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Basic Education

Department:
REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA
basic education
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Curriculum and Assessment
Policy Statement
Further Education and Training Phase
Grades 10-12
National Curriculum Statement (NCS)
CAPS
CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT
GRADES 10-12
LIFE SCIENCES
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
Department of Basic Education
222 Struben Street
Private Bag X895
Pretoria 0001
South Africa
Tel: +27 12 357 3000
Fax: +27 12 323 0601
120 Plein Street Private Bag X9023
Cape Town 8000
South Africa
Tel: +27 21 465 1701
Fax: +27 21 461 8110
Website: http://www.education.gov.za
2011 Department of Basic Education
ISBN: 978-1-4315-0578-4
Design and Layout by: Ndabase Printing Solution
Printed by: Government Printing Works
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
CAPS
FOREWORD BY THE MINISTER
Our national curriculum is the culmination of our efforts over a period of seventeen
years to transform the curriculum bequeathed to us by apartheid. From the start of
democracy we have built our curriculum on the values that inspired our Constitution
(Act 108 of 1996). The Preamble to the Constitution states that the aims of the
Constitution are to:
heal the divisions of the past and establish a society based on democratic
values, social justice and fundamental human rights;
improve the quality of life of all citizens and free the potential of each person;
lay the foundations for a democratic and open society in which government is
based on the will of the people and every citizen is equally protected by law;
and
build a united and democratic South Africa able to take its rightful place as a sovereign state in the family of
nations.
Education and the curriculum have an important role to play in realising these aims.
In 1997 we introduced outcomes-based education to overcome the curricular divisions of the past, but the experience
of implementation prompted a review in 2000. This led to the frst curriculum revision: the Revised National Curriculum
Statement Grades R-9 and the National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 (2002).
Ongoing implementation challenges resulted in another review in 2009 and we revised the Revised National
Curriculum Statement (2002) and the National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 to produce this document.
From 2012 the two National Curriculum Statements, for Grades R-9 and Grades 10-12 respectively, are combined
in a single document and will simply be known as the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12. The National
Curriculum Statement for Grades R-12 builds on the previous curriculum but also updates it and aims to provide
clearer specifcation of what is to be taught and learnt on a term-by-term basis.
The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 represents a policy statement for learning and teaching in South
African schools and comprises of the following:
(a) Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements (CAPS) for all approved subjects listed in this document;
(b) National policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the National Curriculum Statement
Grades R-12; and
(c) National Protocol for Assessment Grades R-12.

MRS ANGIE MOTSHEKGA, MP
MINISTER OF BASIC EDUCATION
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
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CAPS
CONTENTS
SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION TO THE CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENTS .. 3
1.1 Background .....................................................................................................................................................3
1.2 Overview ..........................................................................................................................................................3
1.3 General Aims of the South African Curriculum ............................................................................................4
1.4 Time Allocation ................................................................................................................................................6
1.4.1 Foundation Phase ...................................................................................................................................6
1.4.2 Intermediate Phase .................................................................................................................................6
1.4.3 Senior Phase...........................................................................................................................................7
1.4.4 Grades 10-12 ..........................................................................................................................................7
SECTION 2: INTRODUCTION TO LIFE SCIENCES .........................................................................................8
2.1 What is Life Sciences? ...................................................................................................................................8
2.2 Life Sciences as a School Subject ................................................................................................................9
2.3 The Organisation of the Life Sciences Curriculum ......................................................................................9
2.4 The Purpose of Studying Life Sciences ......................................................................................................12
2.5 Specifc Aims .................................................................................................................................................13
2.5.1 Specifc Aim 1: Knowing Life Sciences .................................................................................................13
2.5.2 Specifc Aim 2: Investigating Phenomena in Life Sciences ..................................................................15
2.5.3 Specifc Aim 3: Appreciating and Understanding the History, Importance and Applications of Life
Sciences in Society ...............................................................................................................................17
2.5.4 Developing Language Skills: Reading and Writing ...............................................................................19
2.6 Time ...............................................................................................................................................................19
2.7 Resources .....................................................................................................................................................19
SECTION 3: CONTENT ........................................................................................................................... 22
3.1 Life Sciences for Grade 10: Content ...........................................................................................................22
3.2 Life Sciences for Grade 11: Content............................................................................................................39
3.3 Life Sciences for Grade 12: Content ...........................................................................................................54
SECTION 4: ASSESSMENT IN LIFE SCIENCES ...........................................................................................66
4.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................................................66
4.2 Informal and Daily Assessment ..................................................................................................................66
4.3 Formal Assessment ......................................................................................................................................67
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
2 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
4.4 Assessment Requirements for Life Sciences: Grades 10-12....................................................................68
4.4.1 Grade 10: Programme of Formal Assessment ......................................................................................68
4.4.2 Grade 11: Programme of Formal Assessment ......................................................................................69
4.4.3 Grade 12: Programme of Formal Assessment ......................................................................................70
4.5 End-of-year Examinations ............................................................................................................................71
4.5.1 Grade 10 ...............................................................................................................................................71
4.5.2 Grade 11 ...............................................................................................................................................72
4.5.3 Grade 12 ...............................................................................................................................................73
4.6 Recording and Reporting ............................................................................................................................74
4.7 Moderation of Assessment ..........................................................................................................................74
4.7.1 Grades 10 and 11 ..................................................................................................................................74
4.7.2 Grade 12 ...............................................................................................................................................75
4.7.2.1 Formal assessment (school-based assessment - SBA)......................................................................75
4.8 General ..........................................................................................................................................................76
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
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SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION TO THE CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENTS FOR LIFE
SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
1.1 Background
The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 (NCS) stipulates policy on curriculum and assessment in the
schooling sector.
To improve implementation, the National Curriculum Statement was amended, with the amendments coming into
effect in January 2012. A single comprehensive Curriculum and Assessment Policy document was developed for
each subject to replace Subject Statements, Learning Programme Guidelines and Subject Assessment Guidelines
in Grades R-12.
1.2 Overview
(a) The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 (January 2012) represents a policy statement for learning
and teaching in South African schools and comprises the following:
(i) Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statements for each approved school subject;
(ii) The policy document, National policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the
National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12; and
(iii) The policy document, National Protocol for Assessment Grades R-12 (January 2012).
(b) The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 (January 2012) replaces the two current national curricula
statements, namely the
(i) Revised National Curriculum Statement Grades R-9, Government Gazette No. 23406 of 31 May 2002,
and
(ii) National Curriculum Statement Grades 10-12 Government Gazettes, No. 25545 of 6 October 2003 and
No. 27594 of 17 May 2005.
(c) The national curriculum statements contemplated in subparagraphs b(i) and (ii) comprise the following policy
documents which will be incrementally repealed by the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 (January
2012) during the period 2012-2014:
(i) The Learning Area/Subject Statements, Learning Programme Guidelines and Subject Assessment
Guidelines for Grades R-9 and Grades 10-12;
(ii) The policy document, National Policy on assessment and qualifcations for schools in the General
Education and Training Band, promulgated in Government Notice No. 124 in Government Gazette No.
29626 of 12 February 2007;
(iii) The policy document, the National Senior Certifcate: A qualifcation at Level 4 on the National
Qualifcations Framework (NQF), promulgated in Government Gazette No.27819 of 20 July 2005;
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
4 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
(iv) The policy document, An addendum to the policy document, the National Senior Certifcate: A
qualifcation at Level 4 on the National Qualifcations Framework (NQF), regarding learners with special
needs, published in Government Gazette, No.29466 of 11 December 2006, is incorporated in the policy
document, National policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the National
Curriculum Statement Grades R-12; and
(v) The policy document, An addendum to the policy document, the National Senior Certifcate: A
qualifcation at Level 4 on the National Qualifcations Framework (NQF), regarding the National Protocol
for Assessment (Grades R-12), promulgated in Government Notice No.1267 in Government Gazette
No. 29467 of 11 December 2006.
(d) The policy document, National policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the
National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12, and the sections on the Curriculum and Assessment Policy as
contemplated in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 of this document constitute the norms and standards of the National
Curriculum Statement Grades R-12. It will therefore, in terms of section 6A of the South African Schools Act,
1996 (Act No. 84 of 1996,) form the basis for the Minister of Basic Education to determine minimum outcomes
and standards, as well as the processes and procedures for the assessment of learner achievement to be
applicable to public and independent schools.
1.3 General aims of the South African Curriculum
(a) The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 gives expression to the knowledge, skills and values worth
learning in South African schools. This curriculum aims to ensure that children acquire and apply knowledge
and skills in ways that are meaningful to their own lives. In this regard, the curriculum promotes knowledge in
local contexts, while being sensitive to global imperatives.
(b) The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 serves the purposes of:
equipping learners, irrespective of their socio-economic background, race, gender, physical ability or
intellectual ability, with the knowledge, skills and values necessary for self-fulflment, and meaningful
participation in society as citizens of a free country;
providing access to higher education;
facilitating the transition of learners from education institutions to the workplace; and
providing employers with a suffcient profle of a learners competences.
(c) The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 is based on the following principles:
Social transformation: ensuring that the educational imbalances of the past are redressed, and that equal
educational opportunities are provided for all sections of the population;
Active and critical learning: encouraging an active and critical approach to learning, rather than rote and
uncritical learning of given truths;
High knowledge and high skills: the minimum standards of knowledge and skills to be achieved at each
grade are specifed and set high, achievable standards in all subjects;
Progression: content and context of each grade shows progression from simple to complex;
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Human rights, inclusivity, environmental and social justice: infusing the principles and practices of social and
environmental justice and human rights as defned in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. The
National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 is sensitive to issues of diversity such as poverty, inequality,
race, gender, language, age, disability and other factors;
Valuing indigenous knowledge systems: acknowledging the rich history and heritage of this country as
important contributors to nurturing the values contained in the Constitution; and
Credibility, quality and effciency: providing an education that is comparable in quality, breadth and depth to
those of other countries.
(d) The National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12 aims to produce learners that are able to:
identify and solve problems and make decisions using critical and creative thinking;
work effectively as individuals and with others as members of a team;
organise and manage themselves and their activities responsibly and effectively;
collect, analyse, organise and critically evaluate information;
communicate effectively using visual, symbolic and/or language skills in various modes;
use science and technology effectively and critically showing responsibility towards the environment and
the health of others; and
demonstrate an understanding of the world as a set of related systems by recognising that problem solving
contexts do not exist in isolation.
(e) Inclusivity should become a central part of the organisation, planning and teaching at each school. This can
only happen if all teachers have a sound understanding of how to recognise and address barriers to learning,
and how to plan for diversity.
The key to managing inclusivity is ensuring that barriers are identifed and addressed by all the relevant support
structures within the school community, including teachers, District-Based Support Teams, Institutional-Level
Support Teams, parents and Special Schools as Resource Centres. To address barriers in the classroom,
teachers should use various curriculum differentiation strategies such as those included in the Department of
Basic Educations Guidelines for Inclusive Teaching and Learning (2010).
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1.4 Time Allocation
1.4.1 Foundation Phase
(a) The instructional time in the Foundation Phase is as follows:
SUBJECT
GRADE R
(HOURS)
GRADES 1-2
(HOURS)
GRADE 3
(HOURS)
Home Language 10 8/7 8/7
First Additional Language 2/3 3/4
Mathematics 7 7 7
Life Skills
Beginning Knowledge
Creative Arts
Physical Education
Personal and Social Well-being
6
(1)
(2)
(2)
(1)
6
(1)
(2)
(2)
(1)
7
(2)
(2)
(2)
(1)
TOTAL 23 23 25
(b) Instructional time for Grades R, 1 and 2 is 23 hours and for Grade 3 is 25 hours.
(c) Ten hours are allocated for languages in Grades R-2 and 11 hours in Grade 3. A maximum of 8 hours and a
minimum of 7 hours are allocated for Home Language and a minimum of 2 hours and a maximum of 3 hours for
Additional Language in Grades 1-2. In Grade 3 a maximum of 8 hours and a minimum of 7 hours are allocated
for Home Language and a minimum of 3 hours and a maximum of 4 hours for First Additional Language.
(d) In Life Skills Beginning Knowledge is allocated 1 hour in Grades R-2 and 2 hours as indicated by the hours in
brackets for Grade 3.
1.4.2 Intermediate Phase
(a) The instructional time in the Intermediate Phase is as follows:
SUBJECT HOURS
Home Language 6
First Additional Language 5
Mathematics 6
Natural Sciences and Technology 3,5
Social Sciences 3
Life Skills
Creative Arts
Physical Education
Personal and Social Well-being
4
(1,5)
(1)
(1,5)
TOTAL 27,5
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1.4.3 Senior Phase
(a) The instructional time in the Senior Phase is as follows:
SUBJECT HOURS
Home Language 5
First Additional Language 4
Mathematics 4,5
Natural Sciences 3
Social Sciences 3
Technology 2
Economic Management Sciences 2
Life Orientation 2
Creative Arts 2
TOTAL 27,5
1.4.4 Grades 10-12
(a) The instructional time in Grades 10-12 is as follows:
SUBJECT TIME ALLOCATION PER WEEK (HOURS)
Home Language 4.5
First Additional Language 4.5
Mathematics 4.5
Life Orientation 2
A minimum of any three subjects selected from Group B Annexure
B, Tables B1-B8 of the policy document, National policy pertaining
to the programme and promotion requirements of the National
Curriculum Statement Grades R-12, subject to the provisos
stipulated in paragraph 28 of the said policy document.
12 (3x4h)
TOTAL 27,5
The allocated time per week may be utilised only for the minimum required NCS subjects as specifed above,
and may not be used for any additional subjects added to the list of minimum subjects. Should a learner wish
to offer additional subjects, additional time must be allocated for the offering of these subjects.

