I"
and V = 1/6 then
= 1.3068
)
k 0
2
!,ig. IV-28
Fo= load g t/m
2
g a
o
Ar
o
=--
2
11- +l (to' - t + .s in'II): .:- t. ccse 'J
. Et to
...
flo =50 a - It (2 + v ) t sin '" +': (1 + v) - to) x
Et to .'11 . t ID Sin 'II
. r - t cos t+t -19 to sill 41;- _t_ sU:2 411']
t o
l I +.v _
For water pressure ( w =i.o t/m
3
)
!J. r = _ ;'[ a
3
[ ( 1 'nh _ 'll + (cos .p +
1 . sin",
o I;t 2a :; 1
+ cos/.l .:
'.0
2
h 1 .'
9
0
= VI a {Sin. ql + t - to
(1 + v) --- - - (cos'ljl +
1 .'.
[
;2 a 3. . . 1 + cos .; _
Et t '"
t - t h
( _ ._
cos. ) }
t 'P a
Por a dome of constant thickness - to = t
:.. ' t: :;:
....
t.r a
Et o
(--) + - 9 )
-
..., 'T
sin 'P' 0
.:,
of doad load g t/m
2
surface
b.r =d ( 1 + v - cos sin Ijl
o Et 1 + c os e
eo =- i.....!! (2 + v ) sinljl
Et
Case of live load p t/m
2
horizontal
, 2 1 . 2
6r =P..... - cos, 'P ) sinljl
. 0 Et 2"
.-.
'.
3)Conicll surface of constant thickness (Fig. IV;..29)
Assume k 3 (1 -
v
2
) and v= 1/6 then
=
3 1/7V
\:3
=1.3D68 tan'PI t
11
-
. 1.:
h
:>
Case of dead load g t/m- surface
s2 [ v l2 ]
IJ.r =.5.....=.:. 1 - 2 (1 - :2)
o
E t 2 cos Ip' 5 .
2
cos <p cotIjl

[1 ,2 2]
eo
=d
2'(1 - v -:(2+v)cos

Et sin'P
Case of a concentrated load F/m
. P l
cos
Ar
o
= J:--L. cot'P and 9
=
0
Et Ets Sin
2
1jl
....-. - -_..
95
Case of '\7ater 'OI'essure
Ar ',7 .s 1(h )
+...:!.... [ ---!!.. (L
2
- .2) =- ---a
o
Et sin4l 2 sint.p
1
- ; (l; - .;)] )
3 .2 sin 4l ... 2 h 8 _ .1L (L2 _ .2 ) +
[
2 s
sint.p (t
3
- J)J cot24l
, . .
4) Ring Beams
At joints of different continuous surfaces of revolution (e.g. a
cone and a dome ) the: ' '.-ch resis:ts a
.pai!t:
of
the distributed moment oe.Lative stiffness.
The stiffness of a ci-vular ring beam of radius R, breadth b and
total depth t is by
t
3
S =b (1 _ v 2) for v= 1/6 then
R!
S =0.972 b't-' /R
2
IV-3-? Circular Beams
Circular beams loaded and supported normal to their plane
IV-30) are dealt with in detail
in tert books on theory of elasticity
.1e give in the following , the internal
forces in a circular beam subjected to
uniform load p/m and supported symme-
trically on n c oLumns , Thus:
2 41 = 2 It In i.e.
\Po = In
(72)
o
Reaction at any column
v = 2 It ?. pin (73)
:Fig. IV-30
;.:ax. shearing force to the right or left S:lY support
o = + Tt rt pin
(74-)
"'max -
, ,
The bending moment M , torsional M
t
and theshearins farce
Q in any section at an angle If from the center line between tvlO succeS-
sive supports are given by :
2 cost(J

=R P
(
- 1
) (75)
n sinlf
o
2 nsiIllP
P
( ) (76)
tit =R -
n sinIf'o
Q
=
-Rp'P (77)
Je give in the table, the reactions. maximum shearing
bending moments and torsional moments in a circular beam of
..
radius Rsuppcrted symmetrically on n columns and subjected to a
total uniformly distributed load P. where
'"
Angle LIa::. Bending Boment
iUl!l'Jer L:>ad on llax.
bet. axis
Alax.
of each Torsional ShearinG
Over C.L. at C.L.
of Col.
::015. Column of Span of Columns Moment
Sec. of
max.
Yorce
1\
V
1'.":'
n ... (+) II Deg. II (-)
t
4 P/4 PIS .0176 P R .0053 PE .0053 PR
19 21'
6 P/6 P/12 .0148 P R .0015 P R .0075 P R 12 44'
8
PIS P/;J.6 .0C4-2 PR .0006 P R .CVS3 PR 0
33' .I
12
1"/12 'i'/24 .00\,:2 PH .C01S' P R .C037 PR 6 21'
97
v. PRE S T RES S E' D C I R C U L A R TAN K S
V.l INTRODUCTION.
The design of prestressed strUctures is based on a knowledge of
the fundamental principles of prestressed concrete. This is as true
for the design of tanks as for beams and slabs. Before analysing the
stresses in a prestressed tank itmay be of advantage to give the
most important basic'principles of prestressed concrete as may be re-
quired for des Lgn of circular tanks.
Prestressed concrete denotes concrete in which effective inter-
nal stresses are induced generally by'the of high tensiie steel.
This operation is done in such a 'way as to completely eliminate or at
.' least to effectively reduce tensile stresses under the action of'Ylor-
king loads together with the provision of an factor of safety
( .
against or collapse.
The most effective use of prestressing can only be obtained if
the concrete and steel are of very high quality. The higher the cru-
Shing strength of concrete and the tensile stren3th of .the
greater the effectiveness with which the prestress canbe utilised.
Righ quality concrete can be aChieved through careful'selection
of aggregates, suitable composition, use of low
ratio. sufficient cement content and thorough mixing, compaction and
curing.
The minimum content inthe concrete mix is 350 kg/m
3
of
finished concrete, the minililum crushing strength is 300 kg/CI:l.
2
after
28 days. 'l'he allowable compressive stress may be assumed one third
"
.1,
98
"
.,the crushing strength. The modulus of elasticity E
c
mB:Y ,be assumed
,equal to 300 t/cm
2

The steel to be used for prestressing is generally. hard drawn


of an ultimate strength not less than 15 t/cm
2
and baving dia-
meters varying between 3 and ? mES.
The permissible stress in the prestressing steel based
on the ultimate strength the 0.2 %proof stress as follows :
-
The maximum tensile stress at transfef a
s o
shall not exeed 80 %
,of the'pr-oof stress or .65 % of the ultimate tiensd.Le strength which
ov;er is. the lesser. Acc ordingly, for hard drawn wires 16.5/14 having
. 16.5 t/cm
2
and a proof stress of 14.0
t/cm
2
the maximum allowable tensile stress cr =10 t/cm
2

e o
The modulus of elasticity E is generally equal to 2000 ,.t/cm
2

s
.'i'he mod.ular ratio n =Es/E varies between 6 and?
c
Due to shrinkage, creep etc. the prestress is reduced by
"15.to 20 %of its initialvalue, so that the final prestress.crace
will be eqUal to 0.80 to 0.85 aso
Stresses inprestressed elements under working loads may be com-
puted by the elastic theory both at transfer with full. prestress
(as = aBO ) and no live loads and, under final conditions after los-
seshave taken place ( as = ) and full live loads.
Prestressing of circular tanks is ms.de in order to eliminate the
tensile stresses created by the hydrostatic pressure. Inmost pres -
tressed circular structures, prestress.is applied both circumferen -
.tially and longitudinally, the circumferential being circu-
lar and the longitudinal prestress actually.linear. Itis however
easier to.use circwnferential prestressing only. This is possible in
walls with freely sliding edges.
99
V-2 CIRCill.i:Fz:tE:rr.nAL

Prestressed concrete circular 'tanks are ee.rally constructed by
winding p:restressin6 wires ar-ound ':lalls usin::;. a special windi!j.g
machine. The normal method of prestressins consists of the following
process : First, the walls of tank are built of eitner concrete
or pneunatic I:lortar, mortar beins GSnerally used if the walls are less
than 12 Cm3 thick. Often, the walls are poured in alternative verti-
cal slices keyed together. After the concrete v13.11s have attained
sufficient they arc prestressed by a self
propelled machine, ;vhich wi:.ds the wire around the walls in a conti-
nuous operation, stressins it and spacins it at the same tizlle.
After the circumferential 9I.'estressing is completed for each la-
yer, a coat of pneumatic mortar is placed around the tank for protec-
tion. 'rwo or more layers of prestressins are used for large tanks(Fig.
v.1).
*z-z.' cms
Vertical the
.:.t ' P I'4UlnO lie
on9 layer of morlar
..
tanks can be applied using any 8Y6- circular pre-
stressing wires
""

tem of prestressing, which- vertical
",
prestrassitlo;l
0,' ,
ever may be the most economic. "':"1:. wires
',",1'(1
.1)'
Two layers of
:: .:
Circumferential prestress in
circular pre-.
'1>.' .
:. s
slressil\9 wifes
tanks is designed to resist rins :-
. '. "{,
tension produced by liquid pressure.
Fig. V-l
Consider one hali' of a thin ho-
rizontal slice of a tank as a free
'body, fig. V.2. Under the action of initial prestress F
o
in the
steel, the total compression C in the concrete is co F
o
causing
an initial compressive stres::: in the concrete equal =F0 / A
c'
After the losses due to shrinka
0e
and'creep are developged the pres-
.E Lin II Prestressed Concrete 3tructures II
100
.
F =.0.8-i-
and the coreesponding
tress will be reduced to
00
, t '11 'he 0c _- ... /2-,
A
r-....
s c
I ..
Dueto prestress Due10 water pressure
Fig. V-2
the application:ofthe internal liquid pressure, the steel
aad cor..cretE7 act together, and the stress can be obtained by the usu-
aleh.stic.theory,thus U
c
= p R / A
v
' where
p.i= internal pressura intensity.
R = internal radius of the tank.
Ay_thevirtual area = A
c
+ n As
The stress in the concrete the effective pres-
co -. and the internal pr-ecsur-e p is therefore
. , "\.. ..
O'c .; - Fco . / A + P R / (78)
c
If a coati:lg of concrete or mortar is added after the applica-
tien of prestress, then the area A may be the core
c
area while the A sustaid..ng the liquid pressure may include the ad-
c
ditional coating.
The general practice has to provide a slight residual com-
pre sci.on in the concrete under the working pressure. This residual
co':pression serves as a of safety in ad:iition to Whatever ten-
sion nay be taken by the concrete.
Since the serviceability of a is as soon as the
concrete beSins to crack, it is of utmcst that an adequate
101
margin of safety to be provided aC;ainst aDS' tensile stresses. A factor
of safety s = 1.25 is This is accomplished by the fol-
lowing procedure of desi
6
n .
?B may now be given in the form
at the same tiJ::le J in order to linit tile maxic!.1.Ull compression in concre-
te to , we have
A,. = - F / 0
(80)
'" 0 c
Substituting this value in equation 79 and notinG that
and.
we have :
O"soo As sn; R .
+
=
a
0"
As/(J"c (0'50 fts/O"c) + n As
so
Solving for As we get
(ina)
For normal cases
n _ 7 . and 0" .
sco
/ v
so
=
O.S .;; 0.85 then:
5
0"
sco
P R
+6<:T'
c
.. ,
.. (Slb)
cr
500
';/e get :
0.145 P R (31c)
in which As in. cm
2
for p in t/:n
2
and R in InS.
',le have further
102
.... "
':,i, 2'
.
and,for.,
C1 ',= 10,t/cm, _t
we get ;
.. " :..,
, S,O ', ". ,"" , ,
=
10
As I
0.1 =
100
As
. ";.
- '2
but =
100 t
'
then t' cms
=
As
cm i.e.
(82)
=t =0.145
". : .:: . ",.::.. .;. : ,'. ..
If it is required to liItit13'c to 80 kg/cm
2
only, the amount of th<>"
prestressing steel will no:\; be a1'fected while" the.;thickness.will be
( : "":" ", r ., l
to
.' .r:
J ,;'
(83)
Example :
Determine max. t and As far a prestressed open circular
slurry tank 10 InS diameter B.."1d 12 ms deep tSlidingbase. Assume
2
w =25 t/m
3
cr =10 t/cm
2
, (Tc =100 kg/cm , Pm=2.5 x 12
s o
=;0 t/m
2
t t;: g.,l':l'5, or"
2 ' '
t cms =As cm =0.145 x 30 x 5
J
'1-3. vr::RTICAL PRESTRESSING
Due to hydrostatic pressure. the walls of circular tanks are
, Bubjecit to ring ten.sion in the horizontal dire'ction andcantilever'mo-
. .\. . '. . .' . . .. '. .
ments in the vertical direction in case they are hi.nged or fixed to
'.
the! floor.
It is evident that circumferential prestressing will also cause
..,"
" , (
!'i!lg forc:es and cantilever' 'iJi a sense opposite to that of
hydrostatic pressure and that they exist by themselves when the tank
is empty and act jointly with "the ring forces and moments produced by
liquid pressure when the tank is ful;L.
. '.
In order to reinforce the walls against these mOlilents.'vertical
103
prestre3sL'lg my be ap:;>lied. It ver-biaal p:cesn-ess is axially applied
to the ccccreee , onl,y direct cO::lpressive stress is produced andche
solution is si:nple. U the vertical tend-:)ns are be::lt or ctlrved, the
vertical prestresa prodnces radial components whieh, i.::I. turn, iIif'luen-
ee the ci=cumferential prestress and the analysis quite
complicated.
, Let us investigate the etfect of eircumterential prestressing
on the vertical moments. If' the circumferential prestress "Ial.'ies tri-
angularly trom zero at the top to a maximum at the bottom., its
is equal but opposite to the application of an equiValent liquid
sure. Ii' the circUI:1f'erential prestress is constant throughout the
entire height of tha 'nail, it is the same as the applic3:tion of an
. ...
equivalent gaseous pressure. For both cases, the P.C.A. tables or
similar ones _CL""e avai.ls.ble for the computation of vertical r.lo::tents.
Vertical prestressing should be. designed to stand the stresses
by various of the forces
1) The vertical weight of the roof' and the walls
2) The vertical moments produced by the applied circumferentUil pres-
tress.
3) The vertical moments produced by internal liquid pressure.
It must be noted that the maximum stresses in the concrete usual-
ly exist when the tank is empty, because th.en the c ircumferantial pres-
tress would have its full eftec,t. ;/hen the tank: is filled, 'tibe liquid
,
. pressure tends to counterbalance the effect of eirc1.:mterenti:u 'pres -
tress and the vertical aomentrs are smaller. Since it is con"renient to
use the sacre amoUnt of vertical prestress throughout the entire height
of the wall, the amount will be controlled. by the point of maximum
moment. By properly locating th9 vertical tendons to resist. such. 00-
ment, a most design can be obtained. However, efforts are
-.. Refer to p ! C. A. tables of circular tank3
104-
seldom made to uo so, and the amount of prestress as well as the lo-
cation of the teildons is Geuer8:lly determined em?irically rat,her than
by any logical'metiaod of design.
In ordert:o uvoid,cpmplications in the position of the vertical
prestressing cables due.to,the varyins sign of the bending momnts-
."' .' ..,' ". .
as in case of circular ta;lks with fixed base - the walls may be made
hinJed to the floor their foot. The vertical prestressing cables
of the wall at its
At the upper end, the ca-
maybe at the gravity of the concrete
V.3
.:'i-- 10..... '.. .
wall
'.:t.' 10000t.prestre".
1119 wiFn
uress ,,

'.
b) Corresponding
.. .. .
fer a"Wall hinged . at
base.
,c Longit-l.1dinal 8,;ld cix- ,
(oj (b) (c)
cumferentialprestresSing
Pig. V-3
wires.
d) Locution of long wires.
In order to dete::;'!ll.ne the mcnitude"Of the prestressing force ,
one can proceed as follows :
1) The magnitude of the maximum bendin:.; moaezrt due to circumferen _
tial prestressill3 can be determined from table VIII of the p.e.A. ta-
bles.
2) The corresponding stress in the section is tihezi
3) AS3umi.n.:; the 'ecceu'tricity of the longitudinal pres1:resl:' i:r-e stee1
at position 9f bendill6 moment is e,compute the stresses in
nearer to the inside surface
(d)
the section t:.ue to a vertical prestressing force F = 1 acting in the.
center of gravity of the steel ( c .g.s. )
4) Ii:J. order to get zero stress in the inner surface of the tank due
to the combined action of the longitudinal prestressing force and ben-
ding moments due to the circumferential prestressing (case of full
prestressing) I divide maximum tensile stres.s computed under 2 by
the maximum compressive stress computed under 3.
The stresses in the section under the different combinations of
the forces acting will be shown in the example given in V.5.
V-4. DOr.!E PRESTRESSIHG
In the following, only the general principles and practice of
dome prestressing especially as applied to tank roofs will bementio-
ned. Gene
7ally
epeaking, for domes with diameter greater than 30 ms,
the economy of prestressing should be seric,usly Domes for
tanks up to 75 ms in diameter have been constructed.
The dome roof itsel is made of concrete or pneUll1atic I:lorter
with thickness varying from 6 to 15 ems. For domes of large cliMeter,
variable thicknesses may be employed and thicknesses greater than 15
c:ns are. used for the lower portion. Before concreting the dome, some
erection bars are compres sed around the base of the dome. Aftertb.e
hardening of the shell concrete, wires are prestressed around it.
During this operation, the dome shell rises from its forms as it is
compressed, thus simplifying the careful proceedure of decentering
required for non-prestressed
The conventional method of dome prestressing consists of pres-
tressing the edge ring to induce sufficient compressive stresses to
counteract the tensile stresses set up in the ring under the maximum
live and dead loads. Ilith this process, it is usually possible to rai-
se "the dOl:l.e from its false work, since only the dead load is actually
106
acting on the dome.
The of the horizontal thrust and the corresponding
prestressing follows the given'in chapter IV.
Consider a spherical dome carrying loads sYJIlI:letrical.about the
axis of rotation (fig. V.4). If the total load is IT, thevertical
tion per'meter of length along the
total load: W
edge member will be'
w
V---
2 It R

and the horizontal thrust per meter
is :
H=Vcot If'
Pig. V-4
'Assuming that this horizontal thrust
>,
to be entirely supplied by the prestress:..ng force F acting in ring
tension. then
F = HR = VR cot i.e.
F = W cot'P/ 2 Il
(84-)
The effective prestressing force F baving been determined, the
cross-sectional area of the ring concrete can be determined from the
relation:
(85)
where N = the net compressive force acting on the section at transfer
and 'a
c
-
-
the allowable compressive stress in concrete.
It is desirable to keep at a relatively low value sa:y about
0.2 and not greater than 50 kg/cm
2

V-5. Example
"In order to show the wa.:i of design of prestressed domes and cir-
cular tankS and the possible economy that can be attained we ,will'
107
design a covered circular tank: once in reinforced concrete and then
in prestressed concrete as shown inthe following example.
It is required to design a circular waber tank 40 ms internal
diameter and 8 IDS deep with the walls hinged to the floor it the tan':t
is covered by a 5 InS high spherical dome as shown in fig. '1.5.
0- 40
Fig. V-.5

:2:
The design is to be first made using normal reinfarcedconcrete
having a max. allowable ten.sile stress df U =20 kg/cm
2
and mild
t
steelwith an allowable stress of O"s = 1400 kg/cm
2
The effect of'
shrinkage is to be considered with :
= 0.25 mm/m
Assuming E = 2000 t 1 cm
2
and n =10
s
Then the design is to be repeated using prestressed concrete for the
following data :
Concrete : 0c' 300 kg/cm
2
J allowable compressive stress
Prestressing Wires 16.5/14 cr ::: 10 t/cm
2
J losses 20% cr =8
e o s m
n ::: E / E ::: 7 load factor s =1.25
s c
a) Design of dome and walls in reinforced concrete
For the roof dome which is a part of a hemisphereJ we have
2 2
= a + y2 = 20 + ;2 = 425 =42.5 m
Radius a
2 y 2 x 5 10
Surface area A = 2 It a y ::: 2 n X q.2.5 x 5
=
106
:f: Loads
Own weight ( assumed 10 ems thick ) g
=
250 kg/m
2
Superimposed dead and live'loads p
=
150
"
total
=400 kg/m
2
Total roof own weight W
g
=0.25 x 1335 =334
ton
,Total roof superimposed loads W =0.15 x 1335 =200
p
"
to1iaJ. w= 534 ton
, W 534
Total load I mf wall V = - =__J:.t.::...:..__
=4.25 tim
2 tc R 2 x 3.14 x 20
The horizontal thrust/mR =V cot\jl = 4.25 x =B.O
"
20
,The ring tension T :. H R =8 x 20 =160 t
The rii:lg reinforcellent As =T / '0' =160 / 1.4 '
, s
chosen 23 ep 25 mm
As a. preli.'!1inary estiml:'.te for the wa.ll assume t
The max. ring tension T: 0.5 Pmax R =0.5 x 8 x 20 =80 tIm
Required wall thickness t =0.75 T =0.75 x 80 =60 ems
According to p.e.A. table II, we get
torR
2
I D t =8
2
I 40 x 0.6 =2.67,
"the maximum ring tension t
T
max
0.5' H R =0.5 x 8 x 20 = 80 ton at 0.6 R from top i.e. the
assumed thickness of 60 cms is acceptable.
The required ring rain1'orcement at 0.6 H is given by
2
As max =T I a =80 I 1.4 =57 cm
max s
chosen 8 4> 22 mm/m on each surface giving As = 60 cm
2
'The max. tensile stress inconcrete is 2;iven by t
a + E
s
As T
max
E
s h
t max C
A
c
+ n As
109,
=80000 + 0.OC02; x 2000000 x 60 =16.6 Itg/cm2 < 20
100 x 60 + 10 x 60
b) Design of dome and wall in urestressed concrete
For the roof dome, only the foot rins'will be prestressed thus ,
the final prestressing force reqUired to counterbalance the max. ring
tension Tmax:. of 160 t is acccrding to equation 84 given by
FCD =\'1 coe e / 21t =T =160 t
max
steel
= 160/8 =20 cm
2
which is less than 20% of the amount required in case of rein
concrete.
.
The max. stress in the foot ring will take place at trans-
fer with a prestres2inb force F and a ring force To due to won weight
o
of done. Thus,
F = F / O. 8 = 160/0.8 =" 200 t.
o co
and
,= T ;71 1 \1 =160 oX 334 1 534- =100 tr ,
max
The net compressive force acting on the foot ring
N =200 '- 100
=100 t.
the max. allowable coopressive stress in concrete =50 ltg/cm
2
then the area of concrete section required for the foot'ring is given
by,:
=100000/50 =2000 cm
2
foot ring ?O x 30 cms will be chosen
Prestressed circular tanks require a wall thickness much scaller
than that required for reinforced concrete tanks and tnerefore the
pressure resisted by action P is much bigger. As a first estima-
r
te, asaume :
110
The thickness required for the wall be esti=ated to
101 from the
t =0.145 PI' R =0.145 x ;.6 x 20 =15.5
A "Rall 17 cms thick iVill be chose:l.
Aocording to p.e.A. table II, we bet
for H
2
/ D t =
.
6
2
: 40 x 0.17
The maximum ting t;ension :
T = P R = 0.713 .v E R = 0.713 x 1 x 8 x 20 = 114 t
m.x
at 0.7 H top.
The area of circumferential prestressinG steel at 0.7 Hfrom
top is, according to equation 100 b, by
1.25 :!: 114-
:: = 16.6
8+6 :x: 0.1
'.
This value of the area of the steel, as well as the wall thickness
can be directly determined from equation 101 thus
As = t = 0.145 p P.. =0.145 TI!IaX. =0.14-; x 114- Le.
2
=16.5 em &t: 16.5
which that the chosen of 17 ems is acceptable.
residual s'tress in the concrete under the ve
Fco and the internal preszure at position of naxi::nn ring tension
e aa be calcu1ated acco:-d.ing to equation 78 as follo;{s
P R
16.5 x 80::0 114-000
0'
c
= -= +
A 100 x 17 10C x 17 + 7 x 16.5
v
or
0'0 =.- 14.5 k3/
co2
which provides a nar;in of safety of 25 %up to zero in
ccacz-e te ,
ill
The momentdue;to thebydrostatic pressure can be
cal.cul.aeed from the -tb.u.s ,_ '
For H
2
I D t = 9.4, M =0.005 wH3. '" 0.005 x 1 x 8
3
=2.56 mt.
max
acting at 0.8 H from top and causes tensile stresses on the outer
face of the wall.
The illitial and final maximum cantilever moments due to the :prestres-
sing steel ( with tension on the inside face of the \r.lll ) can be de-
termined as follows :
16.5 cm
2
prestressing circU!l1ferential wires tensioned to an initial
stress of 10 t/cm
2
will cause a ring compression of :
= 165 t.
The corresponding intensity of radial compression will be
- 2
Po =C /R = 165 I 20.17 = 8.2 tim
This pressure causes a cantilever moment equal to :
M
o
=2.56 x 8.2 / 0.713 w H = 2.56 x 8.2/0.71; x 1 x 8 = ;.68 mt.
For a final. prestress of 8 t/cm
2
this value reduces to :
M = M x 8 / 10 =;.68 x .8 = 2.94 mt.
oo o
The circumferential prestressing will counterbalance the internal pres-
sure incase of full tank, but in case of empty tank, the tensile
stresses due to the cantilever moments induced by the prestressinz for-
ce can be counterbalanced by vertical prestressing wires placed in
the tension zone - near the inside surface - a"t a distance of say 5 ems
from it.
The magnitude of the vertical prestressing force can be determined by
dividing the magnitude of the maximum tensile stress due to the moment
caused prestressing":' 3.68 mt - by the magnitude of the maximum com-
pressive stress caused by a prestressingvertical force of 1 ton actin[
at 5 cas from the inside face of the wall, thus, max. "tensile st-ean
112
Initial and Final Stresses
in a Prestressed Circular Tank
under Different Cases of Loading
Initial Stre :Final St'esses
Conditions
inlr.;;1cri i:l k.:;/co
2
Outside Inside Outside InSide .
Fiber
A) .IeiGht of Roof
-
2.50
-
2.50 4250/1700
-
2.50 -- 2.50
B) g.'-lt. of ;'/all
0.17 x 2400 : 410
410 x 0.8 x 8 I 1700
-
1.54
-
1.54
-
1.54 - 1.54
C)Axial Compre5Z ion of
I'restress .
'.
Initial 58000 I 1700 - 34.10 - ,4.10
Final 45400 I 1700 - 27;30'
-
27.30
D) Eccentricity of Vertical
1
I
Prestress
Initial 6 x 58000 x 3.5/100 x
1;zi_ 42.20
+ 42.20
:Final 5 x 46400 x 3.5/100 x IT + 33.80 - 33.80
,
E) Ve:1;ical due toCirCUlll-
.. '
ferential Prestress
10
5/100
lnitiai6 x 3.68 x x IT +76.5 - 75.5
I
Final 6 x 2.94 x 10
5/100
x + 61.20 - 61.20
I
I
Total for
-
3.84 - 72.44-
-
3.94 - 58.74
I
?)
Vertical lI1o::Jent due to
Pressure
6 x 2.56 x 10
5
/ 100 x
-
;3.00 +
-
5;.00 + 53.00
-
Total tor Tank Full ..;
;.74 - 56.84 - 19.44- - 55.94
113
due to U = 3.68 mt 1 given by
o
Maximum compressive stress due to a vertical prestressing torce ot 1.0
ton acting at 5
I
cms from the inside face ( e =3.5 ) by
. \
cr= - F/A. - 6 F e /-b t
2
=- 1000/1700 -6x 1000x 17
2
=- 0.59 - 0.73 =- 1.32 kg/6m
2
Vertical initialprestressingtorce is therefore given by
=58 t
..
The corresponding final vertical prestressing force is
F = 0.8 F = 0.8 x 58.= 46.4 t.
o
,The stresses foy both the inside andoutside:hbers under both initial
and final conditilns at position of
;!llaXim'\Ull cantilever moment are compu-
ted and listed as in the table.'
It is seen that the wall is sub-
vertical pre-
:ject.to compressive stresses under .stressin9 lilIeS
all.load . stages.
The details of
. are shown infigure V. 6,. "
WaO
.....".
Fig! V-6
V.6. EcmlOMIC PROPOHTIONS OF PRESTRESSED CIRCULR :
:
The ratio of diameter to height is of some importance with re-
gard to the cost of circular cylindrical prestressed concrete tanks.
Favourable dimensional proportions are given in the following table
Fig. V. 7 which has been published by Preload Engineers, New York ,
on the basis of many year's experience.
ll4.
A
Fig. V-?
A
12.50
16.90
21.35
24.40
26.95
3CO.SO
. 33.85
36.40
Dinensions in m.
Capacity
.'
];\3
F C D E G H B
in
.12 .12 1.56 .05 3.50 378
.12 2.11 .12 4.30 .05 945
.12 .12 2.67 .05 ieso 5.35
6.10 .12 .05 28;5 .15 3.05
.18 .12 6.70 .05
'"
I
3780 3.36
"5670 7.80 .12 .05 3.86 .23
4.23 .12 .24 7550 .05 8.55
,
9.15 . .22 .05 4.55
.22 .44 reoo 46.00 I 11.45 .05 5.75
I
I
I
I
. 37800
7.24
I
.22 .74- .C5 57.90 I14.50
.06
I
.51
I
1.10 I .69
\.111.
89
J
.15
.15
.17
.19
.22
.25
.27
.30
.38
.49
.05
:05
.05
.05
.05
.05
.06
.20
.22
.30
.35
.38
.43

.EcQnomie Proportion in U.S.A. B:A =1 : 4
The wall thicltDass. is probably rather too small for normal condi-
. .
tions I tbe increase in thiclo1ess from to botton should be noted.
Thethicmess of the base slab has in all cases been given as , cm.
because in the U.3 .A. thb base is usually' constrocted as a thin but
closely reinforced gunite layer.
U5
VI. EXAMPLES OF CIRCULAR TA.NKS
As t"JPical examples Showing the use of surfaces of revolution
in tanks, we give the following three structures
VIol Fi.$. VI.l.
Discharge fuMel
Paste container Meridian and rino forces
Data
Fig. VI-I
w = weight of :paste pe r cuoic meter.
r =h tan e = horizontal radius of any section.
= h tane =cross radius of curvature.
cose
The used in this exanple differ from those used in the
membrane theory. derived from the first princi-
ples, ithas been fO'lUd changing the notations is not essentinl
116
The internal forces in the wall of the container due to weight of .:pas-
te can be determined as follo\w
a) Ring Forces Due to Paste :
For determining.the ring tension T
2
in any section, we apply the
fundamental equation 46 "JSing the given notations, thus:
where
R
l
= radius of curvature of meridian = Q)
PI' ;: component of loa.d of paste normal to euzface of container assu -
ming angle of friction between paste and reinforcement concrete
;: D. thus:
, Therefore
= w Y h tan e
tension (86)
cose
:/here
h ;:(H-y)
The depth y at which the ring force T
2
is maxi.::l.U.::l. can be deter-
!lined .from the condition :
dT
2
-=0 but
dy
dT
2 tane
-- = w
d;r ( H - Y' ) =w tan e ( a _ 2 s )
dy cos e
dy cos e
Therefore, tormaximum ring v9nsion, we must nave
w ~ H - 2 Y ) =0
cose
or
y = H/2
and
H
2
I:laJC. T
2
w ~ ::..w-
(87)
cos s 4
117
b) !;;eridian Forces Due to Paste :
,"Jhen determining tbs' mc!.'idia..'1 force T
l
two separate cases ha- t
ve to be considered, above and below 'the ring beam as follows:
L) Above the Rinpi Baa'!l. : Fig. V1.2
Ifwe equate the weight of the
o
paste above the horizontal section r
at depth y ( hatched volume ) to 'the
vertical component of the compressive
meridian force T
l
' we get: Fig. 2
T 2 rc I.' cose = w z.z, 2 Tt r
1 l
2
inwhich
tans
b= y tan' e and
r = radius of center of of hatched volume
l
"
2
=(H--y)tanS
3
Therefore :
T
1
2Tt ( H - ) tan9 cos s
or
3H 2Y.
y2 tana ccmpr-eaai.on (88)
H - Y
cos a
ii) Below the Ring Beam: Fig.VI.'
In 'this case, the wei@lt of the
IT
paste acting on the lower conical part
I
IH
I
I
(hatched volume) will be hung to the
. wall of the container causing meridian
h
tensile stresses which can be treated
ina similar way'as follows. (Fig.VI.3)
2 2
T
l2
rcr . cos a =w[ttr y + ;ttr hJ
Fig. VI- 3
118
Substituting r = ( H - y) tan e and h = H - Y ,
we get
2 It ( H - Y ) tar. e cos e= w T
l
or
T
l
= !! ( H - Y ) ( H + 2 Y ) tension
, (89)
6 cos e
The depth y at which the tensile meridian force the ring
d1'l
beam isnax, can be detertlined fron the.condition -- =0 but
dy

cos e
F('lT' max. meridian tension T
1
y=!i
4

(90)
C03 e
pz-ovf.ded the riD.3 beam is at a distal'1Ce froe the apex greater than
3/4 H. If not, the max. Till occurs at the ring beam and can be de-
tcrminei aceordin13 to equation 90 from the relation
. .}
T
lR
: r( H - YR ) ( H + 2 YR ) (90b)
.in which
H
YR >- is the distance of the ring beam from the surface of the
4
container.
c) Intern.ll Forces :i.n Ri.:lg Bea!:l Due to Paste.
The riLe beam is SUbject to a Compressive force Ca determined
by (Fig. VI.4 )
and
111 which
T'
1 is the compressive meridian force just above the of
the
ring beam
and
f!. is the tensile meridian just below the middle of the ring
beam.
d) ll'!.ter'ml Due to OWL."!ei>jht of Container.
?he ring and meridian forces due to the weight of
are usualLJ small cozpared 'Nith.
of the 719t, calcUlated as
:" t. '. J
T,'
U lL. I'll.
Tj . .
119
caused bY' the ',veigr.t
(Fig. VI.;)
. I .


J'lg. VI-4 Pig. YI-5
./
a..sZ'Zling g = own 7leig;lt ot tan;.;: I :'J.Z , the foz'ce can he dl-
ter::J.ine'l f=cm the relation
T
Z
=
2
2
. Z in vihich
h
t.:!.n9 and
Z R
2
= = s
sin a, therefore,
cos e'
s
h 'tan
2e.
T
2
=
(91)
whichmeans that T
2
ispropo.::tional to h, so that :
"
'1'2 is maximum at the top where h is ma.x:i.'1.Um and equals H.,
'thus, .
max, T
2
=
2
g H tan e
.(91a)
'rhe meridian compreas Lve fo:::cc '1'1' above ring beam can be ea.lcula':'
ted as follows ( Fig. VI.5 )
h
,..
,1
..1
't
" .
'120,
)
2 It r.
cos e=g" ( 2 11: r 0 2'
H
- 21t r
h
cos e
, 2 'cos
r =''li 'tan e ' ,. and r ;; H tan e
but
o
so that
2
T h t 9 cose-= g (H
2
tB..!l 'e - ,h tan,Q )
or
1 an - 2 cos e
H
2
-
h
2
)
s
or
T
l
=
2 C06
2
e ;;
.......
',5
!'\
)
g 2 H -y
y
(92)
Tl , 2
2 cos e
"h ,
The meridian tensile force T
l
below the ringbeam can be calcu-
lated fr9m the relation
2 Tt r T
l
cos 9
=
g 2 It r
h
or
2 ccss
g h
TJ.
1II
"
2
2 cos e
For the special case : e=30
we have :
sin'-e = 1/2 'cose=V3/2 tan e =1/0
and cos
2
e= 3/4 tan
2
e=1/;
If\ve assume fl.U'ther thl.t the ring beam. is arranged at mid. height
Le. y =H/2, the equatioLs giving the internal forces can be much
simplified as shown in table given on page 121.
The design of a paste container of the "form shown iJl fig. VIol
hD.ving D =10 ns , e'= ;0 t supported sYJIl!!le'tri.cally at mid-heisht
on six colUQnS and used for mixing ,paste weighing 2 tons per cubic me-
ter can accordingly be done as follows :
D =J.O. ms r =5 ::ns"e;;30 w = 2 tim?
o
Therefore
H =ro/tane=5.l"'3= 8.66 ms
For the ring beam
r
R
= 25 lllS .", :t'YR' :l:;',b.n = [ = 4 .33 !lIS
2'
--- ----
II.ITE,e),;nL FtJRCS//./ ;O.IlSTe
H .... 1M,;. ,. t-;;;;;J;il;,--;:;;;-
,1/';'/ h,.s;A . I'..ru ;;
n"n, ".c"..
JIw. t. /,,_JI-c. 8". t. ,"eIre.-r..o-;;;t. _....;;:.,.:
..r/,".
,,/-' J'I_&
(88) (92) (89) (86) (91) (93)
vt(H' ..,.." t.-.nil j h f...,.? {} 6ENER/lL
-
.. j I. I<u> tJ
Jif--Z,r.'/ tanal1 .r.1!!:.1. , (90)
(91a.) 1.!-
,j, 6 t t:O/11 ,(
..... '1 .;#' .!!eJ..L A'1..,/9 'tt:d'"
-'6
..I t?
ell'oK,'y
I . I I -=---r- .t----- I I
(8a) (92a) (91b) (86a) (89a) (9'.. )
Ii
:::L.
.,
)11. "111. '111-;
.,.l (Ill'll) .. / I1.nf "'e/,fl, 1. loT t f. :.t.!...
3 .
s I. 9 J I. 3
\-----.-e_---+--------jlf----- -- I. -+ ---+1---
.

