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Tutorials '9892603993 XI/XII/CET Mathematics

Complex Numbers
# Imaginary Unit :
A number i is called an imaginary unit
where i
2
= - 1
# Imaginary Number :
A number of the form
i k
, where kR, k
R, and 1 i is called imaginary number.
# Complex Number :
A number of the form a+
i b
, where a, b
R, and 1 i is called imaginary number
A complex number is denoted by z.
n a complex number,
b i a z +
, a is called
the real part of ! and is denoted by Re(z) and
b is called imaginary part of ! and is denoted
by Im(z).
"he set of complex numbers is denoted by #.
Set of real numbers is a subset of complex
numbers. R C.
# Equality of complex Numbers :
"wo complex numbers !
1
$ a % ib & !
'
$c %id
are said to be e(ual if a =c and b = d.
"wo complex numbers are said to be e(ual if
their real part are e(ual and also their
imaginary parts are e(ual.
# Conjugate of a complex Number :
"wo complex numbers which differ in the
sign of their imaginary parts, are called
complex con)ugate of each other.
"he con)ugate of z is denoted by z
"hus
b i a z +
then
b i a z
!e sum and product of t"o complex con#u$ates
are real numbers.
# Algebra of a complex Number :
*et b i a z +
1
and d i c z +
'
be two
complex numbers where a, b, c and d R and
i= 1 "hen we define
1. Addition
+ , + ,
' 1
d i c b i a z z + + + +
= (a + c) + (b + d) i
(a + b) , (c + d) R z
%
+ z
2
C
2. Subtraction :
+ , + ,
' 1
d i c b i a z z + +
= (a & c) + (b & d) i
(a & b) , (c & d) R z
%
& z
2
C
3. Multi!lication
+ +., , .
' 1
d i c b i a z z + +
= (ac bd) + (ab + bc) i
(ac bd), (ab + bc) R z
% .
z
2
C
". #i$ision
d i c
b i a
z
z
+
+

'
1
( d i c z +
'
-+
d i c
d i c
d i c
b i a
z
z

+
+

'
1
i
d c
d a c b
d c
d b c a
z
z

,
_

,
_

+
+

' ' ' '


'
1
C
'ote(
i) !e sum, difference and product of t"o
complex number is a$ain a complex number.
ii) !e di)ision of t"o complex numbers is
defined onl* if t!e denominator is non zero.

# o!ulus an! Argument of a complex number
f ! $ a % bi is a complex number then, the
modulus of ! is defined to be
' '
b a + and is
denoted by mod ! or .!. or . a % ib ..
/hene0er ! -, the argument of !, also
known as the amplitude of ! is $ tan
-1

,
_

a
b
.
t is denoted by arg ,!+ or amp ,!+.
"hus, if ! $ a % ib, . ! . $
' '
b a + and
arg ,!+ $ tan
-1

,
_

a
b
.
"he angle satisfying the e(uations
' '
cos
b a
b
r
a
+

and
' '
sin
b a
b
r
a
+


where - 1 is called the principal
ar$ument of the complex number a % ib.
# "olar form of a complex number:
2ince cos r a and sin r b , we ha0e
+ sin ,cos i r b i a z + +
."his is called
polar form of a complex number.
Complex Numbers : 1
Tutorials '9892603993 XI/XII/CET Mathematics
##$eorem:
+ro)e t!at, t!e sum and product of t"o
complex con#u$ates are real numbers.
"roof :
*et ! $ a % b ib be a complex number,
/here a, b R and i $ 1
#omplex con)ugate of ! is ib a z
! %
+ , + , ib a ib a z + +
= a + ib + a , ib
= 2a R

+ , + , ib a ib a z z + +
= (a)
2
, (ib)
2
= a
2
, i
2
b
2

= a
2
, (&%)b
2

= (a
2
+ b
2
) R
3ence, the sum and product of two complex
con)ugates are real numbers.
##$eory:
S-uare Root of a Complex 'umber(
*et a % ib be a complex number such that
, i* x ib a + + where a, b, x, y are real
number
, i* x ib a + +
2(uaring on the both sides, we get
a + ib = (x + i*)
2
a + ib = x
2
, *
2
+ 2x*i
4(uating real and imaginary parts separately,
we get
x
2
, *
2
= a 5,i+
and 'xy $ b

x
b
*
'

