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ADVANCED POWER CABLE AMPACITY

PROGRAM

Based on
NEHER-McGRATH AND IEC 60287 & 60853 METHODS
Steady-State and Transient Analysis







EDSA MICRO CORPORATION
16870 West Bernardo Drive, Suite 330
San Diego, CA 92127
U.S.A.

Copyright 2008
All Rights Reserved




Version 5.25.00 October 2008

Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

EDSA MICRO CORPORATION


WARRANTY INFORMATION


There is no warranty, implied or otherwise, on EDSA software. EDSA software is licensed to you as is. This program
license provides a ninety (90) day limited warranty on the diskette that contains the program.

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or conclusions reached from data generated by any programs which are all sold "as is".

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Copyright 1989 - 2008 by EDSA Micro Corporation.



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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Foreword....................................................................................................................................................... 1
Overview ....................................................................................................................................................... 1
Background................................................................................................................................................... 2
General Data ............................................................................................................................................. 3
Cable in Air ................................................................................................................................................ 3
Solar Radiation.......................................................................................................................................... 4
Heat Source/Sink....................................................................................................................................... 5
Installation ................................................................................................................................................. 5
Possible Cable Installation Conditions ...................................................................................................... 5
Backfill ....................................................................................................................................................... 6
Conductor Material .................................................................................................................................... 6
Conductor Construction............................................................................................................................. 6
Dried And Impregnated ............................................................................................................................. 7
Conductor Losses...................................................................................................................................... 7
Cable Insulation......................................................................................................................................... 7
Skid/Concentric Neutral Material ............................................................................................................... 9
Bonding Arrangement................................................................................................................................ 9
Loss Factor Constant ................................................................................................................................ 9
Jacket/Pipe Coating Material................................................................................................................... 10
Armor/Reinforcement Material ................................................................................................................ 10
Armor Bedding, Serving Material ............................................................................................................ 10
Armor Permeability.................................................................................................................................. 10
Insulation Shielding ................................................................................................................................. 10
Sheath/Reinforcing Material .................................................................................................................... 11
Cable Transposition................................................................................................................................. 11
Pipe Material and Configuration.............................................................................................................. 11
Material and Construction of the Ductbank or Duct ................................................................................ 12
Cable Dimensions ................................................................................................................................... 12
Running Cable Ampacity Program.............................................................................................................. 16
Loading Sample Cable/Project Library ....................................................................................................... 16
Provided Sample Projects........................................................................................................................... 17
Step by Step Instructions for Adding a New Cable Type............................................................................ 19
Using the Drop-Down Menu........................................................................................................................ 20
Adding/Creating a New Cable Type Using the Wizard............................................................................... 22
How to Add/Create a Project/Study ............................................................................................................ 37
How to Run a Steady-State Simulation....................................................................................................... 46
Program Validation and Verification for Steady-State Analysis.................................................................. 50
Transient Analysis- Cyclic and Emergency Loading................................................................................... 51
How to Run a Transient Simulation......................................................................................................... 51
Defining Load Curve (Loading Pattern)................................................................................................... 53
Program Validation and Verification for Transient Analysis .................................................................... 58
References Bibliography.......................................................................................................................... 62
APPENDIX I: IEC & Neher-Mcgrath Cable Ampacity Calculations Methodology....................................... 64
APPENDIX II: Some Useful Diagrams and Figures.................................................................................... 68
APPENDIX III: Tables of Material Properties.............................................................................................. 74

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

LIST OF TABLES


Table 1: Comparing Results of Neher McGrath and EDSAs Cable Ampacity Program............................ 50
Table 2: V&V of the EDSAs Transient Simulation Program....................................................................... 60
Table 3: Specific Inductive Capacitance of Insulation ................................................................................ 74
Table 4: Thermal Resistivity of Various Materials....................................................................................... 74
Table 5: Pipe Constants.............................................................................................................................. 74
Table 6: Conductor Material........................................................................................................................ 75
Table 7: Dielectric Loss............................................................................................................................... 75
Table 8: Resistivities of Materials ............................................................................................................... 75
Table 9: Absorption Coefficients of Solar Radiation ................................................................................... 76
Table 10: Constants For Ducts Or Pipes .................................................................................................... 76