(8Bb) (92b) .: (910) .1 '.,,If I (89b) (87) (9,b)
.. 'f
""
i"
orH
.' Il
..,-/1'1 orH
t
1# L!!... 1'" -
. t
r

IT
9 3

l----- r: . -
H/" - 11--- -- --
.NIt - -:4..- - W---.- __.:...!/L _..
J"'4 ..- - -r-' --- _.=--
n,,/f.i-;.&.. ,..... II -'-.- .,./1'&-- - -11'--- -- - ._-'-_.';;:jji-'. ..-.- -c H-- --'- --- ;,;:-/('1.-'---'- -- ;;-.: .. _.- I
_.....:... '-- . _.1____ _.__. --" ._
Pole; /ii"t&S J.i..,.CA. ;,..... ",-.,. II.. If..,.,.""... .,1 .,U&t,;.".s. j t\)
I .-'-'- .._ ...... ._ I ...
..
122,
The container wall will be assumed 2.0 ..c:n.sthick, so that.
g =0.2 x 2.5 =0.5
Max. ring force T
2
max.
at y =Ht2
Due to pressure of paste. ( equation 87 )
=25.00 tim
Due to own. weight ( equation 9lc )
= 0.5 x 8.66
0.72 tim
6
Total T
2
max. = 25.72 tim
:.ieridian force. T
l
max. above ring beam
Due to pressure of paste ( equation 88b
=16.7 tim
Due to own weig..'lt ( equation 92b )
T
1
=g H '= 0.5 x 8.65
Total compressive meridian force above riUE beam
Tctal T
1
max. =16.7 + 4.33
l.!eridian ferce Ti max. below ring beam
Due to pressure of paste ( equation 89b
T
1
= \7 H
2
= 2 x 8.66
2
'9 9
Due to o ~ ~ weight' ( ~ u t i o n 93b )
. H
T
l
=s -
,;
= O.5x 8.66
,;
)
=16.7
= 1.44
tim
tim
Total tensile meridi8.!l. fQrce below ring beam.
Total T"
1 max.
=16.7 + 1.44
=18.14 tim
Total meridian torce above and below ring
=39.17 t/;n
Vert ical load on 05 beazaPH. ..TlR coe
=39.17 x G
=34.00 tim
2
Horizontalload on ring beam =T
Lq
sin a
=39.17 x 1/2 =19.59 tim
Compressive force i!l. ringbeam. en=H
R

=q.9.00 t
HavL'lb determined the nnximum. values of the.internal forces in
the container, ene ican de.sisn its different ele:r:ents as follovlS :.
of container wall slab t =20 cos
:!ax. ringtensile force
Max. meridian tensile force TJ: max .. 18. 14-s , t/m
. . . .
Ma..'C. I:leridian cO:'Jpressive force Tl max = 21003 t/m.
,. _-P t t . b A.:::: T2c-.a:t . _ 25.72 =
17.6 em
2
.il8.X. rearroecemen a rJ.ng- eam 5 "(7 - , 14'
"" s
Choose 7 l} !I1l!l/m on each side A.
s
=18.5cr!l
strain =0.25 ram/m & E =2100 t/cm
2,
E
s h s
max. ring tensile stress inconcrete crt is ii1ven by
25720 .l- 0.00025 x: 210OCCO x 18.5
100 x 20 T 10 x 18.5
25720+ 973
0
=16.4- kg/cm
2
=
2185
l;!ax. longi1;ttdina1 :t"einforcement below ring beam
A =
= 1} cui choose 9 > 10 rw./tl on each 5 ide
s
2
As =14.2 cm
lonsitudinal tensile stress in concrete rr
t
is given bl
124
er..
T
1
max + E
s h
E
s
As
:::;
18140 + 0.00025 x 2100000 x 14.2
t
A + n As
10x20 + 10 x 14.2-
c
18140 + 7460
:::; :::; 12.0 kg/cm
2-
2142
!,iax. 1 ongi, tud.inal c ompre ss i ve stress in concrete O'c above ring beam
is
21030
cr =
c
100 x 20
The.given investigation ihows that the chosen 20 thickness
for the wall is convenient as all the critical stresses are within
the allowable limits .
Desisn of Beam
-Radius of ring beam Z'R:::; 2.5 m, perimeter 2 TI; r
n
=15.7 a , Too
ring beam being supported on six and the load
including own weight
I'ft :::; 35 tim then
thi! total load OD the ring beam P :::; 2 n r
R
IlR :::; 15.7 x 35 :::; 550 ton
According to table. page96. we get :
5';0
Load On each cclucn
:::; 91. 7 tOD
,6
22Q.
!.ia.x. shearinG force
:::; 45.85 ten
12
bending; zaoaerrt at center
= + 0.00750 P.r
R
:::;
+ 0.00750 x 550 x 2.5
=
10.3 rot.
bending momeut over support
=
0.01482 PrE
:::;
- 0.01482 x 5,0 x 2.5
:::;
2004 mt.
:.1a=. tOI.'s:l.on.al tlOl!leDt
=
0.00151 Pr
R
= . _0.00151 x 550 x 2.5
:::; 2.06 mt
actins at a central e.:lg2e 22
0
'T4 I frolll the cerrcez- li!:e Of D.."'lY support.
125
Axial compression
Ca = 50 tons
This beam will be monolithically cast with the container wall,
its depth being bigger than its span, it: rillbehave as A deep circu-
lar beam of irregu.J.a.r cross-section. To simplify the calculation of
the r.equired steel its cross-section will be assume
rectangular with breadth b =50 ems and depth t = 87 cas as shown in
fig. VI. 7. The stresses in the beam will be checked for too follO\ring
critical intarnal farceS
tBa.x:. M= 20.4 mt If - 50 t ror normal stresses
max. = 45.85 mt ror shear S"t1'eSSGS
mt ror torsional snear
max !Itt
= 2.06
t
.,
-\
I
'.
",".

fig.VI-7
.rig. VI-8.
Normal Stresses :
Max. M = 20.4 .N= OR =50 t comp.
Eccentricity e
= M:: 20.4.= 0.408 IDS
H 50
Eccentricity to tension steel as :
e :: e + ! - cover =40.8 + 43.5 - 5 =79.3 ClllS
s
2
Moment about tension steel M
s
=50 x 0.793
= mt

- --
126
es
= 0.97
a case of mediUlil eccentricity.
d 82
Reinforcement assumed ( about 2/3 %of section) 5 ep 19, top and
5 ep 19 bottom.
Percentage of tension or comp:ression steel:
As I
14.2 x 100
= 0.346 %
J.l = = - =
b d 50 x 82
l! 5
x 29.
65
x 10
cr = C
l
= 4
2
c b d 50 x 82
e
Note 01 & 02 are coefficients depending on Jl. , J.L1 and -2.. and
d
are extracted from the design curves of reinforced concrete.
Shear stresses :
Q...:l
ax
. =
45.85 t. N=50 t.
45850
t
max
=
=
0.87 b d 0.87 x 50 :r. 82
=
12.8 kg/cm
2
Assuming the allowable shear stress i.n reLTJ.forced concrete = 6 kg/cm
2
then the part of the beam subject to shear stresses bigger than 8 kg!
2
cm is about 36 cms from the face of the column (fig. VI.8), this
length being smaller.than 3/4 too theoretical depth of the beam, there
is no need for bent bars. Vertical 2 branch stirrups <P 10 I!llD. spaced
every 10 ems will be used. In addition, 5 ct> 13 horizontal bars will be
arranced on each side of the beam ( fig. VI.9 ).
Torsional Shear
L\ ;:; 2.06 :nt
b = 50 cms t = 87 ems
'I' ::; 3 + 2.6 2.6
t/b + 0.45
87/50 + 0.45

f ~
9
r.II.oo
. ~ ,
IlipLAN A-A
NOTE;
LAPS IN RING BARS=40<l>+HOOKS
AND TO. BE PLACED STAGGERED
ll!L_._
1;-
- -------lH-l11-H
_# --II.(p act> nil
Ii ops of mId span
_ .. _ ~ j __
r ~ (laps ot columns)
1 DETAIL 'X'
~ t
PASTE CONTAINER
fig. E-9
k)
""l
The torsional shear stress is therefore given by :
2.06 x 10
5
2
= 4.19 x 50
2
x 67 = 4 kg/cm
The stress being low,.no ad:iiti"onal provisions are necessaI'"'J. The
details of reinforcements are shovm in fiS. VI.9 ~
VI.2. l ~ IHZE WATm T.AlilK OF CAP1..CITY 850';; (Fig. VI.IO )
Capacity
Cylinder n: x 6
2
x 6.5
+
Cone Tt :x: 2/3 ( 6
2
+ 4
2
+ 6 :x: 4 )
159
Radius a
- Bottom Dome
1t x 1.1 ( ,; x 4
2
+ 1.1
2
)
6
capacity =853 m'
1) Desisn of roo! dome
i-'or the roof dome which is a part of a hemi-spheret we have
6
= 13.5 n,. sin 'f!=-- = 0.445
13.5
12
cos
\fl=-=
"1:;.5
Area A=2na. "IT - 2 nIX 13.5 x 1.4
" -
2 6
=118.5 m .
tan 'i' = ~ = 0.50
Loads on roof :
0\'lD. \veight ( ... 8 CllIS ) =200 kg/m
2
Superimposed dead ~ live loads =150 n
II
totaJ. g =350 ( lantern neglected )
Total roof load W=350 x 118.5
=41500 kgs
Vertical load/meter run of cylindericalwall
14500
2TtR
=1100 kg/m
2 Tt x 6
129
/NZ WRiE/l T J W ~
!.I1PIUITY ISo H'
..-
.,
I \
I
SECTIIJIJ 8-B
~
I
M
,\
"
,
I
I /.* i
.... ~ v,
.c
I /'7"7
I
! , .J
I
, 'I
i
:Fig. VI-10
'\ I
\./.-,,LIfYI!U! I""".:" tc'f1lL.
The outward horizontal thrust
H = i. = JdQQ = 2200 kg/m
1 tail If> 0.5
The force H
1
must be resisted by a tension ring. The tension in the
ring:
T
1
= H
1
R = 2200 x 6 = 13200 kg
The steel required inthe ring
T
1
A =-
=13200
=9.4 cm
2
chosen 8 ep 13 C10.3 cm
2
)
s r:J
1400
s
.Assuming the average cross section of.the ring beam 15 x 50 c:m.s the
tensile stress in concrete is
13200
15 x 50 + 10 x 10.3
>.
Sues:: in dome shell
g a
!.ieridian force NIfl = ~ : ;
1 + cos
Crown 'P= 0, cos
'P
=
1,
= ~ =350 x 13.5 =2350 kg/m
compres-
H'P
2 2 sion
H _ ~ _ :;50 x 13.5
Foot ring cos
If1
=
0.89,
Ijl - - =
2480 kg/m
1.89 1.89
c ompressian
P1
or NIjl =--
=
1100 x ll..:...2.
=
2480 kg/m
sinIf1 6
compression
1
Ring force N
=
g a (
cos 'P - )
e
1 + cos'fP
Crown Ijl = 0 , cos If1 = 1, N
e
=~ = ,;50 x-l:2.:.2 = 2350 kg/m
2 . 2
compression
Foot ring
cos If1 = 0.89, N
e
= 0.36 g a = 36 x 350 x 13.5
= 1730 kg/m compression
The max. compressive stress in concrete :
Crown :
2350
=2.93
100 x 8
131
Foot-ring: <T
c
:a 2480/100 x 15 1.58 kg/c:ri
meridian
and 1730/100 x 15 . 1.15 II ring
The compress ive stress in concrete of dome shell is very low and a
very thin shell might be used. An 8 ca shell is easier to execute
and gives better isolation and insulation.
The foot. ring being subjected to high tensile stresses ( 15.5
and. strains while the dome shell at the same ring is subjected to 10\7
compressive stresses ( 1.15 kg/cm
2
) and strains, bending moments
will take place at the junction the shell and the foot ring
along the neridian. It is thus advisable to increase. :the tl.ickness
of the shell at the footring for a length x =0.6 y;TM shown
in fig. VI - 11
"
Reinfotcement in
she. , 61 8 ","lin
Fig. VI-11
Assuming the thickness of dome shell at footring is equal "to. 15
cms, we get :
= 0.6 0.6 -V 1,.5 x 0.15 = 0.85 IDS.
!rb.e fixing moment is therefore approximately given by
Rinc;l ond Merd i on
I
M ,. P
=
=
350 x 0.85
2
/ 2
=
125 kgm.
In spite of the small value of the fiXing moment t the recommen-
ded gradual increase of the shell at the footring and reinforci.:lg it
on both surfaces is a good prac"tice.
of Tank :
The cylinderical the conical floor and the spherical
x
bottom dome of the tank are rigidly connected together and may be
considered as continuous in which case, the statically indeterminate
moments can be determined by the moment distribution me-
thod as folloVls ( fig. VI.12 )
I
.
Assume the cylinderical wall to be fixed
1
at a, the conical floor to be fixed at a and b
a
and the bottom sphericil dome to be fixed at b
and determine the corresponding fixing moments
due to the acting loads and forces namely water
VI-12
pressure, own weight, temperature changes etc'.
The difference between the fixing moments at.a and at b will be diS-
tributed between any two adjacent elements according to their relati-
ve stiffness and the distribution factors.
In order to simpltly the calculations and at the aaae time to
>.
have ample sa:rety, one can proceed as follows :
Design of Cylindrical Wall: .
The ring tension, field moments and shear at base can be deter-
mined for the case of wall with hinged base, while the bending moment
..,
at the bottom of the wall may be determined for the case of wall with
fixed base. According to these assumption, the thickness of the wall
will be governed by the maximum ring tension \'.hich can be estinated
by using the simplified method shown in III.4.2. Having chosen the
thickness, the internal forces in the wall and the correspOnding de-
sign can be determined with the help of the P.C .A. tables. Thus
=0.75 w H R =0.75 x 1 x 6.5 x 6 =29 t for !2.
= =1.85 T
max
H 6.5
Therefore
t =0.8 ;x; 29 = 2,.2 cms
fhe wall Will be chosen of constant thickness' equal to 25 CI:lS
According to the P.C.A. tables we have :
2
--L = = 14 and
Dt 12 x: 0.25
for a with base
to table II : T
max:
=0.761 w"H R at 0.7 H or
T =0.761 x 1 x 6.5 x 6 =20 tim acting atroJ 4.5 ms from top
max
According'to table VIII or
=0.91 m t
According to table XVI the shear at base is given by
and
for a wall with fuedbase we get :
The maximum fixing moment, acc o.rd i.ng to table VII is given by
= - 2.5 m t
Furtter, the '.va.ll is subject to compressive stresses due to
the loads from the roof and its own ;veight
"
Thrust at top edge
Thrust at bottom edge
N =N + own weight of wall
2 l
or N
2
=1.1 + 0.25 x 6.5 x 2.5
= 5.15 tim
Accordingly, the internal forces for which the wall is designed
are as follOWS : ( fig. VI. 13)
Desi63 of section of max. tension
...:L .-2L
:::ax. ri!lg ..l = = 21.5 cri
s
=

0
6
2
chos en 6 > 15 ram/ill on each face (
As =
24 cm )
of t = S.3 T =0.8 x 30 =24- ens chosen 25 C!lZ
1;4-
The ring reinforceme:u.ts will be reduced intbe upper sections of the
"'all as shown infig. VI. 1;
~ i Umf .\
Bending moment
!!lthn
Rino tension
E
..
~
ThnJSt
:Fig. VI-l;
"For uuper 1.5 :l. : T
=
1.6 x 5 = ':1.6 tim
max
2
A =~ =6.8 cm Use 6 ~ 101m on each face
s 1.4
For seco:ld 1.6 m:
=
;.2 x 6 =19.2 tim
'"
"max
Use 6 4> l;/m on each face
Section of max. positive moment:
j,:ma.x + =910 kgm N =4700 kgs compression t = 25 cms
e = e + ! - cover =19.; + 12.5 - ;
s
2
= 28.8 ems.
d k ~ o r 22 =~ V1;50 from whieh ~ = 0.6
1 . s
'For 0"
=1400 kg/cm
2
and ~ =1300t therefore
s
........
"
"'8
1250 '
A=-
~ d 1;00 x 0.22 8
~
The mnimum. vertical reiDi'orcement is 20 % of the rings i.e.
0.2 x 12 =.. 2.4 cm
2
':2he vertical reinforcements will be chosen 5 ep 8 rom/m.. on each face
Section at base ot wall :
M =2500 kgm , N = 5150 kg ( compression)
The.tensionbeing on the water side then
t 2 ems =lV'2500/; - 2 =27 ems = 1M/) -
The wall at itsbottom edge \vill be providedby a haunch 10:x: 40 em
so that tma.:x: = 35 ems and d =;2 cms therefore
= 0.485 ms = e - !
2
+ cover = 48.5 + 22 -
2
3
= 6; cms.
M
s
32
=N.e
s
= 5150'x .63 =3250 kgm.
=k
l
vi 3250 or k
l
=0.56
and
.,
e
2
forO's = 1400 kg/em , and
~ =1280
11
. 2
A _ s N = 3250
s
2!2Q = 7.95 - 3.65 = 4.30 em
as 1280 :x: 0.32 1400
chosen 6 e:p 10'mm/m .
3. Design of Ring Beam at Foot of 'l/all :
The load of the roof and eylinderical wall ( N will cause
2)
meridian compressive forcesN
sl
in
the conical floor. But N
s l
. is not
eolinear with N thus, J..n order to
2,
have equilibrium the horizontal
a
thrust H is created at joint at its
magnitude can be determined from
H 5.llS tim
the tria..."1.gle of forces shewn in
Fig./'VI-l/1-
'., -
figure VI. 14 In order to be able
l ~
to resist this horizontal force H. a ring beaa can be arran6ed at
joint a. This beam has, in addition, to resist the horizontal shear
~ at the base of the wall. So that the total horizontal force H
2
acting on the ring beam is given by
~ =5.15 + ,.1 = 8.25 tIm
The correspQnding ring tension T is
given by:
T =H
2
x R =8.25 x 6 =49.5 t
Required ring reinforcement
2
AS =T I as =49.5/1.4 =35.3 cm
Chosen 10 4> 22 =,8 cm
2
)
.The details of reinforcements are
shown infig'..u'e VI. 15
'L. Design of Conical Part of the
Tank Floor :
The conical floor is subject to meridian compressive forces H
s
and ring tensile forces N
e
Their values can be determined accor-
ding to the.fundamental principles given in chapter IV.3.4.6 as fol-
lows
The vertical component of the meridian forces atany section is equal
to the vertical forces per meter acting at that action, thus,
The meridian force at the upper edge of the cone is given by
W/ m' =
5.15 :x: -y2=?;tIm
sinIf
Fig. VI-15
atmid-height of cone
Depth of \7ater
=7.5 m horizontal radius R =5 m
>ieight of roof and wall = 5.15 x It x 12
=6.18 t,/m
,. 1t X 10
~ ~ ~
AssWlling thiekness of cone 40 ems ( 1 t/m
2
)
137
'.'1eight of upper half of cone :
x 12 + 10 x
1 22Y2
=--
2 It x 10 20
= 1.70 tim
Jeight of on upper half of cone
x ( 6
2
_ 52 ) x 7 x =11 x 7
1t X 10 10
= 7.70 tim
Total load cr =6.18 + 1.70 + 7.70
= 15.58 tim
','[
force N
= --= 15.58Y2
s
sin '9
= 22 tim
At foot of cone :
Weight of roof and wall =5.15 XTtX 12
It x 8
Fig. Vl-16
=7.72 tim
1
Weight of cone It x: 12 + 8 x 2-,;-2x = 3.55 ..' tim
2 It x 6
Height of water 1t ( 6
2
- 4
2
) 'x 7.5 x _1_-:: 18.75 tim
It x8
Total load W = 7.72 + }.35 + 18.75
Meridian force N
e
= 30.02-(2 = 42.6 .. tim:'
Ring force N
e
can be determined from the relation
in which Pr =water pressure + g cos
at upper edge of cone : R
2
= 6 8.5 ms, Pr =6.5 + 1 1,y"'""2"
2
=7.207 tim i.e.
=61.3 tim
at mid-height of cone R
2
= 5Y'2= 7.07 IDS, Pr'= 7.5 + 1;{2
= 8.2C7 t/lii. e.
He =7.07 :x: 8.207 =58.1 tim
1}8
at foot of cone Pr = 8.5 + 1 /11'2"
=9.207 t/m
2
i.e.
=52.2 tim
Accordingly, the ring and the stresses con-
crete are siven by
=
and
=------
4000 + 10 As
, "
,
Section
Ri!lg force N
e
top .i.iid-height Foot
61..3 t/:l 58.1 tim
41.5 cm
2
ct> 19
mm.@
52.2 tim
37.2 cm
2
q ;1.9 mm@
",
Area of steel
As
mt. on each face
4.3.6
?
cm-
$19 mm.@
stress
cr
t
1.3 Cm
14.5 kg/cm
2
1.3 cm
14.0 kg!c;n2
16 em
2
12.5 kglem
.,
The tudina1 reinforcement is chosen 20 %of t!1e rine; reinforce-
2
ment i.e. 4.4 cm or 6 cj:> 10 mn/m on each face.
The stresses inthe cone in the directior. of the meridian .vil1
be calculated for the meridian force plus the fixing morent of' the
wall and the spherical floor. Thus
Jtresses due to m(;lridian force
nt top edCe li = H =7.3 t compression 1r =2.5 m t
s
6 x 250C CO 2 '
(j
c
=

= - 1.82 Z 9.38 =- 11. 2 l:.s!cm comp


100 x 40 100 x 40
2
+ 7.56
tension II
The at the bottom edge can be calculated when the moment is
determined.
139
5. Design of Domed Floor (fig. VI. )
R2 + y2
4
2
+ 1.1
2
Radius a
= = =
7.8 m
2 Y 2 x 1.1
2
Area A =2 ItaY2 = 2 Tt x 7.8 x 1.1 =54.0 m
Weight of shaft is neglected and the water is assumed to cover the
whole surface of the dome.
The dome is assumed ,15 ems thick at crown and 30 ems at the foot ring.
The internal forces at the crown
E
and the foot of the dome will be calcu-
lated for too water'pressure and the
own weight of the dome assuming that it
has an average thickness of about 23 CI!lS.
The dome is calculated according to
the membrane theory given in chapter IV.
then the fixing at
is estimated according to data given in
figure.IV_Z5 Thus
Own weight at crown =0.15 x 2500.= 375 kg/m
2
Own weight at = O.30x2500= 750 kg/m
2
Average weight of dome = 0.375 + 0.75 x 54
2
Total weight of water = x x 8.5 - 28
Meridian and ring forces at crown
,(
+ 375
) 7.8
=. = 30.3 tIm compression
N'l' =
N
e
2
lieridian and ring at footring
=
429
l.:eridian force

.. x
M
= 33 tim ccapress ion
rrx 8

Ring force N
a =
a P
r
-
N, = 7.8 P
r
- 33
but
140
P =water pressure + g cos = 8.5 + 0.75 x ~ = 9.142 t/m
2
r
7.8
So that N
e
= 7.8 x 9.142 - 33 = 38 tim compression
The bending moments at the lower ring beam can be determined according
to Markl:.s - refer to pages <-92- 94) - as follows :
i) Fixing end moraent and stilfness of conical floor
Referring to figure IV - 29, we have :
h =12.5 m s =5.66 m t= 8,49 m
t =0.40 If= 45
o
.s =0.4 x 2.5 =1.00 t/m
2
P =5.15 tim
Therefore
k
3
=1.3068 -v 1/5.65 x 0.40 =0.87 and
2 [" ' 92
E!:J.r: =1.00x5.65 1 _ 0.167
( 1 - 8.4 x 0.5 x 1..0 )J
2
o :>.40 2 x 0.5
5.66
+ 0.167 x 5.15 x 8.49 x ~ O
0.4
+ 1.00x5.66 5.66 (12.50 _ 5.66)
0.40 0.707
=48.6 + 18.5 + 524.9 = 592
Ee =1.0Jx5
1 (1 _ 8.49; )
, 11 + 0.167 - 2.167 x 0.5 ------
o 0.40 [
2 5.66
. , 0.707
_ ;;.15x8.49
x
MQZ
0.4 x5.65 Cl.50
0.707
+
3 x 5.65
= ~ 3d.7- 27.3 - 250.0 = - 308 ,hence,
141
-
The fixed end moment M is
M_ x
( 592 + x 308 ) =9.8 m t
- 2 x 5.66
2
x 0.8 . x 0.5
.87
The stiffness S is
S = 2 x x 0.87 = 0.1115
ii) Fixed end moment and stiffness of floor-spherical dome
Referring to figure rv - 28, we have
a =7.8 m to =15 em t =30 ems h = 15.2 ms
2
sin'P= I 7.80 =0.5128 Sin \fl= 0.263
Ij) =30
0
51' =0.538 radians eos Ij)= 0.8585
2
h = 8.5 + -- =15.20 IDS = 0.15 x 2.5 = 0.375 tim
tan'll
Y7.
8
0
= 6.66
0.3
2
+ 0.30-
015)-O.3xO.85
851,
Et.r =0.375 x 7.8 [1.:67'(0.15 _ 0.3xO.8585
6
0.30 x 0.15 0.538' J
3
1.00 x 78 [0.833
X15.20
_ 0.8585 + 1.167 1 lxO.5128
0.30 2 x 7.80 3 1. 8585J
=- 51 403 =-
%=0.375x?8 {0.30-0.15
x
0.8585-2.167XO.30xO.5128+ 1.167(0.30-0.15
0.30 xO.15 0.538 0.30XO.538XO.263
x r0.15-0.3XO.8585 + 0.30-0. 15xa.5128_ XO.8585xO.263l}
L J 0.538 1.167
+ l.COx7.8
2
J0.$128 + 0.30-0.15 x 1.167 [15.20 _ 1. (0.8585 I 1 }
0.30 0.30xO.538 2x7.8 3 1.8585J l
_ 0.30 - 0.15 (12.
2
_ 0.85
85)}
0.30 x 0.538 7.8
= 18.9 + 10.1 = + 29
'142
. ----
The fixed end moment M and the stiffness are given by
- 0.30 .' ( - 454 _ 7.80 x 29)
!J
= -
= gmt
0 5128 6 6 ~
3
2 X 6.66
2
0
2 x 0.30 x 6.66
= 0.046
s
=
7.80
iii) Stiffness of ring beam
b
=
0.50 In. t =1.20 m R= 4.0 m then
S
=
0.972 .x: 50 .x: 1.203 I 4.0
2
=
0.0525
Relative stiffness
0.115
= ~ l 5
Cone
= =
0.53
0.1115+0.046+0.0525 0.21
=0.046
Dome
=
0.22
0.21
0.0525
Ring beam
= =
0.25
0.21
Distributed moments (Fig. VI-18)
-
M
= 9.80 - 3.10 =
6.70 mt
~ v
lJoment at foot of cone
=
- 6.25
mt
~ 9.80 + 3.10
+ '3.55 + 1.47
!.loment at foot of dome
= - 4.47 mt
- 6.25 + 4.47
'rorsional moment in ring beam :
Fie. VI-18
6.70 x 0.25'= 1.68 mt
=
Stresses in the suherical dome of the floor
a't crown t
6
=15 ems N'1'= N
e
=30.:;0 tim
- 30 300
2
O =- 20.20 kg/cm
c - .
100 x 15
143
= 30 ens N", = - 33 tim
N 9 = - 38 tim
COl:lyressi"re atrreas L'1. tansential direction is :
a =- 28 000 = _12.7 ks/cm
2

c 100 x 30
Safety against crackins in meridian direction
o =_ 2'; 000
+ 6 x 447 000 =_11 .:!: 29.8
c 100 x 30 - 100 x 32
2
= - 40.80 kg/cm
2
comp,
= + 15.80 " "tension
Neglecting ti'..e concrete in tension (stage II and n = 15) and with
II __ "I _:- 4.70 a 175 %
=6 10 mn/m i.e. ..,.. =.
27 x 100

e = 0.13 ms e
s
= 0.25 ms M
s
:. 8250 kgm
2 2
I b d =9.20 kg/cm .&-s/d =0.93 =4.4
02 =70
"
M
s 1
c"c =4.4 x 9.2 =40,5" kgJcm
2
and
Os
=70x9.2 =644- kg/cm
2
:.leridian stresses in cone at f'ootring
7.10
t =40 ems 10 mm/m
= J.l.
1
= - =0.192%
. 37xlOO
N =- 42.6 tim, M'P=6.25m.t/m
s
8af'ety against cracking in meridian direction
42600
625 000 =_10.7 . 23.4
.
100 x 40 100 x 40
2
=- 34.1
kg/cm
2
.compression
= + 12.7
"
tension
the concrete in tension
e
= 0.14-7 IDS
Ss =
0.31 IDS M
=
13200 kt;I:l
s
'f
I b d
2
... 10
ea/d =
0.85 =
3.8
2
=40
-3 1
=,.8 x 10 =38 kb/cm
2
Os
=
40 x: 10 = 400 k:;/om
2
0
Reactions of dome at footring
144
Vertical
c: ".t
= 4291It x 8 = 17 t/u
Horizontal reaction = 17 x
4
= 28.6 tim
6. Desisn of Lower Circular :
This beam is supported s;yJnIaetrically on eight columns.
The resultant vertical foa:-ce on the beam = 3,0 + 17 = 47 tim and
The resultant inward horizontal force = 30 - 28.6 =1.4 tim i.e.
The axial compression in the beam = 1.4 x 4
It is however recommended to choose the different elements of the tank
such that the axial force in this beam is minimum.
The total vertical load on the beam P =( 1+7 + own weight ) 1t D
Assuming own weight
=
1. 2 tim. then P
=
48.2 XTtx8= 1212 ton
According to table we get
shearing force

=
E..
=
1212
= '76 too
16 16
:.iax. bending moment at center of each span !,! + = .00415 P R or
= .00416 x 1212 z 4 = 20 mt
:,;8-"<:. bending mo:nent over center line of support M - =.00827 P R or
max
-. .00827 x 1212 x 4 = 40 mt
torsional )
=00063 P R
due to vertioal loads

= .00063 x 1212 x 4= 3.1 mt
Torsional due to unbalanced
= 1.68 mt
Total torsional moment
Assuming the ring beam" 50 x 120 cms,
For middle section of any span :
we get :
t: = 20 mt N
- 4.78 mt
=5.6 t
14;
e == .Y =gQ..,. == 3.57 ms
N 5.6
:.; =Ii e =5.6 x: 4.12 == 23.1 mt
s s .
115 == k 123100 k..:.0.54 tor as =1400 k;/cm
2
It' = 0
1 0.5 ~
~ =1285
and
Ii 23100 2
5600 =15.6 _ 4 =11.6 cm
=
o:
s
1285 x 1.15 1400
which must be bigger than the minimum steel ( 0.25 %of cross-section)
miniJIlum. As = 0.25 x 50 x 120 =15 cm
2
chosen 4 ep 22.
100 .
For section over center line of supports: M =40 mt, N =5.6 t
=
40
e - =7,.14 ms e =7.14 + 0.6 - 0.05 = 7.69 DIS
5.6
s
M = 5.6 x 7.69 = 43 mt
s
00 2 ';
115 =k
1
vi 43 , k
1
=0.392 for a ~ = 1400 kg/cm ct =0
0.5
U =45 kg/cm
2
~ =1250 and
c
43000 5600
= 30 - 4
= 26 cm2. chosen 7 ep 22
1250 x 1.15 1400
.check of tensile stresses inconcrete
At supports, the bending moments are negative and the concrete
on the water side is subject to tensile stresses \vhich must be smal -
ler than the tensile strength of concrete if'tension cracks are to
be avoided.
P g ~
VI-19
+
CoO
146
In order to determine the tensile stresses, a part of the done
and cone slabs may be assumed acting with the web, thei:t' effect can
be replaced by a horizontal flange 150 cms wide and 30 cms deep as
shown in figure VI.19
2
Area of concrete sectionA =50 x 90 + 150 x 30 =9000 cm
c
= 50 x 120 x 60 + 100 x 30 x 15
Distance of c.g. from upper fiber y
9000
=4-5 cms.
Moment of inertia of section :
3
120
3
2
I = . x + 50 x 120 15 +
100 x 30 + 100 x 30 x 30
2
=
12 12
90.45 x 10
5
cm
4
!L + M....z = _ 5600 + Lj.() x 10
5
x 15
The tensile stress
= -
A I 9000 90.4-5 x 10/
c
2
= 19 kg/cm
\'lh.ich can be safely allowed.
Shear Stresses : The axial compressive force of 5.6 t being small
relative to the shearing force of 76 t, its effect on the principal
diagonal tensile stresses may be neglected and therefore
Q 76000
1 = =
= 15.2
.87 bd 0.87 x 50 x 115
We will show in the following Whether this high value of t
max
needs special web reinforcements or not
Assuming that the allowed shear in reinforced concrete is 8
kg/cm
2
t then the part of the beam subject to shear stresses higher
than this value is only 50 ems fro!ll the face of the column ( figure
VI. 20), this lensth being smaller than 3/4- the depth of the
there is no need for bent bars.
Torsional shear stresses I
The torsional moment 1.68 mt due to the unbalanced moment is
oonst.ant along the perimeter of the beam and does not cause shear
stresses. Hence, the torsional moment causing shear is M
t
3.1 mt.
147
Knowing that b 50 ClIL and t 12.0 ea, 1ib.aa.
2.6 2.6
t/b + 0.45 120/50 + 0.45
= 3.91
The torsional shear stress is tl:erefore gi-
ven by
,-
t ''3.14m -1
llJ.
t
=,.91
tt =ijl
100
Pig. VI-20
= 4.85
The stresses are 10\7 and no special provisions are needed.
The details of reinforcements of the tank are shown in figure VI.
(a&b).
- ......
Fig. VI-2la
';
148
6q>8/m
-+- ...... .....
!
-T-SOEl/m..J
-- --'"'.-.......-

I
..
01
.S
Ill:
e

-0
.e-
ll)

R=6.00m
o
or
..
'.
5 8/'!L.
J5 RoO.e
01


CI
Rinos
A
149
,.,
I DesiS'"n of SuoDorting TO\'1er Vertical. Loads.:
The supporting tower is to be treated as a space frame.
in the an approximate method determinin3 the
forces in tl:..e coluane and struts.
Vertical load of tank plus water to level a - a
"
per column
=
1218/8
" " " " "
,7eight of water
=853
t aDd
" " =
853/8
Own weight of tank to level 0 - 0 per"
Assuming own 'lieight of column or strut 0.75 tim
=
Weight of column between sections 0 - 0
& I - I =0.75 x 6
Total deadweights per column to level I-I
As the Lengtih of a...YJ.y side of the octagonal strut
=0.383 D, where
D =the diameter of the we get
','leight of column + strut between sections
I - I & II - II =(6 + 0.383 x 9 ) 0.7
Total dead weights per colucn to level II-II
of column + strut section II-II &
III - III = ( 6 + 0.383 x 0.7
Total dead weights per column to level III-III
of column + strut between sections III-III &
IV - IV = ( 6 + 0.383 x 11) 0.7
Total dead weights per column to level IV - IV
Neight of column + strut between sections IT-IT &
V - V =(8 + 0.383 x 12) 0.7
Total dead weights per column to level V - V
Therefore total dead loads + water per column
=79.5 + 106.5
'.'le give
internal
=1212 t
=152 t
= 106.5 t
= 45.5 t
=
4.5 t
=50
t
=6.6 t
=56.6 t
=6.9 t
=63.5 t
=7.2 t
= 70.7 t
=8.8 t
=79.5 t
=186 t
150
,vind pres3ure on tank and SutJ'Dortinij to-,'!er
Intensity of wind pressure on tank = 150 kg/m
2
horizontal. As
itacts on surfaces of revolution, this pressure may be reduced to
100 kg/Ii
The wind pressure on the suppor-td.ng "tower is assumed equal to
100 and considered as at the joints where the
columns and the struts intersect.
and position of wind horizontal forces acting on tank
( fig. VI. 22).
.-

-......
Element Area A

y from
o-
Om Ay m
3
Total wind force =131.1 x 0.1 =1:; t
Arm abcve 0 - 0 = 698.2/.131.1 5.3 m
WI I
Wind per meter of column or strut --

=0.1 x 0.6 =0.06 tim
I
Wo=I.4,
- 0_+
-
Section .'lind load W
0-0 8 x :; x 0.06 =1.4 t
I - I
( 8 x 6 + 9 x 2 )
!l! 4.0 t
x 0.06
II - II ( 8 x 6 + 10 .lC 2 )
x 0.06
=
4.1 t
III-III ( 8 x 6 + 11 x 2 )
x 0.06
=4.2
..
..
?h')ii9j?
I
IV - IV (
8 x 5 + 12 x 2 )
Pig. VI-22
I
x 0.06
=
-+.:; t
J
\
lJantern 1.0 x 1.5
=
1.5 11.5 17.:;
iUpper dome 12.5 x 1.5
=
18.7 10.3 129.0
[Cylinder 12.5 x 6.5
=
81.0 6.25 505.0
12.7
+ 8.6 x 2
2.00
=
21.3 42.6
2

8.6 x 1 8.6 0.50 4.3
r.ng =
1:;1.1 69B.2
I
_
I
..
I
r - i
1
11_+
I
,
m
-+
..
II'I
--t