5,ii+
6y sol0ing e(uation ,i+ and ,ii+ we get the
0alues of x and y which gi0es s(uare roots of
a complex number a % ib.
#Argan! %iagram :
A complex number a + ib contains two real
numbers a and b. 3ence it is represented by
the point ,a, b+ in the '78 co-ordinate system.
f b $ -, the complex number a + ib reduces
to the real number a and hence it can be
represented by the a and hence it can be
represented by the point , a, - + on the
9 7 axis f a $ - , and b - + the complex
number reduces to the imaginary number ib
and can be represented by the point , -, b + on
the : 7 axis.
n geometrical representation of a complex
number, the real part is represented on the
9 7 axis and the imaginary part is represented
on the : 7 axis. 3ence the 9 and : axes are
respecti0ely called the axis of reals and the
axis of imaginaries. "he representation of a
complex number a % ib by means of the point
,a, b+ in a plane with reference to the axis of
reals and the axis of imaginaries is called
Argands diagram.

Complex Numbers : 2
Tutorials '9892603993 XI/XII/CET Mathematics
4xamples
Q1 ;actori!e the following
,i+ x
'
% <x % =
An
s
#onsider x
'
% <x % =
$ x
'
% <x %,=>?+ 7 ,=>?+ %=
$ ,x %
'
<
+
'
-
'
?
'@
i

Q2 2ol0e the following e(uation
x
'
7 Ax % 1@ $ -
An
s
/e ha0e x
'
7 Ax % 1@ $ -
x
'
7 Ax % = 7 = % 1@ $ -
x
'
7 Ax % = 7 B i
2
$ -
,x 7 <+
'
7 ,' ' i+
'
$ -
,x 7 < 7 ' ' i+,x 7 < %' ' i+ $-
x 7<7 ' ' i $- or x 7< %' ' i $-
x $ i ' ' < t
Q3 2tate complex con)ugate of
,i+ -C % ?i ,ii+ < ' i
,iii+ 7 i ,i0+ i sin % cos
An
s
#omplex number #on)ugate
7C % ?i 7C 7 ?i
< ' i < ' i +
7 i i
i sin % cos 7 i sin % cos
Q4 ;ind the con)ugate of the following D
,i+
i
i
+

1
1
,ii+
+ = @ , + < ? , + 1 ,
? ' <
i i i + + +
An
s
,i+
i
i
+

1
1
$
i
i
+

1
1
i
i

1
1
$
1 E 1
' 1
'
+
+ i i
$
'
'
'
1 ' 1 i i


$
i
complex con)ugate $ i
,ii+ + = @ , + < ? , + 1 ,
? ' <
i i i + + +
$
+ = @ , + < ? , + 1 , + i
$
+ ' , + 1 , + 1 , + i
$ i '
complex con)ugate $ i + '
Q5 2implify the following
An
s
,i+
<- '- 1-
i i i + +
$ ( ) ( ) ( )
1C
'
1-
'
C
'
i i i + + 1 i
$ ( ) ( ) ( )
1C 1- C
1 1 1 + +
$ 7 1 % 1 7 1 $ 71
,ii+
<
'
1

,
_

+
+
i
i
$
( )
( )

+
+
<
<
'
1
i
i ( )
( )
< '
< '
A 1' B
< < 1
i i i
i i i
+ + +
+ +
$
( )
( ) i i
i i
+
+ +
A 1' B
< < 1
$
( )
( ) i
i
11 '
' '
+
+
$
( )
( )
( )
( ) i
i
i
i
11 '
11 '
.
11 '
' '

+
+
$
( )( )
'
1'1 ?
11 ' ' '
i
i i

+
$
1'1 ?
'' ? '' ?
+
+ + i i
$
1'1 ?
1B 'A
+
i
$
1'C
1B 'A i
$
i
1'C
1B
1'C
'A

,iii+
,
_

+
,
_

+
,
_

+
i i i
<
1
'
1
1
1

$
( ) ( ) ( ) i i i < 1 ' 1 1


$ ( )( ) i i i i < 1 ' ' 1
'
+
$
( ) ( ) i i i < 1 ' ' 1
$
( ) i i < 1 + < 1 ,
$
( ) i i < 1 + < 1 , +
$ + = 1 ,
'
i $
-1-
Q6 Fro0e that following complex
numbers are purely real
,i+
i
i
i
i
' <
< '
< '
' <
+