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SECTION 2
APPROACHING LIFE SCIENCES
2.1 What is Life Sciences?
Life Sciences is the scientifc study of living things from molecular level to their interactions with one another and
their environments. To be accepted as a science, it is necessary to use certain methods for broadening existing
knowledge, or discovering new things. These methods must lend themselves to replication and a systematic approach
to scientifc inquiry. The methods include formulating hypotheses and carrying out investigations and experiments as
objectively as possible to test these hypotheses. Repeated investigations are carried out and adapted. The methods
and results are analysed, evaluated and debated before the community of scientists accepts them as valid.
Knowledge production in science is an ongoing endeavour that usually happens gradually but, occasionally, knowledge
and insights take a leap forward as new knowledge, or a new theory, replaces what was previously accepted. As
with all knowledge, scientifc knowledge changes over time as scientists improve their knowledge and understanding
and as people change their views of the world around them. Scientifc investigations are mostly about things that
are poorly understood or not understood at all. Scientists are frequently involved in debates and disagreements. As
more people take on such investigations, they tend to reach consensus about the ways in which the world works. The
science theory that is taught in schools has been tested and is generally accepted. A good teacher will inform learners
of debates and arguments among the scientists who were the frst to investigate a phenomenon.
Scientists continue to explore the unknown. They tackle questions to which no-one has defnite answers, such as:
Why is the climate changing?; What is causing the universe to expand?; What causes the Earths magnetic feld
to change?; and What, exactly, is the human mind?. No one knows for sure
By studying and learning about Life Sciences, learners will develop:
their knowledge of key biological concepts, processes, systems and theories;
an ability to critically evaluate and debate scientifc issues and processes;
greater awareness of the ways in which biotechnology and knowledge of Life Sciences have benefted
humankind;
an understanding of the ways in which humans have impacted negatively on the environment and organisms
living in it;
a deep appreciation of the unique diversity of past and present biomes in Southern Africa and the importance
of conservation;
an awareness of what it means to be a responsible citizen in terms of the environment and life-style choices
that they make;
an awareness of South African scientists contributions;
scientifc skills and ways of thinking scientifcally that enable them to see the faws in pseudo-science in
popular media; and
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a level of academic and scientifc literacy that enables them to read, talk about, write and think about biological
processes, concepts and investigations.
2.2 Life Sciences as a School Subject
Life Sciences is the study of life at various levels of organisation and comprises a variety of sub-disciplines, or
specialisations, such as:
Biochemistry;
Biotechnology;
Microbiology;
Genetics;
Zoology;
Botany;
Entomology;
Physiology (plant and animal);
Anatomy (plant and animal);
Morphology (plant and animal);
Taxonomy (plant and animal);
Environmental Studies; and
Sociobiology (animal behaviour).
At school level, all of these sub-disciplines are introduced, to varying degrees, to provide a broad overview of the
subject, Life Sciences. The three main reasons for taking Life Sciences are:
to provide useful knowledge and skills that are needed in everyday life
to expose learners to the scope of biological studies to stimulate interest in and create awareness of possible
specialisations; and
to provide a suffcient background for further studies in one or more of the biological sub-disciplines.
2.3 The Organisation of the Life Sciences Curriculum
The Life Sciences content framework is organised according to four knowledge strands. Knowledge strands are
developed progressively over the three years of FET. These knowledge strands are:
Knowledge Strand 1: Life at the Molecular, Cellular and Tissue Level;
Knowledge Strand 2:Life Processes in Plants and Animals
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
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Knowledge Strand 3: Environmental Studies;
Knowledge Strand 4: Diversity, Change and Continuity.
These Knowledge Strands and the topics within each knowledge strand should not be studied separately or
independently. The Knowledge Strands do not need to be taught in the same sequence each year, nor do all four
Knowledge Strands have to be covered in each year. This categorisation is simply a tool for organising the subject
content and they are also not weighted equally. When teaching Life Sciences, it is very important to help learners
to recognise the links between related topics so that they acquire a thorough understanding of the nature and inter-
connectedness of life. These links must also be made across grades.
Life Sciences: Concept and Content Progression
Strands
Life at molecular,
cellular, and tissue level
Life processes in plants
and animals
Diversity, change and
continuity
Environmental studies
Grade
10
Chemistry of life
- Inorganic
compounds
- Organic
compounds
Cell - unit of life
Cell division (mitosis)
Plant and animal
tissues
Support and transport
systems in plants
Support systems in
animals
Transport system in
mammals
Biodiversity and
classifcation
History of life on Earth
Biosphere to
ecosystems
Grade
11
Energy
transformations
to support life:
photosynthesis
Animal nutrition
Energy
transformations:
respiration
Gas exchange
Excretion
Biodiversity -
classifcation of
microorganisms
Biodiversity - plants
Reproduction - plants
Biodiversity - animals
Population ecology
Human impact on
environment: current
crises
Grade
12
DNA code of Life
RNA and protein
synthesis
Meiosis
Reproduction in
vertebrates
Human reproduction
Nervous system
Senses
Endocrine system
Homeostasis
Darwinism and
Natural Selection
Human evolution
Human impact on
environment: current
crises Grade 11
The content framework focuses on ideas, skills and concepts as well as connections between them, rather than on
listing the facts and procedures that need to be learned. It also does not prescribe particular instructional strategies
or methodologies. Instead, educators have the freedom to expand concepts and to design and organise learning
experiences according to their local circumstances, including the availability of resources.
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In Grade 10, all four Knowledge Strands are addressed and serve to introduce learners to the four strands.
The recommended Grade 10 teaching sequence for the four Knowledge Strands is:
1. Life at Molecular, Cellular and Tissue level (Molecules to organs)
2. Life Processes in Plants and Animals (Processes that sustain life)
3. Environmental Studies (Biosphere to Ecosystems)
4. Diversity, Change and Continuity (History of Life on Earth)
The rationale for this order In Grade 10 is that some areas of South Africa are best suited for an environmental study
during early spring and also because seasonal comparisons in a chosen ecosystem are required where possible.
Some teachers may elect to deal with the Environmental Study at the beginning of the year. However it is important to
retain the sequence of Knowledge Strand 1 before Knowledge Strand 2 and Knowledge Strand 3 before Knowledge
Strand 4. Decisions regarding the sequence (starting the year with Knowledge Strands 1 and 2 or starting the year
with Knowledge Strands 3 and 4) must be made by teachers.
The frst section in Grade 10, called Subject Orientation, is designed to prepare learners for the FET phase, and is
intended to:
connect what learners learned in the GET (Natural Sciences) with what they will be learning in the FET (Life
Sciences). The Life Sciences subject builds on knowledge and skills acquired from the Life Sciences knowledge
areas in GET.
describe how knowledge is built/constructed in science, and introduces the scientifc approach that both
teachers and learners are required to use when teaching and learning Life Sciences.
introduce learners to some basic principles related to science.
familiarise learners with the range of skills that they will need to develop.
The orientation should be done in the frst lessons as an introduction but is not part of the assessable curriculum
although the principles and skills will be assessed in the context of specifc content during the year. Learners will
have been exposed to similar orientations at the start of the Senior Phase (Grade 7) and at the start of High School
(Grade 8). The orientation on Grade 10 should then simply remind learners of what is expected of them and expand
on some of the aspects.
In Grade 11, three of the four Knowledge Strands are addressed and serve to ensure progression. The content
described in Life at Molecular, Cellular and Tissue level in Grade 10 is used to understand Life Processes in Plant
and Animals in Grade 11 but it is not taught as a separate strand in Grade 11.
The recommended Grade 11 teaching sequence for the three Knowledge Strands is:
1. Diversity, Change and Continuity (Microorganisms, Plants and Animals)
2. Life Processes in Plants and Animals (Processes that sustain life)
3. Environmental Studies (Population Ecology and Human Impact)
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In Grade 12, three of the four Knowledge Strands are addressed and serve to ensure progression. The content
described in Environmental Studies: Human Impacts (Current Crises) is dealt with in Grade 11 in order to lessen the
pressure in Grade 12 but this Knowledge Strand will be examined in the National Senior Certifcate examination at
the end of Grade 12.
The recommended Grade 12 teaching sequence for the four Knowledge Strands is:
1. Life at Molecular, Cellular and Tissue level (DNA and protein synthesis)
2. Life Processes in Plants and Animals (Processes that sustain life)
3. Diversity, Change and Continuity (Darwinsim and Human Evolution)
4. Environmental Studies (Human Impact, taught and assessed in Grade 11)
The identifed range of cognitive and practical skills must be taught, and assessed, in an integrated way in the context
provided by the topics in the four Knowledge Strands in each year in the FET band.
2.4 The Purpose of Studying Life Sciences
The development of Scientifc Knowledge and Understanding
Scientifc knowledge and understanding can be used to answer questions about the nature of the living world
around us. It can prepare learners for economic activity and self-expression and it lays the basis of further
studies in science and prepares learners for active participation in a democratic society that values human
rights and promotes acting responsibly towards the environment.
The Development of Science Process Skills (Scientifc Investigations)
The teaching and learning of science involves the development of a range of process skills that may be used
in everyday life, in the community and in the workplace. Learners can gain these skills in an environment that
supports creativity, responsibility and growing confdence. Learners develop the ability to think objectively
and use different types of reasoning while they use process skills to investigate, refect, synthesise and
communicate.
The Development of an Understanding of Sciences Roles in society
Both science and technology have made a major impact, both positive and negative, on our world. A careful
selection of scientifc content and the use of a variety of methods to teach and learn science should promote
the understanding of science as a human activity as well as the history of science and the relationship between
Life Sciences and other subjects. It also helps learners to understand the contribution of science to social
justice and societal development as well as the need for using scientifc knowledge responsibly in the interest
of ourselves, society and the environment. Moreover, understanding science also helps us to understand the
consequences of decisions that involve ethical issues.
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2.5 Specifc Aims
There are three broad subject-specifc aims in Life Sciences which relate to the purposes of learning science. These
are:
1. Specifc Aim 1, which relates to knowing the subject content (theory);
2. Specifc Aim 2, which relates to doing science or practical work and investigations; and
3. Specifc Aim 3, which relates to understanding the applications of Life Sciences in everyday life, as well as
understanding the history of scientifc discoveries and the relationship between indigenous knowledge and
science.
WHAT DO THE THREE AIMS MEAN AND HOW DO THEY RELATE TO ASSESSMENT?
2.5.1 Specifc Aim 1: Knowing Life Sciences
(Life Sciences concepts, processes, phenomena, mechanisms, principles, theories, laws, models, etcetera).
Specifc Aim 1 involves knowing, understanding, and making meaning of sciences, thereby enabling learners to make
many connections between the ideas and concepts. Making such connections makes it possible for learners to apply
their knowledge in new and unfamiliar contexts. The process of acquiring a deep understanding of science is about
more than just knowing a lot of facts. The scope of knowledge that learners should acquire includes knowledge of the
process skills related to carrying out investigations.
The following cognitive (thinking) skills comprise the range of skills that all learners should develop by working
through the curriculum in a school year. These skills indicate what should be assessed at the appropriate grade
level in a variety of different kinds of assessments. Note that not every skill is assessed in every assessment, but
that teachers must ensure that, by the end of the year, the assessments provide evidence that the range of different
skills have been assessed for each learner.
2.5.1.1 Acquire Knowledge
In the process of acquiring knowledge learners must:
access information from a variety of sources (teachers, reference books, textbooks, internet, experts, peers,
parents, etc.);
select key ideas;
recall facts; and
describe concepts, processes, phenomena, mechanisms, principles, theories, laws and models in Life
Sciences.
Assessment
In order to assess these competences (or cognitive skills), teachers should use the following verbs in the tasks or
assessments that they set: state, name, label, list, defne, describe and any other verbs that indicate that learners
knowledge of the subject is being assessed.
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2.5.1.2 Understand and Make Connections Between Ideas and Concepts to Make Meaning of Life Sciences
In the process of making meaning and achieving understanding learners must:
build a conceptual framework of science ideas;
organise or reorganise knowledge to derive new meaning;
write summaries;
develop fow charts, diagrams and mind maps; and
recognise patterns and trends.
Assessment
In order to assess these competencies (cognitive skills), teachers should use the following verbs in the tasks or
assessments they set: explain, compare, rearrange, give an example of, illustrate, calculate, interpret, suggest a
reason, make a generalisation, interpret information or data, predict, select, differentiate or any other suitable verbs
that indicate that learners understanding of the subject is being assessed.
2.5.1.3 Apply Knowledge on Life Sciences in New and Unfamiliar Contexts
Learners must be able to:
use information in a new way; and
apply knowledge to new and unfamiliar contexts.
Assessment
In order to assess these competencies (cognitive skills), teachers should use the following verbs in the tasks or
assessments that they set: demonstrate, interpret, predict, compare, differentiate, illustrate, solve and select as well
as any other appropriate verbs that assess a learners ability to apply knowledge. The key is that learners must be
able to apply knowledge in a context or situation for which they have not yet acquired specifc knowledge, or use the
knowledge in a new way.
2.5.1.4 Analyse, Evaluate and Synthesise Scientifc Knowledge, Concepts and Ideas
In the process of learning science, learners must be able to:
analyse information/data;
recognise relationships between existing knowledge and new ideas;
critically evaluate scientifc information;
identify assumptions; and
categorise information.
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
15
CAPS
Assessment
In order to assess these competencies (cognitive skills), teachers should use the following verbs in the tasks or
assessments that they set: appraise, argue, judge, select, evaluate, defend (a point of view), compare, contrast,
criticise (an argument or assumption) differentiate, distinguish, discuss or any other suitable verbs that indicate that
analysis, evaluation and synthesis are being assessed.
2.5.2 Specifc Aim 2: Investigating Phenomena in Life Sciences
Learners must be able to plan and carry out investigations as well as solve problems that require some practical
ability. This ability is underpinned by an attitude of curiosity and an interest in wanting to fnd out how the natural world
and living things in it work.
The following range of skills relates to doing practical work in Life Sciences. All seven skills will not apply to every
activity equally. The skills are aligned to what learners would be doing in the normal course of carrying out an
investigation. Teachers must select those skills that apply to and can be assessed in the context of specifc activities.
By the end of the Grade 10 year, all seven skills must have been assessed at a grade-appropriate level.
Note: While doing practical investigations involves a specifc range of skills, learners knowledge on and understanding
of science can, and should, be assessed within the context of the cognitive domains of Specifc Aim 1.
Learners must be able to:
2.5.2.1 Follow Instructions
This is essential, especially in the lower grades and in large classes. Teachers cannot expect all learners to use
unfamiliar equipment and to do so independently without giving them a clear set of instructions to follow. The amount
of assistance required would indicate the level of performance in this regard. Adherence to safety rules should be
part of this.
2.5.2.2 Handle Equipment or Apparatus
This should include having knowledge of the apparatus, that is, being able to name it and knowing what it is used
for. The learner should be able to use different kinds of equipment. Handling equipment is a generic skill and
applies to any equipment used for many different kinds of investigations. Handling improvised equipment requires the
same skills as would be required for handling standard laboratory equipment. The emphasis is on using equipment
appropriately and safely (and not on only memorising the names of apparatus).
2.5.2.3 Make Observations
A variety of observations are possible and observations can be recorded in different ways, such as:
drawings;
descriptions;
grouping of materials or examples based on observable similarities and/or differences;
measurements;
comparing materials before and after treatment;
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
16 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
observing results of an experimental investigation which will involve recording information in an appropriate
way; and
counting.
2.5.2.4 Record Information or Data
This should include recording observations or information as drawings, descriptions, in simple table format, as simple
graphs, etc. The skill of recording is transferable across a range of different scientifc activities.
2.5.2.5 Measure
Learners should know what to measure, how to measure it and have a sense of the degree of accuracy that is
required. A variety of things could be measured including (but not limited to) length, volume, temperature, weight or
mass and numbers (counting). Measuring is a way of quantifying observations and in this process learners should
learn to make estimations.
2.5.2.6 Interpret
Learners should be able to convert information from one form, in which it was recorded, into another, for instance
converting a table into an appropriate graph.
Learners should be able to perform appropriate simple calculations, to analyse and extract information from tables
and graphs, apply knowledge of theory to practical situations, recognise patterns and/or trends, appreciate the
limitations of experimental procedures as well as make deductions based on evidence.
2.5.2.7 Design/Plan Investigations or Experiments
Not all investigations are based on the classic dependent-independent variables and controls. For example, an
investigation could involve observing soil profles or counting populations.
Designing an investigation is a different process to planning an investigation. In the design process options need to
be considered in terms of the hypothesis and variables may have to be identifed.
Skills include:
identifying a problem;
hypothesising;
selecting apparatus or equipment and/or materials;
identifying variables;
suggesting ways of controlling variables;
planning an experiment;
suggesting ways of recording results; and
understanding the need for replication or verifcation.
In Grades 10, 11 and 12, learners must be able to plan and/or design a simple investigation or experiment.
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
17
CAPS
Note: Skills 2.5.2.1-2.5.2.6 (following instructions, handling equipment, making observations, recording information,
measuring and interpreting information) are all required, in one form or another, to carry out an experiment or
investigation. By separating seven different kinds of skills (2.5.2.1-2.5.2.7), these skills can apply to the variety of
practical work that is appropriate for a particular grade in Life Sciences, including simple investigations or experiments.
This approach makes it easier to assess learners in a range of different circumstances and it enables a teacher to
judge a learners ability to do science. The skills are based on what learners will be doing actions during the normal
course of doing practical work. However, there are some circumstances in which only some of these skills would
apply and not every skill can be assessed in every practical task.
2.5.3 Specifc Aim 3: Appreciating and Understanding the History, Importance and Applications of Life
Sciences in Society
The third aim of Life Sciences is to enable learners to understand that school science can be relevant to their lives
outside of the school and that it enriches their lives.
Learners must be exposed to the history of science and indigenous knowledge systems from other times and other
cultures. Scientifc knowledge and understanding have been developed over time by people who were curious and
who persevered with their quest for knowledge. Our present understanding of science will change and improve as
modern scientists make new discoveries.
The skills that can be developed in the process of achieving Specifc Aim 3 are cognitive rather than practical. These
are the same cognitive skills as the ones identifed for Specifc Aim1.
Since the knowledge that will be acquired in respect of Specifc Aim 3 always relates to specifc subject content, the
content provides the context for learning about various aspects of science in society. Science should therefore be
taught in an integrated way in order to both enhance the subject and to clarify the relationship between the subject
and society i.e. indigenous knowledge systems that relate to a specifc topic, related history of scientifc discoveries
and the applications of science in everyday life.
2.5.3.1 Understanding the History and Relevance of Some Scientifc Discoveries
The subject content provides the context for learning about the history of scientifc discoveries and their relevance for
society. These aspects, the history and relevance, should be linked to and taught in conjunction with the topics and
content that are related to a particular discovery or a particular scientist.
2.5.3.2 The Relationship Between Indigenous knowledge and Life Sciences
All knowledge stems from views on how the world works. One of the differences between modern science (and
technology) and traditional, indigenous knowledge systems is that they have their origins in different world views.
Learners should understand the different cultural contexts in which indigenous knowledge systems were developed.
The examples of indigenous knowledge that are selected for study should, as far as possible, refect different South
African cultural groups. They should also link directly to specifc areas in the Life Sciences subject content.
2.5.3.3 The Value and Application of Life Sciences Knowledge in the Industry in Respect of Career
Opportunities and in Everyday Life
Knowledge of Life Sciences is applied in and relevant to various aspects of society. Examples should be relevant to
the subject content that learners are dealing with at a particular time. There are career opportunities in the feld of
socio-biology and animal behaviour, plant pathology, game management, environmental impact studies, preservation
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
18 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
of biodiversity, palaeontology, palaeoanthropology, agriculture, horticulture, environmental law, science journalism,
biotechnology, genetic engineering, and many others. Moreover, although learners should be made aware of career
choices, it is not necessary to discuss or teach these in great detail.
Skills
Whilst the kind of knowledge is different for Specifc Aims 1 and 3, the content should be taught in an integrated way
in order for learners to understand the history, relevance and applications of science more easily. Importantly, the
skills that must be developed and assessed for Specifc Aim 3 are the same as those of Specifc Aim 1 (under 2.5).
Learners must be able to:
access information;
select key ideas;
recall information;
describe knowledge of natural sciences;
build a conceptual framework;
organise or reorganise knowledge;
write summaries;
develop fow charts and mind maps;
recognise patterns and trends;
apply knowledge in new contexts;
use knowledge in a new way;
analyse information/data;
critically evaluate scientifc information;
recognise relationships between existing;
knowledge and new ideas;
identify assumptions; and
categorise information.
The three aims are aligned with the three learning outcomes with which teachers are familiar. Within each of these
aims, specifc skills or competences have been identifed. It is not advisable to try to assess each of the skills
separately, nor is it possible to report on individual skills separately. However, well designed assessments must
show evidence that, by the end of the year, all of the skills have been assessed at a grade-appropriate level.
There must be a clear link between the aims and the outcomes of learning. The processes of teaching, learning and
assessment will provide the links between the specifc aims and the achievement of the outcomes.
Specifc Aim 1.1
Specifc Aim 1.2
Specifc Aim 1.3
Specifc Aim 1.4
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
19
CAPS
2.5.4 Developing Language Skills: Reading and Writing
Teachers of Life Sciences should be aware that they are also engaged in teaching language across the curriculum.
This is particularly important for learners for whom the Language of Learning and Teaching (LoLT) is not their home
language. It is important to provide learners with opportunities to develop and improve their language skills in the
context of learning Life Sciences. It will therefore be critical to afford learners opportunities to read scientifc texts and
to write reports, paragraphs and short essays as part of the assessment, especially in (but not limited to) the informal
assessments for learning.
2.6 Time
The time allocation for Life Sciences is 4 hours per week in Grades 10 to 12.
The curriculum for Grade 10 has been designed to be completed within 32 weeks out of 40 weeks in the school year.
This leaves 8 weeks in the year for examinations, tests and disruptions due to other school activities.
The curriculum for Grade 11 has been designed to be completed within 32 weeks out of 40 weeks in the school year.
This leaves 8 weeks in the year for examinations, tests and disruptions due to other school activities.
The curriculum for Grade 12 has been designed to be completed within 27 weeks out of 40 weeks in the school
year. This leaves 12 weeks in the year for examinations, tests and disruptions due to other school activities.
In Grades 10, 11 and 12 the time allocated for the teaching of the content includes the practical tasks and
investigations. These are an integral part of the teaching and learning process.
2.7 Resources
The resources needed for teaching Life Sciences are listed next to each topic in order to assist teachers with planning
and preparation.
Every learner must have his or her own textbook. Teachers should ensure that a system is in place for recovering
textbooks at the end of every year. Schools must provide secure storage space where textbooks and other equipment
can be stored safely.
Ideally, every learner should have access to suffcient workspace and equipment to carry out investigations. For safety
reasons, no more than three learners may share space and equipment in instances where space and equipment are
limited due to large classes. With regard to equipment, schools must make every effort to ensure that the essential
equipment is provided.
While it is acknowledged that it is not ideal to use improvised equipment, teachers should remember that it is more
important for learners to have the experience of carrying out a variety of investigations than to depend on the
availability of standard laboratory equipment. If equipment is limited, teachers should be encouraged to improvise.
The same skills can be developed using improvised equipment. Moreover, if there are no alternatives, it is more
effective for teachers to demonstrate an investigation than to not do investigations at all due to a lack of equipment.
Secure storage for equipment and chemicals must be provided by the school.
Teachers should ensure that learners are familiar with rules regarding the safe use of equipment and chemicals. The
Life Sciences classroom or laboratory should be equipped with charts, Bunsen burners or spirit lamps, hand lenses,
bioviewers and relevant biostrips, microscopes, a set of prepared slides, glass slides and cover slips, reference
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
20 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
books, blades or scalpels, models, feld guides, identifcation keys, thermometers, glass beakers, test tubes and
chemicals, and, if at all possible, access to appropriate DVDs and a DVD player.
Fresh plant material can be obtained from the surroundings and teachers should ensure that appropriate plants (e.g.,
Impatiens) are planted on the school grounds. Fresh animal material can very often be obtained at reasonable prices
from local butchers.
Teachers must be qualifed to teach the subject and must familiarise themselves with the equipment and how it is
used.
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
21
CAPS
SECTION 3
3.1 LIFE SCIENCES FOR GRADE 10: CONTENT
The frst part of the curriculum in Grade 10, called Subject Orientation, is included to prepare learners for Life
Sciences in the FET band. Its purpose is to:
familiarise learners with the way in which the teacher will organise learning activities;
familiarise learners with the behaviour that will be required and rules of safety;
connect what learners have learnt in the Senior Phase with what they will learn and the range of skills that they
must develop in FET;
describe how knowledge is constructed in Life Sciences and to confrm a scientifc approach that both teachers
and learners will be required to use when teaching and learning Life Sciences; and
introduce learners to some basic principles related to Life Sciences
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
22 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
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n
d
s