\Y .
- ._--- .
'-0'
1
151 .
Vertical- :forcesdue>:'toe,Wi.nd.:.
Itwill be assumed that the points of zero bending :nonents will take
place at the middle of arr:r unsupported length o:f column or strut.
The vertical forces due to wind can be determined from the con -
ditions :
The monent of the horizontal wind forces about any horizontal plane
at mid-height between two successive struts o assumed zero
bending moments in columns) IlIUSt be equal to the couple caused by'
vertical wind forces incolu.mns at the same plane. AssuminG these
vertical forces to be "1 V
2
and V
3
' we get: ( t
.'
M =V
l
x 2 r + 2 V
2
x 2 a in which
w
2
2 r
a =_r_ or
V
2
=" x and a =-
1 r
-j2 2
thus
2
V a
1I\v ="1 x 2 r + 4- _1__.. =4- V r
r .;.'
l

"
!ki
w
V
l
=---- =max. vertical force
4 r
AccordinglyI the max. vertical forces in columns due to Wind aan be
calculated as
Section
0
- 0
I - I
II-II
III-III
IV - IV
V - V
H
1.4-
4-.0
4.1
4.2
4.3
follows
Tons M
VI
13.0
14.4 13 x 8.3 + 1.4 x 3 = 112.2
18.4 14.4 x 6 + 4 x 3 '= 98.4
18.4 x 6 + 4.1 x 3 =
122.7 22.5
22.5 x 6 + 4.2 x 3
=
147.6 26.7
26.7 x 7 + 4.3 x 4-
=
.204.1 31.0
M
w
112.2
210.6
333.3
480.9
685.0
r
Vmax:
8.5 3.3
5.6 9.5
10.5 7.9
10.4- 11.5
12.65 13.6
The horizo:u.tal forces in the coLumns at points of zero bendillg mliments
may be as suraed equal, acccr-d.IngLy the bending moments and normal
152
on the columns are given by
polumn
:
H/Column
tons
Vertical Force
tons
wind'
force
tons
max.
Vert.
force
tons
l!ax. B. :.1.
m t
1.8 x3= 5.4-
2 .3 x3= 6.9
2.82x3= 8.5
3.34x.3=10.0
.3 88x4=14.6
0
-
I
I
-
II
D:I -III
!III-IV
\IV - V
14.4/8
=
1.80
18.4/8
=
2.30
22.5/8 =
2.82
26.7/8 = .3 .34
31.0/8
=
.3.88
152 + 4.5
=
156.5
156.5 + 6.6 =
163.1 + 6.9 = 170.
0
170 + 7.2 =
177.2
177.2 + 8.8
=
186
.
3.3
.
5.6
.
7.9
.
10.4
. 1.3.6
160
169
178
188
200
ApproxiJnate Determination of Internal Forces in Struts :
The internal forces in the struts vary according to the direction
, of wind. In some cases, the st:"'..lts \7ill be subje.ct to torsional mo-
'.
ments Which, if the internal forces can approxi7.ately be
determined for the maximum horizontal forces acting on any of the sid-
es as a plane The wind forces will be assumed as -
centrated at the joints and roints of zero bending lie at
dle of ntruts or colu::ms.
The max. horizontal force actil13 in the plane of a side due to
any of the wind loads ',V shown in FiS. VI. 22 is -for octagonal towers
equal to 0.146 Wand can be determined as follows :
a) Distribute the wind load W
on the different sides accor-
ding to fiGure VI 24.liote that
I, = D cos 67 .30' = 0 .353 D
l'
=.y 2 = 0.27 D
....
"


'- 1
D'= 0.92.3 D
Fig. VI-24
w
'i!.
w
=
=
D' 0.9.23 D
=
1.06
!
D
153
b) Jeter::line t:le noz-raaL co npone at
of load on tee dif-
ferent sides (fig. VI-25 )
the normal on
inclined side is by
Y!..L x
2
cos 45 =
2
w :x:_l_
-(2 -2"
Fig. VI-25
=!LL
4
c) Distribute the wind loads
given in fig. VI25 on the dif-
ferent joints as shown in fig. VI-
26
. d) Determine the corresponding
wind forces in different 5i-
des by draWing the trian
61es
of
fo:::,ces for a and b (figs.
Fig. VI-26
VI. 27- A, B and C ).
Fig. VI-27
A
Acco::'dingly, the wind. force in side a - a' is given by !!...L
8
at a and an equal value at a' so that the total force is
2 x 1.08 x 0.383 D 0.146
8 D 4
:rhe forcei::t. side a b is given by tee compoaeatis of (1) and (2)
which cancel each etter plus the coopocent of (3) so that total for-
o ce is
1,54
v;
_1_
Y2=
0.146
,;
4-
The t"lind force b c due to VI is equal to zero. final fo!'ces
along -:;be different sides are
sno...rn in figure ( VI. 28).
AccordinGly, the wind forces
on the assumed plane frame
Fig. VI-28
will be as shown in figure
VI.29 each of the forces
ShO\VD is The shear
at points of zero bending mo-
Wind forces as foctor of ...
ments at the middle of the free
0.146 x l}= 9';.
of any column assumed

equally resisted by columns



It\
0!204 t.
o
are also given. The .max. ben -
>.
ding moment in any of the struts
U.584
1;
will be eg,ual to the sum of ti1e
of the just
0.599
1;
above and below it, thus
r'I =
(
1.053 + 1.344
) x
"
=
2.397
0!6B 1:..
..
x
3
=
7.2 mt .
l:1
n
=
( 1.344 + 1.644 ) x
3
=
2.988
0.628 't

x .;
=
9.0 mt
,.
=( 1.644 + 1.95
) x 3
=
3.639
"'III
-'.: : ...
x
3
=
10.9 mt
L!rv=
1
1.95 x 3
+
2.264 :<::4
=
5.85 + 9.05
=
14.9 m t Fig. VI-29
Comparing these values with the bendbg ;no:nents in the columns
due to wind,we find that, in our caseI the max. bending noraerrts in
struts at the face of the columns may be assumed equal to the
moments at the upper ends of the columns jus t below tnen, The thrust
i.D, the struts are small and can be neglected in the design.

..--

;...
the general principles of reinforced concrete des ion
the di:nensbns and reinforcements of the coIumns a.J.d struts ( desi-
gned with relatively stresses ) be assumed as
0
I
III
IV
I
Normal Bending Concrete
I
Element Force lJOalnt Dil::ensions
Hint. Min mt
I
CI::S
I
- I
160
.:t
5.4 50 x 55 12 Q 19
- II 169
.:t
6.9 50 x 60 4 ep 22 + 8 > 19
II- III 178
.:t
8.5 50 x 65 6922 + 4 > 19
10.0 50 x 70 8 22 + 4 tP 19 - IV 188
.:t
i
- V 200
.:t
H.6 50 x 75 12 cP 22 !
- I naglected I .:t
7.2.: 30 x 55 5 22 top.
5
22 bot.
II-II
" .:!:
9.0 30 x 60
I
6 22 top &.:
I
6 q, 22 bot.
- III
rt
.:t
10.0 30 x 65 6 ep 22 top
I


6 ep 22 bot.
I
- IV
II
.:t
14.9 30 x 70 7
22 top .:
I i
7
622 bot.
I I
.,
I
III
I
I
I
.
I
IV
I
details of reinforcements of the supportinG tower aro shown in
fiS-cU'e VI. 30.
i
.-I
0
0
e

;j
I'i


156
SEC. 3-3
.. lIdl8/m
o S If.

12 III
10.1l1l I
i
.SECT. 4-4
44>22 .. .a/.
;.
i'"""
. .tin:

1= eo I
llc$22 3<1>22
i4
5c$!2 to &bottom
! top &bottom
SECT. 1-1
SECT. 2-2
t st


PART PLAN X- X
0
N
I

INZE WATE.R TOWER
HEIGHT 30m.
FiQ.n-:-30
157
VI-3 I Water Tower or Figure IV-3a
In this example, the detailed design or the circular plates of the
floor of the elevated tank and the foundation of the tower will be
shown.
1) The floor of the tank
.The floor of the tank considetation is a hollow circular
plate with an overhanging cantilever ring subject to un1torm and con-
centrated loads as well as to edge moments as shown 10 fig. yI-3l
20 360cm 15 1 0 5 360Clll 0
-
12 cm brick wall
I

20
R C
_: !
-f- __ .
240 cm 20 125
0
.,
Itwill be considered as simply supported on the 20 cms thick rein-
forced concrete shatto
Data I
Depth of tank
= 5.35 IllS
Depth of water = 5.1.. m
Weight of R.C. 2.5 t/m
3
Weight of brickwalls =1.8 t/m
3
Superimposed load on roof slab =400 kg/m
2
:3
'. 158'

Briok wall
"
Boot + B.C. outside waJ.l
Boo! + internal Bhatt
Own .sight at oantilever ring
Weigh't of water
O'm weigh't of inhrm.. slab
P
1
1.15 't/_
P2' ", t/..
5.65 't/_
2
Pl = 0.3 2o.?% 2.5 1.25 't/..
P2 = P4 =5.10 t/m
2
0.7 % 2.5 1.75 t/m
2
I>W!I to the bigrigidity of 'the 1;ank floor aDd in order 'to simp1Uy
'tbl oaloula'tions, 'the wall ahal.l be considered as fixed to 'the floor.
,
bending momen't from waJ.l .14 ..1.40 . 't/_
liad1al reactionof wall at base t/_
bending JIIOment transa1't'ted frOll the 1n'termedia'te sha:tt 'to 'the
floor is SIIIall aDd can be negJ.ec'ted.
"
b) Bending Momen'ta
.A. 81.11lplJ' supported circular slab with overhanging cantilevers 18
no't a staticallydeterminate problem. In order to determine the inter-
nal forces inthe cantilever ring. and the hollow ring slab each shall
be solved for cOlllp,lete fixation atthe support, tben, the unbalanced
fi%ing moment Will be d1ntributed according to the stiffness of each
elellent in the following :lWU'1&rl
i) can'tUever rinS
cantllenrring 8haJ.l be solTed according to the equations
giyen in IV-2 for the :following :fiYe cases at loading and the pro-
jectionaball be cone1dered equal to the loaded length in each case
as shown 1n :figure VI-32. It.Ulbe assUIIl8d that the Poison' B ratio
for concrete I
v.1/6 0.167
159
Case 1 P =1.15 t
According to 8 - &. page 80
=!iZ2=1.'57
a. 3.5-
80 that
Ex :I p2 1 + (1 + v) In@ 2 1.84- %
'" 1 - v + (1 + v)
1 + 1.167 x 0.205
1 - 0.167 +1.167 %1.84-

At the :rued edge p..1 8Ild the
radial moment 18 gi..,en by I
=- P2.a. [- 1 + (1 +v ) - v)
It,. - (1 +v )111PJ
"
:I _ 1.15 %3.5 %1.;57 ( _ 1 + 1.167 %0.8;6 + 0.8;; %0.8'6 )
2
Case 4-
Case ;
__ Ca,' 2

Case 1
-the tree edge
'rhe tangential moments are I
P=1, )(t:l- P2a. v+ (1 + v) - (1 - v) ]
_ 1,15 x 3.5 x l.;57 (_0.167 + 1.167 %'0.8;6 - 0.8;; %
2
%0.8;6 =- 0.;0 mt
P:I P !l.t:l - P2a. p [ - \(+ (1 + v) - (1 - v) - (1 + v) 111
:I _ 1.15 x 3.5 x 1.'57 (- 0.167 + 1.167 %0.836 - 0.8;; %
2
x 0.826 _ 1.167 x 0.305) -0.199 mt
1.84
160
Que 2
p .. 3.2 t ( 8 - a , page 80 )
..
3.5
1.293 P
2
=1.67
and In 0.2,56
P = 1,
r - 4.04 lit
and P .. p,
P 1,
-= - 0.67 lit
and -o.398mt
C&se3 p 1.25 t/m
2
( 7 - a' , page 78 )
p .. 4,63 =1.386 and 80 that
3.50
(1_v)@2+(1+V)(1+4@2
ln Q)
1 - v+ (1 + v) P
2
.1.92x 0.833 x 1,92 + 1.167 (1 + 4 x 1.92 x 0.326) = 3.55
1 - 0.167 + 1.167 %1.92
2
l\- p1: I(1 + V) ( 1 - lt
1
) + 4 /32 - (3 + v) - (1 - v)
2
1.25 ,.50 [ 1.16 (1 - 3.55) + 4 %1.92 - 3.167
- 0.633 %3.55Ja -1.36 lit
P ..
0
Pili h lit; =\:2 [ (1 + v) (1 - k
1)
+ 4 V - (1 + 3 v)+ (1-V)k
1]

1.25 x ,.,2 [1.16 (1 3 55) 4a 167 1...2 1 5


-. + %. +

+ 0.833 % 3.55
]
c: -0.22 m't
1\:eo. [(1 + v) (1 -lt
1
) + 4 v p2 - (1 + 3 v) +
16 .
+ 4 (1 + v) P2 In P]
2
1.25 x 3,5 [t.16
7
(1 _ 3.55) + 4 x 0.167 %1.92 - 1.5
16
%1.92 + 0.833 x + 4- x 1.167 x 1.92 % .
1.92 l
% 0.326 = - O.lOG mt
J
162
In ~ - 1.573
80 that
P 3 = 5 6 ~ t m
~ 'Case6
2 1 + (1 + v) In P
2. b= 725
k3 a ~ 1 _ v + (1 +v ) ~ 2
a=
=5.65 X 3.50 X 0.207 ( _ 1 _ 1.167 X 0.0405 - 0.833 X
2 X 0.0405 ) .. _ 2.22 lit t
p ~ ~ .. 0 P = -
1
, I4:r = - 0.77 11. t
2
P .. 1, l.tt = P2(1 P[- v + (1 +v ) k} - (1 - v ) k
3
]
IZ 2.
65
X '.5X 0.207 ( - 0.167 - 1.167 X 0.0405 + 0.833 X
2
X 0.0405 ) =- 0.}7 mt
P p, .I!.t ~ P2a p [- v + (1 + v ) ~ - (1 - v) ~ - (1 +v,. ~ ~ ]
.. 5.65 x 3.5 x 0.207 ( _ 0.167 - 1.167 x 0.0405 + 0.8}3 x
2
X 0.0405 + 1.167 x 1.573) .. +4.07 mt
0.04-2.8
Case 7.
P =6.85 tIm.
2
(7 - a, page 78 )
p 0.207 p2 .. 0.0428 InP=- 1.573 so th4t
2 2
~ P2 (1 - v ) 13 + (1 +v) (1 + 4-V13 Ine)
1 - v + (1 +v ) P
2
=0.0428 X 0.83' x 0.0428 + 1.167 (1 - 4- x 0.0428% 1.572' .. 0.043
0.8'3 x 1.167 X 0.0428
2
P .. 1, ~ p1: [(1+v) (1 - k
1)
+ 4- 13 2. - (3 +v) - (1 - v) k
1
J
161'
4- P =c;.1 tIm
2
( 7 - a, pago 78)
p= =1.257
P
2
=1.58 GJt1d
3.5
n
p =1,
!\.:I - 2.35 mt p=p
II
p :I I,
:I - 0.39 mt p =P Lit -0.156 mt l:I
CaSEl 5 M=1.40 r::rt;/11 ( 9- a, paga 82)
p= =1.293 P
2
=1.67
so tl:.!l.t
;.50
p2 1.62 06
. 5
k
= 2 :: :z
1 - v + (1 + v)P 0.8;; + 1.167 x 1.67
P =1, M ,=- Mk (1 + v + 1 - v) = - 2 irk = - ,2 x 1.4 x 0.6
r
5 5
:I - 1.68 mt
P = p,

(1 - v) 1.....J= - 1.4 x 0.6 (1.167 + Q..Jill)
, p2. . . . 1.67
= - 1.40 mt
(1- v )J = v::';"1.68 x "
r "
. ' =- 0.28 mt
, .-'"
p = P. M,,= - ,""'5 [1+-,- (1 -v) (1.167 -
'=- 0.56 mt
P =I,
The hollow circular ahall be solved tor the 'two cases ot
louding aaorm infiguro VI-;;.
p =5.65 tin (8-a page 80)
p= Q.:Z2,2 = 0.207
P
2
=0.0428
3.50
163
2
M =6.85 x 2.2 (1.167 x 0.957 ... 4 x 0.0428 - }.167 - 0.83} x 0.04;)
r
16
- 10.07 mt
P l\."0
and P:I -
1
l\. II: ... 1.126 mt
2
"=..85 x 3.S
2
(1.167 x 0.957 + 4 x 0.167 x 0.0428 - 1.50 + 0.8}3
16
x 0.(43) :a - 1.68 mt
... 4 (1 ...v ) P2 In "I
p J
:I 6.85 x (1.167 x 0.957 ... 4 X 1.167 x 0.0428 - 1.5 x 0.0428 ...
16
+ 0.833 x - 4 :: 1.167 x 0.0428 x 1.573)
0.0428
111 + 8.42 mt
Fixed end moments
The fixed end moments of the two elements at the support are the-
retore :
For the cant1.1everring
M=-1.84-4.04-1.36-2.35-1.68 =- 11!27 mt
For the. hollow circular slab
1:4 = - 2.22 - 10.07 '" - 12.29 mt
The unbalanced tixed end moment shall be distributedby the mom-
ent distribution method according to the relative stiffness ot the can-
tilever ring and the hollow circular slab! Mowing that the stiffness
is the moment; causing an angle ot rotation at the support equal to uni-
ty, itcan be determined tor each ot the two elements in the following
manner: (Refer to case 10 page 83 )!
164
1) Stiffness of cantilever ring ( Fig. VI-;4 )
2
P =1.92
k?- 1 =_ 1.087
1-1.92
The angle of rotation 18
ginnby Fig. VI-;4
.)
D 1 +v 1 - v p
Subst ituting Ijl =1 c.t p.1 , the resulting moment is a for
the I3ti:ffnes6 of the can'tilever. Hence
M: a It.. ( 1 + v n2)
Ijl - --:i-- 1 + _ . I' E 1
D 1 ... v- 1 _ v
or Mx x - 1.082 ( 1 + x 1.92 ) =1
D 1.167 0.8"
14 : O.OS}l D
inWhich D 18 the flexural rigidity of the cantilo'rer.
ii) Stiffness of hollow circular slab ( Fig. VI-;5 )
p. . 0.207 p2 =0.0428 c:. _
"7" 1 ""1.0447
a
-r
1 1 - 0.0428 1 +-
Fig. VI-35
at P. 1, 'P. II a ..=z.. (1 + P2 ) 1
:> l+v l-v
Bence
I( x '.5
1.0447 (1 + x 0.0425) 1
D 1.167 0.8"
1.
II 0.301 D
165
eonnecting moment
The ditterence in the end moments orthe oantilever ring
a.c.d the bollow circular slab bein small, then the orthe va-
riat10n or the mODant inertia of the cantilever ring may be neglec-
ted without causing an appI'9ciab1e error. Honce.
Helativa ot ring 0.0831
0.08;1 + 0.;01
0.301
"
" hollow circ\l.la.r slab
"
0.08;1 + 0.301
Tho connecting moment can accordingl:r be doterm.inod by the mo-
cent method as tollows :
Ca:1tiloV9rring Hollow circular sla.b
- 12.29
Fixed eDd, moDlent
Balancing lIlOlUent + 0.22 +' 0.80
Connecting moment + 11.49 - 11.49
"
In oro'll' to draw the tioal Cloment diagrams. one bas to determine
the radial and tangential momenta due to tho balancL"lg mo!ll9nts as
tollO'HS I
Case a I Ca.:ltile'rol.' ring f3'lbject to 8. balancing 1ll0llldot
)4 .. - 0.22 mt
1c;J .. - 1.087
pal, and P :I P
P s 1, s _ U p2 + 1) + 0.22 X 1.92 X 1.087 (..!.- + 1)
P
:I
1.92
+ 0.69 mt
2 2
s + 2 X 0.22 % 1.087
+ 0.479 Il1t
p = p,
.. - )(
Case b I HollQW cu-cular slab SUbject to 8. balancing moment
Ii + 0.80 :nt
"166
=0.207
P2 =0.0428
p 1"
.. 0.8 mt/m and
_ 1
P
- ,
= 0.694 JIlt

p =1 ,
.
=0.8 x 0.0428 x 1.0447 (1 + 1) I: + 0.88 mt
0.0428
p = {3 .. 2 U I: 2 x 0.8 x: 1.0447 =+ 1.67 mt
The final valuos or the radial and tUD&antial bending acaezrcs can
now be dete.rmi.Iled by superposition as shown inthe following tables.
1 ) , Moments inCantilever Ring
-.
Case
1
2
3
4
5
a
Total
Radial moment
in mtjm

p =1
- 1.84
- 4.04-
-.1.36
- 2.35
- 1.68
- 0.22
-11.49
p =
p
0
0
0
0
- 1.40
0
- 1.40
Tangential moment
in nIt/m

p =1
- 0.30
- 0.67
- 0.22
- 0.39
- 0.28
+ 0.69
- 1.17
p =P
-
- 0.398
- 0.106
.;. 0.156
- 0.560
+ 0.479
- 0.94
11) Moments inHollow Circular Slllb
Radial moment Ta.ngential ICOm9nt
Case
1:
r
in mt/m

in lilt/m
pI: 1 P I:
P I: 1
p =
>
-
2.22
- 0.77 0
- 0.37 + 4.07
7 - 10.07 + 1.1'; 0 - 1.68 + 8.42
b + 00.80 + 0.69 0 + 0.88 + 1.67
To-tal
- 11.49 .. 1.05 0 - 1.17 +14.16
167
11i) Bending Moment: Diagrams (Fig. VI-;6
0-
<t
<t <t

..
0'
.

.-4 .-4 .-4 o


.-4

M
t
- diag.
c) Design Fig. VI-36
The floor of the tank is to be designed for the following inter-
nal forces :
Max. radial tension iil floor = ;.4-5 tim.
Uax. radial bending mJment 11.49 mt/m. at supporting shaft
lIS -
n
Max. tangential .. + 14.16 mt/m at lIS
For seetion at the supporting shaft :
M
r
a 11.49 (with tension on water side) and N a tension
t a y + 2 'V 11490/3 + 2 64 oms taken 70 ems .
Us =N. ea. 3.45 x 3.04 10.45 mt/II
d
= v;:-
1.e.66 IS k
1
V104.50
giving 1t
1
=
0.645
Me If
10450
2
As
=-+ .... =
+ ii2Q. a 12.13 +
2.47 a 14.6 c.m
aS
1;00 x 66 1400
choose III 22 a 20 ems tor the top and Ip 13 l! 20 ems for the bot-
ton radial reinforcement.
For the section at the intermediate shaft :
M
t
=14-.16 mt/m (With tension on air aide) , we have
2
64 '" It
l
Y1lI-160 gi It
l
= 0.54 and a c &.30.5kgJom
168
14160 2
As = =17.2 em
, choson .<p 19 @ 12.5 cms.
1285 x .64-
TbP- circu1nr bottom reinforc'3rent decreases as the.distance fron the
center increaa6s. The circulP.r top reinforcemsnt is chosenljl 13 @ 20
cJ:S as shown infigure VI.J.t1l.
2) The Foundation Slab
The foundation slab shall be anaumed as a circular plate with
an overbtmging cD.ntilever nil!lp1y supported on the shaft and l3ub-
jectto the soil Iiressure actillg
-
a)
.-

:;
70
Total \'loight of tank
=
260 ton
li
n It
"
\mter ';00
"
.n 11 II
.
. '
shaft
=
333
" ;.. "'
Weight ofintorm. floors
=
103
"
Wind pressure 011 cj"1indr::'cal surfl;).-
ces can be assuU!3d =0.45
1;hs noma.lly SpecifiedvOJ.U'3S e.ctiug on
vertical su.."'!ae-elJ i.e. w =45 k5lri':
c" ,

Hence
'-,
= 9.7 x 63 x 45/1000 2.75 tons
W
2
=7.2 x 29.3 Yo 45/1000
9.5 tOnD
=
C)O""
Total ",0 ton
Ben41ng mO!ll3nt due 'to \'Tina.at Sec. II - II-
=228 mt
>
? .20

..
6,7


I-_ 12.0
I
Fig. VI-37
b) Check of StrosOOD in Sh.!1.f't (',t Found.a.tion SlDl2.
The otrcs06S in the shaft shall be checked for the iollo\1ing t"lro
cases I
",169
1) Tank tull + Wind pressure P :II 996 t, J(:II 228 IIl't
Net area of cross-section of shatt
A
O
~ n x 6.95 x 0.25 - (0.8 + 1.35) 0.25 5.44 - 0.54
4 Ao
Gross section modulus : 1I (7.
2
- 67 )
32 7.2
Section modulus of openings (window and ~ o r
(0.80 + 1.35) 0.25 x 3.475
2
/ 3.6
:II 1.80 JA3
Net section modulus Zo.9.16 - 1.80
Therefore, the stresses in the shaft are givenby I
2) Tank el!l:ot;r + Wind pressure P =696 t,
J( :II 228 .mt
01 = _ ~ + ~ = _ 142 + 31 t/m
2
2 4.9 - 7.36 -
c) Pressure Under Foundation Slab (Fig. VI-'S)
Own weight of foundation slab
2.5 [-lLx 12.0
2
x 0.8- ...1L- (12.0
2
- 7.6
2)
x fh2. J. 184 t
.,.. 4 2
:II Total load:ll 996 + 184 P 1180 t
'lind moment
J(. 228 mt
2
Area of foundation base = IT x 12.0
2
/ 4
.. 113 1IL
Section modulus z Tt x 12.0
3
/ 32 :II 169.5 m
3
a 1180
1:1:-- ;!:. ~ =- 10.44 . 1.34- toD/ri i.e.
2 113 169.5
and
170
d) Bendins Moments
0.20,
11
,
Fig. VI-,;8
In order to s1m:pl1f;r the calculationst the internal forces in the
foundation slab sha11 be determined :tor a. net upward uniform pressure
, 2
p 10 t/m
, Again heret we determine the ra-
dial and tangential, bending mo -
menta for the eases shown in fig.
"I - }9 from the equations given
inIV-2.
Procoeding in same n:y as be-
Fig. VI-}9
fore we get the !'ollol1ing results.
Case

in . mt/m

in mt/a
p.1 P.0 P
1
Po
1
- 15.14- + 7.71 - 2.50 + 7.71
P= 1 P. P Pel P.
2
- 42.27 0
- 7.12
4.54
To redistribute the fixed end ( - 42.27 mt tor the circular
171
plate and - 15.14 lll't for tbe cantllenrriDg) OM baa to determine the
I: t1tfn8ss ot each ot the t'1lO e1eEDents.
1 ) Stiffness ot circular slab Reter to page 77
Ii a
For P=1 ,p .----
1 thus
D (1 + v )
M a 1.167 D 0.3357 D
J.47S
11) Stiftneas ot cantilever Heter to page 83
<jl =!L!;x (1 + P2) a 1 inwhich
For P 1
D 1 +v 1 -v
2 1 1
p.1.727,
P 2'98
and. ;c... = =- o, :;21
. I 1 -p 1 - 2.98
Therefore
II x 3.475 x _ O.52i ( 1 + billx 2.98) a 1
or
D l. .1.67
II = - 0.1246 D
Neglecti:l.g the effect ot the variation ot the depth ot the cantilever
ring'on lts flexural rigidit,-, then
0.1246
RelatiTe ot tbe cantilever ri.Dg a =0.27
0.1246 + 0.3357
., 0,'357
If
"
"
circular slab

0,73
0.12% + 0."57
The connecting moment
CaJptlleTer ring Circular dab
F!xed end moment - 42.27
+ 15,14
Balancing IIlOment + 7.33
+ 19.80
-
34.94
Etrect ot balanoino IIIOlIellt
(11g TI-40)
Case ..
172
Por p. 1 and p. 0
U :0: U - 19.80 lit
r
13 1.727
Case a
Caseb
b=6.Om
It? = 1 2 = _...;1=--__ .. - 0.521
1 - 13 1 - 2.98
Fig. VI-40
Por P 1. K. + 7.3?J mt and :tor p. p
For P 11 2 14 =- 2 x 7.3} x 0.521 - 7.i4 mt
'inal val.ues of tbr; radial and tsngential moments
1) Circular Slab
Case
Radial

P 1
moment
in lit/Do
P 0
Tangential mOlli9nt

in mt/m
pal
p =0
1
a
- 15.14
- 19.80
+ 7.71
- 19.80
-
2.50
- 19.80
+ 7.71
- 19.80
TotaJ.
- 34.94- - 12.09 - 22.}O - 12.09
11) Canti1eTer ring
Tangential moment

p 1
in lit/ill
p. P
-
7.12
- 15.20
- 4.54-
- 7.64
- 22.}2 - 12.18
Case
2
b
Total
Rad1al moment
I4 in mt/m
r
1
- 42.27
+ 7.33
- 34.94-
p II:
P
0
0
0
__
173
iii) Bending molllent diag;:ams I VI-41J
32
I=constant
_ I=va.riable
Fig. VI-41
Effect variation of moment iner"tia on ra.dial moments
The of the variatiiin of the moment of inertia of the can-
"tiliver ring on "the flexural rigidit;y D and the correspoDding effect
on the radial momen"t can be determined according to Markus" in the
following lIl8!lD.er I (Fig. TI-42).
_
p=b/a
---
---
---
----
---
------
a
I
13= lib
---
---
Fig. VI-42
to da"ta given in f1g)lrc VI-42, we get I
...!:.-. b - a ,. 1 _ 1-
:b b P
or
I
u
Theorie und Berecbnung rotationssymmetrischer "
- Verlag DUsseldorf
174
According to Jal.rkus t one can prove that
Honea, at tree edge 1, we have s
D
2

E
12 (1 - Y
2
)
(1 -
,
13)
[
1
.
+
or
E t
3
D = 2.-1-
2 12 (1- Y 2) . 13

D
2
=
, 3
E % 0.8 2
12 (1' - 0.167)
x
6.00
= 2.541 x 10-
2
E
and the stiffness ot the cantilever ring is t
M = 0.1246 x 2.541 x 10-
2
E = x 10-
2
E
Furt.b.er,the stiffness of the circular slab is given b:r s
M = 0.3357 D. in which D -
E t
3
-
E x 0.8' c
12 (1 - Y) 12 (1 - 1.16'72)
and at fixed edge 2, where x:s L and = 1, we have t
thus
Hence
Relative stiffness ot cantilever ring a 0.;166 =0.177
0.3166 + 1.4737
.. ..
.. circular slab
,
The COtmectiM mo09nt
Cantilever ring Cireu.lar slab
Fixed end moment
- 42.27 + 15.14
Balancing mooont
+ 4.81 + 22.32
CCnIlecting moment
- 37.% + 37.46 lid;
1?5
22.32 III.t
street ot balanc1ns I:1o!:'ent lig TI-4'
Case a
(
'rba Taria.tiQn of th$ tluxural
b3.47
5
1l1 -
rigid1t1 atfecta malnl1 radial
)4.81 lilt
Case b
,
alO:llents. thus
2.52
5
a=3.4,501
Case 8. 6
b =f=i.0lll
t-
For P:is 1 and p.. 0 lars sa.:I -22.32
i
mt
8'
Fig. VI-43
10
page
tor p s 1 K ,. + 4.81 :lit and
the radial and tangential momente at the center ot the pla-
te is given by =lit .. +- 7.?1 - 22.32 =14.61 m.t. The tin4.l !:l0-
ments may be aeaueed as shown by the heav;r line intigr.n-e VI-41.
e) D'!Isim
Section at Support
ASSu:l1i.ng total thickness ot slab ::a 80 cms
M
t
=22.,2. mt
then
"
Theoretical depth d =- 80 - 40 =% ems
tor' the radial direction. we have
or 76 =ki Ii37460
assulll.ing o
s
::a 1400 kg!ri n =15 & x cr.. 0.15
then c e s 43. k&lcri
so that chosen 'p 22 () 10 em
tor the tangential direction, we get
A '!:f 22320
chosen 22 Q 15 Cm
s 1300 x 74-
Both radial and bottom mal be at
the center o! the circular slab to l
A. = 14610 .. H.9 cri chosen 'P 22 Q 25 em
1300 X 75
1?6
Ho.... ever, 1ihe foundation slab is reinforced bJ' a :reC1;s.ogular ID&sh
If22 @ 10 Cm.lS in i't8 lower SUTface and bJ' a mesh 'fl} Q 20 cms in 1ts
upper surface.
The details of reinforcement of the water tower shown infigure
dasigned by the Misr Concrete Company is given in
figure VI-44
"
177
VII DES I G N 0 F R E eTA N G U L ART A N K S
VII.l. DEEP TANKS RESISTING HYDROSTATIC PF.ESSURE HORIZONTALLY.
Inclosed rectangular tanks with sliding base, the full wat-
er pressure is resisted horizontally. Also indeep tanks where HILl
Deep
.r-[-,

i Ii

"iiI
,

fixe'
J

HILt & H/L{2
recto tank
I
1
water level
I - .,
I
I
I :z:
I
I
I
I
VI = of liquid / m'
LI

Max
:wH

j

and H/LZ) 2 the effect of the fixation of the wall to the floor will
be limited to a small part at the base of, the wall, the rest of the
wall.will resist the water pressure inthe horizontal direction by
closed frame action (Fig. VII.I).
178
a)Sguare Section (Fig. VII.2)
--
Due to symmetry of square sections subject to internal
the angles of rotation e of equal.
to zero; i.e. each side behaves as if itwere totally fixed at both
and for a uniformly distributed horizontal pr easur-e p, we get: ends,
vrr.ai.
(01
......_-
I. j
.
l
Bendi"ll _en! E101lie lin.
Square tonk
"
Tenlion In \0110 II
Fig.
Bending moment at middle of any side I
M :: p L
2
/ 24 (l-a)
m
Bending moment at tmy of the corners z
M
c
:: p L
2
/ 12 (l-b)
Each wall will further be subject to a tensile force given by I
T :: p L / 2 (l-e)
giVing a case of eccentric tension.
For any tank of regular section (Fig. VII.}) subject to uniform
pressure p, we get similarly z
e:: 0 and

= P L
2
/ 24
)

)
M
=
P L
2
/ 12 )
)
(2)
C
)
)
T
=
pD / 2
)
b) Rectangular Section (Fig. VII.4)
Due to symmetry of loading. the corners of the will
move, and,in order to determine the connecting moment Me in the
corner; the equation of .can be
RectonQulor Section
L,
Bendino moments
r"
___-----L
L,

TtpL\/z TtpL,/!
Tension In short sid.. Tension In lono ,id..
lig. VII-4
'180
.if' the moment of inertia of the two sides and L
2
is the same
then
or
3
H (L
l
= -
:e
+ )
i.e
e
4
)
L; + L'
1 2
= _....L.
Me
12
L + L

C;a)
l 2 )
)
or
)
...lL(2 2
)
Me
= - L
l
- L
1
L
2
+L
2
12.
andaccordingly we get $
L
2
M =P J.+ M c a,o:,i + 2 L
1
- 2 )
(,b)
lm
8 c 24
L
2
.2 u a, (2 2 L L 2 L
2
)
(:;c)

-,- + JIl
c
:: L
2
+ 1 2 - 1
8 24
:: L then
2
= =P L / 24 M
lm
Assuming further :
= p. / 12. 1 c y P L
2
2
/ 12 M
lm
we get:
L
l
/ L
2 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 r.so 1.90 2.00
a. 0.50 0.?1 0.92 1.15 1.38 1.63
-
1.88
-
2.15 2.42 2.71 '.00
-

0.50 0.39 0.27 0.11


-
0.06 0.25
-
0.46
-
0.69 0.94-
-
1.21 1.50
-
y
1:-11 1.24- 1.40 1.56 1.75 1.96 2.10 2.44 2.71
-.
,.00
IfL
1
varies much from L
2
; it is not economic to csJ.culate with
constant I I and assuming ;
ISl
the equation of three moments can be given in the form
1
1
L L L L
L3

(p_l_
M .J:.+
2 Me
+M
= - 6
c-
c I
24 1
1
L
l
1
1
1
1
1
2 2
L
3 I
2 _1
+ P --)
. 24 1
2
L
l
or
(4)
Each wall is further subject to a tensile force given by
for wall L
l
and.
= for wall L
2
p L
l/
2
c) Determina.tion of InterciU.. For'cesby the TenSion Line Method
As the of any closed section are subject to bending moments .,
and axial tension
t
it is possible to represent the internal forces by
a tension line.
Feu a closed frame of constant moment of inertia
t
subject to uni-
. .
formily internal pressure
t
the tension line is composed
of a series of parabolas and can be assumed as a circle without any
appreciable error.
The radius of the tension line can
be det.ermined .if we study the case o:f
a square section as that shown in Fig
VII.5 Thus
t
2 T =P 2 R or T =P H
M
m
= T. :x: = p R :x: = p L
2
/ 24
2
VI!-.5
R x = L / 24
- - - - --
But x =R - L/2
then
R (R - L/2 ) =L
2
/ 24 or
2 2
L/2 VL / 4 + 4 L / 24
i.e. R= =0.57; L
2
,
which means that the area At enclosed by the tension line is given by:
i.e.
areaenclosed by tension line =1.0; area of sectionof tank.
This method can however be used for rectangular Figure
VII. 6, as well as sections of irregul.a:r shape, Fig. VII.7, as canbe
proved from the rollowing example :
Assume a rectangular tank With L
l
=2 L
2
sUbject to internal pres-
sure p, Fig. VII.6
Tension line
Area of cross-section A =2
Area enclosed by tension lin& :
=1.0; A =1.0; x 2 =2.06
R :. i 2.06 L
2
/ It =0.81 L
2 2
So that
Fig. VII-6
T
=
P 11 =0.81 P L
2
We have further:
the corner connecting moment Y can be given by
c
Me 8: T (R - D/2) =-0.81 p L
2
(0.81 L
2
- 2.232 L
2/2)
=0.248 P
against
Me = y p / 12 -= ,; P / 12
=0.250 p
and
18;
= p. 4 L
2
2
/ 8 - 0.24-8 p =0.250p
against
M
lm
=OC P L
2
2
/ 12
2
p / 8 - M = 0 .125 p =- O.J.23, P L
2 c
against
= P I. 12 = - 0.15 p r4 / u =- u.125 p M
2m
This exampJ.e shows that the method gives a very good approxLLate
. . .. :
solution for the determination'of the internal. forces in tants
of one ceJ.l. Its use simplifies the aetermination of the internal for-
ces, tanks of special cross-section as
that shown inFig. VII.? in which the
area enclosed by the tension line is
1.03 the the cell&its center
coincides on the center of gravity of
the cross-section of the ceU
-------------- 'J(I \1-
As the liquid pressure increases
Fig. VII-7
with the depth, a trapezoidal vertical
section for the wall gives a convenient 'form.
In deep tanks, the main steel reinforcement is horizontali however
it is essential to arrange vertical having a
minimum cross-section area of 20% of the main horizontal steel to fix
the main reinforcements in position and to resist the shrinkage and
stresses.
In case of walls fixed to the floor slab, the fixing moment at the
foot of the wall may be estimated from the relation
, 2
M Pmax L /24 (6a)
f
The corresponding reaction is given by
(6b)
--------
Therefore, the maximum internal forces in an open square water
tank 4 x 4 ms and 10 ms deep with fixed base can be calculated as
follows :
Assuming that the maximum horizon'tal internal forces take place at
a depth x I: 0.75 H then :
The max. horizontal fi:rl.ng moment is
. 2/
2/12
~ = - px L 12
= - 0.75 x 10 x 4 =10 mt
The correspo.o.ding tension in the wall is :
I: 0.75 % 10 x 4/2
=15 t
The tixing moment at the toot of the wall in the vertical .direction
is according to equation 6a given by :
'. -= 6.66 mt
The corresponding reaction = tension in floor, is according to
equation 6b given by :
R =0.3 pmaXL = 0.3 x 10 x 4 -= 12 t
It18 however generally sufficien'" to arrange vertical corner
.
reinforcements of the same order as that
Additional steel to
used horizontally (Fig. VII.B).
resist eventuol bending
It18 further recommended to add
due to fixation infloor
a mesh ot min. 5 ~ 8 mm/m on the com -
pression side of the walls and to avoid.
the use of bent bars in vertical walls.
The details of reinforcements ot
a horizontal section of a deep square
FiG. vrr-s
tank: may be o ~ in the manner shown
in figure vn. 9.
18;'
A A
Vertical section of tonk
<=- ....::<.6!t28/m
...