+

,ii+
< @
< @
< @
< @
i
i
i
i
+

+
An
s
,i+
i
i
i
i
' <
< '
< '
' <
+

+

$
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) i i
i i
' < < '
< ' ' <
' '
+
+ +
$
( ) ( )
( ) A = ? A
= 1' ? ? 1' =
+ +
+ +
i i
i i
$
( )
-
C 1'
-

i
R
3ence
i
i
i
i
' <
< '
< '
' <
+

+
is purely real
,ii+
< @
< @
< @
< @
i
i
i
i
+

+
,iii+
'
'
< 1

,
_

+ i
Complex Numbers : 3
Tutorials '9892603993 XI/XII/CET Mathematics
Q7
4xpress the following in the form a + i
b
,i+ + '@ ' +, = ? , +
,ii+
i
i
C '
<
+

,iii+
'
'
< 1

,
_

+ i
,i0+
= 1
1A <


,0+

,
_

,
_

+
+
i
i
i i ? '
? <
1
<
' 1
1
An
s
,i+ + '@ ' +, = ? , +
$ + '@ ' +, = ? , i i +
$ + + '@ ' , ? i
+ '@ ' , = i i +
$
'
'@ = = ' '@ ? B i i i + +
$ < = = ' < 1' B + + + i i
$
( ) i + < 1' A , < = B + + +
,ii+
i
i
C '
<
+


$
i
i
i
i
C '
C '
C '
<

$
'C ?
C ' 1C A
'
+
+ + i i i
$
'=
1< 11 i

$
'=
1<
'=
11 i

,i0+
= 1
1A <


$
i
i
< 1
? <

$
i
i
i
i
< 1
< 1
< 1
? <
+
+

$
= 1
1' ? = <
'
+
+ i i i
$
1-
C 1C i +
$
i
'
1
'
<
+
,0+

,
_

,
_

+
+
i
i
i i ? '
? <
1
<
' 1
1
=

,
_

+
+

,
_

+
+
+
+
+
+
i
i
i
i
i
i
i i
i
i ? '
? '
.
? '
? <
1
1
.
1
<
' 1
' 1
.
' 1
1
$

,
_

+
+ + +

,
_

+
+
+
1A ?
1A B 1' A
1 1
< <
.
? 1
' 1
'
i i i i i
$

,
_

,
_


+
+
'-
1- '-
'
< <
.
C
' 1 i i i
c
$

,
_

,
_


'-
1- '-
1-
11 1@ i i
$
'--
11- ''- 1@- <?-
'
i i i +
$
'--
C- ?C- + i
$
i
?
=
?
1
+
Q8 40aluate the following D
,i+
'
<?
'@
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

i
i
,ii+ ( )
< ?
1 1
+

n
n G
An
s
,i+
'
<?
'@
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

i
i
$
'
<?
'A
1
1
1
]
1

,
_


i
i
i
i i
$ ( )
'
<?
1<
'
1
1
1
]
1

,
_

i
i i
$ ( )
'
1@
'
1<
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

,
_


i
i
$ [ ]
'
1 + i $ 1 '
'
+ i i
$ 1 ' 1 + i $
i '
,ii+ ( )
< ?
1 1
+

n
n G
$ ( )
< ? +

n
i $ ( ) ( )
< ?
i i
n

2 x + .* & / + 2*i &.x i & i = 0
2 x + .* & / + ( 2* &.x &%) i = 0
1-uatin$ real and ima$inar* parts
2 x + .* , /=0 &.x + 2* &% = 0
Sol)in$ t!ese e-uations simultaneousl*
2e $et x =
1<
C
and * =
1<
1?
Complex Numbers : 4
Tutorials '9892603993 XI/XII/CET Mathematics
$ ( ) ( )
< ?
1 i i
n
$ ( ) ( ) i
n
1 1
$ i
Q9
f
'
< 1 i +
and
'
< 1 i
,
show that
'
$ and
'
$
An
s
'
< 1 i +