o
f

g
r
a
p
h
s

a
n
d

w
h
e
n

t
o

u
s
e

t
h
e
m
;

i
n
t
e
r
p
r
e
t
i
n
g

g
r
a
p
h
s
.


c
a
l
c
u
l
a
t
i
n
g

O
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

l
e
a
r
n
i
n
g

a
n
d

r
u
l
e
s

i
n
c
l
u
d
e
:


u
s
i
n
g

e
q
u
i
p
m
e
n
t

a
n
d

o
t
h
e
r

r
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
s
;


u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

p
r
o
c
e
d
u
r
e
s

a
n
d

h
o
w

t
o

s
a
f
e
l
y

u
s
e

a
p
p
a
r
a
t
u
s

i
n

l
a
b
o
r
a
t
o
r
i
e
s

a
n
d

c
l
a
s
s
r
o
o
m
s
;


w
o
r
k
i
n
g

i
n

g
r
o
u
p
s
;


u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

a
s
s
e
s
s
m
e
n
t

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
m
e
n
t
s
;

a
n
d


a

v
e
r
y

b
r
i
e
f

m
e
n
t
i
o
n

o
f

c
a
r
e
e
r
s

a
n
d

s
u
b
j
e
c
t

c
o
m
b
i
n
a
t
i
o
n
s

f
o
r

e
n
t
r
a
n
c
e

t
o

h
i
g
h
e
r

e
d
u
c
a
t
i
o
n
.
N
o
t
e
:

T
h
i
s

i
n
t
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

i
s

n
o
t

a
s
s
e
s
s
a
b
l
e
.

H
o
w
e
v
e
r
,

t
h
e

r
e
l
e
v
a
n
t

a
s
p
e
c
t
s

m
u
s
t

b
e

i
n
c
o
r
p
o
r
a
t
e
d

i
n
t
o

i
n

t
h
e

c
o
n
t
e
x
t

o
f

t
h
e

s
p
e
c
i
f
c

c
o
n
t
e
n
t

w
h
e
r
e

t
h
e
y

a
p
p
l
y
,

a
n
d

w
i
l
l

t
h
e
n

b
e

a
s
s
e
s
s
e
d
.

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
23
CAPS
T
E
R
M

1
S
t
r
a
n
d

1
:

L
i
f
e

a
t

t
h
e

M
o
l
e
c
u
l
a
r
,

C
e
l
l
u
l
a
r

a
n
d

T
i
s
s
u
e

L
e
v
e
l
A
l
l

l
i
v
i
n
g

o
r
g
a
n
i
s
m
s

a
r
e

m
a
d
e

o
f

a
t
o
m
s

w
h
i
c
h

c
o
m
b
i
n
e

t
o

f
o
r
m

m
o
l
e
c
u
l
e
s
.

I
n

t
u
r
n
,

t
h
e
s
e

m
o
l
e
c
u
l
e
s

m
a
k
e

u
p

t
h
e

b
a
s
i
c

u
n
i
t
s

o
f

l
i
f
e

i
.
e
.

c
e
l
l
s
.