3P13t\'n
=
"
Details of horizontal section A-A
. Pie;_ '!7.!..':"9
VII.2. \VALLS RESISTING HYIlROSTATIC PRESSURE IN VERTiCAL DIRECTION
a) Cantilever Walls (Fig. VII.IO)


r':nal
H
1
WaJ:ls to the floor may act as simple such walls
give a convenient thickness (max. % 40 ems.) for a depth of water
smaller than 5.0 ms.
The max. bending moment at the foot of the wall is gi. ven by :
(7a)
Reaction at base = Tension in floor, is given by:
(7b)
The convenient cross-section of the wall is trapezoidal with
minimum. thickness at top ( 15 - 20 ems ) and maximum at bottom, or
rectangular - of constant thickness - for small depths and eventually
provided With a convenient haunch at its foot.
For a cantilever wall of a ws.ter tank 3 ms deep, we get
M = wa
3
I 6 =-1 x ,3'/6 =4.5 m t
max
t
max
= 1M /} =V4500 / =}9 ems
chosen 40 cms
.The wall can be chosen trapezoidal with a minimum "thickness. of 15 cms.
Ie?'
at the top, and a max. thickness of 30 cms
at the bottom, and provided with a haunch
10 x 45 cms. at its base as shown in figure
VILH.
Checking the section at beginning of haunch
we get :
..*1-
M = w / 6 =1 x: 2.55
3
/ 6 =2.76 m t
Fig. VII-Ii.
Required t
It has to be noted that free cantilevers of height H and sup -
ported on the two sides of their length L must be treated as slabs
supported on three sides if their length L is .smaller than four times
their height H.
Exact' values of internal for:es in free at top and fixed
on the other three sides pressure Wiil be given
later for ratios of HIL ( =L
y
/ varying between 0.25 and 1.5.
The fixing at the vertical edges of cantilever walls fi-
xed at these edges and SUbject to hydrostatic pl.'essure are to be con-
sidered in the design of water tanks because their values are relati-
vely big.
'1'0 gi'Ve an idea about the values of the exact bending moments we
consider a wall of depth H =3 ma. and length L =12 ma. free at top
and fued 6tl. the otter three sides subject to hydrostatic pressure.
Max. f1Jd.ng mGJlent a:t foot ot wall
M =- w H
3
/ 6.9 =- 1 x 3
3
/ 6.9 = - 3.9 mt
f
Max. fixing moment at top of vertical edges (in horizontal direction):
M
f
=- w H3 / 8.8 =- 1 x 33 / 8.8 =- 3.06 m t
The fixing moment at mid-height of vertical edges (in horiz direction)
ll'f =- w H
3
/ 18.2 =- 1 X ,3 / 18.2 :: - 1.48 m t
18&
,0) Walls Simply Supported at Top and Fixed at Bottom
Walls acting as one way slabs simply supported at top and fixed
at bottom, and resisting the full hydrostatic pressure in the verti-
cal direction only give a convenient solution for depths of water
H 4.5ms. (Fig. VII.12).
II:

.
o
.
.
I XI
\.
Bendino momen t. Hydrostat'ic pressure
For a wall of constant thickness t
The max. fixing moment at base
(8a)
T.be max. field moment at O.4?, H from top
(8b)
The reaction at top edge
R
1
=0.10 wH
2
(8c)
The reaction at the bottom edge
, 2
R
2
= 0.40 w H (8d)
In such walls , it is generally morl! convenient to chose a wall
of constant thickness sufficient to resist the field moment , the
bigger value of the fixing moment can be resisted by.making a haunch
If
at the toot ot the wall. If the wall is chosen tTapezoidal a
bigger thiclOJess at the bottom, the fixing moment is and
the tield moment is decreased
lE
as shown in the following table,:
--..-'-'.
=t'2 / t
l
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
IM
f
=W g3
.
. 15
" 12 11.2 10.7
>. 1.0 1.14-
-,
1.25 1.;4- 1.40
.,
t
2
in which thickness of wall at bottom
= -
t
1
top-
" " " "
real
M
f considering variation of t
k
=
for wall of constant t'

The table shows that if the variation of the thickness is neglected
aerLoua eITors in M
f
might take place. Such errors have a bad effec
the design especially bacause ..
The sedilllentation tank shown in figure VIL1; gives a typical ex
ple for such walls.
'nle top beam behaves as a continuous beam spanning between the
, ties and loaded by-the top reaction of the wall, ( p = R
l
). For equa
spans L, we get :
.E Refer to : It Theory of Elastically Restrained Beams ". by M. Hila
Published by Fouad I University, 1944.
10
5
5
.,
-
-
.
I
.
.
I.
f
"T
e
E
0
0
E
10
!2
I/')
'12o.om
i.
.
~ . . . . .,-
J:E ........ /
Field moment M = + pL
2
/
24 )
m
)
CODlleeting II M =-pL
2
/ 12
)
(9)
c
5
)
Tension in each side T =p L / 2
)
The fixing moment at the vertical edges of one 'way slabs simply
supported at the top and fixed at the other three sides, subject to
hydrostatic pressure may be estimated by :
(lOa)
and lies at tt.e middle of the height of the wall.
The corresponding reaction is given by
2
B
=0.27 w H
. (lOb)
The necessary provisions are to be taken to resist these values sa:!e-
lYe
191
c) Walls Fixed at Top and Bottom
If the wall in the previous example were fixed at top &bottom the
bending moments and reactions due to a hydrostatic pressure p = w H
t
for the case of constant thickness, are given by (Fig. VII. 14)
R,O.15wH.
z
M ~
m 40.6
i P =wti
I mail
Bending moment
Hydrostatic pressure
Pig. "VII-14
Fixin.g moment at top :
(lla)
Fixing mOlllnt at bottom :
Mr2 =- w a
3
/ 20
(llb)
Max. field m ~ m e n t at"0.55 a from top
(llc)
Reaction at top edge f
(Ud)
Reaction at bottom edge :
(lle)
For a trapezoidal wall, we get
t
2
/ t
l
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
= wH3 30 38.7 52.6 63.6 76.5
=w H3
20 16.7 14-.7 13.7 12.8
).,base
1.0 1.20 1.36 1.46 1.56
Neglecting the effect of the variation of the wall thickness, the pos-
sible error in the magnitude of the fixing moment at the base maybe
very serious.
The fixing at the vertical edges of one .way slabs fixed
at all four sides and subject to hydrostatic pressure may be estimated
from the relation
Mr = - wH3 / 33.8 .(12a)
and lies at 0.4 H from the base of the Viall. The cor:t:'esponding reac-
tion is given ?y :
2
R = 0.25 w H (12b)
In walls of tanks resisting the water pressure in the vertical
direction, .it is essential to arrange
horizontal secondary reinforcements ha-
ving a minimumcross-sectionnal area
20% of the main vertical steel (and not
less than 5 8 mm!m) to fix the verti-
Special corner
Reinforcement
cal reinforcements in position and to
res istthe temperature and shrinkage
stresses as well as the eventual tensile
Sec. Plan 0 t t he corner of
stresses due "i:o the reactions of the
two walls
cross walls. The horizontal corner rein-
forcements may be calculated from the
Fig. VII-15
given relations. It is however generally
-
sUfi'icient to arrange Corner reinforcements of the same order as the"
max. used ver'tically. (Figure VIL15\)
d) Walls Continuous with Roof &Floor
The walls of a tank may however be continuous With the roof and the
floor or with one of them as shown in the tank given in Fig. VII.16.
b
Cross sec.
~ o
0
b
LonQ. sec.
,
!l.om !l.om 15.o
n
1
Fig.' VII-16
In this tank the longitudinal walls are simply supported on the top
horizontal beam and continuous with the floor slab. In order to be
able to assume that the top beam. is a rigid support, ties are arran-
gedevery 5 IDS.
The effect of continuity can be calculated by any of the known
methods of the theory of structures; e.g. the method of virtual work
the moment dis,tribution method, the equation of three moments etc.
VIL3. WALLS AND FLOORS RESISTING HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE IN
TWO DIRECTIONS
a) The Strip Method &
This method gives an approximate solution for rectangular flat
plates of constant thickness supported on four sides and subject to
uniform or hydrostatic pressure. The solution is based on simplified
assumptions generally adopted in structural problems.
Walls and floors supported on the four sides and having a ratio
of length to breadth smaller than two are treated in this method as'
, two way slabs.
~

with side lengths Lx ._and
uniform loads (e.g. floor slabs), the load may be distributed in the
-....--....
"' ----- ....
two directions Lx and L according to the known coefficients of
y
GraBhof!. Due to the torsional resistance of the slab, the field (po-
sitive) moment may be reduced according to coefficients of Marcus as
follows
and
in which M and My are the field moments if the effect of; the torsio-
x
nal resistance is neglected, and.
&
"
where
2
p = total load on floor slab per m
For a slab totallyfixed on all iour sides; the reduction factors
r can be extracted from the follOWing table :
Lx / L
y
1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 11.5
,
1.6 1.? 1.8 1.9 2.0
r
x
=r
y
.86 .86 .8? .88
.89 1.90
.91 .91 .92 .93 .94
It bas "teen found 'that the load distribution on two way slabs sub-
ject to triangular load may approx:..ma.tely be assumed the same as in
case of uniform laads using the coefficients of Graehoff i.e.
p = pv + %
in which
p =the hydrostatic pressure at any depth
Pv =part of the pressure resisted in'the verticaldirection.
n n n
horizontal
" " " "
As the wall is rigidly connectred to the floor, no pressure can be
resisted horizontally 10 the lowest strip and accordingly one can as-
sume that the pressure resisted horizontally is the triangle a e b
only and the small triangle e c b is resisted vertically (Figure VII.
17). position of point e varies according to ratio of sides of
slab; it lies at about 3/4> 1i from top 10
deep tanks where !!. 2 and at about !!.
L 2
in shallow tanks where !i 1.. It is
L 2
however recommended to design the middle
part of the wall (say the middle half)
for a load equal to 3/4 Ph.
c
The bending moments and reactions in
the vertical direction due to Pv (trian-
VII-17
gle a c d) can be determined as shown in
VII.2-b; whereas the bending moments and
reactions due to the small triangle e c b , for a wall ofconstant thick-
ness simply supported at top and fixed at bottom, can be determined as
follows : Fig. VII.18

, p:""H I
I .

I
I'
'M
0 mllJ1

a
-F-----

Load-diOg
Using the method of virtual work and choosing the simple cantilever
as a main system, we'get :
Max. 'bending mOJllent 01: main system :1.S :
g3
Area 01: M - diagram = ! M !!
o 4 0 max. =p --
4 h 1536
Its center 01: gravity lies at 1/5 (R/4) i.e.
E =JM lLd g =- p L = - ph 19 Jf
- 0 0 -:l h 1536 20 30720
and
H H 2 H
EI61=]Midg
=
-.-=
2 3
i.e. the statically indeterminate reaction X at a is given by
'. X = _ li
o
=p' 19 R
4
L
g
. s h 30720 H3"
540
1
The fixing moment at the fixed end b is there1:ore
. H g2
Mf-P - H - 'Oh-
- h 540 - 96
1.e. the total fixing moment at b for a wall of constant thickness
due to the pressures vertically (triangles
is given by
g2 g2
M_ =- (p - + 'D.. -)
-r v 15 .D. 117
and the corresponding reaction at a is
a c d + e b c )
(13a)
(13b)
If the wall were rigidly connected to the floor, -the effect of
continuity can be considered by any of the known methods of the theo-
ry of elasticity. The max. bending moments in the horizontal direction
for the middle hal! of the wall can be determined for the maximum'
19?
pressure on the horizontal strip at, ;/4 H 1.e. max. Ph, II ;/ 4 %.
Example :
It is required to design the water tank shown in figure VII.L6.
1) Internal Forces in Cross-Sections of Tank (.l?1g. VII.19)
The longitudillal wall of the tank (4 x 15 1Il) is a one slab re-
sisting the water in the vertical direction only.
The floor is a series of two way slabs (5 x 5 1Il) resisting half weight
of water aDd floor in each direction. Assuming the wall simply suppor-
ted at a and totally fixed at b and subjec;t to hyd:rostatic llreSElure
with :
p = w H = 4 t/1ll
2
at b,
max
the fixing mC:lInent at b will be
M
f
=- w H; / 15 =- 1 x 4; / 15 =- 4. 2? m. t
,
The load on the floor =weight of water + own weight of floor (- o.? t/m
2)
0':'
. 2
= 4 + O.? =4.7 tim.
Load in each direction p =4.? / 2 =2.,5 t/m
2
Assuming the floor slab totally fixed at both ends, 'the fixing momen't
at b will be :
. 2 .
=- 2.,5 x 5 I 12 = 4.9 mt
The unbalanced moment =4.9 - 4.2, =0.6, m t is to be distributed
on wall and floor slab according to their relative stiffness, but its
value being small, the connecting may be assumed as the ave-
rage of the two values, i.e .
M-o = - 4.27 + 4.9 _ 4.6 m t
2
Due to symmetry, the connecting moment at b can be determined from one
equation of three moments; thus
in which
r = the elastic reaction of the triangular load on wall
l
= PmH:; I 45, and
r = the elastic of the load on the floor
2
- P L:; I 24', therefore
. :; :;
x 4 + 2.'5 x 5 )
2 () 6 (.
4
or
4 + 5 + 5.Li> = - 45 24
=- 6 (5.8 + 12.3 ) = - 108.6 i.e
=- 4.? m 1;
Accordingly, "the field in "the floor, neglec"ting i"ts torsional.
resistance is given by :
22
M =P - =2.'5 x 5 _ 4.? =2.65 m t
m 8 D 8
Due "to the torsional resistance of the slab, the final reduced field
moment will be
M :: r M :: 0.86 x 2.65 or
mr m
=2.28 m t
The max. field moment in the wall takes place at point of zero shear,
thus :
Reaction at top edge of wall may either be calculated by super-posi -
tion and is given b,y :
1.5 tim
or from the equation of moments about corner b :
R
a
H - Pmax H
2
I 6

or
R x 4 - 4 x 4
2
1 6 or
a
If the point of zero shear lies at x meters from top end, t h ~
= 1.5 =
i ..
or x = 1.73 II1S
2
The max. field moment inthe wall is therefore given by I
2 2
x x ~ ~
M =R x-p -
.::r -%_
-=-
i.e.
m
a x 6
2 6
~
= 1.73
3
I 3 or 1.73 mt

The reaction !it the bottom edge of wall = tension in floor water ::I
pressure - top reaction
R
b
=P R/2 - R = 4
2
12 .. 1.5 =6.5 tIm
max . a
Therefore : Tension in floor =6.5 tIm
We have :f'urther I
Reaction of floor Tension inwall ::I
Average reaction of floor =4.7 x 2.5/2 = 5.90 tIm
This reaction is parabolically distributed in each span and the max.
ordinate at the middle is 1.5 times the average value.
Therefore, them.a:x:. tension in the waJ.l =1.5 x 5.90 .=8.85 tIm.
The loads, bending moments and reactions are shown infigure VIL19
Ro sl.5 tim
I. 5 "m
LT_-t::J-_L..
Rg =
0
e
,..
L=5.0m
fig. VII-19
, 2DO
2) Internal Forces ill Longitu:iinal Section cf"Te.:1k:
The side wall with H :: 4 InS, end L :: 5 m i.s a. two way slab. The
load will be according to nrashoff, Fig. VII.20, thUB :
For L/H :: 5/4 = 1.25 we get :.
a=O.? and i.e.
in vertical direction
P
v
=a Pmax = O.? x 4 =2.8 tIm
2
Load in horizontal direction :
E
o
'<i
II
:l:
Pmax: = 0., x 4 =1.2 tIm
2
Assuming that the thickness of wall
anc floor is the same and applyine;
the equation of three moments at b and c, fig. VII.21, we get :
a
moments Loads & Reactions
sec. b
H' ;
P - + p &..)
h 350 24
or
2 N"b (4 + 5) + 5 Me
6 ( 2.8 x 4
3
+ 1.2 x 4
3
+ 2,35 x 5;)
= -
45 350 24
or , 18 Ja1,
(a)
c : L + 2 Me x 2 L + Me L =_6 \2 P L; ) :: _ 2.35 x 5;
24 2
=- 147
(b)
or
2(1
Equatiow:l (a) and (b) give
. =- 4.06 m t
and M =- 5.06 m t
c
Max. moment in b c taking its torsional resistance in
1.s given by
4.06 + 5.06 =0.86 (7.';2 - 4,56) 1
2
or
Field moment inc
- c
is
2.35 x 52
= - 5.06 = 7.32 - 5.06.

e
or = 2.26 mt

N.B. The torsionaJ. resistance of span c - c has been negl.ecbed
order to have regular reinforcements for the floor slab.
.,
Average reaction at outside support of floor slab is :
R =0.5 x 2.5 x 4.7 =5.9 tim
Max. reaction = max. tension inwall = 1.5 R =1.5 x 5.9
Therefore max R =8.85 tim
Reaction at a is determined from the equation of lDOJ.llSnts about b ,
thus :
or
R = 0.9 tim
a
The reaction at the base of the wall = the tension inthe lJ.90r and
is given by :
= 2.8 x + 1.2 x l - 0.9
2 2
or
R
b
= 5.3 tim
c:C2
The max. field moment M
ma
in the wall takes place at the point of zero
shear which lies at x DJ.S from top, thus:
2
x .
O.? -- =R
a
=0.9
. or
x =1.6 InS and
2
3
. li\n = 0.9 x 1.6 - O.? x = 1.44 - 0.48
or A\n =0.96 mt
l'he loads, bending moments and reactions are shown in figure VII.210
3) Internal Forces in Horizontal Section of Tank
The section shovm in figure ViI.22 at mid-heignt of tank will be
calculated for a horizontal load p =0.9 t/m
2
acting on the cross
wall. (Refer to fig. VII.20)
..itlm I "Wm
Fig. VII-22
Assuming that the wall L
2
is totally fixed at both ends, then the
fixing moment M is given by :
f
M
f
= -.p / 12 =- 0.9 x 52 /12 =- 1.88 m t
The longitudinal wall 'L
l
is a one way slab resisting the full wa-
ter pressure in the vertical direction, but due to its rigid connec-
tion to the cross-walls, bending moments will be created .at the edges
E
It)
II

2.25t(m
..

-II>
o
.
Q,
t lB'&tntn.
...
t'7
ll t / m
.
..
in the horizontal direction. Their magnitude may. be
ding to {lOa) from the relation :
M
f
; - WH3 I 2? ::: - 1 x I 2? =- 2.3? mt
for a wall totally fixed at its vertical edges.
The difference of: AM = 2.3? - 1.88 = mt will be distribu-
ted between the two walls according to their relative stiffp.ess, thus:
Stiffness of long. wall oc 1/15
II II cross wall
o: 1/15 = 3/15
The distribution factors are therefore
Long. wall and cross wall ,/4
Accordingly, the connecting moment at the corner c will be
and the horizontal field moment is :-
2
M = P - M = 0.9 x 5 - 2.25 =2.82 2.25 ::: 0.5? mt
c 8
The field moment should however be not smaller than the reduced moment
of a totally fixed slab i.e.
2 . 2
min. rAm =0.8? P L2/24 =0.8? x 0.9 x 5
or
104 = 0.81. mt
m
Reaction of cross wall =Tension in long. wall and is given by
R =0.9 x 5/2 =2.25 tIm
Reaction of long. wall =Tension in cross wall and according to aquae
tion (19b) is given by
R =0.27 w g2 =0.2? x 1 at mid-height ,
or
R ::: tIm
The bending moments and reactions are shown in figure VII.Z2.
4) Internal Forces in Top Horizontal Beam and Ties
The load on the top horhontal beam is equal to the top reaction
the walls (Fig. VIl.2,)
;; Z.34
-..;
'"

+
5m
:
e
15 tim
5m
E
"-
-
0>
o
2.25f i
E
to
t
Applying the equation three moments at d and e, we get :
+ 1.5 x 5'; )
24
or and
or giving
M =- 2.';4 m t and Me =- ';.28 m t
d
the field moment M in the di1'ferent spans is given by
m
Span d - d s "'m =0.9 x 5
2
- 2.';4 =0.48 ll1 t
8
but min. la\n
or
min. la\n 0.9 x 5
2
0.94 m t
24
t ~ ~ t ~ i
.0- . __ ._
i
.Y
~
~
~
""
;
]

~
~
~
~ ....
'"
~
~
i
..
~ ~ ~
J
! !S
~
~
III
;1
1-
~
,..
k
~
./>
{
~
~
_.J ::l
~
.. l::
~
~ t\ ~
!.:i ~
'>i
<:i ::Ii ;;:
c'----
~
)
:'t.
., ~ )j
~ 1 . ~
:t: .., "
~ ~
r ~ .., ~
..., !-..a !'\ :Ii
i

>;
"ij

~
~ :t
~
~ ~ ~

r-
....
~
~
~
~
~
s
205'
Span d _ e f M =1.5 x 5
2
=1.89 mt
m 8
1
5 5
2
Span e - e : ~ = x - - 3.28 =1.4-2 m t
8
Tens ion in span d-d
=3.75 t
Tension in span d-e and e-a
=2.25 t
Tension in ties
T = 1.5 x 5 =7.5 t
5) Design of the Different Elements of the Tank
The thickness 'of the walls. and floors is to be determ1nedfor'the
max. field moments and the' corresponding normal forces, haunches. are
provided to resist the bigger values of the connecting moments causing
tension on the water side.
In order to have sufficient water-tightness,. the walls and floor.
are assumed 25 cms thick.
A.) DeSign of Longitudinal Walls
Section of max. field moment ~ =1730 kgm.
The ten.sile stresses caused by the tensile force of 8850 kg/m acting
at the foot of the wall reduce in the upper sections of the wall and
vanish at the top. The tensile force at position of maximum moment is
therefore given by
N =8850 :x: h.Zl or N =3850 kg/m
4
The tensile stresses in this section being on the air Elide, it is de- -
signed as ordinary reinforced concrete in. stage II thus :
e n t r i i ~ e =MIN =1730/3850 =0.45 ms
- -
2C6
Eccentricity to tension steel :
e =e - ! + cover .= - gz + 3 =35.5 cms
s 2 2
Moment about tension steel
M
S
=Ne =3850 x 0.355 =1370 kgm.
s
or 22= k
1
V1370
foras =
1400 kg/em
2
and <X =0, we get
31 kg/cm
2
and 1285 so that
c
=

=
Me N
1270
+ 2..2Q
As
=-+--=
k
2
d s
1285 x .22 1400
or
As
=4.9 +2.75 =7.65 em
2
6 'g 13 mm/m
Section atfoot wall : M=4700 kgm N =8850 kgs
The tensile stresses 1n this section being on the wate.;- side, they.
should be smaller than the tensile strength of conc:-ete 1n bending,
thus :
t =fi+ 2 ems =114700 + 2 =40 + 2 =42 ems
3 3
The thickness :ls chosen 45 ems and the' wall will be provided with a
convenient haunch.
e =-
M
=:t2QQ. =0.53 ms
N 8850
+ 3 =32.5 cms
2
For 0 = 1400 kg/em
2
and k
2
=1300, so that :
s
2C1l
2880
+ 8850
=5.3 + 6.3 =11.6 6 g 16
mm/m
1300 x .42 1400
In the horizontal direction, the middle part of the longitudiIla.l
wall will be designed for a tensile force l
N = 2250 kgs
the bending moment is small and can be neglected, therefore t the
horizontal steel reinforcement is given by l
As =N/o
s
= 2250 I 1400
choose min. steel of 5 JJ 8 mm/m ( As = 2.5 cm
2
)
The corner, at the vertical edges, is to be designed for
M =2250 kgm. and N = 2250 kgs ( tension)
The tensile stresses being on- the water side then,
t = 1.5 V + 1.5 = 2?5 + 1.5 = 29 cms
The vertlcal edges of the walls will be provided by a haunch 15 x 15
cms, the theoretical thickness at the corner will be :
t =25 + 12 =30 cms.
3
Proceeding in the same way as before t we get the required area of
2
steel reinforcement, which is given by : As = 7.3 cm 6 g 13 mm/m
B) Design of Cross Walls
The internal forces, chosen ttiickness and reinforcements are shown
in the following "taple :
sense
-
Section
M.
m t
N
tons
Side of ten-
sile stresses
t
cm
As
cmf.
Rfmt
Vert. middle 0.96
3.
54
.E air 25 5.32 3 fI13 +
3
g 10
6 g 16
6 e'10
6 .013
"
foot 4.06 8.85 water 45 10.60
Horiz. middle 0.81 4.30 air 25 4.45
"
vert. edge 2.25 4.30 water 30 7.95
:E This value gives the tension at position of max. field moment and
equals 8.85 x / 1.6 /
C) Design of Floor Slab
Sense Section
M
mt
N
tons
Cross middle 2.28 6.5
It
corner 4.70 6.5
Long. middle 2.;8 5.;
It
corner 4.06 5.3
It
interm.
sup.
5.06 5.;
Side of ten-
sile stresses
air
water
air
water
water
t
cm
As
cm
2
Rfmt
llllll/m
25 10.55 6 e 16
45 10.95 6216
25 10.50 6 Ii! 16
45 9.;5 6 Ii! 16
45 11.20 6 e 16
D) Design of Cross Beam L = 4.9 ms
The beam is assumed 30 x 80 ems
The load being triangular, the equivalent load for bending moment
= water and. floor load + own weight
p =0.67 x 5 x 4.7 + 0.3 x 0.55 x 2.5 = 15.7 + 0.40 =16.1 tim
2 2
M= P L I 8 = 16.1 x 4.9 I 8 = 48.2 m t
Effective breadth of flange B
= L/3 =4.9/3 = 1.63 ms
or
73= k /48200 i.e.
l
V 1.63
Using high grade steel with ~ = 2000 kg/em
2
we get
Cc = 49.5 kg/cm
2
and ~ = 1820 kg/em
2
Therefore ,
choose 10 ft;S 22
The average load on "the beam isgiven by :
p =0.5 x 5 x 4.7 + 0.3 x 0.55 x
The shearins force is therefore
Q =P L/2 ~ ll.}% 4.9/2
2.5 =10.9
27.5
+ 0.4 =11.3
and
tim
209
the max. shear s ~ r s s i s :
Q
0.87 b d
Fig. VII-24
The corresponding diagonal t ~
sion will be resisted by four
branch stirrups fJ' 8 mm @ 20 cms
and bent bars. The shear stress
resisted by the stirrups :
n As 0
s
t = .
st e b
in which
~
n
=
number of branches of s'tirrup
=
4
2
As =
area of cross seccaon, of one branch
=
0.5 cm
e
=
spacing of stirrups
=
20 cm
b
=
breadth of web of beam
=
30 cm -1.e.
t S t = --'-4-:x::....:::O;..=..,,5-:x:::-:l:.,.:4(J.:::.=.0 6
- = 4. 7
20 :z: ;0
The bent bars resist the remaining area A of the diagonal tension
diagram :z: b Fig. VII.24, thus
,
:
2
A =( 14.5 + 6 _ 4.67 ) 120 x 30 =10.0 cm
chosen 5 (J 22
s b
2 2000
E) Walls as Deep .Ddams
The walls will act as deep beams (given later) supported on the
columns.
Load p = water and floor load + own weight of wall
=0.6? x 2.5 x 4.? + 0.25 x 4 :z: 2.5 =7.9 + 2.5 = 10.4 tIm.
The max. tension at the bottom of a simple deep beam is
c
<':10
T =0.2 p L = 0.2 x 10.4 x 5 = 10.4 ton
= 10.4 / 1.4 chosen 4 Sd 16
The max. tension at the bottom of the continuous wall at center line
of spans is given by :
T = 0.1; p L =0.13 x 10.4 x 5 = 6.8 ton
chosen 4 ill}
. The tension over intermediate supports is
2
T = 0.2 P L giving As =7.4 cm . or 2 ~ 16. + 6 f! 10
F) Design of Top Horizontal Beam and Ties
Itis recommended to avoid the use of bent bars in this beam, this
means that the shear stresses must be low. Such a provision can be
'.
satisfied ifthe depth of the beam is chosen sufficientlybig.
Assuming the beam to be 20 x 50 cmst the reinforcements at the.
different sections will be as follows. (See fig. VII.2;).
Section at
in long. wall
M
tit
N
t
As
em
2
3.28 2.25 6.5
d in cross wall 2.;4
3.75 5.2
middle of d.e 1.89 2.25 3.94
" "
e.e 1.42 2.25 3.1
"
d.d
"
0.94- 3.75 2.9
Rf'mt
) 2 ~ 1;
)
) 2 ~ 16
)
)
) ; ~ 1;
)
)
or
The tie is chosen 20 % 30 ems, r e ~ o r e e by As =M
1.4
= 5.3 em
2
4 ~ 13.
The deta1.1s of 'the 'tank are shown 1n f1gure vn-25.
Ecr/CN
Q
Q
-.i:
,
':
':

tf -


_ -.!t...."' _
_ .-:5& _
R.inff of -"cZ It_
Fig. VII-25
'.
2U
b) General of Flat Plates
The exact distribution of the internal forces in a slab subject
to distributed - eventually concentrated - loads under different ed-
ge conditions is dealt with in text books of theory of elast1city
e.g. "Theory of Plates and Shells" and Theory of Elasticity" tI
by Timoshenko.;
For a rectangular plate subject
to a distributed load p and having
any given boundary conditions. the in-
ternal forces and stresses in any
direction can be obtained mathemati-
cally according to the following as-
sumptions,and basic equations: (Fig.
VII. 26) ,
II =lim =1/5 - 1/6 =Poissons ratio ';

D = E t
"
2 =Flexural rigidity of
12 (l-V )
'
a plate o:f thickness t.
Fig. VII-26
z = Lateral displacement o:f plate.
M,x;: My =Bending moments per unit length of sections of a plate' in
directions x and y respectively.
M:x:y.Myx =Twisting moment per unit length of a section of a plate
, =Shearing forces parallel to z
axis per unit length of
sections of a plate perpendicular to x and y axes respec-
tively.
R,x;: , R =Reactions per unit length of plate, acting on sections per-
y
pendicular to x and y axes respectively.
Considering the equilibrium of the elementary prism d x, d Y ,
t, we get:
212
2 2
=_D ( a z +v a z )
x a;z 8y2
2 2 -
M
2
y !i ax
2 a
2
z
14 . =M = D (1 - v )
xy yx ax oy

aM 3 3

(4+ a z )
"",.. ax ay
a%? .. ax' al
. . .... arL M .' 3 . "3 "
Q-.: (0 z+ a z )
. 7 ex" '0 y a 7!-
which give "the v8..luea . of "the bending momen"ts, the torsional moments
and the shearing forces at any section of atlat plate" interms of a
. deflection z.
The load p be assumed as distributed on the two directions
x and y so tha"t :
Px = part
of "the load "transmitted in "the direction of the x - axis
n . n
P
y
=
..
" " "
".
" "
.. y - axis
and.
knOWing "that :
+ P=0
+
ax ay
these" two last equations can be identical if:
then
Px

=- -"
ax
and
p
Y

ay
Substituting for and
P
x
:: D (
P
y
=D (

a
4
z
ax
4
a
4
z
ay4
their values
+
a
4z
)
ax
2
ay
2
+
a
4
z
)
ax
2
By2
given befo:::,e, we get
and
213
Aldbg tl:;.eae two equations
a4-
z
(14)
----r.- + 2
ax"
which gives the differential equation of the elastic surface of a pla-
te loaded perpendicular to its plane.
The previous investigation shows that the determination of the
i n t ~ n l forces ina flat plate by the mathematical theory of elasti-
cityrequires the solution of a partial differential equation of the
fourth degree.
Internal Forces inFlat Plates by Czern,y :
The internal forces in the following individual typical cases
..;
of rectangular plates subject to uniform and triangular loads have
been determined by Czerny.
A) Slabs supported on four sides and.subject to uniform load
10 DOD 0 0
P A-I A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-5
B) Slabs supported on four sides and SUbject to triaIigular load.
j DOD0-00
P B-1 8-2 B-3 8-4 8-5 8-6
C) Slabs supported on three aides and su.bject to uniform aildtrian-
gular loadsI as well as edge loads and ed.se
f[PO
I D D 00
I G-9
C. -7
p C-I G-3 G-S
-- 0- 0 0--
i D . ~
ra
h
c.-tO
P 0-2 C-4 o-s c.-a
We give in the following tables the internal forces in the shown cases.
Reactions of case C are given intable C.11.
214
Notations I
Loading Uni:form or triangular
Supports: Free
Bending Moments
Indirection x
Indirectiony
At fixed end
Torsional Moment
Reactions
Indix-ection x
,
In direction y
At fixed end
Shearing Forces
!ndirection x
In direction y
At fixed end .
E :: Modulus of' Elasticity
t =Thickness of Slab
m ; Deflection atmid-point
of slab
Hinged
Fixed
Q=R
....


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247
d) Direct Application of Czerny's-Tables in Tanks.
The tables of Czerny can be directly used in some typical problems
of rectangular tanks as can be seen from the following example.
It is required 'to desie;n a 160 m
3
capacity open square water tank
supported on four columns.
The clear he ig;J.t of the tank will be assumed 4.3 ms, then:
Clear area = 160/4.3
Clear side length =V37.2 = 6.1 m
To reduce the internal forces in the floor, four beams are arran-
ged so 'that its span is 4.5 ms only. The chosen dimensions of the
tank will be as shown in figure VII.27
.10
..


os
<, "7
I
I
4.S0 I.'
!.
I. S"
CI \ .
\
\
\
I
,
I
I
I
'.0
i
I)
I I ...

I \j

I
..
I
.....
\.,." ".50 I."
i s.s
I
JlORIZ01JTRL SE
Each of the walls of the tank has
a theoretical height of H = 4.50 ms and ,
a theoretical leng'th of L = 6.30 ms
The walls can be assumed fixed at their vertical edges dua to
symmetry in shape and loading ( e = 0 ) and fixed to the floor due to
the continuity a short span of relatively big
248
The floor slab 4.5 x 4.5 ms can be assumed as fixed on all four sides
for the same reason.
Max. water pressure on walls
Load on intermediate part of floor slab PI
=weight of water + own weight of floor slab (assumed 20 ems. thick )
or PI =4.3 + 0.2 x 2.5 = 4.3 + 0.5 = 4.8 t/m
2
Load on outside part of floor slab (assumed 40 ems. thick)
P2 =4.3 + 0.4 x 2.5 = 4.5 + 1.0 = 5.3 t/m
2
.", H,.. , ' 1.11/",
t: t....J NO/liZDNrRL SaT/OAf L$,t
T ,__ t'."T" "fr_'"___
I
RT I
1-110- HlaHT nltC
1.1",
.t.