'
'
'
< 1

,
_

,
_

?
< < ' 1
'
i

$
?
< ' ' i
$
'
< 1 i
$
'
< 1 i

'
'
'
< 1

,
_

,
_

+ +

?
< ' < 1
'
'
i i

$
?
< ' < 1 i +
$
'
< 1 i +
$
Q10 ;ind real 0alues of x and y if
(i) ( x + i*) ( 2 &.i) = / + i
(ii) (i
/
+.i)x + (i&%)* + 3i
.
= 0
An
s
(i) ( x + i*) ( 2 &.i) = / + i
2 x + 2*i &.x i & .* i
2
& / & i = 0
(ii) (i
/
+.i)x + (i&%)* + 3i
.
= 0
(%+.i)x + (i&%)* & 3i = 0
x+.xi + * i& * & 3i = 0
x & * + (.x + * , 3) = 0
1-uatin$ real and ima$inar* parts
x , * = 0 .x + * , 3 = 0
Sol)in$ t!ese e-uations simultaneousl*
2e $et x = * =
?
C

Q1
1
;ind 0alue of
,i+
'
< 1
, 1
'
i
x if x x

+ +
,ii+
C ? , 1? ' <C =
' < ?
+ + + i x if x x x x
,iii+ x
<
7 Ax
'
% <- , if
i
x

<
1-
An
s
,i+
'
< 1 i
x Consider

+ < 1 , ' i x +
< 1 ' i x +
2(uaring on both sides
( ) ( )
'
'
< 1 ' i x +
< 1 ? ?
'
+ + x x
- ? ? ?
'
+ + x x
- + 1 , ?
'
+ +x x
- 1
'
+ +x x
,ii+ #onsider C ? i x
i x ? C +
2(uaring on both sides
( ) ( )
' '
? C i x +

' '
1A 'C 1- i x x + +
- ?1 1-
'
+ + x x
Gow we can write
1? ' <C =
' < ?
+ + + x x x x $
$A + ?1 1- ,
'
+ + x x % 6
Hx
'
% x % ?
?1 1-
'
+ + x x +
1? ' <C =
' < ?
+ + + x x x x

' < ?
?1 1- x x x + +
. ,-+ ,-+ ,-+ .

1? ' A
' <
+ x x x
x x x ?1 1-
' <

. ,%+ ,%+ ,%+ .
Q1
2
;ind the s(uare roots of the following
numbers in the form a + ib where
a, b R
,i+ -Bi ,ii+ 4 + 5i (iii) i ' A @
An
s
,i+ *et , B i x i + where x, y R.
, x % iy +
'
$ -Bi
x
'
% ' xyi % i
'
y
'
$ -Bi
,x
'
7 y
'
+ % ' xyi $ -Bi $ - % ,-Bi+
4(uating real and imaginary parts,
we get, x
'
7 y
'
$ - 5,1+ and
Complex Numbers : 5
Tutorials '9892603993 XI/XII/CET Mathematics
1? <= ?
'
+ + x x
1A? ?- ?
'
+ + x x
. ,-+ ,-+ ,-+ .
1C- x
1? ' <C =
' < ?
+ + + x x x x $
$, x
'
% x % ?+ + ?1 1- ,
'
+ + x x - x -1C-
$ , x
'
% x % ?+ ,-+ -
+ C ? , i
-1C-
$ - 7 ?i % C 7 1C-
$ 7 ?i 7 1?C
,iii+ #onsider
i
x

<
1-

i
i
i
x
+
+

<
<
<
1-
$
1 =
1- <-
+
+ i
i x + < i x <
2(uaring on both sides

' '
+ < , i x
1 = A
'
+ x x
1- A
'
+ x x $ -
Gow we can write
x
<
7 Ax
'
% <- $ A + 1- A ,
'
+ x x % 6
.Hx .
1- A
'
+ x x + x
<
7 Ax
'
% <-

x x x 1- A
' <
+
. ,-+ ,%+ ,-+ .
-1- x % <-
x
<
7 Ax
'
% <- $
x + 1- A ,
'
+ x x -1-x %<-
$ x,-+ -1- , < % i + % <-
$ - 7 <- 7 1-i % <-
$ 71-i
'xy $ -B 5,'+
;rom e(uation ,'+,
x
*
?