P
l
a
n
t

a
n
d

a
n
i
m
a
l

c
e
l
l
s

h
a
v
e

a

c
o
m
p
l
e
x

o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n

w
h
i
c
h

e
n
a
b
l
e
s

t
h
e
m

t
o

c
a
r
r
y

o
u
t

t
h
e

b
a
s
i
c

p
r
o
c
e
s
s
e
s

o
f

l
i
f
e
,

i
.
e
.

m
o
v
e
m
e
n
t

(
m
o
v
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

a
n
d

a
r
o
u
n
d

t
h
e

c
e
l
l
s

a
n
d

s
o
m
e

c
e
l
l
s

m
o
v
e
)
,

n
u
t
r
i
t
i
o
n

(
c
e
l
l
s

p
r
o
d
u
c
e

f
o
o
d

o
r

o
b
t
a
i
n

f
o
o
d

f
r
o
m

e
l
s
e
w
h
e
r
e
)
,

r
e
s
p
i
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

e
x
c
r
e
t
i
o
n
,

g
r
o
w
t
h
,

r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

r
e
s
p
o
n
d
i
n
g

t
o

s
t
i
m
u
l
i
.

C
e
l
l
s

a
r
e

s
p
e
c
i
a
l
i
s
e
d

a
n
d

f
o
r
m

t
i
s
s
u
e
s

w
h
i
c
h

p
e
r
f
o
r
m

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
s
.

T
h
e

t
i
s
s
u
e
s

a
r
e

a
r
r
a
n
g
e
d

i
n
t
o

o
r
g
a
n
s

w
h
i
c
h

a
r
e

a
l
s
o

s
p
e
c
i
a
l
i
s
e
d

t
o

c
a
r
r
y

o
u
t

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
s
.

T
h
i
s

s
t
r
a
n
d

i
n
t
r
o
d
u
c
e
s

l
e
a
r
n
e
r
s

t
o

l
i
f
e

a
t

t
h
e

m
o
l
e
c
u
l
a
r
,

c
e
l
l
u
l
a
r
,

t
i
s
s
u
e

a
n
d

o
r
g
a
n

l
e
v
e
l

(
l
i
n
k
s

t
o

G
r
a
d
e

9
)
.

T
i
m
e

T
o
p
i
c
C
o
n
t
e
n
t
I
n
v
e
s
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n
s
R
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
s
2


w
e
e
k
s
(
1
0

h
o
u
r
s
)
T
h
e

C
h
e
m
i
s
t
r
y

o
f

L
i
f
e
M
o
l
e
c
u
l
e
s

F
o
r

L
i
f
e

O
r
g
a
n
i
c

m
o
l
e
c
u
l
e
s

a
r
e

m
a
d
e

u
p

o
f

C
,

H
,

a
n
d

O
,

a
n
d

s
o
m
e

c
o
n
t
a
i
n

o
t
h
e
r

e
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
,

s
u
c
h

a
s

N

a
n
d

P
.

C
e
l
l
s

a
r
e

m
a
d
e

u
p

o
f

p
r
o
t
e
i
n
s
,

c
a
r
b
o
h
y
d
r
a
t
e
s
,

l
i
p
i
d
s
,

n
u
c
l
e
i
c

a
c
i
d
s

a
n
d

v
i
t
a
m
i
n
s
.
(
O
n
l
y

b
a
s
i
c

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
a
l

d
e
t
a
i
l

r
e
q
u
i
r
e
d
.
)
I
n
o
r
g
a
n
i
c

C
o
m
p
o
u
n
d
s


T
h
e

m
a
i
n

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
s

o
f
:
-


w
a
t
e
r
:

2

H

a
n
d

1

O
;

-


m
i
n
e
r
a
l
s
:

e
.
g
.
,

N
a
,

K
,

C
a
,

P
,

F
e
,

I
,

n
i
t
r
a
t
e
s
,

p
h
o
s
p
h
a
t
e
s
;

m
a
c
r
o

a
n
d

m
i
c
r
o

e
l
e
m
e
n
t
s
;

m
a
i
n

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
s

a
n
d

d
e
f
c
i
e
n
c
y

d
i
s
e
a
s
e
s

(
l
i
n
k

t
o

n
u
t
r
i
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

G
r
a
d
e

9
)
.


T
h
e

n
e
e
d

f
o
r

f
e
r
t
i
l
i
s
e
r
s

i
n

o
v
e
r

u
t
i
l
i
s
e
d

s
o
i
l
s
,

e
.
g
.
,

w
h
e
r
e

c
r
o
p
s

a
r
e

g
r
o
w
n

a
n
d

r
e
g
u
l
a
r
l
y

h
a
r
v
e
s
t
e
d
,

f
e
r
t
i
l
i
z
e
r
s

a
r
e

w
a
s
h
e
d

a
w
a
y

i
n
t
o

r
i
v
e
r
s
,

a
n
d

e
u
t
r
o
p
h
i
c
a
t
i
o
n

c
a
n

t
a
k
e

p
l
a
c
e

(
l
i
n
k

t
o

e
c
o
l
o
g
y
)
.
O
p
t
i
o
n
a
l
:


C
o
n
s
t
r
u
c
t

m
o
d
e
l
s

o
f

s
i
m
p
l
e

a
n
d

m
o
r
e

c
o
m
p
l
e
x

m
o
l
e
c
u
l
e
s

u
s
i
n
g

b
e
a
d
s

o
r

p
l
a
s
t
i
c
i
n
e
.


A
n
a
l
y
s
e

n
u
t
r
i
t
i
o
n
a
l

c
o
n
t
e
n
t

i
n
d
i
c
a
t
e
d

o
n

f
o
o
d

p
a
c
k
a
g
i
n
g
:

v
i
t
a
m
i
n
s
,

m
i
n
e
r
a
l
s

a
n
d

o
t
h
e
r

n
u
t
r
i
t
i
o
n
a
l

c
o
n
t
e
n
t
.


T
e
x
t
b
o
o
k
s


C
h
a
r
t
s


E
q
u
i
p
m
e
n
t


T
e
s
t

t
u
b
e
s


A

s
e
l
e
c
t
i
o
n

o
f

f
o
o
d

p
a
c
k
a
g
i
n
g

s
h
o
w
i
n
g

n
u
t
r
i
t
i
o
n
a
l

c
o
n
t
e
n
t

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
24 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
E
R
M

1
O
r
g
a
n
i
c

C
o
m
p
o
u
n
d
s


c
a
r
b
o
h
y
d
r
a
t
e
s

-

m
o
n
o
s
a
c
c
h
a
r
a
i
d
e
s

(
s
i
n
g
l
e

s
u
g
a
r
s
)
,

e
.
g
.
,

g
l
u
c
o
s
e

a
n
d

f
r
u
c
t
o
s
e
;

d
i
s
a
c
c
h
a
r
i
d
e
s
,

(
d
o
u
b
l
e

s
u
g
a
r
s
)
,

e
.
g
.
,

s
u
c
r
o
s
e

a
n
d

m
a
l
t
o
s
e
;

p
o
l
y
s
a
c
c
h
a
r
i
d
e
s

(
m
a
n
y

s
u
g
a
r
s
)
,

e
.
g
.
,

s
t
a
r
c
h
,

c
e
l
l
u
l
o
s
e

a
n
d

g
l
y
c
o
g
e
n
;


l
i
p
i
d
s

(
f
a
t
s

a
n
d

o
i
l
s
)

-

1

g
l
y
c
e
r
o
l

a
n
d

3

f
a
t
t
y

a
c
i
d
s
:

u
n
s
a
t
u
r
a
t
e
d

a
n
d

s
a
t
u
r
a
t
e
d

f
a
t
s
;

c
h
o
l
e
s
t
e
r
o
l

i
n

f
o
o
d
s
;

a
n
d

h
e
a
r
t

d
i
s
e
a
s
e

(
l
i
n
k

t
o

G
r
a
d
e

9
)
;


p
r
o
t
e
i
n
s

-

a
m
i
n
o

a
c
i
d
s

(
C
,
H
,

O

a
n
d

N

a
n
d

s
o
m
e

h
a
v
e

P
,

S
,

F
e
)

-

a
r
e

s
e
n
s
i
t
i
v
e

t
o

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

a
n
d

p
H
:

l
o
s
s

o
f

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

a
n
d

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
;

t
h
e

r
o
l
e

o
f

e
n
z
y
m
e
s

i
n

b
r
e
a
k
i
n
g

d
o
w
n
/
s
y
n
t
h
e
s
i
s
i
n
g

m
o
l
e
c
u
l
e
s
;

t
h
e

i
n
f
u
e
n
c
e

o
f

t
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

a
n
d

p
H

o
n

e
n
z
y
m
e

a
c
t
i
o
n
;

t
h
e

L
o
c
k

a
n
d

K
e
y

M
o
d
e
l

o
f

h
o
w

e
n
z
y
m
e
s

w
o
r
k
;

e
n
z
y
m
e
s

i
n

e
v
e
r
y
d
a
y

l
i
f
e

(
f
o
r

i
n
s
t
a
n
c
e

u
s
i
n
g

w
a
s
h
i
n
g

p
o
w
d
e
r
s
)
;


M
e
n
t
i
o
n

o
f

n
u
c
l
e
i
c

a
c
i
d
s

-

D
N
A

a
n
d

R
N
A

-

c
o
n
s
i
s
t
i
n
g

o
f

C
,

H
,

O
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LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
26 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
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1
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M
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c
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LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
27
CAPS
T
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R
M

1
A
s
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28 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
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LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
29
CAPS
T
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R
M

2

S
t
r
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n
d

2
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G
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E
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G
l
a
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s

c
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t
a
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r
s
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
30 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
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R
M

2

3

w
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s
(
1
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h
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)
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A
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x
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m
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k
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t
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n
:

m
e
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f
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b
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s
,

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,

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G
r
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;

a
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d


t
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M
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S
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S
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H
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g


S
t
r
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t
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a

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g

b
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;


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a
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f
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t
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s
s
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s
:

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o
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e
;

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a
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t
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;

-

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d
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;


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a
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s
.


O
b
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(
m
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p
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s
)
.


O
b
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e
r
v
e

a
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d

d
r
a
w

a

t
y
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c
a
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g
b
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e
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l
o
n
g
i
t
u
d
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n
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c
t
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O
b
s
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h

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m

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b
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t
c
h
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T
e
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b
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s


M
o
d
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P
h
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S
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g

b
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s

(
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m

b
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t
c
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y
)


O
b
t
a
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n

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a
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l

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m

a

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t
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:

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o
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g
a
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n
t
s
O
R
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
31
CAPS
T
E
R
M

2

T
o
t
a
l

8


w
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s

(
3
4

h
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r
s
)
J
o
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n
t
s


F
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d

j
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n
t
s


P
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a
b
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j
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s


F
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a
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)

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s
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b
a
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d

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d
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g
.
T
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t
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f
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w
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g

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n

h
u
m
a
n

l
o
c
o
m
o
t
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n
:


b
o
n
e
s
;


j
o
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n
t
s
;


l
i
g
a
m
e
n
t
s
;


t
e
n
d
o
n
s
;


a
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s

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e
.
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.
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c
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s
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r
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c
e
p
s
)
.


T
h
e

S
t
r
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c
t
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r
e

o
f

v
o
l
u
n
t
a
r
y

s
k
e
l
e
t
a
l

m
u
s
c
l
e
s
:

M
y
o
f
b
r
i
l
s

a
n
d

m
u
s
c
l
e

c
o
n
t
r
a
c
t
i
o
n
.


D
i
s
e
a
s
e
s

t
h
a
t

a
f
f
e
c
t

t
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e

s
k
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l
e
t
o
n
:

R
i
c
k
e
t
s

i
n

c
h
i
l
d
r
e
n
,

o
s
t
e
o
p
o
r
o
s
i
s
,

a
r
t
h
r
i
t
i
s
,

e
t
c
.


O
b
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2
.

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
32 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
E
R
M

3
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r
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n
d

2
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T
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C
h
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M
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P
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p
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d

s
l
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r

m
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c
r
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g
r
a
p
h
s
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
33
CAPS
T
E
R
M

3
S
t
r
a
n
d

3
:

E
n
v
i
r
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n
m
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t
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l

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s
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r

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T
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t
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s

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a
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f
a
c
t
o
r
s
.

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
34 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
E
R
M

3
T
o
t
a
l
:

9

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k
s

(
3
6

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r
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1
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8
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s
.


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9

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G
r
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1
1
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c
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O
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LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
36 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
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R
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C
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A
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P
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.
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
40 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
E
R
M

1
3

w
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k
s
(
1
2

h
o
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s
)
B
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v
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f

P
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D
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B
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d
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f

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a
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h
.


F
l
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s

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A
f
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n

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s

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d

s
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a
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s
.


T
h
e

S
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g
n
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f
c
a
n
c
e

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f

S
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d
s
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d

b
a
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k
s
;

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a
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f
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e
;

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n
d
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c

s
p
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c
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s

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n

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h

A
f
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c
a
.


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b
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r
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p
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f

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a
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h

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f
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l
o
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d
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v
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s
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r
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s
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m
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l
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h
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z
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d

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-

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p
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s
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d
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s
,

c
o
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s

a
n
d

s
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d
s
;

a
n
d

-

a
n
g
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o
s
p
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m
s
:

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o
w
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r
,

f
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t

a
n
d

s
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e
d
s
.


D
r
a
w

a

p
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g
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c

t
r
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e

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w
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h
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l

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h
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r

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t
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D
i
s
s
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c
t

a
n

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x
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m
p
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f

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a
c
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s

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f

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s
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d

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d
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n
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t

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n
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d
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b
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d

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l
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n
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d
.

R
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c
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b
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n

a

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a
b
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O
p
t
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n
a
l
:

G
e
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m
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n
a
t
e

s
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d
s
:

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e
c
o
r
d

p
r
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c
e
s
s
.


T
e
x
t

b
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k
s


P
l
a
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t

s
p
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n
s


I
d
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n
t
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f
c
a
t
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n

g
u
i
d
e
s
/
k
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y
s


H
a
n
d

l
e
n
s


M
i
c
r
o
g
r
a
p
h
s


C
h
a
r
t
s


M
o
d
e
l
s


M
i
c
r
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s
c
o
p
e
s


P
r
e
p
a
r
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d

s
l
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d
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s

V
a
r
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o
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s

f
o
w
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s
S
c
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l
p
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l
s

o
r

b
l
a
d
e
s
H
a
n
d

l
e
n
s
e
s
M
i
c
r
o
g
r
a
p
h
s
S
e
e
d
s
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
41
CAPS
T
E
R
M

1
2

w
e
e
k
s

(
8

h
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2
.

