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a) i) Knee jerk reflex action is a test carried out by doctors to test the proper
functioning of the spinal cord. In the test, a knock which is a stimulus is done to
the patella at the knee. As a result, the leg kicks upwards to indicate the response.

ii) When the patella is knocked, sensory receptors send impulses to afferent
neurone. Afferent neurone carries impulses to the spinal cord. It passes by the
dorsal root ganglion into the white matter of the spinal cord. From the spinal cord
the response impulses is sent to the efferent neurone which carries impulses to
the quadriceps muscles. The quadriceps muscles will contract resulting in the leg
being kicked out.

Process X is ultrafiltration, Process Y is reabsorption and Process Z is secretion.
Proteins are large so it cannot be filtered by ultrafiltration the glomerulus. So,
the concentration of protein in blood plasma is high and no protein in glomerular
filtrate and urine.
Sodium ions are filtered during ultrafiltration and reabsorped by proximal
convoluted tubule and into blood capillaries as sodium ions are needed by the body.
So, there will be less sodium ions in the urine compared to glomerular filtrate.
Amino acids are filtered during ultrafiltration and reabsorbed completely by the
proximal convoluted tubule as amino acids are needed by the body. Hence . there is
no amino acids in the urine.
Glucose is filtered during ultrafiltration and reabsorbed completely by proximal
convoluted tubule into the blood capillaries as glucose is needed by the body.
Hence, there is no glucose in the urine.
Urea is filtered during ultrafiltration. Urea is a toxic substance which cannot be
reabsorped into the blood capillaries. Thus, urea undergoes secretion at the distal
convulated tubule and excreted in urine. Hence, urine contains high volume of urea.

i) Stage P is meiosis 1 while Stage Q is meiosis II.
Stage P and Stage Q involve four phases that are prophase,
metaphase,anaphase and telophase. Both show nuclear division
followed by division of cytoplasm.

Meiosis 1 Meiosis II
1. Synapsis occurs during prophase 1. No synapsis takes place during
2. Crossing over occurs between
sister chromatids of homologous
2.No crossing over takes place
3. Segregation of homologous pairs
of chromosomes during anaphase
3.Segregation of sister chromatids
of chromosomes during anaphase
4. At end of telophase, two haploid
daughter cells are produced
5. At end of telophase, four haploid
daughter cells are produced.

b) The technique to produce these plants is tissue culture. Tissues of parent
plants are extracted and sterilized to prevent bacteria or fungal growth.
Then the tissues are cultured in a medium with nutrients and growth
hormones. The tissues will undergo mitosis process. The tissues will divide
and grow into callus. The callus will continue to differentiate to form
plantlets. The plantlets are then transferred to soil for normal growth.

ii) Advantages
Can produce large number of plants in a short period of time. Desired
characteristics from parent plant can be chosen.
There is no variation in the offsprings produced. The plants will have
the same level of resistance towards diseases.
i) Gas P is inhaled air. Therefore the partial of oxygen in the air of
the alveoli is higher than that in the blood capillaries. Hence ,
oxygen diffuses from alveolus to the blood capillaries.
ii) Gas Q is exhaled air