SECTION'eT
1.0 5


.... t.
Fig. VII-28
The internal forces in the walls, free at top and fixed on the other
three sides can be calculated according to table 0-8 as follows
( Fig. VII.28 ).
2 2
HIL = 4.5 I 6.3 = 0.715
=4.3 x 4.5 =87 mt.
Bending moments middle vertical axis are therefore :
lr'!ax. fixing moment at base :
Mymin. Pmax.
H
2
118 = - 87/18 = - 4.84 mt
Max. field moment at 0.47 H from base
2/80
L).max. = P H = 87/80 = 1.085 mt
249"
Bending'moments in horizontal direction are
'Section ai'top surface
Max. fixing moment
= - Pmax.H2/30 = - 87/30 =- 2.90 m t
Max. field moment
= pmax.H2/55 = 87/55 = 1.58 mt
Section at0.6 H from bottom
Max. fixing and field moments
2
/24 =- 87/24 = - m t P
max.H
= pmax.H
2
/72.4=
87/72.4= 1.20 mt
The reactions can be calculated from the table of Timoshenko C-llb ,
thus : for HIL
=
0.715 . we get I
Reaction at middle of base max. tension in floor
=
=
pH/2.73 = 4.3x4.5/2.73 = 7.1 tim
''l
Reaction at top edge of wall horizontal'tension in side walls
=
=
,pH/9.14 = 4.3x4.5/9.14 = 2.1 tIm
Reaction at mid. height of wall. ::: horizontal tension in side wails
=
pH/4.42 = 4.3x4.5/4.42; =4.9 tIm
Tension in wall at itsbase
=
P2 x 0.9/2 = 5.3 x 0.45= 2.40t/m
The internal forces in the floor slab, fixed on allfour sides and
subject to uniform load Pl = 4.8 t/m
2
can be according to
table A-6 as follows
2
L =L =L =4.5 m 4.8 x 4.5 =97 m t
y x.
, Max. fixing moment
.Max. field moment
=
97/56.8 =
1.70 m t
250
The vertical and horizontal sections of the tank are to be calculated
for the internal forces shown infigure VII.28.
The bending moments and shearing forces in the floor beams can be cal-
culated as follows: ( Fig. VlI.29 ).
P. /3.S?t P .. /;.521:
1.1:z. /.!td),,' ;.,.,z 9.611./",
S./'"..D.
Each of the four supporting beams can be considered as a simple beam
4.5 ms. span with double cantilevers 0.90 ms, each. The beam is
assumed ~ O x 60 cms
Load en intermediate span.
or
= ';00
+
7200 +
2380
=
9880 kg/m
W
l
Load on outside cantilevers
w
2
= 0.; x 0.4x2500 x!+
0.45 x 5';00
=
150 + 1190
=
1}40 kg/m
2 2
Concentrated load :
p =own weight of wall =0.2 x 4.5 x 2500 x ~ 7100 kg
=
2
+ uniform floor load = 0.45 x 5300 x ~ 5350 kg
=
2
+ triangular ~ l o o r load =0.45 x ~ x 0.9 1070 kg
=
2
i.e. total P 1;520 kgs.
=
251
Therefore, the max. cantileverlIloment is given by :
"
=13.52 x 0.9 + 1.34 x =12.2 + 0.54 =12.74 mt
2
and the max. field moment is
.
Mmmax.= 9.88 x - 12.74 =25.0 - 12.74 = 12.36 mt
8
The .loads, bending moments and shearing forces are shown infigure
VII.29.
One can see that the choice of the dimensions of the tank was
convenient for the following reasons
1) The max. fixing moment inthe wall ( - 4.84 m t ) is approx. equal
to the max. fixing moment in the floor ( - m t ).
2) The max. moments are accumulated at the corner between walls
and floor, so that only a small part of the slabs needs a'relati-
vely big thickness ("'. cms )".
3) The max. field moment in the wall ( 1.58 m t ) is approx. equal
to the max. field moment inthe floor ( 1.70 mt ).
4) The thickness of slabs is generally governed by their field moments
and as their values are small, only the minimum thickness necessa-
ry for water-tightness (-vi 20 cms ) is sufficient.
5) The cantilever part has been chosen such that.it approxima-
tely equal cantilever and field moments inthe SUpporting beams.
The same idea can be adopted for bigger capacities as shown in
figure VII.30 in which the capacity of the tank is ':
4.00 x 10.60 x 10.60 450 m'.
The floor slabs are again here fixed at the intermediate panelledfra-
mes, because they are arranged on the axes of symmetry.
Each of the floor panelled frames has a span of 9 me. and car-
ries, inaddition to its own weight,a floor load of p = 4.5 =10 tim
2
on the intermediate span.
252
The walls may however be supported at their top edge on cover slabs'
or horizontal beams as those shown in the example. Such beams can be
assumed as
diste..nces
may give a
supports for the walls
( smaller than ca 6 IDS.
convenient solution.
if they are
). In the sh
supported at convenient
own example diagonal ties
"
I'

I
! i
.1 .I
,:
/'.s- i ... ".S,.;..
D.'
!
...
;:::
.1 <6 \ fl
60
t
,
"
.
SECT/ON R-H
d
... 5D
1,.50
fig. VII-pO
For the case of walls simply supported at top and. to the
floor slab at bottom, and resisting the full water pressure in the
vertical direction, the height of wall H and the span of square floor
slabs L giVing the same fixing moment in wall and floor can be deter-
miD.ed as follows :
Max. b.yd.rostatic pressure on wall
Load on,floor Slab including own weight p 1.10 H
Fixing moment of wall:: connecting moment of floor or
or
L =1.06 H
Figure VII.pl shows the concrete dimensions and details of rein-
forcements of a covered reinforced concrete square tank = 400 rr?
~ - 0
ItI
"
t
, 'ff --',I t.
253
capacity supported on four columns. The general arrangement of the
suppcrting elements of the tank follows the given recommendations. The
supporting elements of the floor are composed of four simple girders
supported on the columns ; each of them is provided with two cantile-
ver arms supporting the walls as deep beams. The square floor enclosed
between the main girders is subdivided by two simple beams.
Each of the four panels of the floor can be assumed as totally fixed
at its edges. The walls being 3.6 x 10.80 m, they behave as one way
slabs simply supported on the top horizontal beam and totally fiXed to
the floor. They resist the water pressure in the vertical direction
only. In this manner, the bigger values of the bending moments in a
vertical section of the tank are accumulated at the corner between the
walls. and the floor. However , the local horizontal bending moments
along the vertical corners of tank - equations 10 - are to be ta-
ken in consideration. In order to avoid vertical supports ,inside .the
..... .. . ..
tank, the top horizontal of the' wail supported on diagonai ties
shown dotted-. The roof 1s a reinforced concrete square pyramid sup -
ported on twelve posts arranged on the top of the walls at the corners
and the third points of 'each side. The windows between the posts allow
for good airation of the water in the tank.
VII.4. COUNrERFORTED WALLS :
In order to reduce the thickness of walls of deep rectangular
taDks, it rray be of advantage to support them on counterforts as can
be seen in the example of a diving pool 5 x 20 x 20 ma.
( Fig. VII.32 ).
It is obvious that, in this case, 1tis not possible to ar-
range any supports at the upper s1.\rface of the water, and, if the walls
are constructed without any supports, i.e. free at top and totally fi-
xed at the other three sides, we get for water pressure, according to:
s__table. C-8, .the following: .
254
If L ~ x =H / L =5/20 =0.25
and p ~ =5 x 52 =125 m t
the max. fixing moments at foot of wall will be :
Mymin. = - p H
2
/ 6 . 9 = - 125/6.9 = - 18.1' m t and
the max. fixing moment between the walls at their top surface
Mxmin. =- p ~ / 8 8 =- 125/8.8 =- 14.2 m t
I '
~
-t-
, I
I
i
$DLVT/CM/ :z) SOL.VT/O# 1 .
d"OD ~ / L s . W/I.t' SO/LS
255
Both moments cause tensile stresses on the water side, so that, the
thickness.required for thewall at its base is given by
t =V:t / 3 = V18100 / 3 - 77.5 cms
max
and the corresponding tension steel will be
2
= 0.26 t =0.26 x 77.5 =20 cm 7 q> 19 mm/m
max
.'
Both values t and As are relatively big:
We give in the following some trials for convenient solutions
of the wall.
1st. Trial : Wall Supported on Four Sides
As a first trial, we arrange horizontal beams at the top
edge of the wa.ll and vertical counterf'orts at say 3.33 IDS. as shown
in solution 1 of figure VII.32: .In this manner the walls behave as
two wa:J. slabs simply support::d at top and, fixed on "j;he .other ..
sides. The internal forces 'can be calculat'ed. from' Czerni's tabl'e B-5'
"
as follows
For Ly. / Lx = H / L = 5/3.33 =1.5
2 2
p II
x
=5 x 3.33 = 55.5 m t
.we get, the bending moments :
=- P II
x
2
1 23.5 =- 55.5 / 23.5 =- 2.33 mt
= p Li 1 104 = 55.5 / 104 = 0.535 mt at
. 2' "
=- P L 1 23.7 =- 55.5 / 23.7 =- 2.34 mt at 0.38 H
x
= p Li 1 57.2' = 55.5 / 57.2 = 0.97 mt at mid
and the reac"tions :
rfymmax = max. tension in floor slab
=5 x 3.33/2.7 = 6.2t/m
=load atmiddle of top beam
=p / 17.40 =5 x 3.33/17.40 =
R = load at support of top beam
ys
=-p Lx I 9.4 =- 5 x 3.33 I 9.4 =- 1.78 tim'
The reaction of the top beam and the horizontal reaction of the wall
I
give the.loads acting on the counterfort, thus:
If we assume that the load distribution on the top beam is parabolic,
its reaction on the top edge of the counterfort will be nil (<>I 0 )
because the negative value of the load at the support of the beam
( 1.78tim ) is approXimately equal to double the maximum positive
value at the middle ( 0.96 tim).
The maximum reaction of the wall on the counterfort is given by :
= 2 P Lx I 3.1 =2 x 5 x 3.33 I 3.1 = 11 tim at 0.3 H from
base.
In order to calculate the bending moments and reaction at base
of counterfort, one may replace the load diagram acting on the c oun -
terfort by a polygon as shown in Fig. VII.33 which shows the internal
forces in the wall and supporting beams.
:Fig. VII-33
The figure shows further, the general arrangement of the coun-
terforts in elevation and section, tl::e bemung moments in the wall slab
257
inthe vertical and horizontal directions, and the internal forces and
reactions of thecounterfort.
Reaction of counterfort at its base
R =11 X b2. + 11 X 1.5 + II X 1.
2 2 .
MaximU!!1 bending moment of counterfort
!.\nax. = 11 x 22 ( b2. + 2.5 ) + 11 X 1.5 x 1.75 + 11 x lxg, = 78.7 mt
2 } .2 ;
2nd. trial : Wall Supported on Three Sides
We have seen, inthe previous trial, that the loads on
the top beam are so small that itdoes not give an effective support
, ,
for the wall. Further studies'have shown the.t so long as the height
H of a wall sUb,ject to hydrostatic'pressure is ' bigger.than its .span.
L, the internal forces are not affected. ifwe dispense 'with tlie top
"
beam, inwhich case the wall will be f:ree at top and totally tixed
on the other three sides. The bending moments canbe determined from
Ozerny's table 0-8 as follows :
For
and p =125 mt
We get the bending moments :
=- p =-'125/5;.5 = - 2.}4m t at.pase
,",' ;....
= p L;;242 = 125/242 = 0.516 mt at 0.2 H from
.:,..i
It It
MXmin. =- P = - 125/54.2 =- 2.;2 mt at 0..36 H
It
It Mxmax. = p L;;125 = 125/125 = 1.00 mt at,0.40 H
The reactions of the slab can. be calculated from table 0-11 thus
R
l
=max. tens.ion infioor slab
._=.p Y4.82
=5 x 5/4.82 =5.2 tim
258
2R =load on an intermediate counterfort at its top edge
2
= - 2 P L I 250 = - 2 x 5 x 5 I 250 = - 0.2 tim
y . .
=load on an intermediate counterfort at mid-height
'.
=2 P L I 6.13
=
2 x 5 x 5/6.13
=
8.15 tim
y
The maximum load on the counterfort lies at", ,0.'; H from base, so that
the load diagram can be dxawn as shown. in figure VII.34 ; its ordina-
tes being the same as those of the previous case, the bending moment
of the counterfort and the reaction at its lower edge will be the same
(Fig. VII.';4).
Comparing the values of the internal forces obtained for this
trial, we find that they are nearly the same as those of the first
trial.
For such internal forces, it is sufficient to construct the
walls with a thickness of 20 cms only at the middle of the spans and
~ 30 cms at the supports.
The :lilaximum section of the counterfort may ; b ~ chosen 45 x 1 l c ~
and the corresponding reiDforcement Ad 9 t 25
259
3rd. Trial Cantilevering Wall on Three Sides :
In this new trial, the height of the counterfort will be
reduced to 4.00 m. In this manner, the lower part of the wall will be
fixed on three sides and free at its upper edge where we have 1 meter
free cant ilever i it is subject to a trapezoidal hydrostatic pressure
With
Pl = 1.00 t/m
2
at its top edge . and
p =Pl + P2 =1.00 + 4.00 =5.00 t/m
2
at its lower edge in addition
to a bending moment M given by :
o
= 0.166 mtlm
and a shearing force Q =1.00
2
12 = 0.50 tim acting at its free
o
edge as shown, in figure VII.35
The bending moments iIi the lower part of the slab can be calculated
from the following tables :
2

Table C-7 for the uniform. load Pl =1.00 tim
2
Table C-8
11
11 triangular " 1'2 =4.00 tim
Table G-9 for the shear Q 0.5 tim acting on the free ed,ge I:
o
.. .. ' 11 11
Table 0-10 for the moment M =0.166 mt/m
"
o
The results are given in table
The reactions due to M are so small that they can be :fiI,eglectell.,
o
while the reactions due to Q willbe directly transmitted to the ed.
o ,
ges of the counterforts ( at points d ) and are given by
R
d
=0.5 x 3.33 =1.67 t
The reactions of the lower p3.rt of the wall due to the uniform
2 I 2
pressure Pl = 1.0 tim and the triangular pressure P2 = 4.0 t m can
'be from table C-11 as shown in table
in the !laarslab.
R given,in the table indicates the maximum. tension
b
260
Unilorm Load Triang. Load Edge Load Edge :
2 2
Q
o=
0.5 tim 1M
0
=0. 166 mt/m Total
lUo
ad
Pl= 1.0 tim
P2= 4.0 tim
Table C-7
Table G-8 Table C-9 Table C-IO
2
2
,
'M:: ,n ::4X4
2
M_QoLx 5x3. 3'
M, .
0: 16E
IB.M.
Pi = 1%4 ;
o -,
B.M. M= --'_
m m
'm m m m m' m
M m M m M m M

M M
mt mt mt mt mt
M
xa
34.4 0.465 177 0.';61 7.2 0.232 ';.5 0.048 1.106
M
Xd
- 16.9
-0.950 - 1';0 -0.492 -2.42 -0.746 - 0.69 -0.242 1-2.4';0
M
xm
4';.0 0.,;72 98.'; 0.650 6';.0 0.027 -17.9 -0.009 1.040

- 19.5 -0.e20 - 41.5 -1.540 -66.'; -0.025 7.55 0.022 R.';6';
M
ya
co 0 co 0 ee 0 - 1.00 -0.166 -0.166
tJi 190 0.084 2';8 0.269 -42.6 -0.0';9 -40 -0.004 -0.';10
ym
M
yb
- 25.3
-0.632 -37.4 -1.710
-
-
l.15 0.001 -2.,340
Table 2
Uniform Load Triangular Load
Loading 2
' 2
Total
P1 = 1.0 tim P2 = 4.0 tIm -
Table C-lla Table C-llb
Table 1
Reaction
R = P1
L
:y
m
=
m
m
R =4/m

3.06
t
1.30
12 R
d
2.08 2 x 1.92
L
R = P2 :y ;::
m m
:: 161m
t
m
4.04 3.96
60 2 x 0.2?
ReactioI
t
5.26
4.38 +1.67= 6.05t
2 x 1.16 2.48 4.76 2 x ';.';5 '9.02
261
The ma'"d mu m load on the counterfort lies at H from. base
and can be estimated. cliagramatically as shown in figure VII-35 in which
the load is replaced by a po17gon of 'the given ord1.nates!
Accord:1.ngly, the rea.ction at the toot otthe counterfort is giv-
en by:
R 6.05 29.02 x + l!O x 33!9 t
and its m.ax1mUlIl. moment is given by 14 65!25 mt
The internal. forces in the wall and in an intermediate cOu,Ilterfort are
shown in figure
I'
.

33.9t
Loa.ot.
Fig. VII-35
It is clear frOlll. the previous investigat10ns that ot
a convenient and s:L-::ple solution as that in the ,
requires a thorough knowledge ot the distribution ot the internal
forces in tlat plates under dif'tereni; loads for the. various con-

In. all the shown cases , the counterforts behave .!J.!I e.g..
subject to the reactions ot the wall and beam, if
a:tJJ. g,1,'$g maunmm bending mOlllents at their base. The tensUe s'tres-
.... .. .
ises coun'trfort due to the hydrostatic pressure are on the.
[water side, and it is therefore essential to cracks
from being developed.' In order to satisty th:1s requirem.ent,the sections
.-- . . ....
262
of. the counterfort will be designed as reinforced concrete rectangu- .
lar sections because their flange l ~ in the tension zone and., ill
spite of that , the depth of the different sections must be chosen
such that the' maximum tensile' stresses in the concrete are . smaller
than its tens Ue strength , .i. e. . no cracks are all owed in the flan-
ge of the beam. In thi.s last case , we are allowed to assume the
Rections as plain concrete ( or eventually reinforced concrete) T-
sections with breadth of flange:
and smaller than HI;. This means ,the sections are to be treated
as reinforced concrete rectangular sections in s'tage II am at the
same time as plain concrl3.te T-sections in stage 1.
The walls must be designed for tlle full hydrosttttic pressure assu-
ming earth removed , and the full earth plus any gnound .water pres-
sure + effect of surcharge , i:f. any , with tank empty. In this last
case, the wall sections behave as T both in stage I .and stage
II.
Corner counterforts may be arranged as shown in solution 1
in which case, they resist the horizontal reactions if the two
adjoining -pane La at the walls. . If they are not arranged, as shown
in solution 2 , the walls will be subject to horizontal forces ,
equal to the horizontal re actions of the end panels of walls, over
their whole langth.
The fixing moments and bottom reactions of counterforts must
be transmitted to floor beams , (or eventually thicIt floor slabs).
It is recommena.ed to extend ,;he floor beams over the whole width of
*- t = thickness of flange b =breadth of haunches if any
s
s
boo = breadth of counterfort.
26}
the floor it it rests on relatively weak. soils - solution 1 of figure
VII-32 - and, to extend them on a short dis-tance of the floor slab it
it rests on stiff soils as shown in solution 2 of the same figure!
It is generally not recommended to use bent bars in vertical sl-
abs and beams of counterforted walls even in cases where such walls are
subject to earth or water pressure from one side only because bent bars
are liable to aove from their position during concreting operations.
Figure VII-36 shows the concrete d1m.entions and detaUs of rein-
forcements of' the third trial shown in figure VII-35 for solution 2 of
figure VII-32 assuming that the internal forces due to earth pressure
are 0.65 the values due to water pressure!
It has to be noted here that no bent bars are used in the differ-
ent elements of the pool and that high grade steel stressed to 2000 kg!
cul in tension is used as reinforcement for the counterforts.
The required conorete dimensions and the diffe-
rent elements are as follows I
l!) Wall and floor slabs:
Thickness 20 oms provided. with haunches 10 x 30 oms a-t 'the sup-
porting beams!
Tension steel ? 13 mm/m for water pressure and ? 10 mm/m for
earth pressure!.
2 .) Counter::'orts I
Cross-section: max. 45 x 110 em and min. 45
I
x 60 0Dl.
Tension steel: 9 t 25 mmon water side and 6 25 mm on earth
3!) tloorbeams:
Cross-section: 45 x 60 cm.
Reinforcement: 3 'II' 25 mm top and bot1iom!
(J\
.yt
I\}
'of:
I
I
,
I I

-
---;r
II j(
...
it
I
! J1
ft..
J),
. .-.. -
"7
o
..
......
1;/.] 7/1'1'"'V i
'tI/J

I 'I.;/S
I I

I
,,,'S
SEC. y- Y L-
f--
I Li-
iI,$j

9.h 'of !lhrs
I

I
.-+-
.
JLt"/3' I
, .'........!t...L",.,s sa,X - X
.11 ftD/-
JTcJwl_ 1._# 1;1f1 -"-f r --,-
=
I ==----
I 1f'J/... =- e 71t,,/.. ... 71 .11_
. Fig. VII-,6
'
265
VIII. TAN K S D IRE C T L Y B U I L TON THE G R 0 U N D
In tanks directly built on the ground, we recognize three dif-
ferent cases, namely
a) Tanks on fLl,l or soft-weak soils,
b) Tanks on rigidfoundation and,
c) Tanks on compressible s9ils.
VIII.l TANKs ON FILL OR SOFT \VEAK SOILS
The stresses on the aoil due to weight of.tank and water is
generally low ("\.. 0.6 kg/cm
2
for a depth of water of 5 IDS.) ; but in
spite of this .fact, itis not recommended to construct a tank direct-
lyon unconsolidated fill as this may expose the tank to very serious
differential settlements due to the unhomogenous texure of the fill.
Soft weak clayey layers, peat and similar soils may consoli-
date to big values even under small stresses
...
Fig. VIII-l
In such cases, it is recommended to support the tank on co-
lumns and isolated or strip footings if the stiff soil layers are at
. a reasonable depth from the ground surface and no big difficulties
266
are liable to arise due to high ground water as shown in fig. VIII.l
in which the floor of the tank, acting as a flat slab, is supported
on columns and isolated footings resting on the stiff clay.
In case of medium soils at foundation level, one may need a raft
over the whole area as shown in figure VIII.2. The floor of the
tank and the lower raft ma:y be arranged as flat slabs. If it is reqUi-
to increase the stiffness of the .tank, longitudinal andcross-gir-
ders may be arranged as shown
is high one may support the tank on piles. It. is recommended to drive
the piles,. where possible '. to the incompressible layers and'to arran-
ge them such that we get just the floor thickness sufficient to give
the necessary water-tightness ( 20 - 25 ems ). The pile caps may act
as column beads for a flat slab system as shown in VIII.3
Pig.
VIII-2

/:./ .:( ;;' .'Y. :,,"/";';.:
-:: ::
'" .: :fiJr .
G.W.L:,:,,-:.
: ....'.... :::
, .
-
..
.
/:-/////// / / / / /// / //
/ .
/
///"/ //""/'//////;' /'// ////////.";'/ //// /"///";' /////;,//////////;, /;'//////'/////'/ .ttlOY'/.I.
If the incompressible layers are deep or Ground water level
,).0
00
- ---
.....
0000
o ,. .... o
00 ...
.... . -
Fig.VIII-3
In this example, the soil layers being soft and compressible, the
weight of the tank and liquid will be transmitted to the incompressible
267
nON ELEV/lTIO# 11-,9
fig. VIII-4-
268
sand layers through cast in place piles.
The roof may be a flat slab or of the slab and beam type sup -
ported on columns. The columns and the floor, asa flat slab, are
supported on piles, with the pile caps acting as column heads. Single
piles are arranged such that each pile carries its full capacity and
t ~ required thickness of the floor slab is 20 to 25 cms. The steel
tubes in which the concrete of the piles is cast are driven from the
ground surface to the coarse sand layer, they are filled with concrete
to the level of the floor and with sand fill to too ground surface.
We give in figure VIII.4 a circular flocculator which is to be
constructed in very soft ~ w m p y soils on piles arranged in the out-
side perimeter below the outSide vertical wall and in the center under-
neath the solid part shown.
'.
VIII.2 TANKS ON RIGID FOUNDATION
If we assume that a tank is supported on a rigid' foundation,
t
z I .
Fig. VlII-5
then the vertical reaction of the Wall. will be directly resisted by
,tl:e area beneath it,while the bending moment M will deflect the
floor in a length 1 beyond which no deformation or bending moments "
are created. The deformation due to M will be' counter balanced by
the weight of th3 liquid and the floor w. (Fig. VIIL5) accordingly,
. we should have at point b: ~ = 0 and P = 0
269
w (3 _ .1!..L
But 13 - 0 -
24 E I 6 E I
so that
The part t of the floor slab is to be designed to resist
bending moments shown in figure VIII.5 plus an axial tensile force
N equal to the reaction at the base of the wall. The middle part of
the floor slab is to be designed to resist the tension N with a
imum of 15 - 20 cms giving sufficient water-tightness. The
minimum reinforcement is 5 cp 8 mm/m in each direction on both surfaces
of the slab.
VIII.3. TANKS on CmlPRESSIBLE SOILS :
Floors of tanks resting on medium clayey or sandy soils may
be calculated in the following manner: (Fig. VIII.6).
We assume that the internal for-
ces transmitted from the wall to the
floor at b are distributed on the soil
by the part b c = 1 of the floor where
l = 0.4 to 0.6 H. The length 1 is
chosen such that the max. stress is
smaller than the allowed soil bearing
pressure, and 0"2 '; 0"1 I 2 on clayey
soils and 0"2) 0 on sandy soils.
These limitations are recommended in order to prevent relatively big
rotations of tha floor at b.
The internal forces in the part be of the floor are to be deter-
mined for the downward forces :
G = weight at: wall and roof (if any)
1
G
2
= " floor cb It
VII = " "water on cb
270
plus the bending moment Mand the shearing force Q at the foot of the
wall and the corresponding upward stresses cr
The part of the floor to the left of c is,subject to tension
equal to Q. Its thickness is chosen 15 to 20 cms. to give the neces-
sar,y watertightness, reinforced by meshes of area As in any direc-
tion given by :
For the details of reinforcements refer to figure VIII.5.
The floor of a tank directly built on stiff medium or weak compressi-
ble soils can however be treated as a floor on elastic foundation if
the soil is homogenous and its &lastic properties are known.
General Theory of'Beams on Elastic Foundation
E
In order to determine the deformation and internal forces in a
, .
floor on elastic foundation, one bas to know the general theory of
beams on elastic We give' in the .following , the outlines
of tlie theory as may be needed for our purpose.
Abeam A B supported along its
entire length b
J
" an elastic medium
and subjected to vertical forces p
will deflect producing continuously
distributed stresses 0"in the suppor-
ting mediun' ( Fig. VIII.? ). .Fig. VIII-7
The fundamental assumption of elastic supports is :
n the intensity of the stress (J at any point is proportional to the
deflection of the beam y at that point n ; that is :
a =k Y
The elasticity of the supporting medium is characterizedby the stress
crwhich causes a deflection equal to unity. This of the sup-
porting medium k is called the modulus of the foundation.
o
3[ Hetllnyi n Beams 'on Elastic Foundation ,i
271
Assume that the beam under consideration has a uniform cross
section and that b is its constant width, which is supported on the-
:foundation. A unit deflection of this beam. will cause a stress b k
o
in the foundatfon conseg,uently, at a point where the deflectionis
y the intensity of' distributed reaction (per unit length of the beam)
be :
(J kg/cm = b k
o
y
For the sake of brevity we shall use the symbol k kg/cm
2
for b cms x
k ' in the following derivations, but it is to be remembered
o
that this k includes the ef'.fec"t of the width of the beam. and will be
numerically equal, to k only ifwe deal wi"th a beam. of unit widtil.
o
Considering the eq,uilibrium'of an infinitely
small element enclosed between "two vertical cross-
sec"tions a' distance dx apar"t on the beam. we f'inq.:
(Fig. VIIL8).
Q.-(Q+dQ)+kydx-pdx = 0
which gives :
Fig. VIII-B
.@. "= k 1 - p (a)
d.x
knowing.that .2! = Q ,wecan wri"te
dx
d
2M'
eo
;:::;:s.. , =-.,.=k Y - P (b)
dx
We know fur"ther "that
M

(c)
E I
Differen"tiating "this rela"tion "twice, we ob"tain
d
4

E I (d)
1=-:-2
dx d.x
Relations (b) and (d) give
2'72
(e)
which gives the differential equation of the elastic line of a beam. on
elastic foundation. Along the unloaded parts of the beam, where no
distributed load is acting, p =0, and equ.(e)'will take the form:
4
d
EI Y =-ky (f)
dx
Itwill be sufficient to consider below only the general solution of
(f), from which solutions will be obtained also for cases implied in
( e ). by adding to ita particular integral corresponding to p. Assu-
ming further that
n I
.(g)
we can give the solution of the differential equation (:r) in the
form :
y'= eUX: ( .A. COB nx + B sinnx ) + e-UX: (B cos nx + B
2
sinn:x: )
l l l
(15)
He:re n inel udes the flexural regidity of the. beam. as well as the elas-
ticityoftbesupporting medium, and is an important factor influen -
cing the shape of the elastic line. For this reason the factor n is
called the characteristic of the system, and, since its dimension is
length-1, the term lIn is frequently :referred to as the characte-
risticlength. Consequently, nx will be an absolute number.
Differentia'ting equation (15), we get :
!
n
= e
DX
[AI (cosnx - sin nx) + (cos
273
Knowing that
2:.Y.
= tanG ,
- E I
4
= M and - E I
g
=
Q
d.x d.x dx
we can obtain the general expressions for the slope e (e tan e:
=
of the deflection line as well as for .the bending moment M and the
shearing force Q. The i!:tensity of pressure in the foundation will
be found from equation (15) to be a =k Y
In applying these general equations, or corresponding ones in-
cluding the term depending on p, to particular cases the next step ic
to determine the integration constants Al' and B
2

These integration constants depend on the manner in which the beam


is subjected to the loading and have constant values alons each
tion of the beam within which the elastic line and all its derivati-
ves are continuous. Their values can be obtained from the conditions
existing at the two ends of such continuous portions. Out cf the four
quantities ( y, e,M and - Q ) characterizing the condition of an end,
two are usually known at each end, from which sufficient data are
"
available for the determination of the constants A and B.
Internal Forces for Particular Cases of Loading
In the following formulae, we have .
4V . k
The characteristic value
n = 4EI
The foundation modulus
k-
in kg/cm3
o
in kg/cm
2
Constant width of beam in contact with the foundation =b em
The flexural rigidity of the beam =EI
The deflection y, slope angles 6 , bending moments M, and shearing
forces Q are given in the follOWing for beams with free ends under
some particular cases of loading.
The nuneracat, values of the and hyperbolic func-
tions needed in the different equations are given in the appendix.'
274
1) Equal Concentrated Forces at Both Ends :
, 1
i ~ VIII-9
2 P n cosh nx. cos nx + cosh me. cos nx
(17)
Y =. -
k sinh nL + sin nL
Deflection at the end points :
2 Pn cosh nL + COB nL
(17a)
YA = YB = --
k sinh IlL + sin nl
Deflection at the middle :
cosh ~ cos ~
Y _U-A Co Co (17b)
C - k sinh nL + sin IlL
The deflection YC =0 when IlL = 1t. ect 'It . 5Tt
Slope angles at end points A and B :
2 P n
2
sinh nL - sin nL
(18)
G
A
= - 6
B
= -
k sinh nL + sin nL
The bending moment
:.! = _ ~ sinh nJC. sin nx'+ sinh n x ~ sm me
(19)
n sinh nL + sin nL
The bendi.ng moment at the middle I
nL DL
. 2 P siIlh 2 sin 2
(19&)
1.1 = - -. --..;:;=----..;;..-
C n sinh nL +. sin IlL
u = 0 wl;ien IlL = 2 It 41t 61t , etc .
c

M is negative when Dr. <2 Tt
c
1!c
is positive when 2 n <nL < 4
n
.
. 'The sheariIl.g force
1
Q =P
sinh nL + sin IlL
275
2) Equal Cor.centrated Moments at Both Ends
1
--:
g ~ VIII-10
y =
k
Deflection at end points :
2
2 M n
o sinh nL - sin nL
(21a)
k sinh nL + sin nL
Slope at end points
3
4'U n
o cosh nL cos nL
(22)
k sinh nL + sin nL
The bending mo me nti
.. 1
=
M ( sinh nx , cos nx'+ cosh nx. sin I,):
I
o
'"'
sinh nL + siD nL
\
+ sinh nx', cos nx + cosh nY. sin nx)
(23)
The bending momerrt at the I!liddle :
sinh nL
cos ~ + cosh
nL
S'in ~
1!
=
2 M .
'2
.
'2
.
(23a)
c 0
sinh. :1L + sin nL
nL nL
l.1 0 when cos sin that is,
c
= =-
2 2
when nL
2-
ft Zrt
11ft
etc .
=
2
,2
2
The shearing force :
u
sinh nx, sin nx'- sinh I l X ~ s; n nx
(24)
Q 2 II .
= -0
sillh :lL + sin nL
276
3) Concentrated Force at One End :
Fig. VIII-ll
'.,
Y
2Pn
= ---.
k
sinhnL. cos me. cosh me' - sin nL. cosh DX.
sinh
2
nL - sin
2
IlL
Deflection at the end points
U-E:
siIlh nL. cosh nL - sin nL. cos nL )
YA =
sinh
2
nL - sin
2
nL
)
k
)
2Pn siIlh nL. cos nL -sin IlL. cosh IlL
)
YB
-
Sinh
2
nL - sin
2
nL
)
'k
)
The deflection YB =0 when nL= .2.2:..
4
:2
1t , etc
4
Slopes at the end points :
e
2 P n
2
sinh
2
nL + sin
2
nL )
. A =
k sinh
2
nL - 5in
2
nL
)
)
~ P n
2
)
e
sinh nL . sin nL )
B
=
.
'siIlh
2
nL - sin
2 )
k nL
cos nx'
(25)
(25a)
(26)
The slope
e.a = 0
when nL
=
1t , 2rr ,
3
rc
, etc
The bending mome nt
P sinh nL. sin sinh nx'- sinnL. sinh DX.
1:1
nx,
=-
n
sinh
2
nL sin
2
nL
sin
I
me (27)
The shearing force
Q =- p
~ -(
, I
Pi .....
" __.f-
278
mainly on the following factors
1) Kind of soil.and its properties.
2) Internal friction between soil particles and their water content.
3) Size and form of loaded area.
4) Depth of foundation base from ground level.
We give in the follOWing the approximate average values of k :
o
Peat 0.5 - l.0
Fill of sand and gravel r.o- 2.0
"
Wet clayey soil 2.0 -
"
Moistured clay 4.0 - 5.0
"
Dry clay 6.0 - B.O
"
Hard dry clay 10 kg/cm:?
Coarse sa.nd. )
)
Coarse sand +. small amount of gravel )
8 10
"
Fine gravel + small Bl!lount of sand 5
Middle size gravel + fine sand 10 12
"
:,liddle size gravel + coarse sand. 12 15
"
Large size gravel + coarse sand 15 20
"
Exa;nples :
1) In figure is shovm the cross-section of an aqueduct. It
is required to find the pressure distribution in the sub-soil and
the moment diagram for the bottom plate.
Assume
E =200.000 kg/cm
2
'and
e
Solution:
The bottom plate.can be regarded as a beam on elastic foundation
subject to
2??
4) Concen'trated Mo:nent at One End
Y
1 2 nL fSinh nL
Fig. VIII-12
(cos ox: - sinh
k s1D.h
2
nL - sin, [
cos ox) + sinnL (sinh ox. cos me'- cosh ox. sinox' )J (29)
Deflection at the end points :
2 M n
o
Il:
2
sinh
2
nL + sin
2
nL
)
)
sinh
2
oL - Sin
2
nL
)
(29a)
sinh nL sin nL

)
Sinh
2
ni. - sin
2
nL
The deflection YB =a when nL =Tt , 2 rc , 3lt ,etc.
"
Slopes at the end points :
3
4 M n
0 sinh oL. cosh nL + sin nL. cos nL'
SA = )
2 2
k Sinh nL - 8in nL )
)

3
4 M n
e
0 sinh oL. cos nL + sLn oL. cosh nL

=
B
k Sinh
2
oL - sin
2
nL
The slope 8 ='0 when nL =2.ic
lit
-
Un
, etc
B
4 4 4
rhe bending mOIlent
:M =M 2 1 2 [ sinh nL (sinh nxl.cos rot +' cosh nxl.sin ox)
o
sinh nL - sin nL
sin oL (sinh rot. cos nx'+ cosh nx" sinrot' )] (31)
The shearing forCe s .
sinh nL. sinh me'. sin ox: + sinnL. sinh ox. sinox'
2 2
sinh nL - s10 nL
Foundation Modulus k :
o
The magnitude of the :foundation orsubgrade modulus Il: depends
o
279
L) A. uniformly distributed. loading
ii)
p equal to the weight of the b9t-
tom plate itself plus the weight
of the water,
Two concentrated P due to
D.t
!ll..