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
42 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
E
R
M

2
S
t
r
a
n
d

2
:

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C
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LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
43
CAPS
T
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R
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2
3

w
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k
s
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1
2

h
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P
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D
V
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p
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g
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s
s
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
44 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
E
R
M

2


T
h
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c
.
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
45
CAPS
T
E
R
M

2
1


w
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6

h
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A
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m

2

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
46 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
E
R
M

3
S
t
r
a
n
d

2
:

L
i
f
e

P
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P
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A
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R
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2


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H
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LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
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CAPS
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3
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d

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t
s


D
V
D
s
/
v
i
d
e
o
s


H
a
n
d

l
e
n
s
e
s
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
48 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
E
R
M

3
2


w
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e
k
s
(
1
0

h
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i
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a
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x
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C
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M
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H
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(
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D
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t
h
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o
f

a

h
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m
a
n
.

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
49
CAPS
T
E
R
M

3
S
t
r
a
n
d

3
:

E
n
v
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h
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b
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C
h
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r
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D
V
D
s


N
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w
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p
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p
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s


M
a
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n
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p
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g
r
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m
m
e
s

o
n

T
V
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
50 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
E
R
M

3
T
o
t
a
l

9


W
e
e
k
s
(
3
8

H
o
u
r
s
)
-

p
a
r
a
s
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t
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s
m
:

t
w
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f
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LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
51
CAPS
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4
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c
e

b
o
o
k
s


R
e
p
o
r
t
s

i
n

t
h
e

m
e
d
i
a


S
h
a
r
e

-

N
e
t

b
o
o
k
l
e
t
s

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
52 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
E
R
M

4
T
o
t
a
l
7

w
e
e
k
s
(
2
8

h
o
u
r
s
)
-

T
h
e

n
e
e
d

f
o
r

w
a
t
e
r

p
u
r
i
f
c
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

r
e
c
y
c
l
i
n
g

-

A
l
i
e
n

p
l
a
n
t
s
,

e
.
g
.
,

E
i
c
h
o
r
n
i
a


F
o
o
d

S
e
c
u
r
i
t
y

(
l
i
n
k

w
i
t
h

p
o
p
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

e
c
o
l
o
g
y

d
y
n
a
m
i
c
s
)
-

h
u
m
a
n

e
x
p
o
n
e
n
t
i
a
l

p
o
p
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

g
r
o
w
t
h
;
-

d
r
o
u
g
h
t
s

a
n
d

f
o
o
d
s

(
c
l
i
m
a
t
e

c
h
a
n
g
e
)
;

-

p
o
o
r

f
a
r
m
i
n
g

p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
s
:

m
o
n
o
c
u
l
t
u
r
e
;

p
e
s
t

c
o
n
t
r
o
l
,

l
o
s
s

o
f

t
o
p
s
o
i
l

a
n
d

t
h
e

n
e
e
d

f
o
r

f
e
r
t
i
l
i
s
e
r
s
;
-

a
l
i
e
n

p
l
a
n
t
s

a
n
d

r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

o
f

a
g
r
i
c
u
l
t
u
r
a
l

l
a
n
d
;

-

t
h
e

l
o
s
s

o
f

w
i
l
d

v
a
r
i
e
t
i
e
s
:

i
m
p
a
c
t

o
n

g
e
n
e

p
o
o
l
s
;

-

g
e
n
e
t
i
c
a
l
l
y

e
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
e
d

f
o
o
d
s
;

-

w
a
s
t
a
g
e
.


L
o
s
s

o
f

B
i
o
d
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y

(
t
h
e

s
i
x
t
h

e
x
t
i
n
c
t
i
o
n
)
-

h
a
b
i
t
a
t

d
e
s
t
r
u
c
t
i
o
n
:

f
a
r
m
i
n
g

m
e
t
h
o
d
s
,

e
.
g
.
,

o
v
e
r
g
r
a
z
i
n
g

a
n
d

m
o
n
o
c
u
l
t
u
r
e
,

g
o
l
f

e
s
t
a
t
e
s
,

m
i
n
i
n
g
,

u
r
b
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n
,

d
e
f
o
r
e
s
t
a
t
i
o
n
;

l
o
s
s

o
f

w
e
t
l
a
n
d
s

a
n
d

g
r
a
s
s
l
a
n
d
s
;
-

p
o
a
c
h
i
n
g
,

e
.
g
.
,

f
o
r

r
h
i
n
o

h
o
r
n
,

i
v
o
r
y

a
n
d

b
u
s
h

m
e
a
t

;

-

a
l
i
e
n

p
l
a
n
t

i
n
v
a
s
i
o
n
s
:

c
o
n
t
r
o
l

u
s
i
n
g

m
e
c
h
a
n
i
c
a
l
,

c
h
e
m
i
c
a
l

a
n
d

b
i
o
l
o
g
i
c
a
l

m
e
t
h
o
d
s
;

a
n
d
-

i
n
d
i
g
e
n
o
u
s

k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e

s
y
s
t
e
m
s

a
n
d

t
h
e

s
u
s
t
a
i
n
a
b
l
e

u
s
e

o
f

t
h
e

e
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t

e
.
g
.
,

d
e
v
i
l
s


c
l
a
w
,

r
o
o
i
b
o
s
,

f
y
n
b
o
s
,

t
h
e

A
f
r
i
c
a
n

p
o
t
a
t
o

(
H
y
p
o
x
i
s
)

a
n
d

H
o
o
d
i
a
.


S
o
l
i
d

W
a
s
t
e

D
i
s
p
o
s
a
l

-

m
a
n
a
g
i
n
g

d
u
m
p
s
i
t
e
s

f
o
r

r
e
h
a
b
i
l
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

p
r
e
v
e
n
t
i
o
n

o
f

s
o
i
l

a
n
d

w
a
t
e
r

p
o
l
l
u
t
i
o
n
;

-

t
h
e

n
e
e
d

f
o
r

r
e
c
y
c
l
i
n
g
;
-

u
s
i
n
g

m
e
t
h
a
n
e

f
r
o
m

d
u
m
p
s
i
t
e
s

f
o
r

d
o
m
e
s
t
i
c

u
s
e
:

h
e
a
t
i
n
g

a
n
d

l
i
g
h
t
i
n
g
;

a
n
d

-

s
a
f
e

d
i
s
p
o
s
a
l

o
f

n
u
c
l
e
a
r

w
a
s
t
e
.


R
h
i
n
o

p
o
a
c
h
i
n
g

i
n

S
o
u
t
h

A
f
r
i
c
a
:

r
e
a
d

a
r
t
i
c
l
e
s

a
n
d

m
a
k
e

s
u
g
g
e
s
t
i
o
n
s

o
n

h
o
w

i
t

c
a
n

b
e

p
r
e
v
e
n
t
e
d
.


A
n
a
l
y
s
e

t
h
e

s
o
l
i
d

w
a
s
t
e

g
e
n
e
r
a
t
e
d

i
n

t
h
e

h
o
u
s
e
h
o
l
d

i
n

o
n
e

w
e
e
k
,

i
n
c
l
u
d
i
n
g

p
a
p
e
r
,

m
e
t
a
l
s

a
n
d

p
l
a
s
t
i
c
.

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
e

t
h
e

p
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

t
h
a
t

c
o
u
l
d

b
e

r
e
c
y
c
l
e
d

o
r

r
e
u
s
e
d
.


V
i
s
i
t

a

m
u
n
i
c
i
p
a
l

l
a
n
d
f
l
l

s
i
t
e
,

o
r

a

l
o
c
a
l

r
e
f
u
s
e

d
u
m
p
.

O
b
s
e
r
v
e

r
e
h
a
b
i
l
i
t
a
t
i
o
n

(
o
r

l
a
c
k

t
h
e
r
e
o
f
)

i
n

p
r
a
c
t
i
c
e
.


A
s
s
e
s
s

t
h
e

e
f
f
e
c
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

o
f

w
a
s
t
e

m
a
n
a
g
e
m
e
n
t
.

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
53
CAPS
T
E
R
M

4
A
s
s
e
s
s
m
e
n
t


O
n
e

f
o
r
m
a
l

r
e
c
o
r
d
e
d

c
l
a
s
s

t
e
s
t
.


O
n
e

p
r
o
j
e
c
t
/
a
s
s
i
g
n
m
e
n
t
.


E
n
d
-
o
f
-
y
e
a
r

e
x
a
m
i
n
a
t
i
o
n
:

2

x

2


h
o
u
r
s
.


A
s
s
e
s
s
m
e
n
t

f
o
r

l
e
a
r
n
i
n
g

(
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
l
)

u
s
i
n
g

a

v
a
r
i
e
t
y

o
f

s
t
r
a
t
e
g
i
e
s

a
n
d

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

f
o
r
m
s

o
f

a
s
s
e
s
s
m
e
n
t

i
n

t
e
s
t
s
,

h
o
m
e
w
o
r
k

e
x
e
r
c
i
s
e
s
,

w
o
r
k
s
h
e
e
t
s
,

r
e
p
o
r
t
s
,

s
u
m
m
a
r
i
e
s
,

e
s
s
a
y
s
,

e
t
c
.

R
e
f
e
r

t
o

t
h
e

r
a
n
g
e

o
f

s
k
i
l
l
s

l
i
s
t
e
d

u
n
d
e
r

S
p
e
c
i
f
c

A
i
m
s

1

a
n
d

3
.

N
o
t
e

t
h
a
t

k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e

a
n
d

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

t
o

i
n
v
e
s
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n
s

a
n
d

p
r
a
c
t
i
c
a
l

w
o
r
k

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
s
o

b
e

a
s
s
e
s
s
e
d

i
n

w
r
i
t
t
e
n

w
o
r
k
s
h
e
e
t
s
,

r
e
p
o
r
t
s
,

h
o
m
e
w
o
r
k

e
x
e
r
c
i
s
e
s

a
n
d

t
e
s
t
s
.

T
h
e

c
o
g
n
i
t
i
v
e

s
k
i
l
l
s

l
i
s
t
e
d

u
n
d
e
r

S
p
e
c
i
f
c

A
i
m
s

1

a
n
d

3

w
i
l
l

a
l
s
o

a
p
p
l
y

t
o

k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e

a
n
d

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

o
f

i
n
v
e
s
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n
s
.
O
n
e

p
r
a
c
t
i
c
a
l

e
x
a
m

(
1

h
o
u
r
)
N
o
t
e
:

R
e
f
e
r

t
o

t
h
e

r
a
n
g
e

o
f

s
k
i
l
l
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
e
d

i
n

S
p
e
c
i
f
c

A
i
m

2
.

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
54 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
3
.
3

G
R
A
D
E

1
2
:

C
O
N
T
E
N
T
T
E
R
M

1
S
t
r
a
n
d

1
:

L
i
f
e

a
t

M
o
l
e
c
u
l
a
r
,

C
e
l
l
u
l
a
r

a
n
d

T
i
s
s
u
e

L
e
v
e
l
A
l
l

l
i
v
i
n
g

o
r
g
a
n
i
s
m
s

a
r
e

m
a
d
e

o
f

a
t
o
m
s

w
h
i
c
h

c
o
m
b
i
n
e

t
o

f
o
r
m

m
o
l
e
c
u
l
e
s
.

O
f

t
h
e
s
e
,

D
N
A

(
o
r

D
e
o
x
y
r
i
b
o
n
u
c
l
e
i
c

A
c
i
d
)

c
a
r
r
i
e
s

t
h
e

g
e
n
e
t
i
c

c
o
d
e

f
o
r

c
e
l
l

s
p
e
c
i
a
l
i
s
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

c
e
l
l

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
i
n
g

a
n
d

D
N
A

p
a
c
k
a
g
e
s
,

a
s

g
e
n
e
s
,

d
e
t
e
r
m
i
n
e

w
h
a
t

a
n

o
r
g
a
n
i
s
m

w
i
l
l

l
o
o
k

l
i
k
e

a
n
d

h
o
w

i
t

w
i
l
l

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
.

P
l
a
n
t

a
n
d

a
n
i
m
a
l

c
e
l
l
s

h
a
v
e

a

c
o
m
p
l
e
x

o
r
g
a
n
i
s
a
t
i
o
n

w
h
i
c
h

e
n
a
b
l
e
s

t
h
e
m

t
o

c
a
r
r
y

o
u
t

t
h
e

b
a
s
i
c

p
r
o
c
e
s
s
e
s

o
f

l
i
f
e
,

i
.
e
.

m
o
v
e
m
e
n
t
,

n
u
t
r
i
t
i
o
n
,

r
e
s
p
i
r
a
t
i
o
n
,

e
x
c
r
e
t
i
o
n
,

g
r
o
w
t
h
,

r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

r
e
s
p
o
n
d
i
n
g

t
o

s
t
i
m
u
l
i
.

C
e
l
l
s

a
r
e

s
p
e
c
i
a
l
i
s
e
d

a
n
d

f
o
r
m

t
i
s
s
u
e
s

w
h
i
c
h

p
e
r
f
o
r
m

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
s
.