2ubstituting the 0alue of y in


e(uation ,1+, we get
-
?
'
'

,
_

x
x
-
1A
'
'

x
x
x
?
7 1A $ - ,x
'
% ?+ ,x
'
7 ?+ $ -
x
'
$ - ? or x
'
$ ?
2ince x is a real number, x
'
-?.
x
'
$ ? x $ t '
;rom e(uation ,'+,
when x $ ',
'
'
?

*

And, when x $ -',
'
'
?

*
3ence the s(uare roots of -Bi are '- 'i
and -' % 'i, i.e. t , ' 7 'i +
,ii+ *et . , B A R * i* x i + +
,x % iy +
'
$ A % Bi
x
'
% 'xyi % i
'
y
'
$ A % Bi
x
'
'xyi 7 y
'
$ A % Bi
,x
'
7 y
'
+ % 'xyi $ A % Bi
6y e(uating real and imaginary parts
x
'
7 y
'
$ A 5,1+
'xy $ B 5,'+
;rom e(uation ,'+,
x
*
?

2ubstituting the 0alue of y in


e(uation ,1+, we get A
?
'
'

,
_

x
x

A
1A
'
'

x
x
x
?
7 1A $ Ax
'
x
?
7 Ax
'
7 1A $ -
,x
'
-B+ ,x
'
% ' + $ -
x
'
$ B or x
'
$ -'
6ut x is real number
x
'
-' x
'
$ B x $ t
'
'
;rom e(uation ,'+, when x $
'
'
?
, '
'
'
*
,
3ence the s(uare roots of A % Bi are
Q1
3
2how that
' '
< i
+ is a cube root of i.
An
s
i. e. "2" i
i

,
_

+
<
' '
<
Gow
< <
'
<
' '
<

,
_

,
_

+
i i
$
B
< < = < < i i +
$
1
B
B

i

' '
< i
+ is a cube root of i
Complex Numbers : 6
Tutorials '9892603993 XI/XII/CET Mathematics
i and i ' ' ' '
' '
+

+. ' ' ' , . . i e i + t
,iii+ *et
, ' A @ i* x i + where x, y R
@-A
'
+ , ' i* x i +
@-A i x* * x i ' '
' '
+
4(uation real and imaginary parts
separately, we get
x
'
7 y
'
$ @
and ' A ' x*
x
*
' <

;rom ,i+ and ,ii+, we get


@
1B
'
'

x
x
x
?
7 1B $ @x
'
x
?
7 @x
'
7 1B $ -
,x
'
7 = + ,x
'
% ' + $ -
x
'
$ = or x
'
$ - '
6ut x R.
x
'
- '
x
'
$ <
x $ t <
;rom e(uation ,ii+, we get
f x $ < , A
' <

x
*
"he s(uare roots of @7A i '
i and i are A < A < +
i.e. + A < , i t
Q1
4
Represent the following complex
numbers in polar form
,i+
i ? ?
,ii+ i ' < ' +
An
s
,i+
i ? ?
n usual notations a $ ? b $ - ?
r $
' '
b a z + $
' '
+ ? , ? +
$ ' ? <' 1A 1A +
cos $
'
1
' ?
?

r
a
sin $
'
1
' ?
?

r
b

?


Folar form of ! $ r, cos % sin +
$
1
]
1

,
_

+
,
_

?
sin
?
cos ' ?

i

,ii+ i ' < ' +
n usual notations a $ < ' b $ '
r $
' '
b a z + $
$ ? 1A ? 1' +
cos $
'
<
?
< '

r
a
sin $
'
1
?
'

r
b

A


Folar form of ! $ r, cos % sin +
$
1
]
1

,
_

+
,
_

A
sin
A
cos ' ?