.-
..
"
-
10..... o.t
I
.,
the weight of the side walls.
,I
iii) Two moments M due to the hydro-
o
static pressure.
Computing the loads of the sec-
tion per meter, we get :
Own weight of bottom plate
/
=0.2 x 2500 500 kg/ m
2
=
weight of water
2.2 x 1000 2200
= = "
TotaJ.
P
2700
" =
Corresponding stress on soil
n80
0.27 kg/cm
2
:Jwn weight of wall
8'''''.0.
P = x .500 11.50 kg/m. 2.30
= Fig. VIII-13
2
i.1oment due to water pressure M = - 2200 x 2.2 / 6 =- 1780 kgm/m.
o
The deflection and moments of the fioor can be cal.cukated with the
help of equations 17 , 19 and
21
, 23 thus
k =b k =100 x .5 = .500 kg/cm
2
o
2
20
3/12
4 4
I =b t / 12 =100 x
=
6.67 x 10 cm
.. / k
n
=

0.010
4
-V4iI =V4
500
x 200 000 x 6.67 x 10
The deflection at the edges YA and YB' and at the middle
due to the forces P =11.5 kg/cm is,according to equation 17- a
& b, given by
"" i1110 j
. .
\178,\
280
2 P n cosh IlL + cos nL 4 P n cosh ~ + cos ~
YA =YB ~ sinh IlL + sinIlL it YO --;-- sinh IlL + sinIlL
inwhich
IlL = 0.01 x 420 = 4.20 _ DL / 2 = 0.01 x 420/2 = 2.1
sinIlL =- 0.872 cos IlL =- 0.490.sinB& =0.863, cos'E!! = -0:.505
2 2
'. ~ nL'
sizlh IiL =33.3357 , cosh nL =33.3507,sinh-=4.0219,cosh- = 4.1443
, , . 2' 2 .
So 'tb.at :
YA = YB = 2 x 11.5 x .01 x 33.3507 - 0.499 = 4.65 x 10-4 cm
500 33.3357 - 0.872
and YO =4 x 11.5 x .01 x - 4.1446x 0595 =_0.59 x 10
4
cm
500 33.3357 - 0.872
The stresses due to the :forces P are therefore
>.
~ =O"B = k YA =500 x 4.65 x 10-4 = 0.2';3
and O"e ~ k Ye = - 500 x 0.59 x 10-4 =- 0.030
"
T ~ e bending moment M aiiiihe middle poinii of the bottom due to the
c
forces P isjaccording to equation (19a), given by
-sinh E!! sinEk
U
2 2
or
n
M =_ 2 x 11.5 x 4.0219 x 0.863 = _ 246
kg em/em
c 0.01 33.3357- 0.872
The deflection at the edge and middle points of the bottom plate
due to the moments M =- 1780 kgcm/cm is,according to equation
o
(21), given by :
2
2 M n
o sinh IlL - sill IlL
YA =YB =-
k sinh IlL + sinIlL
nL hIlL. IlL
s.,
inh
2"
nL
cos 2 - cos 2"""" SJ.n 2
sinh nL + sinIlL
.so that
\
281
2 x 1780 x .01
2
33.3357 + 0.872 -4
:I 7.50 x 10 em
500 - O.B72
1780 x .01
2
- 4.0219 x 0.505 - 4.1443xO.863 "_ -2"

45
x
10-4
.- cm
500 33.3357 - 0.872
The s:bresses due to the moments M are therefore I
o
" 4 2
= B=k YA =500 X 7.5 X 10 =0.375 kg/cm
rr
C
= k Yc =-500 x 2.45 x 10
4
= - 0.123 n
The bending moment at the middle point of the bottom plate due to the
edge moments M is,according given by I
o
nL nL nL nL
sinh 2""" cos 2" + cosh 2" sin2"
or
sinh nL +" sin nL
Me =- 2 x 1780 - 4.0219 x 0.505 + 4.1443 x 0.
86
2= _ 170 kgcm!cm
33.3357 - 0.872
The total stresses and bending moments are therefore O'ig. 1Ill.13)
OA, = (jB
=
0.270 + 0.233 + 0.375
=
0.878 kg/cm
2
"1
O"C =
0.270 - 0.030 - 0.123 =
0.117
"
M
c
= - 246 - 170
=
- 416 kgm./m
2) Itis required to determine the stress distribution and bending
moments of the floor of the diving pool shown in figure Vn.32
the case of water pressure assuming E = 2000 kg/cm
2
and k =10 kg/cm
3
, 0 "
The solution will be done for a strip B =3.33ms (distance between
center lines of floor panels).
In order to simplify the computations, the floor girders will be assu-
med with a constant average depth of 90 ems.
The floor strip is subject to : (Fig. VIII.14).
i) The weight of water and r100r p where
p = 3.33 (5.0 + x 2-5 + 0.45 x 0.7 x 2.5 " =19.1 tim
ii) The weight of the wall slab and countier-roz-b P where
p =3.33 x 0.2 x 5 x 2.5 + 0.45 x 0.7 x 4.5 x 2.5 =1l.9 t
282
i.11) A concentrated bencHng mOment at the ou'tier edge .M due to 'the
mOments of the and the wall given by :
. 2
M=65.23 + - x x 3.33 =65.23 + 5.2 70 mt
Area d- :.OtiOD {Pig. V=15) 2 ..
A = 0.2 x 3.33 + 0.7 x 0.45 m H=7"".(, c L :::33....
Statical moment about m:i.d-heigh'ti of j 1
S =0.45 x 0.7 x 0.45 = m
2
Fig. nll-14
Distance be'tween center of gravi1iy . of
and center of gravity of secti.on
is :
2.:.1:S.
= 0.145 m
0.981
So that the distance of the center . of
gravi'ty is equal to :
Fig. VIII-15
0.245me' from top surface of the i'lange
n
0.655 ms from bottom'n n web.
The moment of inertia of the section about its canter of gravity :
+ 2.33 %0.2 %.14s2 1853% 10
4
. 3
+ 3.33 %Q&..
12
The characteristic value :n I
-1
n =VBko = 4 333 %10 0.00385 em
4- E I 4 x 20 x 10
4
x 1853 x 10
4
Therefore I
tiL = x 333 c 1.28 0.64-

1000 .
2
sintiL c 0.958
sin = 0.597
= 0.802
cos JlL 0.287
cos
= 0.6846
1.6593

= 1.2119
cosh nL = 1.9373 cosh
283
The deflection at the edges YA and YB due to the force
P = 11900 =35.7 kg/em is Bi;ven according to equations(25a) by
333' ,
sinh nL. cosh nL - sin nL. cos nL
sinh
2
nL .;. siD.
2
nL
y = 2 P n
sinh nL. cos nL - sin nL cosh nL
B k
si.n..'ll nL - sin
2
nL
So that:
YA =2 x 35.7 x 0.003
8
5. 1.6593 x - 0.958 X 0.287 =
2
3330 1.6593 - 0.958
YB = 2 x 35.7 x 0.003
85.
1.6593 x - 0.958 X 1.9373 =_.625x10"im
2
3330 1.6593 - 0.958
The deflection at the quarter point C and middle point D due to the
force P is given,according to equation 25"by :
2 P n sinh nL. cos me. cosh me'- sin nL. cosh me. cos mel
Y =
-.
k ' sinh
2
nL - sin
2
: nIl,
For point C x = L/4
Xl
3L/4 nx
=
0.34- me'
=
1.02
=
For point D x=L/2'
Xl
-
L/2' me
=
me'
=

"
cos 0.34- = 0.943 cosh 0.34
=
1.0584-
cos 0.68
=0.778
cosh 0..68 1.2402
=
cos = 0.523 cosh
= ,
:
So that : , '
4
Yo
=
0.865 x em
YD ='.0.306 %,10:"'9U'-"
The bending moments at points C and Ddue to the eoncentrated10ad'P
can be calculated from equation27, thus:
M = sinh nL. sin ox. sinh me'- sin nL.sinh me. sin me'
n sinh
2
nL - sin
2
nL
inwhich:
For point C ox = 0.34 nx = 1.02
For point D DX =me' = 0.68
sin 0.34 =0.3}4 sinh 0.}4 = 0.3466
sin 0.68 =0.629 sinh 0.68 = 0.7336
284
sin 1.02 =0.852 sinh 1.02 =1.2063
So that r
li = - 1940 legcm!em hi> = - 1630 kgem/em
c
The deflection at the edges YA and YB due to the moment
M = _70 x 105 =_2l000legcm!cm is given.according to equations
333
29-a
Jby
the relations:
2 M n
2
sinh
2
nL + sin
2
nL
,YA = -. it', sinh
2
nL ., sin
2
nL
2
4 M n sinh nL:. sin nL
YB = k .,s1Dh
2
nL' sin
2
nL
So 'thab
Y = '. 2 x 21000. ( /
A 3330 1000
-,
y __4- x 21000 ( )2.
B - 3330 1000
The deflection at the point C and middle point D due to M
can be calculatedfrom equation 29 giving r
-4 -4
YC =1.73 x 10, cm YD = - x 10 cm
The bending moments atC and'D due to r..t can 'be calculatedfrom equa-
tion31 giving :
M =-19.500 legcm/cm hi> = - 10950 kgem!em
c
The stress due'to the unilorm load:p is given by :
U 19100 0 2
= = ""61 cm,
100 x 333
The corresponding deflection Y is therefore :
Yo = a/k = 0.573/3330 = x 10-4 em
The deflections. stresses and bending moments are as shown in the fol-
lowing table. r Fig. VIII.16a
285 .
Case Point A C D B

[tion ,.
to
p
p
M
. -4
1.720 x 10.
1.320 x 10-4
3.760 x 10-4
.
1.720 x
10-4
0.865 x 10-4
1.730 x 10-4
1.720 x 10-4
0.3Cf. x 10-4
-4
-o.143x 10 .
,1".720 x 10-4em
-o.625x 10-4em
-4
-:3.23Ox 10 em
p+?+M 6.800 x 10-4 4.315 x 10-4 1.883 x 10-4 -2.125x 10-4em
a = k:;y
.'
= 3330 y 2.266 1.4-38 0.628 -0.708 kg/em
2
0 kgem/em
0
"
II
0
II
"
B.lA. P
to M
T+
M
0
- 21000
-
1940
- 19500
- 1630
- 10950
- 21000
M
o
=
-
21440
1.02 M
o
=
-
12580
= 0.6.M
o
"
8. M. JJ B. M.D.
.DISTRIBUTION
J.. .PRESS.
Fig. VIII-16
The maximum bending moment can therefore be estimated by 1.05 M
o'
that is , for a maximum bending moment in the counterfort M = 65 m t,
o
the maximum bending moment in the floor beam = 1.05 x 65 =68 m t
Assuming the bending moment due to earth pressure is 0.65 that
286 -
of water pressure and of opposite sense, the deflections , stresses
bending moments of the floor beam will be as shown in the following
table: Fig. VIII. 16b.
D A C B Case Point
10-4
1.720 x 10-4 1.?20 x 10-4 1.720 x 1.720 x 10-4em
tion y
Def1ec p
0.865 x 10-4 0.306 x 10-4 1.320 x 10-4 -0.625 x 10-4cm P
due to
-4 -4
0.09, x 10-4 2.100 ~ 10-4
cm 11 -1.120x 10 -2.440x 10
..
0.600 x 10-4 1.465 x 10-4 2.119 x 10-4 3.195 x lO-4cm p+P+M
Stress 0"= ky
= 3330 Y
0.20 0.488 ~ 7 5 1.055 kg/cm
2
P o B.ll. 0
due to M
- 1630 - 1940
0 - 13?00. - 12?00 - ?loo
P+M 0
=M
- 14640 - 8730
- 13700
=
1.07 M
= 6 ~ M
o o o
'.
287
IX. BUNK E R SAND S I L .0 S
IX.l DEFINITIONS
Bunkers and silos are containers used for storing dry materials
such as cement, corn, coal etc They are generallyfilledfrom the
top and emptied from the bottom.
i ~ IX-1 BUNXER
L
L
H
I I
1
1 .JL.
Fig. IX-2 sno
In bunkers, figure IX-l, the plane of natural repose of the fil- .
ling material must not intersect the opposite wall i.e.
, practically
H <1.5 L
max

whereas in.silos, figure IX-2, the depth isbig in proportion to the


section, and the plane of natural repose generally intersects the op-
posite wall i.e.
H tanII)L practically H> 1.5 L
max
288
IX.2 LAYOUT OF SILO CELLS
Silos are generally composed of a series of square, hexagonal
octagonal or circular deep cells as shown in :rig. IX-3. The dead zones
Circular octagonal
~ K a o n a l
Square
L.Ltl"'i I.L t- l l L
F1g. IX-3 Arrangement of S1lo-gells in Plan
289
IX-4
between octagonal or circular cells do not in case at square,
rectangul.ar or hexagonal cells ; -these z;Qnes may however be used for
ven'tilation, piping, l1.tts etc
The bending mOllL8nts in walls of circular cells are nill and in
walls of octagonal cells are smaller than in walls of hexagonal or
rectangular cells.
In order to reduce -the mo-
ments in exterior walls, the cells may be
constructed in the form shown in figure
S110s are generally provided with
hoppers, the slope of their sides is to
be chosen 5% more than the natural slope
Fig. IX-4 CELLS ;a.TH
of the filling material in order to emp-
OUTSIDEWALL.
ty the cells without. . ,The
sloping sides of the hoppers may be of reinforced. concrete, but. due
"
to the difficulties encountered in determining the stress distribution
and in the shuttering and reinforcements, it may be easier to. make a
flat floor for the cells and to make the sides of the hopper
by using lean plain concrete as shown in figure IX-5, in which -the
81<3::24
\
.A-A 15-5 -+-----------'"-'"------j---t- (b)
(a)
FIg. IX-5
290
silos' are 24- meters wide, 42 meters long and 11 meters deep and -com-
posed of two small cells' '6'x 6 m, and two inside big cells 12 x 1.2 m.
The thickness of the walls is generally chosen to follow the va-
lues of "the internal forces, mich are small at the top and increase
wi th "the depth 1. e. the walls are chosen of a trapezoidal shape with
maximum.thickness at the base. Recently, big silos are constructed by
using sliding forms which take a relatively short time in construc-
tion! In order to be able to use such forms, the choice of a constant
I
wall thickness is essential.
If. a bunker or a silo is used for storing a material which sticks
to 'the concrete such as cement or flour, one may cover the inside sur-
face of the hopper and part of the walls at the base with steel or
zinc plates or with timber planks.
IX.3 DETERMINATION OF PRESSUR3 INTENSITIES ACCORDING TO CLASSIC THEORY
IX.3-l Bunkers
When calculating the side pressure on the walls and floor of a
bunker, it is allowed due to the small depth of the bunker, to neglect
the friction between the filling material and the walls.
The side pressure can be calculated according to the known theo-
ries of earth pressure. Thus. assuming.
Y = weight of filling material per cubic meter
1'1 = vertical pressure intensity at any depth x
II II II II II
P2 = horizontal x
p = angle of internal friction of filling material
p' = angle of friction between filling material and walls,
the vertical and horizontal pressure intensities can be calcUlated froJl
the relations:
Pl =Y H
H Y - tan
2
..(45 - P /2 )
291
IX.3-2 Silos Theory of Janssen
In deep silo - cells, the earth pressure theory is not valid
because the wedge of material the pressure on a wall intersects
the opposite wall and hence not fully acting. The pressure intensities
on the and floorsof prismatic and circular cells are under con-
tinual study since 1896. The classic theory of Janssen was generally
used. Recent tests have shown, in many cases, big deviations that
must be considered when determining the pressure intensities in.s11o-
cell. (Refer to figure IX.S.)
If we consider the equilibrium of the acting on an element
dx of the material, as shown in figure IX.6. we gc"t :
';
Fig. IX-6
(Pl + dPl) A - PIA - Y A d.x + P2 0 dx tan p' =0
or
dPl A = y A dx
i.e.
dividing by Adz, we get :
o
tan F =y - Pl 9. tan p' tan
2
( 45''':' ,,/2 )
A A
in which
o = circumference of cell
A = area of cell
.Assumingfurther tr.at
o
k
=
tan p' tan
2
( 45 - p/2 )
A
292-.
then
dPJ.
--::'Y
dx
-
'.
k Pl
and
giving
x = - log (y .:. k PI ) + C
k
'thua : Bu1i x::0
1 .
o = - - logy+ C or C = log Y / k
k
Subs't1'tu'ting 'this val.ue in'the equa'tion of x s . we ge't
- k x = log (y..- k PI ) logY = log Y - k PI
Y
Therefore
Y ... k; PI
-kx
= e. =
Y
'.
inwhich e = 2.71828 is 'the base of' DB.'tural. Iogari'tbm.
Accordingly, we ge't
. 1
( 1 - ta )
e
and
max. PI =Y/k
Subs'ti'tu'ting for k, we :
y
max.
PI = i'tan P' 'tan
2
(45 - p/2)
We have :
2 2
P2. =PI 'tan ( 45 - P /2 ) = ( 1 - J%) 'tan ( 45 - p/2 )
subs'ti'tu'ting for k, we ge't
. 1 A
P2 =Y ( I - --U)
e 0 'tan p'
y
a't x =00
. P2 = 0 'tanp
:r .
Therefore e .
1iheoretical. hor1zon'tal. pressure dis'tribu1iion can appr9xima'tely be
replaced by 'tn.ebroken.line 0 ABC D sho'l1llll infig.1X.7. According 'to
293
this approximation, max. P2 is assUmed 1;0 take place at a distance 2h,
where
max. P2
h
=
y tan
2
(45- p/2'-
t
h is, in this manner,the depth
which the horizontal pressure

calculated from the relation
P2 .
2
= y x tan (45 - P /2) is equal
to max. P2 according
to given theory of silos. Accor-
I'tr",.I1I;""",fe
dingly we get further :
Px = max. P2 ( x + 0.264 )
h
Assuming the intensity of theupward frictional force =P3 and
P3 / Pl = ')(.' , the value of ")(. ,may be estimated = 0.2 - 0.25.
Results of recent researches are shown in figure' IX.B
27.0
Horizontal pressures on

o
Fig. IX-7
wall of circular cells
Stored material : corn
Curve 1 : theoretical
values of Janssen.
Curve 2 : measured
horizontal pressure
after filling of celL
Curve
}
.
. measured
pressure by emptying
of cell.
Curve 4 : measured
pressUre after 8 days
from filling celL
It is clear that even in
:case of granular fi'lling
3

.:: I...
rr-s
294
material. the horizontal pressure by emptying is much bigger than.the
values obtained the theory of Janssen.
The German given below have given the basic gui-
de lines for determining the pressure intens ities in silo cells.
IX-4 PRBSSURE INTENSITIES ACCORDING TO GERM.AN SPECIFICATIONS
DIN 1055 SHEET 6 - 1965
The Janssen classi.c theory of silos as given inmost text books
leads. in some cases. to internal pressure intensities much smaller
than the real actual values. Based on test results, the following ru-
les,can'be
1. Definitions and Limitations
1.1 The tollowing rules apply to silos with prismatic &cylindrical
>,
cells. The forces acting in the zone of the hoppers and silo pockets.
as well as in bunker-s without cross walls need i"urther study and the-
refore do not follow the given rules.
1.2 Stored FillingMaterials
It is assumed that the stored filling materials whether granular
or dusty. are cohesionless or materials inwhich the cohesion is small
relative to the internal friction. The given methods can also be ap-
plied to silo-cells containing pressurised materials or fermented
seeds.
1., Internal Pressure Intensities in Silo-Cells
Itwill be Msumed that : (F.ig. IX.9 ) ,
L ...
=vertical preEsure intensity in t/m
2
=borizontal
"
n
"
n
Fig.
IX-9
JI
=Frictional forces transmitted to tbe
walls in t/m
2
j.
L
,_-L..
'I.
295
2. Determination of Internal Pressure Intensities
2.1 Data
The f<:>rm. of the cross-section will be included by the relation
A/O meter in which
2
A = area of cross-section of cell in m
o = internal perimeter of cell in as ,
The depth :x: in meter is measured from the real assumed upper plane
surface of the fillingmaterial. (Fig. IX.10).
Fig. IX-IO
The weightof the filling mterial y in tons per cubic meter and
the angle of internal frictitin p may be taken fro'm the follo'wing'table:
Coal
y
0.8-1.2
P
}OO
CementI Lime
I
1.7
11.7
20
I 45
IGypSU!l1
I
l'abac Suga:r.BeansI Flour
&.
GrainsI
1.5 0.5 1.0 0.8 0.6
25
-
}5
}OO
25
The angle of friction p'between Silo-wall and filling
and the coefficient of friction given by :
tan pI = P3 / P2 =
p'is a factor of p Itcan be assumed according to the following table:
Filli.1lg material angle of frir-tion p' in
by filling p'
f
by emptying-
P'e
0.60 f'
1.00 p
coarse fill having
grain-diameter >0.20 mm 0.75 P
1.00 P
dusty fillhaving
grain-diameter<0.06 lDm.
. : - . ~ .. .. '.:-.t:
296
Linear interpolation may be used for grain-diameters between 0.06 and
0.20
The relation between the horizontal and vertical pressure
intensities
. will be assumed constant over the whole depth of the silo.
By filling , assume
By empt:;-ing, assume s
"e =1.00
shown
i ~ the following table :
Load
Vert. pressure
ty
PI
Horiz.
ty
P2
Frictio=:l.al f'orce
,., .
"
intensi-
pressure in:tensi
p ~
Coarse . Fill Dusty Fill
finite infinite finite infinite
depth .... dep.th depth depth
filling . filling filling filling
emptying I emptying
,I
Filling :;
emptying emptying
filling=
emptying
filling :;
emptying emptying emptying
I
2.3 Pressure Intensi ties at an Infinite Depth
297
2.4 Pressure Intensities at a Finite Depth
The pressure intensities p increase with the depth x accor-
ding to the relation
in which
= ( 1 - e.
where
by f'illin[;
X =A / A a
by emptying'
o e
Values of <Ii. as a factor or . x / X
o
x/x
o
,0 ,1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,5 ,6 ,7 ,8 ,9
0,
1,
2,
3,
0,00 0,10 0,18 0,26 0,33 0,39 0,45 0,50 0,55 0,59
i
0,63 0,67 0,70 0,73 0,75 0,78 0,80 0,82 0,83 0,85
0,86' 0,88 0,89 0,90 0,91 0,92 0,93 0,93 0,94 0,94
..
0,95 0,96 0,96 0,96 0.97 0,97 0,97 i 0,98 0,98 0,98
3. Factors Increasing Pressure Intensities
3.1. Arch Action of FilliOs Materials
The pressure intensities are much 1D.creased by the sudden fai-
lure of the material -'arches- ex::l.sting inside tile cella. For this
reason,. the vertical pressure intensity on the hopper may be double
but is not to be assumed in B.IJY case'bigger than Y x,
This rule may noii be applied, only if it is proved by
cal experience that arching of the filling material is not liable to
take place.
3.2. Eccennic Hopner-Opening
By emptying of oilo-oells with eccentric hopper-ope-
'n1ng,non-un1.form horizontal.forces acting on the perimeiier are crea-
ted over the whole depth of the cell.
"
These additional horizon.tal forces are to be considered
298'
.! ! ! ! I' if ii' cell b
,

I
T -r
-
+-l-
i
I' f 4,
"r
I
r
I

I
I
L
",,;#,",,1 /
" i , '.'
v
- -
III
I
f
It-tiM
III
r-

III f0o-
III l
T I-t
.

+-1-'- II
. II
!. . Ii
--J--- -II
I
Fig. IX-ll
P;>. = horizontal pressure intensity 'creat.ed by emptying an ideal sym-
,
silo-cell cl::..osen according to figure IX.ll.,
These additionaltiorizontal pressure may be ne -
sleeted if the eccentricity of the bopper opening is smaller 'than d/6
or if the height of the cell H is smaller thB.n 2d where d is the dia-
neter of 'the circle that can be drawn inside the cross-section of the
cell.
?;.". Filling Material under' Pneu:na.t ic Pressure
The horizontal pressure intensity in silo-cells provided with
:;:>iping to pressurise the filling mterial depends on its grain
In cells use4 for storing cohesionless granular filling materials, the
horizontal pressure intensity is to be increased by an amount equal to
the air-pressure and is to be gradually decreased to zero from
highest pressure-opening in the cell to the upper surface of the fil-
ling material. No increase in magnitude of the horizontal pressu-
re intensity need to. be considered for dUsty filling
299
4. Factors Decreasing Pressure Intensities
4.1. Floor of Cells
Due to the fixation of the walls to the floor, the horizontal
pressure intensity ma::r be reduced in the manner shown in figure IX.12.
4.2. Special Emptying Plant
If a silo is provided with'
a special emptying plant which
enables the emptying of the
upper layers of the filling
material without moving the
lower layers, the emptying
pressure intensities need
not be conSidered in the
[BJ
-.. /
design. In this case, itis
Fig. IX-12
\. " I
essential to take the neces-
sary provisions to prevent the emptying of the silo.from the hopper-
opening.
5. Special Cases
5.1. Special Mixing Plant
If a silo-building is prOVided with a special pneumatic mixing
plant giVing a homogenious regularly distributed dusty mix, the pres-
sure intensities are to be calculated according to article 2 provided
that their magnitude is bigger than the values given by the relation
=
= 0.6 y x
P2
5.2 Silos for Fermented Seeds
Fermented seeds do not follow the rules of granular or dusty
materials. The forces due to such materials depend on the included
amount of water and on the fermentation process. They may be assumed
according to the o l l o w ~ table :
,30e
CategmI
mater" . '
highly,
fermented
Category II
fermented
material
Category III
wet stored
material
Dry weight in% of
fresh weight
>35 23 - 35 <23
to assumed
in t/
,
0.5 0.75 l.00
Yx
Vertical pressure
2in-
tersi'ty PI intim
Y x y x
Horizontal pressure 2
intensityP2 in tim 0.75Yx 0.70 Y x l.OOY
x
Friction
P3
intim
0.16 P2 0.14 ,P2' 0.10 P2
.
If
,
the stored materials given under categories I &II are wet,
. the silo should be filled to more than half its depth and to pro- .
vide itwith a draining outlet, so that the .material-juice is not more
than one meter deep.
IX.5 ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE .
A silo-eell 5 :x: 5 IDS. and 40 ms. deep is used for storing corn,
determine the maximum pressure intensities PI' P
2
.and P3 during
filling and emp'tying according to both the classic theory and the ger-
man specifications. Assume y =0.8 t/m
3
& p = 30
a) According to classic theory
2
area of cell A =5 :x: 5 ,=25 m
perimeter of cell' o= 4 x 5 =20 m
angle of friction between corn and wall f'according to the'classic theo-
ry is assumed the same (= 25) both during ,filling and emptying.
So that
.
.
2 2
k
=
Qtan
p'tan (45 - P/2) =@tan'25. tan (45 - 15) or
A
k
=
0.8 x 0.466 x = 0.124
max.
PI
=1'/k
=
0.80/0.124
=
6.45 t/m
2
Y
max,
= = "
2.14
InS
P2 =
tan f'
0.8 x 0.466
301
max. :92 acts at a depth 2h

h = =
y tan
2
- p12) 0.8 .x: 0.577
2
i.e. the max. horizontal pressure acts at a depth of ",,16 ms.
max. P3 = max. P2 tan f' =. x 0.466 = 1.00 t/m
2
b) According to DIN 1055
yAIO
=
0.8 x 25/20
=
1 t/m
2

P2 I PI
A'
=
0.5
=
1.0
f
).1= tan p'
=P3 I P2
By filling : Pf= C.75 p= 0.75 x 30
0
=
22.5
0
and Il
f
=
By emptying:
fe= 0.60 p=0.6? x 30
0
=
18
0
and.
So that the maximum pressure intensities at an infinite depth are
given by :.
max.
=
0
=
1/0.5 x
2
)
PI
yA I
At
.
Ilf
= ./m
max.
P2
=
yA.I Il
r
0
=
110.412 = 2.42 t/m
2
fillinG"
max.
P3
= Y A I
a =1 t/m
2
max, ='yA. I 0 liLa x 0.325 = ;.08 tim
Pl A
e
J1.
e
=
2}
max.
=
YAI
JJ.
e
0
=
110.325 = 3.08 t/m
2
emptying,
P2
2
max.
=
yA./O = 1 t/m
P3
The results areshown in the follOWing table
Pressure Intensit;y "'1 2 II m '
PI P2 P3
::lIassic Theory Filling& Emptying 6.45 2.14 1.00
DIlf 1055
Filling 4.85 2.42 1.00
Empty:irl.g 3.08 3.08 1.00
The table shows that the in this case 50 %
302
IX.6 DESIGN OF W.ALLS AND FLOORS
IX.6.l. Design of Walls of Circular Cells
Walls of circular silo-cells are to be calculated for:
a) ring tension, b) compression due to frictional c) tem-
perature stresses (if any).
a) Due to the horizontal pressure P2 ' the walls of a circular cell,
with D radius r, will be subject to ring tension T/meter
height given by :
T = P2 r
The corresponding ring reinforcement must be capable to resist the full
tension 1. e
The upper part of the walls (2-3 oms) may be reinforced by
ohe mesh of and. the lower parts by do-v.ble meshes. The
rei.."lforcements may be chosen as follows :.
<? of rings.{. 16 mas and >8 mms at a distance <. 20 cms and}lO cns,
jlinimum vertical reinforcement: 4 8 m:u/m
n:.6.2. Nidth Spacing of Cracks
The thickness of the wall depends on the allowed crack width
which can be calculated as follows :
Assuming :
Spacing between cracks
e cms
=
of cracks
lle cms
=
Ratio of tension steel in section = As I A
c
= Il
Diameter of tension steel
-
Tensile stress in steel
=
O'f;
Stress in steel at which cracking occurs
er
=
s o
Then
e = 0.4
fje
and -- =
, Il
e
303
a depends on the concrete quality ani the percentage 00: the steel
so
in the section. It can be calculated from the relation :
= ( -1- + 1.75 )O'c28
l 6 ~ _
2
Assuming O'c28 =200 kg/cm then
__ 12.5 + 350
~
For normal cases, a width of crack <0.2 mm. may be accepted.
If the ~ a l l s are to be free from cracks then the thickness of
the wall may be chosen from the relation.
t in cms = 0.8 T in tons/m
Examnle
A circular silo cell 15. meters diameter is subject to an inter-
nal pressure p =5 t/m
2
If cold twisted steel with ail aLl.owab'Le
stress as =2 t/cm
2
is used for the reinforcement, determine the spa-
cing and width of cracks if the wall is chosen 20 ems thick.
.,
Ring tension T D/2 :: 5 x 15/2
= 37.5 tim
= P
Ring reinforcement
As =
T I C-
s
:: 37.5 I 2
=
18.75 cm
2
Choose 7 q, 13 Qn each face giving an area of 18.5 cm
2
Ratio 00: tension steel
J.L :: As/bt
:: 18.5 / 100 x 20
=
.00925
ASSUming a concrete quality C200, we get
( 12.5
=
+ 350 ) = 1250 + 350 =
1600 kg/cm
2
.00925
Therefore
The average spacing of the cracks is
e :: 0.4- 4> I ~ .:: 0.4- x 1.3 I 0.00925 =56 cms
The average width of cracks is :
0'. - 0'
2000 - 1600
Ae :: ~ S a e = . x 56 = 0.0107 cms
E. 2100 oeo
= 0.107 mm.
In order to have a wall free from cracks, its thickness t is to be
chosen) 0.8 T i.e. t = 0.8 x 37.5 = 30 ems in which case
304
= 18.5 / 100 x 30
= ".0062" and
Le. no cracks
.. b) The horizon"tal sec"tionB of ."the wall are subject to compressive
due .to the own weight of the wall and "the frictioDal forces
from the filling ma"terials
. The frictional force N at any depth x is given by
x
. rr2
( y x .- Plx ) '+D
N
x
=
IT D
cJ Eventual effect of temperature differences (as will be shown later)
.may be included inthe
IX.6.3. Design of Conical Hoppers
Circular silo-cells are generally provided. with"conical hop-
, pers. These hoppers are subject to meridian and ring forces due to the
vertical pressure Pl of the material and the own of
. )
the hopper .(Fig. IX-l3
The "tensile meridian force N at
s
any section a - 8. per unit length circum-
is givenby : --r-
+ G
Itri Pl
H = _--=c--= _
s
2 11: sinIj) r
l
inwhich, G is the own weight of the hopper
below a - a
The tensile ring N
e
per unit
leng"th mericlian is givenby :
. IX-13
where Pn =- component of the pressure of the filling ma"terial normal,
to the plane of the hopper. I"t is given by
Refer to : M. Hilal ''Design of- reinforced concrete Halls"
PUblished by J. Marcou & Co. Cairo.
305
,P = PI coa% +
n
The component of the pressure of the mate'rial parallel to the
plane of the hopper is given'by :
..
. . 2 '2
Pt = PI SJ.n III + P2 .cos 'P
N and N
a
are zero at the bottom of the hopper and maximum at its
S
top edge.
The reinforcements inthe h9Pper are:
longitudianl bars":
= Ns '/ers A
S1
rings
.
. = OS' A
S2
N
e
/
Due to the rigid connection between
the cylindrical wall and the conical floor,
bending moments M and shearing forces Q
are created" they may be roug."fJ.ly estimated
by the relations : (Fig.
.,
Q =P2 .r / 2
The connecting moment Mcan however Fig. IX-14'-
be determined by the moment method as explained inIV.3.6
IX:6.4 Design of Rectangular'Cells
The bending and tension in the walls of rectangular .:
silo-cells due to the internal horizontal pressure P2 can be determi-
ned according to the methods given i.n VILI.Cellsof approximately equa.L
spans may be consideredas isolated i.e. of continuity of dil:-
ferent cells is neglected. Effect of however be taken
in consideration if of the cells differ much as for example
the silos shown i.n figure IX.5.
Due to the rigid connection between the wall and the floor,the
fixed end moment Man.d the shearing force Q can'be . roughly estimated
from the-relations':
306
&
Q = 0.3 L
IX.6.5 Width & Spacing of Cracks
The spacing and width of cracks in elements subject to simple
bending can be calculated from the relations
0.24
e =
and

I
(
1. 75 -)
0;28
= 2511 +
Assuming 200 kg/cri , then
O"c28 =
8
(
+ 350
)

=
iT
IX.6.G. Design of Floor of Rectangular Cells
If the floor of a cell is flat it may be treated as a two way
s Lab hung to the walls, and carries it ownweight and the weight of
the lean concrete forning the required shape of .t!:l.e hopper plus the
vertical pressure of the filling
If the hopper is a reinforced concrete pyramid, it may appro-
be calculated as fellows :
The sides of the hoppers are subjected to the pressure of the filling
r!lB.terial plus their ewn weight. The pressure of the filling material
.
is :!.'esolved to
.
the two components Pn and Pt normal and parallel to
the sides of the hopper
Pn = PI

+
P2
sm
2
"
PI

+ cos
2

Pt = P2
The triane;u1.ar or trapezoidal sides of the hopper may be replaced by
slabs as follows
E
.
. (Fig. IX.IS) .
I
Fig. IX-15
. S' .

to Sachnowski Stahlbeton Konstructionen ". V E B Velag If
Technik. Berlin
30?
and
=L For a triangular side L
l
-b"
S
S2
St Sb
2 t +
2
and far a trapezoidal side
Sl =
J St
+
Sb
and
Tbe load Pn is distributed on the two directions of the slab ace or -
ding to the ratio of its sides L
l
I Sl. In horizontal direc-
tion, the different sectors of the hopper behave as closed frames suu-
jected to bending moments and tension; in the inclined direction,each
side behaves as a slab continuous with the wall at the top and simply
supported at the bottom. Due to the tangential componentpt' the sides
are subjected to tensile stresses and are to be treated as folded pla-
tes.
The exact values of the bending moments in isotropic triangular
and trapezoidal flat plates with different edge conditions w1d sub-
jected to uniform and triangular pressure are given inthe text book
of Bares Tables for the Analysis of Plates, Slabs and Diaphragms It It
Published by : Bauverlag. Berlin. Dr. Shaker EI-Behairy in his rein-
forced concrete Design Handbook has extracted the following tables II
from the book of Ba=es
v