T
i
s
s
u
e
s

a
r
e

a
r
r
a
n
g
e
d

i
n
t
o

o
r
g
a
n
s

w
h
i
c
h

a
r
e

a
l
s
o

s
p
e
c
i
a
l
i
s
e
d

t
o

c
a
r
r
y

o
u
t

p
a
r
t
i
c
u
l
a
r

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
s
.
I
n

o
r
d
e
r

t
o

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d

s
p
e
c
i
e
s
,

s
p
e
c
i
a
t
i
o
n
,

b
i
o
d
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y

a
n
d

c
h
a
n
g
e
,

i
t

i
s

e
s
s
e
n
t
i
a
l

t
o

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d

h
o
w

D
N
A

a
n
d

c
h
r
o
m
o
s
o
m
e
s

e
n
a
b
l
e

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
i
t
y

a
n
d

c
h
a
n
g
e
.
T
i
m
e
T
o
p
i
c
C
o
n
t
e
n
t
I
n
v
e
s
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n
s
R
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
s

2

w
e
e
k
s
(
1
0

h
o
u
r
s
)
D
N
A
:

T
h
e

C
o
d
e

o
f

L
i
f
e


D
e
o
x
y
r
i
b
o
n
u
c
l
e
i
c

a
c
i
d

(
D
N
A
)
-

L
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

i
n

t
h
e

c
e
l
l
;

c
h
r
o
m
o
s
o
m
e
s
,

g
e
n
e
s

a
n
d

e
x
t
r
a
n
u
c
l
e
a
r

D
N
A
;

-

D
i
s
c
o
v
e
r
y

o
f

t
h
e

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

D
N
A

b
y

W
a
t
s
o
n
,

C
r
i
c
k
,

F
r
a
n
k
l
i
n

a
n
d

W
i
l
k
i
n
s
;
-

S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

o
f

D
N
A
;
-

R
o
l
e

o
f

D
N
A
:

g
e
n
e
s

a
n
d

n
o
n
-
c
o
d
i
n
g

D
N
A
;

-

R
e
p
l
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
:

c
e
l
l

c
y
c
l
e

(
l
i
n
k

t
o

G
r
a
d
e

1
0
)
:

n
e
c
e
s
s
i
t
y

f
o
r

e
x
a
c
t

c
o
p
y
.

R
i
b
o
n
u
c
l
e
i
c

A
c
i
d

(
R
N
A
)
-

T
y
p
e
s

a
n
d

l
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

i
n

c
e
l
l
s
;

-

S
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

o
f

R
N
A
;

-

T
r
a
n
s
c
r
i
p
t
i
o
n

f
r
o
m

D
N
A
;
-

T
r
a
n
s
l
a
t
i
o
n

o
f

R
N
A

i
n
t
o

p
r
o
t
e
i
n
s

(
p
r
o
t
e
i
n

s
y
n
t
h
e
s
i
s
)

(
m
R
N
A
,

t
R
N
A
)
:

s
e
q
u
e
n
c
e

o
f

e
v
e
n
t
s
;

a
n
d

-

G
e
n
e
t
i
c

c
o
d
e

(
b
a
s
i
c

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g
)
.
I
f

p
o
s
s
i
b
l
e
:


P
e
r
f
o
r
m

a

s
i
m
p
l
e

p
r
o
c
e
s
s

t
o

e
x
t
r
a
c
t

D
N
A

a
n
d

e
x
a
m
i
n
e

t
h
e

t
h
r
e
a
d
s

I
f

p
o
s
s
i
b
l
e
:


D
N
A

f
n
g
e
r

p
r
i
n
t
i
n
g

/
D
N
A

p
r
o
f
l
i
n
g
:

(
c
a
s
e

s
t
u
d
y

o
n
l
y
)


T
e
x
t
b
o
o
k
s


M
i
c
r
o
g
r
a
p
h
s


E
q
u
i
p
m
e
n
t


C
h
e
m
i
c
a
l
s

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
55
CAPS
T
E
R
M

1
2

w
e
e
k
s
(
8

h
o
u
r
s
)

M
e
i
o
s
i
s


M
e
i
o
s
i
s
:

t
h
e

p
r
o
c
e
s
s

o
f

r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

d
i
v
i
s
i
o
n
-

p
u
r
p
o
s
e
s

o
f

r
e
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

d
i
v
i
s
i
o
n

(
g
a
m
e
t
o
g
e
n
e
s
i
s

a
n
d

e
x
c
e
p
t
i
o
n
s
:

m
o
s
s
e
s
,

f
e
r
n
s
)
;
-

i
m
p
o
r
t
a
n
c
e

o
f

m
e
i
o
s
i
s
:

d
i
p
l
o
i
d

t
o

h
a
p
l
o
i
d
:

p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

o
f

g
a
m
e
t
e
s
;

-

i
n
t
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

o
f

g
e
n
e
t
i
c

v
a
r
i
a
t
i
o
n

(
r
a
n
d
o
m

s
e
g
r
e
g
a
t
i
o
n
,

c
r
o
s
s
i
n
g

o
v
e
r
)
;

-

c
o
n
s
e
q
u
e
n
c
e
s

o
f

a
b
n
o
r
m
a
l

m
e
i
o
s
i
s
,

e
.
g
.
,

D
o
w
n

s

s
y
n
d
r
o
m
e


M
i
t
o
s
i
s

a
n
d

m
e
i
o
s
i
s

S
i
m
i
l
a
r
i
t
i
e
s

a
n
d

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
s

b
e
t
w
e
e
n

m
i
t
o
s
i
s

a
n
d

m
e
i
o
s
i
s

(
l
i
n
k

t
o

G
r
a
d
e

1
0
)


O
b
s
e
r
v
e

a
n
d

d
r
a
w

p
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

m
i
c
r
o
s
c
o
p
e

s
l
i
d
e
s
,

m
i
c
r
o
g
r
a
p
h
s

o
r

m
o
d
e
l
s

o
f

c
e
l
l
s

i
n

s
e
l
e
c
t
e
d

s
t
a
g
e
s

o
f

m
e
i
o
t
i
c

c
e
l
l

d
i
v
i
s
i
o
n
,

e
.
g
.
,

c
r
o
s
s
i
n
g

o
v
e
r

i
n

m
e
t
a
p
h
a
s
e

I
;

a
n
a
p
h
a
s
e

I
,

m
e
t
a
p
h
a
s
e

I
I
,

t
e
l
o
p
h
a
s
e

I
I
.


T
e
x
t
b
o
o
k
s


P
o
s
t
e
r
s


M
o
d
e
l
s


M
i
c
r
o
s
c
o
p
e
s


P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

m
i
c
r
o
s
c
o
p
e

s
l
i
d
e
s

o
r

m
i
c
r
o
g
r
a
p
h
s
S
t
r
a
n
d

2
:

L
i
f
e

P
r
o
c
e
s
s
e
s

i
n

P
l
a
n
t
s

a
n
d

A
n
i
m
a
l
s
T
h
i
s

k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e

s
t
r
a
n
d

d
e
a
l
s

w
i
t
h

t
h
e

w
a
y
s

i
n

w
h
i
c
h

a
n
i
m
a
l
s

a
r
e

a
b
l
e

t
o

r
e
s
p
o
n
d

t
o

t
h
e
i
r

e
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
s

i
n

o
r
d
e
r

t
o

e
n
s
u
r
e

s
u
r
v
i
v
a
l
.

L
e
a
r
n
e
r
s

e
x
p
l
o
r
e

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
v
e

s
t
r
a
t
e
g
i
e
s

i
n

a
n
i
m
a
l
s
.

R
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

i
n

h
u
m
a
n
s

i
s

d
e
a
l
t

w
i
t
h

i
n

m
o
r
e

d
e
t
a
i
l

a
s

a

s
p
e
c
i
f
c

e
x
a
m
p
l
e

o
f

a
n
i
m
a
l

r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n
.

T
h
i
s

e
x
p
a
n
d
s

o
n

t
h
e

b
a
s
i
c

k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e

o
f

h
u
m
a
n

r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

t
h
a
t

w
a
s

i
n
t
r
o
d
u
c
e
d

i
n

G
r
a
d
e
s

7

a
n
d

9
.
T
i
m
e
T
o
p
i
c
C
o
n
t
e
n
t
I
n
v
e
s
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n
s
R
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
s


w
e
e
k
(
2

h
o
u
r
s
)
R
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

i
n

V
e
r
t
e
b
r
a
t
e
s


D
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y

o
f

r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
v
e

s
t
r
a
t
e
g
i
e
s

A
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

e
x
a
m
p
l
e
s

o
f

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

g
r
o
u
p
s

i
n

t
h
e

a
n
i
m
a
l

k
i
n
g
d
o
m

t
o

i
l
l
u
s
t
r
a
t
e

m
a
x
i
m
i
s
i
n
g

r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
v
e

s
u
c
c
e
s
s

i
n

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

e
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
s
:

-

e
x
t
e
r
n
a
l

o
r

i
n
t
e
r
n
a
l

f
e
r
t
i
l
i
s
a
t
i
o
n

-

o
v
i
p
a
r
y
,

o
v
o
v
i
v
i
p
a
r
y
,

v
i
v
i
p
a
r
y
-

a
m
n
i
o
t
i
c

e
g
g
-

p
r
e
c
o
c
i
a
l

a
n
d

a
l
t
r
i
c
i
a
l

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t
-

p
a
r
e
n
t
a
l

c
a
r
e
.


T
e
x
t
b
o
o
k
s


C
h
a
r
t
s


R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

b
o
o
k
s


D
V
D
s

(
i
f

p
o
s
s
i
b
l
e
)

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
56 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
E
R
M

1
3

w
e
e
k
s
(
1
2

h
o
u
r
s
)
T
o
t
a
l

8

w
e
e
k
s

(
3
2

h
o
u
r
s
)
H
u
m
a
n

R
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n


T
h
e

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e

o
f

m
a
l
e

a
n
d

f
e
m
a
l
e

r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
v
e

s
y
s
t
e
m
s
;

(
l
i
n
k

t
o

G
r
a
d
e

7

a
n
d

9
)


T
h
e

u
n
i
q
u
e

h
u
m
a
n

c
h
a
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s

o
f

s
o
m
e

a
s
p
e
c
t
s

o
f

r
e
p
r
o
d
u
c
t
i
o
n

(
l
i
n
k

w
i
t
h

G
r
a
d
e

9
)
:
-

p
u
b
e
r
t
y
:

m
a
i
n

c
h
a
n
g
e
s
;

-

g
a
m
e
t
o
g
e
n
e
s
i
s
:

r
e
l
a
t
e

b
r
i
e
f
y

t
o

m
e
i
o
s
i
s

(
n
o

i
n
d
i
v
i
d
u
a
l

n
a
m
e
s

o
f

s
t
a
g
e
s
)
;

-

m
e
n
s
t
r
u
a
l

c
y
c
l
e
:

e
m
p
h
a
s
i
s

o
n

h
o
r
m
o
n
a
l

c
o
n
t
r
o
l
;

-

f
e
r
t
i
l
i
s
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t

o
f

z
y
g
o
t
e

t
o

b
l
a
s
t
o
c
y
s
t
;
-

g
e
s
t
a
t
i
o
n

(
m
e
n
t
i
o
n

b
r
i
e
f
y
)
;

-

i
m
p
l
a
n
t
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t
:

t
h
e

r
o
l
e

o
f

p
l
a
c
e
n
t
a
.


P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

m
i
c
r
o
s
c
o
p
e

s
l
i
d
e
s

o
f

a
n

o
v
a
r
y
,

t
e
s
t
e
s

a
n
d

a

s
e
c
t
i
o
n

t
h
r
o
u
g
h

a

p
e
n
i
s
.

I
d
e
n
t
i
f
y

t
i
s
s
u
e
s

a
n
d

d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
t

s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
e
s


O
b
s
e
r
v
e

a
n
d

d
e
s
c
r
i
b
e

p
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

m
i
c
r
o
s
c
o
p
e

s
l
i
d
e
s

o
r

m
i
c
r
o
g
r
a
p
h
s

o
r

u
l
t
r
a
s
o
u
n
d

p
i
c
t
u
r
e
s

o
f

e
m
b
r
y
o
n
i
c

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t
.


I
f

p
o
s
s
i
b
l
e

o
b
s
e
r
v
e

s
t
a
g
e
s

o
f

p
r
e
g
n
a
n
c
y

b
y

w
a
t
c
h
i
n
g

D
V
D
s

o
f

t
h
e

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t

o
f

a
n

e
m
b
r
y
o

a
n
d

t
h
e

b
i
r
t
h

p
r
o
c
e
s
s
.


O
b
s
e
r
v
e

c
o
n
t
r
a
c
e
p
t
i
v
e

d
e
v
i
c
e
s


T
e
x
t
b
o
o
k
s


C
h
a
r
t
s


M
i
c
r
o
g
r
a
p
h
s


M
i
c
r
o
s
c
o
p
e


P
r
e
p
a
r
e
d

m
i
c
r
o
s
c
o
p
e

s
l
i
d
e
s


U
l
t
r
a
s
o
u
n
d

p
i
c
t
u
r
e
s

o
f

e
m
b
r
y
o
n
i
c

d
e
v
e
l
o
p
m
e
n
t


D
V
D
s
A
s
s
e
s
s
m
e
n
t


O
n
e

f
o
r
m
a
l
,

r
e
c
o
r
d
e
d

c
l
a
s
s

t
e
s
t
.


A
s
s
e
s
s
m
e
n
t

f
o
r

l
e
a
r
n
i
n
g

(
i
n
f
o
r
m
a
l
)

u
s
i
n
g

a

v
a
r
i
e
t
y

o
f

s
t
r
a
t
e
g
i
e
s

a
n
d

a
p
p
r
o
p
r
i
a
t
e

f
o
r
m
s

o
f

a
s
s
e
s
s
m
e
n
t

i
n

h
o
m
e
w
o
r
k

e
x
e
r
c
i
s
e
s
,

w
r
i
t
t
e
n

w
o
r
k
s
h
e
e
t
s
,

r
e
p
o
r
t
s
,

s
u
m
m
a
r
i
e
s
,

e
s
s
a
y
s
,

t
e
s
t
s
,

e
t
c
.

R
e
f
e
r

t
o

r
a
n
g
e

o
f

s
k
i
l
l
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
e
d

i
n

S
p
e
c
i
f
c

A
i
m
s

1

a
n
d

3
.

N
o
t
e

t
h
a
t

k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e

a
n
d

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

o
f

i
n
v
e
s
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n
s

a
n
d

p
r
a
c
t
i
c
a
l

w
o
r
k

s
h
o
u
l
d

a
l
s
o

b
e

a
s
s
e
s
s
e
d

i
n

w
r
i
t
t
e
n

w
o
r
k
s
h
e
e
t
s
,

h
o
m
e
w
o
r
k

e
x
e
r
c
i
s
e
s

a
n
d

t
e
s
t
s
.