i

Q1
5
;ind the moduli and argument of the
following complex numbers
,i+
i ' C
,ii+
'
< 1 i +
An
s
! $ C 7 'i
a $ C, b $ -'
Iod $
' '
b a r z +
$
' '
+ ' , + C , +
$ ? 'C +
$ '=
cos $
'=
C

r
a

Q1
6
f i z ' 1
1
+ and i z 1
'
, 0erify
that ,i+ ' 1 ' 1
z z z z + +
,ii+
'
1
z
z
$
'
1
z
z
An
s
!
1
$ 1 % 'i
( ) C ? 1 + ' , 1
' '
1
+ + z 5.,1+
!
'
$ 1- i
( ) ' 1 1 + 1 , 1
' '
'1
+ + z .
5,'+

' C
' 1
+ + z z
5,<+
!
1
% !
'
$ 1 % 'i % 1 7 i $ ' 7 i
Complex Numbers : 7
Tutorials '9892603993 XI/XII/CET Mathematics
sin $
'=
'

r
b

C
'
tan



,
_


C
'
tan
1

AnsD
'= z
and
arg ! $
,
_


C
'
tan
1

,ii+ ! $
'
< 1 i +
a $
'
1

, b $
'
<
Iod $
' '
b a r z +
$
' '
+ ' > < , + ' > 1 , +
$
?
?
?
<
?
1
+ $ 1
cos $
'
1

r
a
,
sin $
'
<

r
b


<
'
1'-
-


AnsD
1 z
and
arg ! $
<
'
1'-
-


Q1
7
2implify and hence find the moduli
and argument of the following
complex numbers
,i+
i B 1C +
,ii+
<
'
< 1

,
_

+ i
An
s
,i+
i B 1C +
( ) i ib a B 1C
'
+ +
( ) i i ab b a B 1C + ' ,
' '
+ +
a
'
- b
'
$ 1C and 'ab $ B
a
'
- b
'
$ 1C and b $ ?>a
a
'
- ,?>a+
'
$ 1C
a
'
- ,1A>a
'
+ $ 1C
a
?
-1Ca
'
- 1A $ -
,a
'
%1+ ,a
'
-1A+ $ -

i z z + '
' 1
$ ( ) C 1 ? + 1 , '
' '
+ + 5,?+
;rom ,<+ &,?+
' 1 ' 1
z z z z + +
,ii+
'
C
'
1

z
z
5,C+
J;rom ,1+ and ,'+K
i
i
z
z

1
' 1
'
1
$
'
'
1
' ' 1
+ 1 +, 1 ,
+ 1 +, ' 1 ,
i
i i i
i i
i i

+ + +

+
+ +
$
'
< 1
1 1
' < 1 i i +

+
+
$
i
'
<
'
1
+

' '
'
1
'
<
'
1

,
_

+
,
_

z
z
$
?
1-
?
=
?
1
+
$
'
C
'
C
5,A+
'
1
'
1
z
z
z
z

5 J;rom ,C+ and ,A+K


,ii+
<
'
< 1

,
_

+ i
An
s

<
'
< 1

,
_

+ i
$
( )
B
+ < 1 , < < < < < + , 1 + + i i
$
B
= < < < < 1 + + i i
$
1
B
B

! $ 1% i- ,a % ib from +
where a $ 1 and b $ -

' '
b a z +

' '
+ - , + 1 , + $ 1 1
*et argument of ! be
cos $
1
1
1

z
a

sin $
-
1
-

z
b
Complex Numbers : 8
Tutorials '9892603993 XI/XII/CET Mathematics
a
'
$ -1 or a
'
$1A
2ince a r a
'
-1
a
'
$1A a $ t ?
/hen a $ ? b $ 1
/hen a $ - ? b $ -1

i B 1C +
$ ? % i and - ? 7 i
1@ 1 1A ? + +i
&
1@ 1 1A ? + i
"he modulus of
i B 1C +
is 1@
Argument of ? % i be let
cos $
1@
?
t
r
a
,
sin $
1@
1
t
r
b

since is not std angle
tan $ L
AnsD
1@ z
and
arg ! $
,
_


?
1
tan
1

Q1
9
f i z ? <
1
+ and i z + 1
'
, find
,i+ ' 1
< ' z z
,ii+
'
1
z
z
An
s
'!
1
$ ' , - < % ?i+ $ -A % Bi
<!
'
$ < , 1 % i+ $ < % <i
'!
1
7 <!
'
$ , A % Bi+ 7 , < % <i+ $
=% Ci