"
IX.5.7 Calculation of Wall as a Beam
The shear stress inthe wall due to its O'Nn weight plus the
force due to friction must be less than the allowable values. Hence
own weight of wall =L. H. t x 2.5 tons
Frictional force on the two sides of the wall =2 (yH-
Total Q = tons
9. h.2 - 2...S..
Max Shear Stress
- 2 t.H - t H
The wall is however to be calculated as deep beam carrying its
weight + weight of floor + weight stored caterial (Refer to Chapter
XI)
IX.? FOUNDATlOiTS
The column loads in silo-buildings are generally high and 'the
foundations are to be carefully designed and executed.
Due to the big rigidity of the concrete silos, differelltial sett-
are generally not possible. For good soils, one may use isola-
ted footings either plain or reinforced For medium bearing soils,
strip continuous foundations be used; vmereas for ,weak soils or
\.N
o
Bending Moments in Simply Supported and Totally Fixed Triangular Plates
OJ
due to Rectangular and Triangular Loads
r
ut
y
,
1 'I
Case of Loading: ABC
r
I a I
Case of loading
ll:
C
"=0
a) Gimply Supported Plate b) Totally Fixed Trianeu10r Plate :
Case A Case B Case C Case C Case A Case B
Uri. max Ibl ml n lJ.lymax Iln
ym.1.D
I",max IlUy'D6X f1ii,m1.n ir.ynax
IMzmJ.n
11l'Y'-ax alb ""ynax
y z
+ve +ve -tve -tve -tve -tva -tve +ve -ve -ve -ve -tve -ve -ve -ve
.0141 .0082 .0046 .0056 .0085 .0174 .0182 .0210 .0007 .0293 .0209 .0027 .0271 .0089 !.0187 .0396 05
.0022 .0042 .Ou87 .0116 .u053 .0076 .0'=:26 .0177 .0248 .0167 .0169 .0098 .0219 0.6 .0117 .0030 .0197 0335 .0343
.0Ul-4 .0087 .0097 .l028 .0072 .,0053 .0220 .0176 .0210 .01eO .0297 .0154 .0150 0.7 .0186 .0108 .0032 .0195 .0303
.c.o;::8 .0086 .0083 .0068 .0048 .0264 .0169 .0178 .0(,96 0.8 .0170 .0143 .0131 .0215 .0100 .0270 .0178 .0035
.0(,,24 .0046 .0081 .0071 .0065 .0160 .0043 .0114 .0c.C6 .CJ2j4 .0155 .0'=:41 .OC89 .0038 .0150 .0133 0.9 .0172 .0091
.0046 .0071 .0061 .0062 .C034- .(,020 .0150 .0136 .C082 .0196 .0207 .0(;84 .00jO .0098 1.0 .0041 .0125 .0214 .0166
.0018 .0044 .006;5 .0140 .0053 .0058 .0120 .01133 .0(,)4 .0184 .0(;76 .01J..4 .00e7 1.1 .0161 .0044 .0117 .G078 .v192
.00,54 .0106 .(;162 .C017 .0045 .0056 .0046 .0130 .0031 .0110 .0l71 .(,17.5 .C1CO 1.2 .0044 .0077 .0172 .0154 .0072
.(,042 .OCA0 .0121 .0050 .002'3 .0017 .c.o51 .0094 .0(,67 .0145 .0104 .0163 .0088 .0069 .0041 .0145 .0067 1.3 .0155
.0(,17 .0048 .0035 .0046 .0041 .0112 .OC26 .0131 .0083 .0001 .0(63 .0078 .0153 1.4 .0141 .Ov';8 .0097 .0063 .0135
.0C41 .0046 .0031 .0042 .0024 .0017 .0103 .0074 .0120 .0144 .0091 .0070 .0059 .0126 .0055 .0128 .0058 .0055 1.5
.0(;21 .C041 .<..044 .0028 .0038 .0017 .0067 .0111 .0095 .0049 .0056 .0136 .006'; .G085 ,1.6 .0118 .0118 .0055 .0053
.0040 .0042 .C088 .00;5 .0061 .0019 .0017 .0025 .0128 .0105 .0080 .0044 .0053 1;7 .0108 .0111 .00.:51 .0057 .0051
.(;017 .0040 .0022 .0082 .<.:038 .0033 .0056 .0017 .C096 .0120 .0050 .0052 .0039 1.8 .OG'75 .0105 .0030 .0099 .0047
.0031 .0052 .0039 .0019 .0077 .0015 .0017 .C09! .C035 .0048 .0112 .0034 .Owo .0042 .0029 .004B .0090 .0099 1.9
.(,072 .0016 .0029 .OC16 .0038 .0049 .001'; .0025 .0087 .0029 .0045 .0066 .0103 .0028 .v081 .0036 .C.045 2.0 .0094

Ben din g ''.oments cae f f q a


2
309
Bending lloments in Trapezoid.a1 Plates with DU;!erent
Edge Conditiona tor Rectangular 8: Triangular Loads
2
Bending lIIocents co.efJ:. q.a /64 , ,,- 0.16
--U r
.? I .
1]" _. .I t
.... .111111\1 11 11
11!1i
T11-
1
1
1
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1
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f .. ' ..
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... ";)J'd
J
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'*1""
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"01"
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.7-:
'oj I
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f I1
t
"
't
EIfr
x
.E.. .l
Do t1 . ,
f.-I a Z
AI at
:;) a e or 1oadi= Shat:e of loadi= Shane of 10adi=
point
A B C A B C' A B C
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",x6
.1833 .0541 .1292 .0756 .0147 .0609 .0895 .0290 .0605
1il
x7
-.078<: -.0.56 -.0222 -.C4c.4 -.0,9, -.0031 -.0168 - 0.C2 ' .0092

.5'30'; .2708 .3201 .4109 .2003 .2106 .3100 .1646 .1454
A;xlO
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.2385 .2952 .1329 .1623 .2693 .1400, .1293
M
xl1
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/i.x12
:5880 .3062 .2818 .476G .2152 .2748 .1629 .1119

.(;516 .0241 0.02 .(,586 .0270 .0316 .1549 .0995 .0554
I.;xl5
.4731 .2747 .1984 .4Q66
.2492 .1574
M
x17
.2373 .1528 .0845 .a92 .1458 .0734
xIS

.6225 .1742 .4483 .(;981 -.0287 .1268 .1663 .0191 .1472
5223 .14,5 .3788 -.0026 .1374 . 17c.8 .0277 .1451
IilY7
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My8
.7374 .<::940 .44.'4- 5404 .2183 .3221
595 .3027 .<:923
1;yl0
.6'31 .2529 .;'802 .4742 .1919 .2823 .5102 .2583 .2519
!<iylJ:
-3092 .1261 .1831 .2560 .1053 .1507 .2692 .1383 .1309
lJ
y12
.5(;24 .2956 .2068 .4936 .2922 .2014 .493C .3297 .1633
l>.y14
.1816 .1313 .0503 .2202 .1457 .0745 .<::493 .1851 .0642
:.:.y
15
.<:903 .2520 .0;;83 .3294 .2671 .0623
u
y17
.0882 .1263 -.0381 .1439 .1476 -.0037
y18
)J
-.286C -.0922 -.1983 -.1582 -.0456 -.1126 -.1585 -.0563 -.1022
l.I
z9
-.8689 '-.3303 -.5386 -.5621 -.2160 -.5295 -.2374 -.2921
Ll
z13
-1.303 -5935 -.7102 :".4681 -.5061 -.7911 -.4238 -.3615
l.i
z16
-1..317 -.6956 -.6217
-1.079
-.6042 -.4750 0 0 0
z19
1>1 -.2265 -.0730 -.1535 -.1253 -.0361 -.0892 -.1250 -.0441 -.0809
J,jx9
-.8843 -.4579 -.4254 -.4449 -.1709 -.271\-0 -.4190 -.1878 -.2312
1J.:<13
-1.032 -.4699 -.5623 -.7711 -.3705 -.4006 -.6261 -.3354 -.2907
U
x16
-1.042 -5507 -.4922 -.8544 -.4783 -.3761 0 0 0
xl9

-.1073 -.0}46 -.0727 -.0593 -.0171 -.Q4.22 -.0592 -.0209 -.0383
ty
13
1-.4189 -0.216 -.2020 -.21C'8 -.0810 -.1298 -.1985 -.0890 -.1095
1-04889 -.2226 -.3653 -.1755 -.1898 -.2963 -.1586 -.1377
l.:y16
1-04941 -.<::609 -.4(,47 -.<'266 -.1781 0 0 0
y19
Ll
-1.1;;0 -.4590 -.6910 -1.C06 -.4600 -.5465

-.9780 -.3774 -.6006 -.8890 -.3896 -.4994
/i.y<=
-.3677 -.5346 -.a53 -.J19:5

-.158<=. -.0456 -.1126 -.1599 -.0577 -.1022
y4
310
,
]..Jr IT!T-!>!: 1= '-"1-,,1
y 11 '1Itl
I,T,I 1""'7 7 , J'1 J
.'VVV \I
/\7 l I 1\ /\. '\/' ' " ...-. 1\'\1\1\/\" J ,F
'4 ...T... )./ >./'./\f.r I '" -r- (\/\(.1
. j ...T I;,). ''.1'\'1\ '\/ ... \,7\1\ , . til
I,
"T
71
... Jr
, J;.-;) V 1\1 3" .),.I''t/\/\/
c ... J l,j "
c 8,( x
..... s:.1..
--- . .E. ..
F
F11
,I(
a 2 ' a 8 ,
ex 6
lloment Shape of LoadiIlg Shape of Loa.d.i.Dg Shape of LoadiIlG'
41 Po/at
A
.'
C A B C B A B C
.()lI.88 .0623 .O8}O .()lI.15 .1038 .3174 J.I .1318 .1195 .1979
Jl:jxG
.0614 .06jO .0301 .1830 .0161 .0791 .0539 .1291
L;:x?
.0201 .0015 .(;039 -.0596 -.0455 .0303 -.0318 -.0141
..til
.1100 .0145 .5()l1.5 .1888 .2145 .1!.271!. .1679 03567 .2773

.1030 .1201 .104-7 .1618 .<::738 .1537 .2077 .3853 .2239
LSc11
-.C0604- .01j5 .0219 .0398 -.Oj3<:: -.0332 .e.617 0

.0510 .204-1 .4658 .1';25 .0815 .1736 .1!.367 .2291 3777
1Jxl4
.0921 .()lI.11 .0341 .0510 .104-0 .0699 .0796 .Oj97 .0399
1Ljxl5
.1418 .227.<: .2596 .0854 .1538 .1058
,.
1.,xl7
.1321 0935 .Oj86

.1;,4-7 .0945 .0402
'x18

.1285 -.0105 .1625 .6200 .1390 .0397 .1728 .4472
Aj;y6
;1444 .1466 .0022 .04-08 .1549 .1957 .5169 .1805 .3764
I>jY?
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03847
1:.
l.lyl0
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r.:
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1j'y15
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f-.0397 .0376 -.077;:; -.1218

.0073 -.1291
"'y18

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JJz9
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1-08687 -.4049 -.4638 -.5744 -.2748 -.2996 -.1583 -.5111 -.6472
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l"
z1
9
-.2989 -.1905 -.1164 -.,>460 -.1980 -.1480 'z21

-.1236 -.0351 -.0885 -.1176 -.2187 -.0686 -.0399 -.777 -.1501

-.4240 -.1584 -.2656 -.36C5 -.2062 -.154; -.409j -.7590 -3497 :':xl3
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-.2989 -.1805 -.1164
Ioi
U l
-.3860 -.1980 -.1480

I.: -.0585 -.0166 -.04-19 -.e.557 -.0189 -.0368 -.1032 -.0325 -.0707

-.2009 -.0751 -.1258 -.1708 -.0731 1-.0977 -.3595 -.1656 -.1939
}.jY13
-.1518 -3257 -.1739 -.2153 -.1123 -.1030 -.4344 -.1917 -.2427 l,;y.l.6
-.3115 -.1707 -.1408
-.3794 -.1960 -.1834
:.;y19

-.8347 -.4993 -.3354

-.9740 -.5510 -.4230 ljy20
-.2989 -.1805 -.1184-
y<:l

-3460 -.1980 -.1418

-1.070
-.411 -.6588 -.8431 - .5562 -.4869

-.9184
-3417 -.5767 -.3L8j 1-.4387 -7470
z.:y2
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);,y3
-.1561
-.0443 -.1118 -.1486 -.05(,4. 1-.0982 t.;y4-
0 o '
a 0 0 0 )'5
311
heavy loads raf'1i or pile foundatiol"..s are generally: chosen. The funda-
mentals and details of the design of any of these systems can be done
according to the known rules in foundation -
IX.8 COlffiTRUCTIONAL (Fig. IX.16)
j-
upper
steel
-r-
I
lOa
V
18" " 18
38
"
IX-16
: Refe::.- to "Des:'gu of ReinfoI'ced Concrete Halls" by x, Hilal
';12
IX.9 APPENDIX: CIRCULAR CE:IJENT SILOS -
Silos used for storing cement (and flour) must be precisely trea-
ted due to the big variation that is lia.ble. to take place in its pro-
perties.Fischer
E
proposes the direct use of test results which give
a parabolic distribution of the horizontal pressure on the walls accor-
ding to the relation.
P2 in t/m
2
for xinmeters
gives tbe following recomnendations for the design of
circular cement silos :
1) Horizontal pressure on the walls
Up to l.i- m silo depth : calculation according to conventional
theory of earth pressure i.e.
:
y
x tan
2
( l.i-5 - P12 )
P2
where y =2 t/m}-
p
=
17.5 p'= 0
Above 9 m silo depth: calculation in accordance With
theory multiplying the results by a factor K = 2
. 1
A
_ Yo ( 1 - )
o tanp" K
e
with y =1.6
p = p'= 30
Between l.i- and 9 m silo depth : linear interpolation between the
pressure values at l.i- and 9 m.
2) Vertical on the walls
The vertical loads acting on the walls can be determined accor-
ding to the following assumptions r
a)
For maximum wall load
max. P3
y = 1.6 tim}
P =,,' =35 (determinec. from the equations of
Janssen.
The high value for the angle of friction makes allowance for the arching
(bridging) effect.
1- Fischer "Silos and Bunker in Stahlbeton" Der Verlag FUr Bauwesen
Berlin. 1966.
E 2- Leonhardt "The safe design ofcement silos". In ger-man language
Beton & Vol. 55 No. 13. :darch 1960
I
b) For minimum wall load.
The own weight of the wall only (emp't;r silo) is to be considered.
3) Vertical and horizontal bending in circular silo walls
bending moments may be Lgnoz-ed; Vertical moments due
to restraint of wall atbase of silo depend on type of con-
employed, the thickness and reinforcement atthe base must
be sufficient to resist induced bending moments and normal forces.
Other vertical moments are resisted by nominal reinforcements _
distributers - and are not determined by calculation.
4) Desisq load for floor slab
The weight of all.the contents
of silo are to be assumed acting
t-s
floorslab. The weight per cu.
I. "
meter can be chosen according to fig.
I . .!
IX-17.
5) Constructional erecautions
Figure IX-1S shows a carefUlly
!
\. i
\.
\.
\.
\.
\.
\.
" ,.5 J.t, ;.J" 2.# 70S J..,
designed circular cement silo in which
Fig. IX-17
a high grade concrete quality 0600 was used.
5.1 Concrete quality
The minimum allowed concrete quality is
5.2 Circumferential reinforcement
The full ring tension is to be resisted by thin circumferential
reinforcement arranged near external face of wall only, spac-
ing 4-12 ems. This close spaci:lig of the bars is. essential in order to
avoid wide cracks. Splices inbars should be staggered. Non-tensioned
reinforcement is adequate for the 'purpose.
5.3 Design of base of
Hinged connection or, preferably, horizontally slidingbearing
embodying rubber rings or insert13 of bituminous or synthetic substan-
ces of plastic consistence arerecom.:nended. Fig. IX-l'ja shows a rubber
bearing especially suitable where pneumatic discharge with air at hil;b.
:;14 .
+
"10
1-T
sfc!" to lateral
'/'Jf' lit cemen! "! s: h, .
A REI)./FORL"E..f) CO}/CRE7E
CIRCULAR ,EttE#T.!7LO
Fig. 1X-18
.315
'pressure is employed, because the walls receive hardiy any vertical
loads from the material in the silo but do undergo considerable defor-
mations. Fig. IX.19b shows another arrangerrent using some convenient
bituminous compound.
~ Vertical reinforcement in wall
Not less than 5 q, 8 mm/m, to be installed within one layer of
circumferential reinforcement or between two layers (if any) in the
regions where bending moments occur at the base of the wall, vertical
reinf'orcements (duly calculated) should be provided 'botrh externally and
internally.
;,:,-/emal.r!td,",,-/
!ormwl:'ri
J ere: 20 em.
"
a.
Fig. IX-19
The stresses in the walls of c e m e ~ t silos for a difference of
temperature of 30C are to be included in the design. The temperature
stresses are however liable to become serious only if the wall is made
too thick and is fixed at the base.
As soon as cracks occur, the temperature stresses are considera-
bly reduced. The floorusually does not undergo the same amount of ther-
mal-expansion as the wall, because the floor is protected from the
high tenperature by a layer of residual ce!!!ent v.hich acts as an effec-
tive insulator.
6) Temperature stresses
i. Refer to XI-3
1}
-t

. -
[
,+.
.-

z

0-
-- -
&
JI
10
I . .JL I N
ll- -!
OJ
=
}
... f
. ...
j
..
a
w
f!
.F"
/
'.
t
:
!"
t
,.---J
If w
Ii 1:.
..
:

,)
:
.j. ".
.
-


'- tI>-------
--

..
.....
f-f-l
-

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FIG X-2
El NASR PIPE FACTORY
HELWAN
PUMP HOUSE FOR R S I U ~ CHANNEL
DETAILS OF REINFORCEMENTS
317
X. P U M PST A T ION S
Under-ground pump rooms, tanks and channels are amongst the main
elements of pump s t t o n s ~ The statical.behavior of pump rooms is sim-
ilar to that of under-ground tanks; allprovisions, precautions and
methods of design can be directly applied.
We give in the following examples.some special. pump stations and
settling tanks constructed in the pipe factory at Helwan.
x.a PU'MP STATION FOR RESIDUE CHANNEL
Figur,e X-I shows the general layout giving the JI1ain elements and
diJI1ensions'of the station, namely:
1.) The main hall of the station... 12 JI1S wide,,.. 15 ms long and ,.., 7 JI1S
"
high. The roof of the hall is a reinforced concrete solid slab suppor-
ted on longi:tudinal secondary beama , 4.0 ms apart, and on cross frames
6 ms apart. The outside columns of the supporting frames extend to the
ground leveland are supported by a horisontal beam. Their vertical
axes are chosen such that they coinoide on that of t h ~ 60 ems reinfor-
ced concrete wall of the pump room. Itwas however not possible to sup
port the 75 cm columns of the other side on the 30 cm thick walls un-
derneath, so itappeared necessary to extend them to the floor of the
pump room. The hall is provided with.a mono-rail crane supported on
the main frames; itis used for mounting and mentainance of the pumps.
The horizontal thrust of the frame has been safely resisted by the
floor foot path slab of the hall existing in its direction.
2. ) The underground pump room is located underneath the station having
the same width, 12.ms, but....,10 ms long only; its floor is... 6 ms belo
:;18
-1llean ground level! It includes the pumps which pump the clear water-
in "the attached me nde tank (refer to section B-B) back to the
main factory to be re-used. It is directly connected to the following
-two main elements:
The steel-filing residue container, ..... 4 ms wide, 10 ms long and
10 me deep (refer to fig. X-l, plan. sec! A-A and aec, C-C) receives
a Ddxof steel-filing residues and water trnsferred to it through the
channel appearingiri. sec. B-B left wi"th its iillet appearing in sec.
C-C The steel-filing, being heavy, settles at the bottom of the
container and the water at the top is transferred to the chamber app-
earing in sec. C-C right.
4.) The under-ground tank. 2.5 m.s wide;and 12 ms long (refer to
X-l, plan and sec! B-B right) is used to collect the clear water of
the process. From there , the water is pumped for re-use
. The steel-filing residues collected in the container given in (})
are transferred by the crane girder shown in sec. A-A right to a high-
er container 4.65- ms wide and }.}5 InS deep. From there, they are re-
moved from the site b;r cars,
.
The soil at the site is good incompressible cemented coarse sand
at the level of the floor slab of the pump room, the attached contain-
er and clear water tank. For this reason, the three elements are d.ir.,.
ectly supported on the soil, all other elements , elevated container,
channels, etc. , are supported on columns nth isolated footings rest-
ing on the same layer.
In order to protect the containers including the steel-filing
against the shocks of the bucket of the crane girder during the lift-
ing operations. they are provided with steel rails fixed to their in-
ner surface (refer to sections A-A and C-C)! The vertical and horizon-
tal rails are well anchored in the floor slab and wall so that they
share in resisting the tensile stresses on.their inner surfaces.
- The details of reinforcements of the main two sections of the
-'w1de",:,-ground elements are shown in fig'-"X-2.
..... I n9,

rani
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FIXING Of RAIlS
. FIG. )(,3
EL NASR P'PE
HELWAllI
SETTUNG TANK
GENERAl LAYOUT
FACTORY
OF. STEEL FILING B-1-
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'319
X.2 SEl'TLIim TANK OF STEEL FILING
Figure X-3 shows the general layout and main dimensions of the
tank. soil at the site is composed of fill and loose materials to
a depth of 5.5 ms from ground level underlaid by good incompressible
cemented'coarse sand. The weight of the filling material being relat-
ively 6 t/m
3
, it was decided to replace the fill and loose mat-
erials by stabilized sand ( 100 kg cement 1m
3
sand ) and to construct
the tank directly on this layer. Its area is chosen such that the extra
bearing stress at level -5.50 is within the allowed value of 1.5 kg/cm
2
and with its center of gravity coinciding on that of the full tank. ,In
order to confine the stabilized area , so that no horizontal displace_
ment is liable to take place, it was surounded to its full hieght by
a 40 cms thick.
Due to the heavy loads acting on the deep part of the tank, the
concrete dimensions of its elements are big relative to those of the
lightly loaded shallower part. In order to get.a tank of approximately
the same rigidity, the floor of the shallow part is provided 'with
itudinal and cross stiffening beams.
For the same reasons stated in the previous the deeper
part of the tank isproyided with steel rails fixed to the inner face
of the walls and floor.
The details of reinforcements of three main sections are sho\vo in
figure X-4
It is generally recommended to arrange longitudinal reinforcements
at the top and bottom 9f walls to resistthe eventual tensile stresses
due to temperature or differential settelments. Such reinforce-
ments can be seen in figures , 4 and 6
X.3 FmlP STATION
The function of this station is to supply the different factory
halls, workshops, ect. ot plant by the water necassary for the
different processes of the industry. The general layout and dimensions
_ 320.':
,'<";
of the main supporting elements are shown in f:l.gures X-5 and 6."
The sumps between axes A and Breceive the clear water from the
main sources of water - supply; while each of the tanks axes
B andC supplies certain sectors of the plant by the water required
for the industry the remaining part again, generally in
a hot The water in tanks by adding clear cold
,water from the
,
sumps equal to
"
the amount lost in the industry before
behg'pumped agliin ilia.neW cycle.
The pumps erlstiD: pump hallslyirig axes D andE and
'the' middie part between axes E and F.
, , '
.-. The sumps, water 'tanks and pWnp hB.11s are' below"the floor'
:-: .
level of'the pUmp hail.
The areas between axes E and F are'used for storing.
The cable ducts'exist in a mezzanine floor at level the
same axes.
The'roof of the main hall between axes D' and E is 'a reinforced
concrete 'solid 'sIal, 10 cms tht.ck and 9.;40 ms above floor level.
Itis,supported on ::;imple girders 12 InS span and 3 m.s apart; while
the'roof of the hall between axes E and F lies at 5.20 ms floor
I
level and is similarly supper-ned on si:nple girders_ 9.2 ms sp<ill.
The natural ground lies at level -7.9, arid the under ground water
high percentage of (H0 ) which attack
3
,the The in the site at the ground water level and below
., ' ....
'being'of'medium sand,'itwas decided to choose the bottom of the foun-
few cms above the ground and t9, design them for a bearing
stress'o!'l.5 kg/cm
2
The roads and passages around the station are
I
planed to be at level - .2.0 so that the ramp and retaining walls
shown in figures X-5 and 6 essential.
The details of reinforcements the sumps, tanks'and retaining"
walls are shown,in f'igure X-7 '
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TI.COMPLEMENTARr DESIGN&
XI.1. W.A1M3 ACTING AS DEEP BEAMS
a) Introduction :
In elevated tanks, silos, bunkers and pump houses, the walls
ma:y act as beams spanndng between the supporting columns. If the depth
of such walls is big, they may act as deep beams and the stress dis-
tribution can differ much from that of ordinary slender beams.
to Navier, the stress - distribution in the homoge-
nous, elastic, slender beams is assumed linear, and,the stresses are
proportional to their distance the neutral axis which passes
through the center. of gravity of the section. (Fig. XI. 1)
srlZ/!ss/!s ci
STRess OISTRIQPrION. Tl1 AlRV/EIl
Fig_ XI:-l
This assumption is valid bt;lly in slender beams where the ratio
of depth H to span L is smaller tl?an 1 : 2 in simple beams and
2 : 5 in continuous beams; beyond these limits the stress distribu-
tion is not linear and the arm of internal forces YeT is much smal-
lerthan according to Navier.
Fig. XI,2 shows the stress distribution at the middle and
',I
,,22
over the supports of a continuous beam subject to uniform load p at
its top surface and having a depth H equal to span L.
STRESS OJSTRJ8uTIOli III 11 CDIITIIIUOI.IS OC'P 8eRn
Fig. xr-a
b) Fundamental Equations of Stress Distribution
In figure XI.2 we give the stresses acting on an eleJIEntal area
dx dy in the middle plane of a deep beam subject to uniform load p.
f'
-i"-.I?
il L
Fig. XI-3 '
According to the mathematical theory of elasticity the stresses
must atisfy the condition :
+ 2
+ =
o
in which F ( x , y) is 'the Airy biharmonic stress function, whose
derivatives give the stresses in the form :
323
= try = =
ax
4
The given basic equation of the stress function includes no elasti-
1
city constants (E , G and 'v
= iii:).
It can be applied for every
homogeneous isotropic elastic material that follows Hook's law. It
can also be applied to reinforced concrete beams before the formation
of tension cracks ( Stage I). After the formation of cracks, the
tension reinforcements must be su...+'ficient to resist all the tensile
stresses in the section ; it is recommended to arrange these rein -
forcements according to the tension trajectories. The calculation
according to the theory of elastic beams gives sufficient safety as
far as the amount of the tension steel is concerned, it is however
essential to make good anchorage for the tension steel at the
auppor-t s
. The Airy function can be imagined as the elastic surface of
an elastically restrained flat plate under certain edge conditions .,
In this J the displacement of this surface is a measure for
the normal stressesax and a and its twist is a. measure for the
y
shear stresses
The basic equation used for solving deep beams is as scovm
a linear partial differential equation of the fourth degree J its
integration ccnstranns must satisfy the edge conditions of the case
under consideration.
/
The solution of this differential equation was done by Dis -
chinger(l) using tiheFourier-SeriesJ the results of his mathematical
investigation were presented by the American Portland Asso-
ciation(2) Bay(3) and recently have used the me-
thod of differences Chow(5) and others solved some special prob-
of deep beams. Theimer(6) has given a valuable series of tables
324
and curves for the design of reinforced concrete deep beams. A theo-
retical investigation has been recently published by We
give in the following some of the important results of these investi-
gations as'they may be required for tank problems(8)
(1) F. Dischinger" Beitrag Zur Theorie der Halbscheibe und des
\Vandartiger Balkens Publications of the International Asso- It.
ciation of Bridge and Structural Engineering. ZUrich, Switzer-
land, Vol. 1, 1932 pp. 69-93.
(2) " Design of Deep GL'"ders" Pamflet No. St. 66, Concrete Infor-.
. .
mation, Structural Bureau, Portland Cement Association, Chicago,
III.
(3) H. Bay " i'landartiger Triiger und Bogenscheibe" Published by.
>.
Konrad Wittwer Stuttgart, 1960
(4) LA. El Darwish " Stresses inSimply Supported Deep Beams "
Bulletin of: the Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University,
Vol. V.1966
(5) Chow, Li., Conway, H. D. , and iVinte:q, G.,
"
Stresses in
Deep Beams " Transactions, A.S.C.E., Vol. 118, 1953,
p. 686.
(6) O. F. Theimer ." Hilfstafeln zur Berechnung Wandartiger
Stah1betontrager " Published by Wilhelm Ernst .& Sohn.
Berlin, 1963
(7) G. Worch. n Elastische Scheiben" Beton Kalend.er 1967. Vol.
II. pp. 1.128.
(8) "Leonhardt
Wandartiger Tr8.ger
Deutscher Ausschuss fur Beton und
c) SimplY Supported Deep Beams
Notations : Fig. XI.4
Span of 'beam L
I
. ,
I
I
I

Lc
L
c_

L
.1
Ll;
1

Height of beam H
Wall thickness t
Breadth of support c
325
.Support width t
s
Total length of beam L
t
Fig.XI-4
Load intensity pit
TyPes of Loading Fig. XI.5
Fig. XI-5
!
Stress Distribution :
or.concentrated ) and position (,top
The stress distribution depends
or bottom)
on
H
L L
of
me' ( uniform
'loading t as
well as
FigrJre XI.6 shows the stress distribution ina simply suppor-
ted beam subject to uniforcly distributed load p acting on its
top surface for =1/10 1 t
g
= t and various values of!! in sta-
L L
,ge I.
326
Not e s
1) Stress distribution is linear for
H< L and curved for H:'
2 2
2) For <H <L the magnitude of
2
the compressive stresses decrea-
ses with increasing depth.
3) No stresses are resisted by the
upper part of a deep beam above
H=L.
4-) The max. tensile stress at the
lower fiber is for H = equal to
2
"
1.5 times and,for H = L eq1j.al
to 2.2 times the values according
\
to Navier.
5) The arm of the internal forces
YeT =0.62 0.78 H i.e. its
magnitude as a factorof H'does not
vary much.
5) If the load p acts at the bottom,
the normal stresses ax and the
s:!lear stresses t are not much
afi'ected while the compressive
stresses a are much reduced
y
and high tensile stresses are
(
crea.ted at the lower zones of the
beam as shown infig. :U.8.
ir

c
..
t\i .__
. a. /.111ft
r-- ----'l=---_----i
Fig. XI-6
327
CRSE Jl1'
r
r
C R S ~ 1 CRS 1/
Fig. TI-7
+.-:-.--'----
~ L .
~ ~ . L . L
, I
CROSS SECTION ....
. :%.""." .'; .z ,,::.. .J, 2'/%"'1-":t ..
......
1
Fig. ll-8
~
The distribution of normal stresses in simple deep beams
sUbject to concentrated loads acting at the middle of top surface :is
given in figuJ:'e XI. 9
In deep beams subject to concentrated loads acting at the
lower surface, the stresses are
p
distributed in a depth equal to
1 only, bigger depths are not
effective
p
"j.,
Fig. XI-9
The total tension T is the same whether the load Pacts
at top or bottom. Big tensile stresses a , especially :in the
y
lower part of the beam are created and must be resisted by vertical.
reinforcements
Stiffening the edges of the beam affects the stresses in a
l!l8Ilner similar to that of uniform loads.
d) Continuous Deep Beams
The stress distribution at the center lines of the spans and "
329
over the sUpPat'ts of deep beams subject to uniform
loads acting on their top surface is shown in figure XI.l0
It has to be noticed that the stress distribution at the
. middle of the spans is similar to that of simple beams but with
smaller values due to continuity; whereas at the supports the arm
of internal forces is relatively small and the compressive stresses
at .the lower fiber are high and may govern the design.
It has further been found that the connecting moments in
co ntd.nuous deep beams is smaller than that of slender beams of the
same spans due to the high compressive strains that are liable to be
developed at. the supports ;.and as a result of this fact, the field
moments are bigger than those of slender beams.
Figure XI.ll gives the stress distribution at the center
lines of continuous deep beams SUbject to loads at
top or bottom surfaces The stresses over the center li-
nes of the supports have the same values but with opposite
. signs.
e) Guide Lines for the Design of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beacs
Introduction :
Experiments have shown that the theory of elastic deep
beams can be applied to reinforced concrete before the formation of
tension cracks (Stage I) .After the formation of cracks, which ge-
.nearlly take place under working loads, the real stresses differ
330
II. L/'l.
nT rl/.lJJ!U:'
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Or SPR,vS
RT EDt/. VI?LVES I?TC.L. OF S/!/,,ooRT I?RE
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No.eHRL RMD oS#R ST.IZsses IN .DEeP CONTINUOUS BERM
TO UNIFo.eH LORDS
Fig. XI-10
331
SlJPPERPOSITION OF LORDIAlq'
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r/'l
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ile 'It II. L
H .L
"t.'ll

_I.O-ZP""
I.D
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Tco.3ZP T.o. "28 P
P RCTlNq nT TOP
,p
.7.f' I t: m .
p
.U
L
-r- -r
ST.2esss r ces/ree LINe Or SUPPORT Hnve J'h' SRMI! VH(.UFS
WITH QPPOSITe SI($N
STReSSES r TilE /"fIDDLe OF THE SPRNS OF CONTINUOUS .]JEEP
BER!'1S SUBJCT TO CONCEN1R/?T.eO UJIl.oS
Fig. XI-ll
much .from the theoretical values. The arm of the internal forces is
increased and the stresses in the steel will be Low if its tnagnLtrudo
is determined according to the elastic theory. On:'; the other hand,
the inclined principal cocrpressive stresses at the supports are hig-
ber than the values determined by the elastic theory and they may
be critical in fuin heavdLy loaded deep beams. By tl1e increase of
the width of cracks under beavy loads, the compressive bending stres-
ses increase by a ratio bigger than the increase of the load, but
they Benerally do not govern the failure load.
Due to the big momefit of inertia of the cross-sections of deep
beams, any movement of the supports csuses -high internal stresses and
is not to be neglected.
The compressive stresses at the middle of the spans is
,rally low and need pot to be checked. The beam must however bu suf-
ficiently thick (> '12. ems J. that it does not buckle, otherwise stif-
feners or compression flanges are to be arranged. In thin 'deep beams,
stiffners at the supports are essential, they must be irltrocuded to
a height from the bottom surface of the beam.
The tension steel is generally determined such that it resists
the full tensile force calculated according-to the elastic theory of
deep beams in stage I.
The shear stresses vary much along the depth of the beam and
are generally low so that no special bent bars or stirrups are needed
for this purpose.
Determination of Tension Reinforcements
Simply supnorted deep beam subject to uniform loads
The maximum tension at the bottom of the beam is gi. ven by
max. M
max.T
=
o
333
in which
Y
CT
0.6 H for H <L and
YeT 0.6 L for H > L
so that
max. T =
"
and max.T
"
In case of uniformly distributed load p/m'
..-
I
so that
L
ma..,,<:.T = 0.2 P L for
H
and
max.T = 0.2.p L for H:> L
The max, area of tension steel As is therefore
It is recommended to extend the tension steel over the whole length
of the span and to anchor it well at the supports. Fig. XL12
For loads hung at the bottom, vertical reini'orcements carrying
the :full reaction are to be introduced for the full height H over a .
length of 0.7 L
Concentrated Loads
Deep beams subject to concentrated loads may be calculated 'in
the same way as those. subject to uniform loads introducinc; the
corresponding values of Mo. The tension can also be directly deter-
mined from the triang:he of f oz-ces shown in figure XI.13.
Continuous DeeD BeaJ!lS :
It has been stated before that connecting moments in deep con-
are s::!8.11er, while field moments are bigger than those
r
I O l ~
1
111
..
'! ~ -1- { ,j,.{. ,l.
UNIFORM LORD
-r-
::;
\ ~
~
~ ~
\
,j,
-'-
!'
l ~
L
r-
'I
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e
c :=J
@
C
..Fig. XI-12
CONCNTRRTED LORD
p .
." T
--
ns 'r:
Ib
~ .
"
'P
L !I
Ii
I
, Fig. XI-13
(];)
1m
.'1'..
~
,
III I 'Z'
I
i
-
7l
IJ( \
I
. ~
of orcli.uai7 continuous beams. In order to make a simple
4. ' '.......
sufiicient:LY' safe, design taking this fact in consideration one may
. .
bending moments in the usual way according to the<>:-
ry of as applied to normal slender beams to increaJ?e
. ..' "...