T
h
e

c
o
g
n
i
t
i
v
e

s
k
i
l
l
s

l
i
s
t
e
d

u
n
d
e
r

S
p
e
c
i
f
c

A
i
m
s

1

a
n
d

3

w
i
l
l

a
l
s
o

a
p
p
l
y

t
o

k
n
o
w
l
e
d
g
e

a
n
d

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d
i
n
g

o
f

i
n
v
e
s
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n
s
.


O
n
e

p
r
a
c
t
i
c
a
l

t
a
s
k


R
e
f
e
r

t
o

t
h
e

r
a
n
g
e

o
f

s
k
i
l
l
s

s
p
e
c
i
f
e
d

i
n

S
p
e
c
i
f
c

a
i
m

2
.
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
57
CAPS
T
E
R
M

2
S
t
r
a
n
d

1
:

L
i
f
e

a
t

M
o
l
e
c
u
l
a
r
,

C
e
l
l
u
l
a
r

a
n
d

T
i
s
s
u
e

L
e
v
e
l

(
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
)
;

a
n
d
S
t
r
a
n
d

4
:

D
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
,

C
h
a
n
g
e

a
n
d

C
o
n
t
i
n
u
i
t
y

L
i
f
e

e
x
i
s
t
s

i
n

a

v
a
r
i
e
t
y

o
f

l
i
f
e

f
o
r
m
s

a
n
d

i
t

i
s

i
n

t
h
e

s
t
u
d
y

o
f

D
N
A
,

g
e
n
e
t
i
c
s

a
n
d

i
n
h
e
r
i
t
e
d

c
h
a
r
a
c
t
e
r
i
s
t
i
c
s

t
h
a
t

l
i
f
e

a
t

m
o
l
e
c
u
l
a
r

l
e
v
e
l

i
n
t
e
r
s
e
c
t
s

w
i
t
h

S
t
r
a
n
d

4
:

D
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y
,

C
h
a
n
g
e

a
n
d

C
o
n
t
i
n
u
i
t
y
.

I
n

o
r
d
e
r

t
o

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d

s
p
e
c
i
e
s
,

s
p
e
c
i
a
t
i
o
n
,

b
i
o
d
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y

a
n
d

c
h
a
n
g
e
,

i
t

i
s

e
s
s
e
n
t
i
a
l

t
o

u
n
d
e
r
s
t
a
n
d

h
o
w

D
N
A

a
n
d

c
h
r
o
m
o
s
o
m
e
s

e
n
a
b
l
e

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
i
t
y

a
n
d

c
h
a
n
g
e
T
i
m
e
T
o
p
i
c
C
o
n
t
e
n
t
I
n
v
e
s
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n
s
R
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
s

4

w
e
e
k
s
(
1
6

h
o
u
r
s
)
G
e
n
e
t
i
c
s

a
n
d

I
n
h
e
r
i
t
a
n
c
e


G
e
n
e
s
:

D
o
m
i
n
a
n
t

a
n
d

r
e
c
e
s
s
i
v
e

g
e
n
e
s

a
n
d

a
l
l
e
l
e
s

M
e
n
t
i
o
n

o
f

M
e
n
d
e
l
,

f
a
t
h
e
r

o
f

g
e
n
e
t
i
c
s


I
n
h
e
r
i
t
a
n
c
e

a
n
d

v
a
r
i
a
t
i
o
n

-

M
o
n
o
h
y
b
r
i
d

c
r
o
s
s
e
s
:

p
h
e
n
o
t
y
p
e

a
n
d

g
e
n
o
t
y
p
e
,

h
o
m
o
z
y
g
o
u
s

a
n
d

h
e
t
e
r
o
z
y
g
o
u
s

(
p
u
r
e

b
r
e
d

a
n
d

h
y
b
r
i
d
)
;

e
x
a
m
p
l
e
s

o
f

c
o
m
p
l
e
t
e
,

i
n
c
o
m
p
l
e
t
e
/
p
a
r
t
i
a
l

d
o
m
i
n
a
n
c
e

a
n
d

c
o
d
o
m
i
n
a
n
c
e
;

-

D
i
h
y
b
r
i
d

c
r
o
s
s
e
s
:

p
h
e
n
o
t
y
p
e
s

a
n
d

g
e
n
o
t
y
p
e
s
.


S
e
x

c
h
r
o
m
o
s
o
m
e
s
S
e
x
-
l
i
n
k
e
d

a
l
l
e
l
e
s
;

s
e
x
-
l
i
n
k
e
d

d
i
s
e
a
s
e
s


M
u
t
a
t
i
o
n
s
-

h
a
r
m
l
e
s
s

a
n
d

h
a
r
m
f
u
l

m
u
t
a
t
i
o
n
s
:

e
x
a
m
p
l
e
s

o
f

d
i
s
e
a
s
e
s
,

d
i
s
o
r
d
e
r
s
;

g
e
n
e

m
u
t
a
t
i
o
n
s

a
n
d

c
h
r
o
m
o
s
o
m
a
l

a
b
e
r
r
a
t
i
o
n
s
;

a
n
d

-

u
s
e
f
u
l

m
u
t
a
t
i
o
n
s
,

l
i
n
k

w
i
t
h

n
a
t
u
r
a
l

s
e
l
e
c
t
i
o
n


G
e
n
e
t
i
c

e
n
g
i
n
e
e
r
i
n
g
:

S
t
e
m

c
e
l
l

r
e
s
e
a
r
c
h
,

g
e
n
e
t
i
c
a
l
l
y

m
o
d
i
f
e
d

o
r
g
a
n
i
s
m
s
,

b
i
o
t
e
c
h
n
o
l
o
g
y

a
n
d

c
l
o
n
i
n
g
.


M
e
n
t
i
o
n

m
i
t
o
c
h
o
n
d
r
i
a
l

D
N
A

a
n
d

t
h
e

t
r
a
c
i
n
g

o
f

g
e
n
e
t
i
c

l
i
n
k
s


P
a
t
e
r
n
i
t
y

t
e
s
t
i
n
g

a
n
d

D
N
A

f
n
g
e
r

p
r
i
n
t
i
n
g

(
f
o
r
e
n
s
i
c
s
)

S
o
l
v
i
n
g

g
e
n
e
t
i
c

p
r
o
b
l
e
m
s


M
o
n
o
h
y
b
r
i
d

c
r
o
s
s
e
s


D
i
h
y
b
r
i
d

c
r
o
s
s
e
s


C
o
m
p
l
e
t
e

a
n
d

i
n
c
o
m
p
l
e
t
e

d
o
m
i
n
a
n
c
e


B
l
o
o
d

g
r
o
u
p
s


S
e
x

c
h
r
o
m
o
s
o
m
e
s

a
n
d

s
e
x
u
a
l
l
y

l
i
n
k
e
d

d
i
s
e
a
s
e
s

e
.
g
.
,

h
a
e
m
o
p
h
i
l
i
a

a
n
d

c
o
l
o
u
r

b
l
i
n
d
n
e
s
s


G
e
n
e
t
i
c

l
i
n
e
a
g
e
s


T
e
x
t
b
o
o
k
s


R
e
f
e
r
e
n
c
e

b
o
o
k
s

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
58 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
E
R
M

2
S
t
r
a
n
d

2
:

L
i
f
e

P
r
o
c
e
s
s
e
s

i
n

P
l
a
n
t
s

a
n
d

A
n
i
m
a
l
s

(
c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
d
)

T
h
i
s

c
o
n
t
i
n
u
e
s

i
n
v
e
s
t
i
g
a
t
i
n
g

t
h
e

w
a
y
s

i
n

w
h
i
c
h

a
n
i
m
a
l
s

a
n
d

p
l
a
n
t
s

a
r
e

a
b
l
e

t
o

r
e
s
p
o
n
d

t
o

t
h
e
i
r

e
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
s

i
n

o
r
d
e
r

t
o

e
n
s
u
r
e

t
h
e
i
r

s
u
r
v
i
v
a
l
.
T
i
m
e
T
o
p
i
c
C
o
n
t
e
n
t
I
n
v
e
s
t
i
g
a
t
i
o
n
s
R
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
s

4

w
e
e
k
s
(
1
6

h
o
u
r
s
)
R
e
s
p
o
n
d
i
n
g

t
o

t
h
e

E
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
:

H
u
m
a
n
s


H
u
m
a
n
s

h
a
v
e

t
w
o

s
y
s
t
e
m
s
:

n
e
r
v
e
s

a
n
d

h
o
r
m
o
n
e
s

t
h
a
t

e
n
a
b
l
e

t
h
e
m

t
o

r
e
s
p
o
n
d

t
o

t
h
e

e
n
v
i
r
o
n
m
e
n
t
.


H
u
m
a
n

n
e
r
v
o
u
s

s
y
s
t
e
m
R
e
a
c
t
i
o
n
s

t
o

s
t
i
m
u
l
i

i
n

t
h
e

s
u
r
r
o
u
n
d
i
n
g
s
.

-

C
e
n
t
r
a
l

N
e
r
v
o
u
s

S
y
s
t
e
m
:

B
r
a
i
n
:

M
e
n
i
n
g
e
s

f
o
r

p
r
o
t
e
c
t
i
o
n
,

l
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

a
n
d

f
u
n
c
t
i
o
n
s

o
f

c
e
r
e
b
r
u
m
,

c
e
r
e
b
e
l
l
u
m
,

c
o
r
p
u
s

c
a
l
l
o
s
u
m
,

m
e
d
u
l
l
a

o
b
l
o
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LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
59
CAPS
T
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2
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2
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
60 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
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R
M

3
S
t
r
a
n
d

2
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1


w
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h
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r
s
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P
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o
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M
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o
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l

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
61
CAPS
T
E
R
M

3
1

w
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k
(
4

h
o
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r
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R
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s
p
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E
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P
l
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T
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P
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d
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t
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4
:

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R
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2

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a
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P
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q
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.


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r
t
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:

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E

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N
E

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.


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n


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v
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c
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G
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q
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.

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v
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m
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.

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r
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.

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.


C
l
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n
.


D
e
m
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r
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a

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p
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t


T
e
x
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b
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k
s


R
e
f
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r
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n
c
e

b
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k
s
.


B
i
o
g
r
a
p
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y

o
f

D
a
r
w
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n

(
i
f

p
o
s
s
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b
l
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a
n
d

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f

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e
a
r
n
e
r

s
h
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w
s

i
n
t
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r
e
s
t
)

LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
62 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
T
E
R
M

3


F
o
r
m
a
t
i
o
n
/
e
m
e
r
g
e
n
c
e

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f

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w

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S
p
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c
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t
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;

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I
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3
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2
.
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
65
CAPS
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M