+ C = +, C = , < '
' 1
i i z z +
$
' '
+ C , + = , +
$ 'C B1+ $ 1'A
,ii+
( )
+ 1 ,
+ 1 ,
+ 1 ,
? <
'
1
'
1
i
i
i
i
z
z
z
z

+
+

$
'
'
1
? ? < <
i
i i i

+ +
$
+ 1 , 1
+ 1 , ? @ <

+ i
$
'
? @ < + + i
$
'
@
'
1
'
@ 1 i i
+
+

' '
'
1
'
@
'
1

,
_

+
,
_

z
z
2ince cos
-
$ 1 and sin
-
$ -,
$ -
-

arg ,!+ $ $ -
-

Q1
8
f
i
b i
i a

+
+
1
'
<
where a, b R,
find , Ca 7 @b +
'
.
An
s
a + .i = (% , i ) ( 2 + ib)
a + .i = 2 + ib & 2i , i
2
b
a + .i = 2 + ib , 2i + b
a + .i , 2 , ib + 2i , b = 0
a , b , 2 + 3i , ib = 0
a , b , 2 , ib + 3i = 0
( a& b , 2 ) + ( & b + 3 ) i = 0
a , b , 2 = 0 & b + 3 = 0
a , b = 2 & b = &3
a , 3 = 2 b = 3
a = 2 + 3
a = 6
a = 6, b = 3
( 3a , 6b)
2

= 7 3 (6) , 6 (3) 8
2

= 7 .3 , .3 8
2
= (0)
2
= 0
9ns ( 3a , 6b)
2
= 0
x
'
$ 1 x $ t 1
;rom e(uation ,'+,
y $
?
1
? ?
'

x
x $ t 1 and y $ - ?
Q2
1
f x % iy $
,
i a
i a

+
show that ay -1 $
x.
An
s
/e ha0e, x % iy
$
' '
' '
' '
i a
i ai a
i a
i a
i a
ai
i a
i a

+ +

+
+

+

1
' '
' '
'
' '
' '
+
+
+

+ +

a
ai
i a
i a
i a
i ai a
4(uating real and imaginary parts, we get,
x $ x
a
a

1
1
'
'
and y $
1
'
'
+ a
a
Gow ay 7 1 $
1
1
'
1
1
'
'
'
'

+

,
_

+ a
a
a
a
a
$
x
i a
i a

+
Complex Numbers : 9
Tutorials '9892603993 XI/XII/CET Mathematics
$
?
?=
?
1
+ $
'
C C
$
'
C
Q2
0
;or what real 0alues of x and y, are
the numbers -< % ix
'
y and x
'
% y % ?i
con)ugate complex numbersM
An
s
*et !
1
$ -< % ix
'
y, !
'
$ x
'
% y % ?i
N
1
!
'
are con)ugate complex numbers.
*et !
1
$
'
z
-< % ix
'
y $ ,x
'
% y + 7 ?i
4(uating real and imaginary parts,
we get,
-< $ x
'
% y 5,1+ and
x
'
y $ -? 5,'+
;rom ,1+, y $ -< 7x
'
.
2ubstituting this in ,'+, we get,
x
'
,-< 7x
'
+ $ -?
x
?
% <x
'
-? $ -
,x
'
% ? + ,x
'
7 1+ $ -
x
'
$ -? or x
'
$ 1.
2ince x R, x
'
-?
Q2
2
f
, i* x
id c
ib a
+
+
+
show that
,
' '
' '
' '
i* x
d c
b a
* x +
+
+
+
An
s
/e ha0e, x % iy $
id c
ib a
+
+
5,1+
"aking con)ugates, we get
id c
ib a
id c
ib a
i* x
+
+

,
_

+
+
+
( )
' 1 ' 1
> > z z z z
id c
ib a
i* x


5,'+
;rom ,1+ and ,'+, we get.
, x % iy + ,x 7 iy+ $
id c
ib a
id c
ib a

+
+
x
'
7 i
'
y
'
$
' ' '
' ' '
d i c
b i a

x
'
% y
'
$
' ' '
' ' '
d i c
b i a
+
+
'
Complex Numbers : 10