YeT. at the supports and decrease it at the lines in such a
way as to give results conforming with the data extracted from . the
experiments in the following manner :
YCT = 0.5 H for H <L and
YCT
=0.5 L for H)L
M
The tension T being equal to T = -- then
YCT
for uniform load and H <L we get
.
..
m

At middle of outer spans T 0.18 pL


At middle of inner spans. T 0.13 pL.
m.
c
At center line of inner support of
outer span T
0.25 p L
.,
s
At center line of other inner
supports T .- 0.20
s ?!'
The steel reiJ?forcement is given by","
As
= T / O"S
It is r.ecommended to extend the full amounf of the tension
steel at the middle of the spans to the supports ;. half the
steel required at the center lines of the supports may be
over the full len.gth of the adjoining spans and tb,e other. halt.:to
be extended toa .9.istance equal to 0.3 L on each side of the
ter line of the as shown in figure XI.14
Loads hung
:..
at
..
the lower surface of a deep .continuous beam
can be treated in the same way as given before for simple beams
.
It is how.e.v.er to note that the governing design
criterion for continuous deep beams is the stress conditions in the'
support regions ( support reaction &' principal compressive stresses),
e.3L D.;JL
J, J,
-v
,
.
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I ,,':
I-
I i i I I I
.....
i' i I
I
,
1 i i: I I I
Ii
I
:
...1
I ,ltSI . I I: I !
;II. ,
! II
I
I i
""-
I

i
L

L

L
I I
DETI?ILS or OF R CONT/A/l/OVS aee BEQH SUi3JeCT
" ;0 VN/FO.eM L()NDS r TDP
Fig. Xr.-14
while for the reinforcements - particularly for the tension chord -
c.onstructiverequirements ( crack limitation & anchorage') are gover-
ning rather than the statical ones. Therefore n? great accuracy is
necessary for the design of chord reinforcement because on the one
hand the cross section of the required steel area is anyhow s:nall &
on the other hand the openIrig of wide cracks has to be prevented over
a high tensile zone. Thus is sufficient in most cases to calcula-
te the required tension reinforcements from the approximate fornulae
given. before.
A danger of shear 1'ailure, which had to be, resisted by stirrups
or bentup bars, does not exist in case of girders with loading at top
edge; a orthogonal reinforcement mesh of vertical and horizontal
s'tirrups. therefore, suf1'ices. In cases of indirect loading or of
hanging loads, an additional web reinforcement ':JaY be
?J3?
XI.2 DE3IG:: OF PYRllITD ROOFS :
Pyra=dd roofs
I
give in m;my cases a convenient solution for
the cover of rectangular containers and PUl!lP houses.
Under the effect of vertical loads, a pyramid roof as
in figure XI.15 is subject to inclined forces T
l

the sides of the pyramid, and horizontal cross forcesT
2

Both T
1
and T
2
are cOr.lpression.
'0
6

bC
T,
C . H
r
' V-'
. l. .8 'l'
/-
. . '
Fig. XI-iS
In add Ltion, the triangular surfaces of the pyr3Jllid are
subject to bending moments both in the inclined and horizontal
tions.
a) The Meridian Force :
The value of the meridian T
1
at any intercediatedepth
y from the vertex 0 in a pyramid whose sides make an angle a with the
vertical is obtained by equating the vertical components of the meri-
dian forces T
1
to the vertical leadsof the portion above.
Hence, if the pyramid weighs g per unit of area, the weight
the triangular portion above a b is given by (,Fig. XL16 ).
,A
Terington ".Pyramid Roofs" I
g I Y'
in which
1 =2 Y1ian a'
and
y'= y / cos a.
I_ VI 1
Y is tine heigh1i of cmy triangular inclined
Fig. Xl-16
surface between 0 and ab or b c
The vertical'cozrponenb of the neridian force T
l
along one
side is given by
cos ([
Therefore
g. 1'. Y = T
l
1 cos a or
gy./cos a= T
l
cos a. and
or T
l
=g IJ'+ sinIt cos a
These expressions give the magnitude of the meridian force per
unit width at any intermediate level due to dead loads g per unit
area.
For a superimposed load per unit horizontal area, we get
...
2 .
P 'I / 4.1. =T
l
cos a
or
T
l
= P I / 4 cosCl
b) The Horizontal Thrust :
The horizontal thrust T exis1is atall intermediate levels.
2
This may be demons1irated by considering an element strip of length ds
cut from the struc'ture by two horizontal planes. one abcd at a.'
.depth. y from the vertex and the other, e f ghata depth y + dy
from the vertex. (Fig. XI.17).
339
.ab :l l
...2(y+dy)toner
Fig. XI-l?
I
The horizontal component of which is sina causes T
l
T
l
outward thrust on the elemental portion ds, and the horizontal com-
ponent of the supporting thrust T
l
+ d T
l
causes inward thrust.
The outward force per strip ds = T sin l2
l
= T
l
sinCt'. 2 y tana:.
. but T
l
= .... y.....;...,......_ g.......
.. 2 cos
2
a:
,
.,
f1' v sina
then the outward force per strip= """-'. 2 y tana
2' cos
2
er
The inward force due to T
l
+ dT
l
per strip ds
= (T
l
+ dT
l)
sinIt I'
= (T
l
+ dT
l)
siIict 2 ts + dy) tanct
The net result of these two forces is an inward thxust over the width
ds, This is.. resisted by two equaJ. horizontal reactions.in the planes
at right angles. Let the magnitude of resuJ.-tant be T
2
per unit width of strip. The horizontal compression induced in the
adjacent planes is therefore
T
2
da =(T
l
+ dT ) si.::l. l2 (y + dy) tan a - T
1
sin11:. Y tan Cl or
l
T ds
= a (T
l
sina.'. y tana )
cos Cl
For a dead load 'g/m
2 g if
2
}40
but tan([: ~
cos(I
T
2
IS
2 Y tan
2a
or
=
2
2
g s tan a
or = ~ g I tanct T
2
=
T
2
These expressions give the magnitude'of the cross horizontal compres-
sion T
2
at any depth y from the vertex due to dead loads g per
unit area.
For a superimposed load p per unit horizontal area, we have:
..
pi
T
1
=
,but
=2 Y tanIt then
~ cosc
,
p2;rtana p vtana
T
1
=
.=
4 cos a 2 cos11
Tb.erefore
~ = L ( p ;y tan a y sin a tan a)
or
cos a dy 2 cosa
2
T
2
=
.
L
dy
( ~ I- tan a. sina) i.e
T
2
= P Y tan
2
a sin Cl or T2 -= ~ P 1 tan a sina
c) The be.:ld.ipg MOUlents I
The bending moments in the different sur1'aces of a pyra.nid depend.
on the actual proportiuns of each triangle forming a panel as they
influence the ma:nner inwhich the panels bend.
'In, an equilateral triangle the beDding effect is symmetrical and
analogous 1;0 the conditions existing ina square panel.
341
In an 8.Cute-angled: triangle, as would occur in a sharplY' poin-
ted pyramid, the most of the bending is taken horizontallY'. from
ridged to ridge i.e. analogous to one wSJ slabs in' the horizontal
direction.
At the opposite extreme is the case of a panel of an obtuse an-
gled triangle in which the base is very long in comparison \vi. th the
, .
sides. In this case, the most of the bending is taken in the sloping
direc-tion of the slab.
It will be noted that the. moments compared in these three cases
are those that occur horizontallY' and in the sloping direction of the
slab. ActuallY' in any triangular panel, the distribution of maximum
moments is undoubtedlY' across the corners as indicated in figure
XI .18 a particularly in triangular panels which approximate to equi-
lateral proportions. From the point of view of the moments, therefore,
the reinforcements might more resonably be disposed along the diago-
nals shoWJ1 in figUre (a).
(a)
Fig. xr-ia
However, it is generally more convenient to reinforce the. slab
in two. directions at right angl.ea , that is, horizontally and up and
down the slab as indioated in figure (b). Hence, it is necessary- to
estimate the moments and direct thrusts in these two directions at the
point of maximum deflection, which is approximately situated at the
center of pressure".
The exact mathematical analysis of bending moments in triangu-
lar slabs is too cO:!IPlicated for practical design, but a fairly clo-
se estimate of the effective spaa may be made with sut!icient accuracy.
" 342,
For the of the calculation this effective span may be taken
as the diameter of the inscribed circle which touches all the sides
figure XI.19 and for convenience the center of this circle is refer-
, red to as the ,center of pressure " II
.
(b) (c:)
Fig. n-19
To find the bending moments to be allowed for, it is convenient
to three, conditions':
1) A panel approximatini; to an' equilateral triangle,
2) A' panel with an obtU:se angle at the vertex,
3) A panel with an acute angle at the vertex:;
Case I :
,The conditiC?:;lS at the supports are an indeterminate fixity of
'the slab at the lo,v.rer edge along the supporting beam and continuity
in the horizontal direction along the ridges forming the side supports.
Comparing these conditions With a square slab spanning in two direc-
tio.tl.S at right angles, it is a: fUndamental law that if two opposite
e:lees are continuous supports a.nd the other tWo edges are only partly
fixed, the larger mOJrent is taken iIi the direction of fixity.
From this analogy, the moment in the horizontal direction will tend
to be grea.ter than: the moment in the sloping direction. For a panel
approximating to an equilateral triangle, the following moments may
taken to cover own weight and the effects of superimposed loading
including Wind, Vlhich actually causes a thrust on the wind ward side
and a on the leeward side.
In the horizontal direction, in the span and- over the ridges:
D
2
M = w sinC1
16
;In the sloping direction
D
2
M= w sinCl
18
in which w = g + p
Case 2 :
,There a panel has an obtuse angle at the vertex, practically
all the bending is taken in the sLopIng direction. The' follo'::ing
bending moment may therefore be taken to cover effects of snperimpo-
sed loading and ownweight :
M=
\v sina
'i
in the span and over the ridges.
In the horizontal direction, distribution steel, equal to
about 20 % of the main' is reqUired.
Case 3
In the other extreme case, where a panel, has a particularly
acute angle at the vertr, practically all the mocerrt is tak.:;n in the
,horizontal direction and
2
lJ = + w sin a D
12
in the span over ridges.
In slo?L'lg direction, steel, equal to about
2C% of =aiu is required.
d) Forces at Bottom Edge
The lower edge of the pyramid is SUbject to a vertical reaction
V per meter to

2 4
and a horizontal thrust H givi!lg tension in each of the lower edges
equaf, to T where
. H L
T=-
2
in which
H = V tan a
For load g, we get
.
.
T
U
=Vtana

=
.
g-
y.
.. tan a

=
2 2 2 2
=
L i.,
But y' then,
2 sina
=
gL
T
1
i.e.
4 sina cos a 2
T:
fZj L
2
8 cos a
ani for a superimposed load p, we get
T
= II =
V tan a !!. -p!! tan a !!. i.e.
2 2 4 2
T
=
Horizontal bending is also induced along the lower edges, and
the magnitude of the moments is :
2
Inthe span ...
.. = H L
24
g + P sin 0:)
and at the corners or
12
L3 ( )
Ai g + P sin a:
48 cos 0:
It is however- poss ible to consider each s ide of the pyra..:J.id as
a deep beam subject to a load equal to the maximum meridial"l force at
the base of the pyr-amad, The steel at the bottom edge should be suffi-
cieut to resist the tension of the deep beam T = plus the tension
CT
due to the reaction of the load on the two sides normal to that under
consideration and given by T = H
2L
e)
It is required to cover a tank as that shown in figure VII .30 by
a pyramid roof of the form shown in figure XI.20
r-
o
----- --.--
E...
.
=
">-
. 2
A".
I. .1
o
Fig. XI-20
Base L =D.OO m
Height Y = 1.20 m,
of pyramid slab t =10 cms
Total dead + Superimposed loads w =350 k,g/m
2
surface.
Solution :
2 2
Length 0 E =Y' =11.2 + 5.5 = V31.69 =5.63 ms
,
,
sin a =..2..:2..= .978, .C05 0.= 1.2 =.213, tanlI= 2.:.2.='1-.58
5.63 . 5.63 1.2
Length of.ridge =0 A = ';5.632 + 5.5
2
=7.85 IDS:
A F =.tan,.
oF =0 A - A F =7.85 - 5.5
AE
tan p =-- =2.:..2... = 0.978
y'
5.63
';
Therefore :
R
=
D/2 = 0 F tan p
=
2.35 x 0.978 = 2.30 ms i.e.
D = 11-.6 ms
the' height y' =5.63 - 2.30 =3.33 ms i.e.
the height of the.vertex of the pyramid the center of pressure
y =s' cos lIe 3.33 x 0.213 =0.71 ms
The average meridian force T
l
across section a b
=2740 kg/m
The bending moment inthe inc.!..i::led and horizontal directions at sec-
tionab :
D
2
4.6
2
:M ::::VI$in a Ib =350 x 0.978 x 16 = 450 kg/m
.The horizontal cross conpr-e ssd.cn force. at a b
2
:T
2
0= W Y tan cr = 350 x 0.71 x 4.58
2
=5220 kg/m
canfurther be calculated from the relation
347
T
2
=J2 W J tan a
knowing tbat [/L = yr /'! r then =11 x = 6.5 m and
5.63
we get :
T
2
= J2 x 350 x 6.5 x 4.85 = 5220 kg/m
The max. meridian force at A B
max T = W Y = 350 x 1.2
=1.gQ kg/m
lcos
2
a . 0.213
2
The max. horizontal cross compressive force T
2
at section A B
= 8800 kg/m
The vertical load on the lower horizontal beam :
v = W yr = x 350 x 5.63
The horizontal load / m :
H = V tan.cr: =9,85 x
.,
4.58 = 4510 kg/m ..
.
The beam at the bottom of the py:ramid is supported by vertical posts
arranged at the four corners and at the third points of each side
and horizontal diagonal ties arranged at the third points as shewn
in figure XI.20. The max. bending moment in the vex,tical beam :
M 0:: 1.... V ( &...)2 = 1.... x 985. ( II )2
=llQQ. kgm
.max 12 3
12 3
The load per post
p =V L/3 = 985 x 11/3
= 3600 kgs
The max. bending moment in the horizontal beam :
1 L 2
= .222Q kgm
12 3
The tension in the outside panels of the horizontal beam
=If x 4-510 x ll. = 8270 kgs
3 3
The tension in the diagonal tie
T = H 4510 x 11 x-y'2 = 2340Q kgs
3 3
The tension in the intermediate panel of the horizontal beam
T =3 x 8270 = 25000 kgs.
It can be seen from the previous investigation that the slab of
. the pyr-ama.d is sUbjected to max. horizontalcompressive stresses at
its b3SC while the bottom edge beam is SUbjected to tensile stresses.
The difference of strain will cause shearing forces at
tl',e between the pyramid slab and the edge beam. and bending
moraentis of the sense shown in figure IV.25 Vlill be developed in the
inclined direction of the slab. It is therefore re'commended inflat
.pyramid roofs of relatively big dimensions to increase the thickness
oi t ae slab at its bottom edge and to reinf'orce itwi thtop reinfor-
of the order of the main steel used in the pyramid slab.
XI.,. TE:.'iP:::RATUR3: STRE.SSES I2\' SILO
If the of the stored material inside a silo-cell
is i::.cre ased, the walls are subject to temperature stresses. Assu:::ne
tha t the te:!lperc.ture is T
l
in the inner face,.
in tLe outer face, and tfiat the temperature
from to outer face,
'1'1 - T
2
'bei.ng denoted as itiT. Figure XI.21
shows a s egmerrt of a cLrcul.ar- silo wall in two
one before one after a uniform
in temperature. The original length of
the arc of the wall has been increased. but an
"Fig. Xl-21
Lnc re aae t;19.t is uniform throusl1out \7ill not
stresses so long as the ring is to be free
ucrestrained at its edges. It is the differential only.
wtich stresses.
The inner fibers'being hotter tend to expand more than the
outer fibers, so if the is cut loose fro:!! the por-
349
tions of the wall, point A in figure XI.22 will move to
move t9 Sf, and section A B, which repre-
sents the stressless condition due to a
A', B will
uniform temperature change throughout, will
move to a new position A' Actually the
moveme nts fr om A to A' ar.d B to B' are
prevented since the circle must remain a
circle and stresses will be created that
are proportional to the horizontal distan-
ces A B and A' B'
Fig. XI-22
It is clear that A A' = B B' =move -
ment due to a temperature change of6T/2 or when a is the coefficient
1
of that A A' =B B' = 6T (l per unit length of arc
and
A A'
e
= Jrt =
In a homogeneous section, the moment M to produce an
angle change e in an element of unit length r!JaY be written as
M .= E I e
Eliminating e gives.
E I a 6T
M
=
t
The stresses in the extreme fibers created by. M are
11
!
= 1/2 Ea.. ,b.T
I 2
=
The stress distribution across the cross-section is as indicated
in figure XI.22. The stresses are numerically equaL at the 11.10 faces
but have opposite s Lgns, Note that the equatLon applies to uncracked
sections only, and that this procedure of stress calculation is to be
considered merely as a method by which the problem can be approached.
The variables E and I in the equat Lons are uncertain quarrt i, ties.
E may vary from 100 000 to 300 000 kg/cm
2
I and I may also vary
---
consLder-ebIy because of deviations from the assumption of
lation between stress and strain. Finally, ifthe concrete cracks, U
1;' al M t
can no lonser be set 1 to Ie,nor equ to T' . as a
result, the equation cr =1/2 E a. :t.T is to be regarded as merely
rather than formally correct.
The value of CI may be taken 0.00001 and fOl' the pur-pose of
this one may chose E
=
100 000 kg/cm
2
. so that E CI= 100 000 x
t
3
0.00001 ;1- Knowing furthe.c that I
=
100
rz
we get
2
100 t . t.T
!!. in kg ems when t is in cms and
=
12
2
:'i :: t to ::!?/12
in kg ns , when t is in cms and
cr=
t.'1'/2 in kgs/cm
2
The value of f:,. T is the difference between the temperature in
the nvo surfaces of the concrete which may be
from the temperature of the stored
t
and the outside air. ,Tnen the flow of
is uniform frcm the inside to the out?ide
of the wall section in figure XI.23, the tem-
perature difference, t. T = T
1
- T
2
' is smaller
T.>
E
than the differencp, T
i
- To ' between the in-
side liquid and the outside air.
Standard text books give
Fig. XI-23
+ 1.
E:
coefficient of conductivity of gravel = 0.67
" " "
insulating layers
"
= 0.05 for cork, 0.40 for brick walls, 0.6 for air etc.
: = outside surface coefficient = 10
351
t = of concrete wall in meters
" insulating layers in meters.
"
Thus for reinforced concrete wall
t
To =(T
i
- To)
t + 0.067
0.67 + IO
Ass'.lming t =0.25 InS, then
If the were insulated by a 12 brick
nall as sho'mn XI.24, we get
....
1 =0.25 + 0.10 + 0.12 + -.l:. = 0.670
A C.S7 0.60 0.40 10
:"7 d IV",I.

-
rn
-0
J. 0.25 /

=
0.557 ( T
i
m )
=
-
"'0
0.67 0.67
If t h <> air void. wer"1 replaced by
5
cork, .
',ve get Fig. XI-24-
1 0.25 0.05
+ 0.12 +
1
+ 1.50,'
== =
A-
0.67 0.05 0.40 10
= =
0.67
Consider R circular silo wall 25 thick storing a material
with a temperature of 50C while the temperature of the out-
side air is 20C,
AT == 0.8 ( 50 - 20) = 24-C
The corresponding bending momerrt due to this temperat".ll'e change is
1250 kgm
==
the temperatuI'e stresses are
o = 1: c. T /2 = 12 kg/cm
2
Yc,;'/
==
352
These stresses are tension in the outside and compression in the insi-
de 11' the'uniformly distributed ring tension is 15 kg/cm
2
i the
combined stress will be
Outside fiber 15 + 12 = 27 kg/cm
2
(tension)
Inside fiber 15 - 12 =,; kg/cm
2
(tension)
In reality, too much should not be attached to the
temperature: stress cbmputed from the equation derwed. The stress equa-
tion is developed the strain equation AA' = 1/2 a AT, based on
the assumption that stress is proportional to strain. This assumption
is rather inaccurate for the case under discussion. The inaccuracy
may be rectified to some extend by using a relatively 10Vi value E
c
',
such"i3.sE = 100 000 kg/cm
2
which has been used.
c
As computed inthe example,.a temperature differential of 24-0
gives a stress of 12 kg/cm
2
in extreme fiber. This is'probably mo-
re than the concrete can take in addition to the ring tension
stress without cracking on the colder surface. The temperature stress
:nay boreduced by means of insulation, which seryes to decrea:se the
or additional horizontal may
be prOVided closer tothe colder A proceedure will be
trated for of temperature steel. It is not based upon a
rigorous mathematical analysis butvdll.be helpful as a guide and as
an aid to engineering judgement.
In the given the area of horizontal steel at the col-
d.er face computed as for a cracked section is given by the relation:
For YeT 116 d, Where d =the theoretical depth of the section and
O's = 1400 kg/cm.
2
then
As
= Y/1200
2
For 1.1 in kgm and d in ms ,
wi1.l be .in cm Acco;rdingly
As =1250 / 1200 x 0.22
= :t..:12
This area is in addition to the regular ring steel at the outer face
of' the \Vall.
APPENDIX.
bbles ot Trigonometric and HyperboJ.1c
.:Funet1.ons.
% sin %
.
COS % ,.s1Dh 2 eO:lh %
0 0 1 0 1<
.001 0.001 1.000 0.001.0 1.. 0000
.002 0.002 1.000 0.0020 1.(;000
.003
0.00' 1.000 0.00-'0 LOOOO
.004 '0.004- 1.000 0.0040 1.0000
.005 0.005
,
1.000 0.0050 1.0000
0.006 1.000 .0.0060 1.0000
.007
.0.
00
7' 1.000 0,0070 1.0000
.OOB. 0.008 1.000 o.oono LOOOO
.009 O.D09 1.00D 0.0090 1.0000
.010 0.010 1.000 1.0000
.011 0.011 1.000 0.0110 1.0001
.012 0,012 1.000 .0.0120 1.0001
.D13 1.000 O.Ol}O 1.0001
.014 0.D14 1.000 0.01% 1.0001
.015 0:015 1.000 0.01.50 1.0001
.016 (1.016 1.000 D.D160 1..0001
.017 0.017 1.000 0.0170 1.0001
.018 0.018 1.00D 0.0180 1.0002
.019 0.019 1.000 0.0190 1.0002
.02D 0..020 1.000 0.0200 1.0002
.0;0 0.030 1.000 1.0004
.04D 0.040 0.999 0.0400 1.0008
.050 0.050 0.999 0.0500 1.0012
.050 0,998 0.0600 1.0D18
.07D 0.070 0.998 0.0701 1.0024
.080 O,OBO
0.997 0,0801 1,00;;2
,090 0,090 0.0901 1.0040
.1OU
.110
0,100
0,110
0.99.5
0.994-
0-..1002
.
0,1102
1,00.50
[,#.>061
,120 0,120 0,993 0.1203 1,0072
,130 0.130 0.992 O,13CA 1.00B5
,1ltO o .1.1t-O
0.1405' 1.0098
.150 0,149 0.989 .0.1506 l.Oll}
.160
0.159
0.1607 1.01'3
,170 0.169 0.986 0.1'708 1.0145
.180
0.179 0.984 0.1810 1-.0162
.190 0.189
0.1912 1.0181
% siD. cos X s:iDh % c03h:::
0.199 0.900 - 0.2013 1..0201
0.21 0.200 0.978 0.2.1l6 1.0221
0.<:2 0.218 0.975 O..22lB 1.0243
0.23 0.225 0.974- 0.2320 1.02G5
0.24 0:238 0.971 0.2423 1.0289
0.25 0.247 0.969 0.2526 1.0314
0.25 0.257 0.966 0.2629 1.0340
0.27 0.267 0.964- 0.27;;3 1.0,567
0.28 0.276 0.961
0.2lJ37 1.039:;
0.29 0.958 0.2941 1.0424
O.3t1 0.296 0.955 0}045 1. CYJ..53
0.31 0.30,5 0.9.52 0.3150- 1.04-04
0.32 0.31,5 0.949 0.325.5 1.051.6
0.33 u.,524 0.946 .1.0550
0.34-
.1;0.584
0.,5 0.34-3 0.9.39 0.;;.572- :1..0619
0.36 0.;;52 0.936 0.3678 Ji.0555
P.37 0.362 0.932 03785 1.0692
(\.313 0.371 0.929
1
0.3892 1.0731-
0.39 0.3M 0.925 0.4000 1.0770
0.40 0.;89 0.921 0.410D 1.0811
0.41 0.399 0.917 0,4216 1.01352
0.4-': 0.408 0.913 0.4325 1.089.5
0.4.3 0.417 -0.909 0.44}+ 1.09;;9
0.44 0.426 0.905 0.4543 1.098ll-
0.45 0.4;;5 0.900 0.4653 1.1030
0.46 0.444- 0.896 0,4764' 1.1077
0.47 0.4.53 0.892 0.4875 1.1125
O.Lt-D o.Lt-E.2 O,88? 0.4986 1.ll74
0.49 0.471 0.682 0.50ge 1.1225
0.,50 O.lt?9 0.878 0.5211 1.J.276
0.51 0,488
0.873 0.5;;24
0.497 0.868 0.5438 1.1;;83
0.5;; 0.506 O.bS; 0.5552 1.14;58
0.;4 0.514 0.8,58 O.,56E.5 1.1494
v.>5 O.Sf} 0.5782 1.15.51
0.,56
_ 0.847 0.,5897 1..160;1
0.57 0 .540 D.842 0.6014
0.50 0.549 0.837 . 0.6131 1.730
0.556 0.831 0.6248 1.1792
,x sin x Cos ,x ';:::: Dinh cosh x o1n x COD x sinh x oosh x
0.60 0.565 0.825 0.6366 1.1855 LCD c.oia 0.540 L1752 1.5431
0.820' 0.6405
0.61 0.573 1.01 1.1919
1.,191:>7 0.532... 1.55J9
0.62 0.581 0.Oi4 1.1984 ' 1.C2 0.6605
0.852 0.523 1.206.3 1 .5669
0!63 0.589 0' .80B 0.6725, 1.2051 1.03 0.857 1.2220 .0515 1.5790
0.802 0.64 0.597 0.61346 1.04 1.2119 0.362 0.506 1.2379
1.5S1"
0.65 0.605 0.796 0.6968 L2180 1.05 0.667 0.4-90 1.2539 1.GO:;8
' 0.790 0.66 0.613 0.'7090 1.2258 l.OG 0.072 0.4/39 1.2700 1.6164
0.67 0.621 0.784 0.721'; 1.2330 1.07 u.077 0.480 1.2062 1.6292
0.68 6.629 01778 1.08 1.2402 0.7.336 0.882 0.471 ' 1.6421
0.69 0.637 0;771 0.7461 1.2476 1.09 0.463 1.:;190 1.6552
, -
"
070 0"644- 0.765
"
0.7586 1.10 1.2552 0.B91 0.454 1.3356 1.6685
0.71 0.6)2 0.758 1.26213 0.7712 1'.11 0.096 0.445 1.3524 1.6820
0.72 0.659 0.752 0.783/3 1.2706 0.900 0.436 1.3693 i.69;6
0.73 0.667 0.745 1. 2785 0.7966 1.13 0.904 0.427 1,:;063 1.709}
'0.
0.674- 0,739 0.8094 1;14 0,418 0.909 'l.40}5
1.72",;
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0.682 0.?32 0.8223 1.<:947 1.15 0.913 0.409 1.4208-
1.7'74
0:76 0'.689 0.725 1.16 0.8353 1.303 0.917 1.4382 0.399 1.7517
0.77 0.696 0.718 0.8404 1.3114 1.17 0.921 0.390 1.4558 '1.7662
0.78 0.703 0.'71.1 0.8615 1.18 1.3199 0.381 0!925 1,76013 1.4736
0.79 0.710 0,704 0.8748 1,3286 1.19 0,372 1. 491lf.
17956
9,80 0.717 0.697 0.8881 1.20 1. 0,932 0,)62
1.5095
,
0.81 0,724 0.690 0.9015 1.21 1.34G4 0.9.36 1',5276 0.35} 1.13258
0.682 0.82 0.9150 1.22 1,3555 1 0.9.39 0.344- )..B-!.12
0.l3,:i 0.738 0,943 :0,675 0.9206 1.23 103647 1,85(,8 1.5645 0.33lf:
O.8lI- 0.745 0;668 1 09423 0.}25 Ur946 1.5831 1.8725
0,660 0.05 0.751 0.9561 1.25 1.3835 0,315 1.888li-' 1,6019
r
949
0;652 0.86
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0,87 0.764 0.645' o ;I. 1.27 0.<:96 1,6400 O!955 1,92CB
0.88 C.771 0.637 0,99131 i .4128 1.20 0.958 0,287 1,95')3 1.9373
o,630
1.0122 1.4229
0,89
0.777. 1.29 U.SE1 0.277 1"%813 1.
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0.78? O.62i' 1.0265 '1.6984 1.4331 1.30 0.26!3.
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964 1,9709
0,61lj. 1,OLf09' 0,91 0.790 1,31 1,44Yt 0.960 0,258 1,98[10 i.7ii32
0,9:? 0.796 0.606 ,1.0554- O,2q.8 1.32 0.969 2,Q05} 1.4539 1.7381
0.93 0,8Q2 0.598 1.0700 0,971,
0.239 1,1+645 2,0228 1.33 1.7583
O,94 O.OOIJ 0,590 1 0.974 1A753 2.0404- 0.2Z9 1.7786
0,9? 0.813 0,,502 1,486,2 1,;;) 1,0995 0.976 0,219 1,7991
0.96 0.819 0,574- 1., 1,4973 1036 1.8198 0.976 0,209 2.C76ll-
0.97 0,825
0,565 1,1294- 1,37 ,1.5085 0.900 (,),199 1.8ll-06 2,0947
0,98 0.83l 0;557 1.1446 1.38 1,8617 1!5290 0.9132 O.19C 2.,1132
,
9,99 0,836 a,.iaq 1,1598 o.5J+9 1,5314 1.39 0!';lU4 1.8829 2.1320
}56
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00:3 x cq:3h x !:lin x x ..... COGh x sinh z
"
OOS x . .sin x x
1_50 2.9422 0.9'14. -.229 3.1075 1.9043 0.i79 1.40 9.985
1.01 -.237 2.9734- 0972 0.160 2.170.0 31370 1 .9259 0.987 11.41
-.247 3.0C49 :3 .1669' 1.82 09G9 0.150 1.9477 0.989 [1.42'
"3.0357 -.256 0.140 1.9697 .2.2090 0.967 3.1S'72 1.83 1 0990
1 .43
-.266 1.84 o .2.2288 30689 3.2277 1.44 0.130, 0.992
3.1'013 "2.2488 0.121 - .. 27E? 2.0143 1.85 0961 0;993 3',,535
!1.L;.5
. 1.46 ':'.235 O.lll 0;994 2.2691 1.8G 0;959 3.13'4-0 2.0369 .3.2897
o.nei' 1.[\7 0.956 1.47 2.2896 3.16n 0.995 2.0596 -.295
1.4-8 0.091 0.996 2.310:; 1.88 0.953 -.304 3.2005
33530
1.49 0.081 -.;'14, 0.997 2.1059 3.234-2 1!89 0950 33852
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L90 l.50 0.0'(1 -'.323 2.1293 2}524 .3.2682 3.4177
1.51 0.061 0.998 1.91 0.9q.3 2.1529 '2.3738 -.33:; 3.3025 3.4506
1.52 0.999 0.0.51 2.1768 L92 0.940 -342 3.3372
1.53 0.041 0.999 2.2008 2A174 1.93 0.936, -.352 3.5173
' }S)5' 0.031- J"OOO 2.2251' 1;94 0.933 -.361
35512
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11.
55
1.56 1.000 0.011 2.2743 '1.96 0.925 -.379 ,'.4792 36201
1.57 '1.000 0.001 '2.2993 2.5u74- 1'.97 0.921 .35156 3.6551
1.58 l.OCO -.009 2,;1245 2.5305 1.98 .,3.5523 ;;.6904-
1.59 1.000: -.019 2.5538 1.99 ().9l3', .-.407 3.5894 3.72.61
1.50 1.000 ,-.029 2.;;'156 . ...,.416 '2.5775 2.00 0.909 3.6269 }.7622 '
! 1.61
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3.8355
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1.65
Ci.997
2.6995 2.05 0.887 -.461 -79 j.l3195
3.94B3
1.66
0,996 -.089 2.5.346 2.7247 2.06 0.se3 -.470 3.8593 3.9876
1.67
0,995 -.099 2.5626 2.7502 2.C,,? 0,078' -A79 Z;.S993 .4.0255
0.994 -.109 2.5896 11.65 2,7760
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:;.9398 ,0647 I
0,993 ,1.69
-.119 2.6175 2.13020 2.09 0.868 -.495 ,,;9806
4,1043
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-.129 2.6456 2.8283 2.10 0.B63 -.505
4.'l44,?
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0.990
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2.13549 2.11 0.058
4.06.35 -!513 4.1847
1.72 0.989 ':'.149
2.7027, 2.8818 2.12 0.855 -.522 4.1056 4.2255
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1.74 0.956
-.168
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1.75 li.984-
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4,3507
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1.79
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4.5236
357
sin :z: _cosh % x x sin x COG X
cos x
sinh == sinh x cooll x
2.20 0.(JY9 4.5679 0.516 -.589 4.4571 -.857 6.6947 6.7690
2.21 CI.C03 4.)030 2.61 -.55'7 0.;'(17 -.862 6.7528 G.83G3
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6.9729
2.24 0.784 -.620 4.7499 2.54 0.481 -.077 6.9709 7
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-.628 4.69.12
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2.25 0.778 2.65 4.7966 0.472 -.882 7.0417 7.1123
2.26 0.771 2.66 4.134,7 -.636 4.7394 0.463 -.886 7.1132 7.1831
2.27 0.765 -.644 47880. 4.8914, 2.67 O.ll-54 -.891 7.2546
2.28 0.759 -.651 4.8372 2.68 0.445 4.9395 -.895 7.2583 7.3260
2.29 0.752 -.659 4.C868 4.9881 2.69 0.436 -.900 7.3319 7.,998
2.30 :-.666 4.9370 5.0372 Z.7D 0.427 -.904 7.4063 ,7.4735
2.31 0.739 -.674 4.9876 5.0868 0.418 2.71 -.908 7.4814
7.5479
2.32 0.732 -.681 ,.0387 2.72 5.1370 -.912 7.5572 .7.6231
2.33 0.-725 -.688 5.0903 0.4-00 5.ia76 2.7.3 -.917 7.6338 7.6990
2.34 0.719 -.696 5.1424 2.74 5.2388 0.391 -.920 7.77513
0.712 2.35 -.703 5.1951 0.382 5.2905 2.75 -.924 7.7894 7.a5;;';
2.36 0.704- 2.76- -.710,5. 2483 5.3427 0.372 -.928 7.8683 7.9316
2.37 0.697 -.717'5.3{)20 0.,363 2..77 8.0106 5.3954 -.932 7.9480
2.38 0.69Q
2.713 5.4487 0.354- -.724
3.02135 8.0<';;05
2.39 0.683 -.731 5.4109 5.5026 2.79 0.34-l!- 8.1098 -.939 0.J.712
2.4-0 0.676 -.737 5.4662 ,2.GO 5.5570 0.3;)5 0.1919 8.2527
2.41 0.668 2.a1 5.6l19 0.326 -.744- 552.2l -.946 8.2749 U.,.551
2.42 0.661 -.751 5.5-705- 0'.316 '5.G674
-.949 13.4182 8.3586
2.43 0.653 ;,;.3;' -.757 5.6354; 5.7235 0..,07
-.952 3.5022 ,
2.44 0.645 -.7G4 5.6929 5.7801 :".84 0.297 : 8.5287 8SJ71 :-.955
2.45 0.638 . 0.238 -.770 5.7510 2.85 5.8373 ' a.6150 -.958 8.6720
2.46 0.630 -.777 5.8OC)7 2.8G 5.8951 0.278 . 8.7u21 -.961 8.7594
2.47 -.7ll) 5.8639 2.87 O.2G8 '-5.9535 . 8.8469 -.963 a.7902
2.4-8 0.614
2.88 -.789 5.92/3C 6.0125 ,0.259 -.966 8.8791 8.9352
2.49 0.606 6.0721- '2.89 -.795 5.91392
1
0

249 -.969 8.9689


2.50 -.601 o.u502 2.90 6.132;1 0.259 9.11Lj,6 -.971 9.0596
0.590 -.807 G.l11a 6.19.31 2.91 0.230 9.1512 -.973
2.52 0.582 6.1741 -.813 2.92 6.2545 0."0 -.'376 9.2437 9.2976
2.53 0.574 -.819 6.2369 2.9;; O.2l!.J 63166 '3.3371 -978
2.54 0.566 -.824 6.3C04 2.94 0.200 6.3793 -.980 9.4315 9.41344-
0.558 6.4-426 -.830 6.36-'+5 0.190 2.95 -.982 9.5268 9.5792
2.56 0.549, -.836 6.4293 6.5066 0.131 2.96 -.984 9.6749 ':3.6231
2.57 O.;>LH -.84-1 6.4946 0.171 G.5712 2.97 9.?716 9.1203 -.985
I 2.58 0.533 -.846 6.5(5u7 2.98 0.161 6.6365 9.B69j
-.98719.8185
2.59 0524 -.[352 6.6274 6.7\.:24 2.99 0.151 9.,600 -.989 9.9177
"
.
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:x cos :r: &i.n x s:iIlh x: sin.x cosh?'=. ' % J:OS x aiDh x cosh..x
.3.00 0.141 10.cis 3.4G 14.965 -.967 14.999 --256
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0.1;1 1.0.268 20:-119 -991 3.41 -.265 l5,.1l6 15.149 -.964-
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3.05 0.092 10.534- -996 10581 3.45 -.304- 15.766 -.953. 15734
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3.07 0.072 10.748 :;.47 -.323 10794 16.053 16.084- ':'947
3.08 0.062 10.856 -998 10902 '3.40 J..6.. 215 -332 16.245
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3.10 0.042 -.999 11.076 11.1.22 3.50 -.351 -.937 16.573
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0.032 -1.00 11.188 ,5.51 -.360 16.709 -.933 16.739
0.022 3.12 -1;00 ll.301 -;3,69 1l.345 -.9.50 16. 87? .16.907
313 0.012 -1.00 11.415 -.926 U'-459 -.379 1.7.047i 17.071
;.14 0.002
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-.008 -1.00 11.647 11.690 -.397 -.918 3.55 17.392 17.421
316 -.018 -1.00 11.764. 11.807 -.406 -.914 17.567 356 ),,7.596
I
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3.18 -.038 -.999 12.003 -.426 3.58 -.905 17.923 17.951
.;.19 -.()tj.8 12.124 -999 i.2.165 -.434- 3:59 -.901 lS.J.03. 18.131
:;.20 -.058 12.246 -998 12.287 3.SC 18.286 -.443 -.897 18.313
;..21 -.068 -.998 12.410 -.452 ,-.892 3'-61 18.470 18.497
3.22 -.078 J.2.494- -997 -4450 J.2.534- 3.62 -,838 18.655' 18.682
3.23 -.088 12.620 --.996 12.550 3.6,3 -.459 -.863 18.843 18.870
3.24 -.098 12.747 12.786 -995 3.64 -.478 -.878 .19.059 1.9933
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3.26 -.118 13.0OG 1';.044 3.66 -.496 -.869 19.418 J.9.444-
3.27 -.128
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3.28 -.138 -.990 1,.269
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3.30 -.158 -.988 13.>4-8 .;..530 i3.575 3.70 -.848 20.211 20.236
3.31 -;168 -.986 1,.674 13,711 3.71 20.414 -.843 20.4..39, .
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3.3'; -.187 -.982 13.951 ":.555 20.8<28 -.83<2 20.852 -??3
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359
sinT- x x eas x sinhA cosh x :: COG x
'sinh x t r:
3.80 -.612

6.00 -.79J. 22.362 -.279 0.960 22..339 201.71
3.81 -.620 6.10 -.182 -.785 22.5B6 22.564 O.98}

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3.04 -.643 6.40 -.765 23.274 O.ll7 0.993 300.94-
3.85 -.651 23.507 -.759 0.21.5 650 0.977 332.57
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3.87 -.666 '6.7.0 -.746 0.405 23961 23.982 0.914 4C6.20
5.88 .24,.222 -.740 24.202 6.ll0 0.494- 0.669 4-43.92
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5
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3.92 -.702 -.712 ?5,.190 25.210 7.20 ,0.608 569.72
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