4
S
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4
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LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
66 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
SECTION 4
ASSESSMENT
4.1 Introduction
Assessment is a continuous planned process of identifying, gathering and interpreting information on learners
performance, using various forms of assessment. It involves four steps: generating and collecting evidence of
achievement; evaluating this evidence, recording the fndings and using this information to understand and thereby
assist the learners development in order to improve the process of learning and teaching.
Assessment should be both informal (Assessment for Learning) and formal (Assessment of Learning). In both cases,
regular feedback should be provided to learners to enhance their learning experience.
Assessment is a process that measures individual learners attainment of knowledge (content, concepts and skills) in
a subject by collecting, analysing and interpreting the data and information obtained from this process to:
enable the teacher to make reliable judgements about a learners progress;
inform learners about their strengths, weaknesses and progress; and
assist teachers, parents and other stakeholders in making decisions about the learning process and the
progress of the learners.
Assessment should be mapped against the content and intended aims specifed for Life Sciences and in informal and
formal assessments it is important to ensure that in the course of the year:
all of the subject content is covered;
the full range of skills is included; and
different forms of assessment are used.
4.2 Informal Assessment or Daily Assessment
Assessment for learning has the purpose of continuously collecting information on learners achievement that can
be used to improve their learning.
Informal assessment is daily monitoring of learners progress. This is done through observations, discussions,
practical demonstrations, learner-teacher conferences, informal classroom interactions, etc. Informal assessment
may be as simple as stopping during the lesson to observe learners or to discuss how their learning is progressing.
Informal assessment should be used to provide feedback to the learners and to inform planning for teaching, but
it need not be recorded. It should not be seen as separate from learning activities taking place in the classroom.
Learners or teachers can mark these assessment tasks.
Self-assessment and peer assessment actively involve the learners being assessed. This is important as it allows
learners to learn from and refect on their own performance. The results of the informal daily assessment tasks are
not formally recorded unless the teacher wishes to do so. The results of daily assessment tasks are not taken into
account for promotion or certifcation purposes.
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
67
CAPS
Informal, ongoing assessments should be used to structure the acquisition of knowledge and skills and should be a
precursor to formal tasks in the Programme of Assessment.
4.3 Formal Assessment
Grades Formal school-based assessments End-of-year examinations
R - 3 100% n/a
4 - 6 75% 25%
7 - 9 40% 60%
10 and 11 25% including a mid-year examination 75%
12 25% including mid-year and trial
examinations
External examination: 75%
All assessment tasks that make up a formal programme of assessment for the year are regarded as formal assessment.
Formal assessment tasks are marked and formally recorded by the teacher for progression and certifcation purposes.
All formal assessment tasks are subject to moderation to ensure that appropriate standards are maintained.
Formal assessment provides teachers with a systematic way of evaluating how well learners are progressing in
a grade and in a particular subject. Examples of formal assessments include tests, examinations, practical tasks,
projects, oral presentations, demonstrations and performances. Formal assessment tasks form part of a year-long
formal Programme of Assessment in each grade and subject.
The cognitive demands in assessment should be appropriate for the age and developmental level of the learners
in the grade. Assessment in Life Sciences must cater for a range of cognitive levels and abilities of learners. The
assessment tasks should be carefully designed to cover the content of the subject as well as the range of skills and
the cognitive levels that have been identifed in the specifc aims. The design of assessments should therefore ensure
that a full range of content and skills are assessed within each Grade in the Phase. The specifc aims, topics, content
and range of skills in the subject should be used to inform the planning and development of assessments.
Weighting of Cognitive Demands for the Assessment of content in Grades 10, 11 and 12
Knowing Science
Understanding
Science
Applying scientifc
knowledge
Evaluating,
analysing and
synthesising
scientifc knowledge
% 40% 25% 20% 15%
Examples of Useful
Verbs
State
Name
Label
List
Defne
Describe
and others
Explain
Compare
Rearrange
Give an example of
Illustrate
Calculate
Make a
generalisation
and others
Predict
Apply
Use knowledge
Demonstrate
Solve
Implement
Judge
and others
Select
Differentiate
Analyse
Infer
Suggest a reason
Discuss
Categorise
and others
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
68 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
Note: A single, formal class test per term will not necessarily provide the most accurate and reliable evidence of
every learners performance. As far as possible, teachers should try to let learners write more than one test per term
in order to get a better picture of their abilities. One formal class test per term is the minimum number that must be
recorded.
The requirements (number and nature of tasks) for Life Sciences are indicated below:
4.4 Assessment Requirements for Life Sciences:
4.4.1 Grade 10
The programme of assessment is designed to spread formal assessment tasks in all subjects in a school throughout
a term.
GRADE 10
PROGRAMME OF FORMAL ASSESSMENT
FORMAL, RECORDED, SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENTS
END-OF-YEAR INTERNAL
EXAMINATION 75%
Content Practical
Two Written
Examinations
(2 Hours + 2
Hours)
Practical
Examination
(1 Hour)
Four tests (minimum of 50 marks
each)
One midyear examination (2
hours 150 marks)
One project/assignment (can be
done in any term: 100 marks in the
fourth term)
Skills are listed under Specifc Aims
1 and 3
A selection of three representative
practical tasks, which cover the
range of skills, must be marked and
recorded. (The marks allocated for a
practical task should range from 20 to
40.)
The range of skills is described in
Specifc Aim 2.
This exam tests
knowledge on
content, concepts
and skills across
all topics.
Knowledge of
practical work as
well as some of
the skills related
to practical work
must be assessed
in the written
examination.
80% = 60 marks
This exam
tests practical
knowledge and
skills
This should be set
by each teacher
taking into account
the resources
that are available
for practical
examination.
20% = 15 marks
School-based Assessment (During the Year) 75
Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 Term 4
One test
One selected
practical task
One test
One selected
practical task
Mid-year
examination
One test
One selected
practical task
*
Environmental
studies:
feldwork
One test
One project/
assignment
25% 25% 25% 25%
Convert to 25% 75%
* This is an example of a project/assignment.
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
69
CAPS
4.4.2 Grade 11
PROGRAMME OF FORMAL ASSESSMENT
FORMAL, RECORDED, SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENTS END-OF-YEAR INTERNAL
EXAMINATION 75%
Content Practical Two Written
Examinations
(2 hours + 2
hours)
Practical
Examination(1
hour)
Four tests (minimum of 50 marks
each)
One mid-year examination (2
hours, 150 marks)
One project/assignment (can be
done in any term: 100 marks in Term
4)
Skills are listed under Specifc Aims
1 and 3
A selection of three representative
practical tasks, which cover the
range of skills, must be marked and
recorded. (The marks allocated for a
practical task should range from 20 to
40).
The range of skills is described in
Specifc Aim 2.
These exams
test knowledge
on content,
concepts and
skills across all
topics. Knowledge
of practical work
as well as some of
the skills related
to practical work
must be assessed
in the written
examination.
80% = 60 marks
This exam
tests practical
knowledge and
skills
This should be set
by each teacher
taking into account
the resources
that are available
for practical
examination.
20% = 15 marks
School-based Assessment (during the year) 75
Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 Term 4
One test
One selected
practical task
One test
One selected
practical task
Mid-year
examination
One test
One selected
practical task
* Environmental
studies:
feldwork
One test
One project/
assignment
25% 25% 25% 25%
75%
*This is an example of a project/assignment.
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
70 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
The requirements (number and nature of tasks) for Life Sciences are indicated below:
4.4.3 Grade 12
PROGRAMME OF FORMAL ASSESSMENT
FORMAL, RECORDED, SCHOOL-BASED ASSESSMENTS
TRIAL: END-OF-YEAR
INTERNAL EXAMINATION
50%
Content Practical
Two written examinations
(2 hours + 2 hours)
Four tests (minimum of 50 marks each)
*One mid-year examination (2 hours, 150 marks) or
control test
One trial examination (2 x 2 hours, 300 marks)
One project/assignment (can be done in any term: 100
marks in term 3).
Skills are listed under Specifc Aims 1 and 3
A selection of three
representative practical
tasks, which cover the
range of skills, must be
marked and recorded.
(The marks allocated for a
practical task should range
from 20 to 40).
The range of skills is
described in Specifc Aim 2.
These exams test knowledge
of content, concepts and
skills across all topics.
Knowledge of practical work
as well as some of the skills
related to practical work
must be assessed in the
written examination
The trial (preliminary)
examination should be set
on the work completed in
Terms 1, 2 and 3.
School-based assessment (during the year)
Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 and Term 4
One test
One selected practical
task
One test
One selected practical
task
* Mid-year examination or
control test
One test
One selected practical
task (will not be included
in year mark)
project/assignment
* Environmental studies:
feldwork
33% 33% 33%
Convert to 50% 50%
* Note: Schools that are performing well (above an 80% pass rate in the previous year) may elect not to write the
mid-year examination.
Note: The year mark will be converted to 25% and the external examination will count 75% of the fnal mark.
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
71
CAPS
4.5 THE END-OF-YEAR EXAMINATIONS:
4.5.1 Grade 10
The examination will consist of two examination papers of 2 hours and 150 marks each.
The weighting and assessment of topics in Paper 1 and Paper 2 will be as follows:
Paper 1
Topic Time
Weighting
% Marks
T1:
Chemistry of Life
Cells: Basic Units of Life
Cell Division: Mitosis
Plant and Animal Tissues
T2:
Plant and Animal Tissues
Plant Organs (Leaf)
Support and Transport Systems: Plants
Support Systems: Animals
2 weeks
3 weeks
2 weeks
1 week
2 weeks
week
3 weeks
3 weeks
16
17
12
5 (50)
13
3
17
17 (50)
23
25
18
9
20
5
25
25
Totals 17 weeks 100% 150
Paper 2
Topic Time
Weighting
% Marks
T3:
Transport Systems in mammals
Biosphere to Ecosystems
T 4:
Biodiversity and Classifcation
History of Life and Earth
3 weeks
6 weeks
1 week
5 weeks
20
40 (60)
7
33 (40)
30
60
10
50
Totals 15 weeks 100% 150
The weighting per topic must serve as a guideline for teachers; slight deviations in respect of the number of marks
allocated to a topic are acceptable. The purpose of providing the weighting is to ensure that all topics are covered
according to approximately the correct weighting.
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
72 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
4.5.2 Grade 11
The examination will consist of two examination papers of 2 hours and 150 marks each. The weighting and
assessment of topics in Paper 1 and Paper 2 will be as follows:
Paper 1
Topic Time
Weighting
% Marks
T2
Energy transformations to sustain Life: Photosynthesis
Animal Nutrition
Energy transformation: Respiration
T3
Gas exchange
Excretion in humans
Population Ecology
3 weeks
3 weeks
1 weeks
2 weeks
2 weeks
4 weeks
18
18
10
15
15
24
27
27
15
22
23
36
Totals 16 weeks 100% 150
Paper 2
Topic Time
Weighting
% Marks
T 1
Biodiversity and classifcation of micro-organisms
Biodiversity in plants and reproduction
Biodiversity of animals
T4
Human impact on the environment:
current crises
3 weeks
3 weeks
2 weeks
7 weeks
20
20
13
47
30
30
20
70
Totals 15 weeks 100% 150
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
73
CAPS
The weighting per topic must serve as a guideline for teachers; slight deviations in respect of the number of marks
allocated to a topic are acceptable. The purpose of providing the weighting is to ensure that all topics are covered in
approximately the correct weighting.
4.5.3 Grade 12
The examination will consist of two examination papers of 2 hours and 150 marks each. The weighting and
assessment of topics in Paper 1 and Paper 2 will be as follows:
Paper 1
Topic Time
Weighting
% Marks
T 1
Meiosis
Reproduction in Vertebrates
Human Reproduction
T2
Responding to be environment (humans)
T3
Human endocrine system
Homeostasis in humans
Responding to the Environment (plants)
T4
Human impact (Grade 11)
1 week
week
3 weeks
4 weeks
1 weeks
1 week
1 week
2 weeks
7
4
21
27
10
7
7
17
11
6
31
40
15
11
11
25
Totals 14weeks 100% 150
Paper 2
Topic Time
Weighting
% Marks
T 1
DNA: Code of Life
Meiosis
T 2
Genetics and Inheritance
T3
Evolution through Natural Selection
T 3/T4
Human evolution
2 weeks
1 week
4 weeks
2 weeks
4 weeks
19
7
30
15
29
27
12
45
23
43
Totals 13 weeks 100% 150
The weighting per topic must serve only as a guideline to teachers and examiners and is included to ensure that
all topics are adequately covered in examinations. The number of marks per topic is not expected to be exactly
according to this weighting in the examination papers.
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
74 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
4.6 RECORDING AND REPORTING
Recording is a process in which the teacher documents the level of a learners performance in a specifc assessment
task. It indicates learner progress towards the achievement of knowledge as prescribed in the Curriculum and
Assessment Policy Statement. Records of learner performance should provide evidence of the learners conceptual
progression within a grade and her or his readiness to progress or be promoted to the next grade. Records of learner
performance should also be used to verify the progress made by teachers and learners during the teaching and
learning process.
Reporting is a process of communicating learner performance to learners, parents, schools, and other stakeholders.
Learner performance can be reported in a number of ways. These include report cards, parents meetings, school
visitation days, parent-teacher conferences, phone calls, letters, class or school newsletters, etc. For all grades,
teachers report learners achievements in percentages next to the appropriate subject. The various achievement
levels and their corresponding percentage bands are as shown in the table below.
Note: The seven-point scale should have clear descriptions that give detailed information for each level. Teachers
will record actual marks against the task by suing a record sheet; and report percentages against the subject on the
learners report cards.
Codes and Percentages for Reporting in Grades R-12
Rating code Description of competence Percentage
7 Outstanding achievement 80- 100
6 Meritorious achievement 70 - 79
5 Substantial achievement 60 - 69
4 Adequate achievement 50 - 59
3 Moderate achievement 40 - 49
2 Elementary achievement 30 - 39
1 Not achieved 0 - 29
Schools are required to provide quarterly feedback to parents on the Programme of Assessment using a formal
reporting tool such as a report card. The schedule and the report card should indicate the overall level of a learners
performance.
4.7 MODERATION OF ASSESSMENT
Moderation refers to the process that ensures that the assessment tasks are fair, valid and reliable. Moderation
should be implemented at school and district level and if necessary also at provincial level. Comprehensive and
appropriate moderation practices must be in place for the quality assurance of all subject assessments.
4.7.1 Grades 10 and 11
In Grades 10 and 11 Formal School-based Assessment and the Practical Assessment Tasks should be moderated
by the relevant subject specialists at district and, if necessary, provincial levels in consultation with the moderators at
the school. Moderation serves fve purposes:
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
75
CAPS
Firstly, it should ascertain whether the subject-specifc content and skills are suffciently covered.
Secondly, the moderator must ensure that the various levels of cognitive demand are refected in the
assessments.
Thirdly, that the assessments and marking are of an acceptable standard and consistency.
Fourthly, to ensure that assessment in different schools are more or less comparable whilst recognising that
different teachers have different standards.
Finally, to identify areas in which the teacher may need further support and development and to provide such
necessary support
In Grades 10 and 11 there is no compulsory national moderation. Moderation is therefore an ongoing process and
not a once-off end-of-year event.
4.7.2 Grade 12
Moderation refers to the process which ensures that the assessment tasks are fair, valid and reliable. Moderation
should be implemented at school, district, provincial and national levels. Comprehensive and appropriate moderation
practices must be in place for the quality assurance of all subject assessments.
4.7.2.1 Formal Assessment (School-based Assessment - SBA)
In Grade 12, moderation must take place at four levels:
School-based moderation and verifcation of learner performance
This is intended to ensure that the assessments meet the requirements in terms of content, cognitive demands
and skills; that the marking has been consistent and fair and that the marks are a true refection of learners
performance in the assessments. This will enable the school to easily identify problems related to the pacing,
standard and reliability of assessment and to ensure that appropriate interventions are put in place early. This
is an ongoing process.
Moderation by the subject advisor
This is also an ongoing process. Subject advisors should moderate assessments, to ascertain whether:
- Subject-specifc content and skills have been covered adequately;
- The prescribed number of assessments have been complied with;
- the appropriate cognitive demands are refected in the assessments;
- the marking is of an acceptable standard and is consistent;
- the assessments in different schools are comparable whilst recognising that different teachers teach
and assess differently.
LIFE SCIENCES GRADES 10-12
76 CURRICULUM AND ASSESSMENT POLICY STATEMENT (CAPS)
Subject advisors should provide teachers with the necessary guidance and support should any shortcomings be
identifed. Early identifcation of shortcomings and early interventions are essential. It is therefore necessary that
moderation at this level should be ongoing and not a once-off end-of-year event.
Moderation by the province
Moderation of SBA at this level is once-off and is related to the quality assurance processes that are necessary
developed jointly by the Department of Basic Education and Umalusi in terms of National Policy.
At a national level
Statistical moderation of learner performance in the School Based Assessment is necessary to ensure comparability
across schools, districts, and provinces.
Note that, in Grade 12, the assessment of Practical work is incorporated into the SBA (per term) and that there is no
practical examination. This is because schools are not all equally resourced and some learners may be disadvantaged
because of this.
4.8 GENERAL
This document should be read in conjunction with:
4.8.1 National policy pertaining to the programme and promotion requirements of the National Curriculum Statement
Grades R-12; and
4.8.2 The policy document, National Protocol for Assessment Grades R-12.