LIST OF FIGURES


Figure 1: Selecting Cable Ampacity Program from Design base 2.0 Main Dialog ..................................... 16
Figure 2: Main Menu of Cable Ampacity program...................................................................................... 16
Figure 3: Opening a cable/project library.................................................................................................... 17
Figure 4: Main Cable Menu after a cable/project library is loaded.............................................................. 17
Figure 5: Cable Type Dialogs ..................................................................................................................... 19
Figure 6: Cable Conductor Dialog............................................................................................................... 20
Figure 7: Selecting an Item from the Dropdown Menus ............................................................................. 20
Figure 8: Cable General Data Dialog.......................................................................................................... 22
Figure 9: Conductor Data Dialog ................................................................................................................ 23
Figure 10: Conductor Dimension Data Dialog ............................................................................................ 24
Figure 11: Cable Insulation Data Dialog ..................................................................................................... 25
Figure 12: Cable Insulation Dimension Data Dialog................................................................................... 27
Figure 13: Cable Sheath Data Dialog ......................................................................................................... 28
Figure 14: Reinforcing Tape Data Dialog.................................................................................................... 29
Figure 15: Reinforcing Tape Dimension Data Dialog ................................................................................. 30
Figure 16: Concentric Neutral/Skid Wire Data Dialog................................................................................. 32
Figure 17: Jacket/Pipe Coating Data Dialog............................................................................................... 33
Figure 18: Armor/Serving/Bedding Data Dialog.......................................................................................... 34
Figure 19: Overall Cable Dimension Data Dialog....................................................................................... 35
Figure 20: Project/Study General Data Dialog............................................................................................ 40
Figure 21: Adding a Cable to a Study/Project............................................................................................. 42
Figure 22: Selecting a Cable from the Cable Type Library......................................................................... 43
Figure 23: Report Browser Window Showing the Result of Ampacity Calculation..................................... 47
Figure 24: 138 kV, 2000 MCM high pressure oil-filled, 3-conductor, pipe type cable. ............................... 50
Figure 25: Selecting the Transient Analysis Option.................................................................................... 52
Figure 26: Transient Analysis Main Dialog ................................................................................................. 52
Figure 27: Defining a Load Curve............................................................................................................... 53
Figure 28: Saving of Load Curves to the Transient Library ........................................................................ 54
Figure 29: Graph of Sample Load Curve.................................................................................................... 54
Figure 30: Assigning a Load Curve to a Cable ........................................................................................... 55
Figure 31: Selecting a Load Curve from Transient Load Curve Library ..................................................... 55
Figure 32: Defining the Transient Simulation Parameters.......................................................................... 56
Figure 33: Performing the Transient Simulation ......................................................................................... 56
Figure 34: Inspecting the Transient Analysis Result................................................................................... 57
Figure 35: Graphical Display of the Transient Simulation Results.............................................................. 57
Figure 36: Transient Simulation Results for the program V&V................................................................... 59
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

iv
Figure 37: Cable Installation Screen Defining Final Temperature Obtained in the Transient Simulation .. 59
Figure 38: Basic Thermal Circuit ................................................................................................................ 64
Figure 39: Definition of Thermal-Ohm Units ............................................................................................... 66
Figure 40: Mathematical Model of a Cable Thermal Circuit........................................................................ 66
Figure 41: Cable Topology / General Parameters Self Contained Cables................................................. 72
Figure 42: Typical Pipe Cable Cross-Section ............................................................................................. 72
Figure 43: Configuration of Cable in the Duct/Conduit ............................................................................... 73
Figure 44: Ductbank G
b
Factor ................................................................................................................... 73


Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Foreword

This manual assumes that the user is a Professional Engineer familiar with the concepts of cable
ampacity calculation. Determination of the validity of the results is the user's responsibility.

The IEC (International Electro-technical Commission) and Neher-McGrath cable ampacity program is
undergoing continuous development to make it as comprehensive and as easy to use as possible.
Additional analysis capabilities will be made available as they are developed. Any comments, suggestions
or errors encountered in either the results or the documentation should be immediately brought to EDSAs
attention.

It is recommended that users of the program experiment with the sample job files that are included before
creating their own job files. It is also recommended that users consult the relevant papers on which the
program is based: IEC Standards 60287 & 60853, Neher-McGrath IEEE paper 57-660 and Underground
Transmission Systems Reference Book, Electric Power Research Institute, 1992 Edition.

This program is intended to be a very easy to use tool. However, it is expected that the user of the
program have good knowledge of the cable construction and ampacity calculations.

Overview

Cable ampacity assessment and temperature rise calculations is an important but time consuming task
for cable manufacturers, designers and operators. This is due to the fact the computations often includes
numerous mathematical calculations and extensive table look up and data processing. EDSA has
developed an efficient computer program in order to facilitate such calculations. The EDSA cable
ampacity program utilizes the techniques and formulae suggested in the IEC (International
Electrotechnical Commission) standard publication No. 60287 & 60853 to compute the temperature rise
and ampacity of power cables in the steady-state and transient conditions. This program also offers an
alternative computational method to handle non-unity load factor based on the Neher-McGrath technique.
Several enhancements to both Neher McGrath and IEC 60287 standard have been implemented. These
include:

Simulation of soil drying out in the neighborhood of energized cables
Nonisothermal earth surface
Cables without metallic sheath but with copper concentric neutral that can be single or both ends
bonded and grounded
Steel armoured submarine cables with or without concentric neutral or metallic sheath
Cables on riser poles
Single phase circuits consisting of one single core cable with concentric neutral wires or sheath
serving as the return conductor.
Ductbanks and backfills of any size
PPP (Paper-polypropylene-paper) laminated cables.



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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Background

The EDSAs advanced power cable ampacity program supports all AC as well as DC voltages. Cables
can be directly buried, be in ducts, be in steel pipes, as well as in air. The permissible current rating of an
a.c. cable can be derived from the expression for the temperature rise above ambient temperature:

[ ] [ ] [ ] ) T (T W ) 1 ( R I T W ) 1 ( R I T W 0.5 R I
4 3 d 2 1
2
2 d
2
1 d
2
+ + + + + + + + + = n n
Where:

I is the current flowing in one conductor (Amps).

is the conductor temperature rise above the ambient temperature (K). Note: The ambient
temperature is the temperature of the surrounding medium under normal conditions in a situation in which
cables are installed, or are to be installed, including the effect of any local source of heat, but not the
increase of temperature in the immediate neighborhood of the cables due to heat arising there from.

R is the alternating current resistance per unit length of the conductor at maximum operating temperature
(ohm/m).

d
W is the dielectric loss per unit length for the insulation surrounding the conductor (W/m).

1
T is the thermal resistance per unit length between one conductor and the sheath (K.m/W).

2
T is the thermal resistance per unit length of the bedding between the sheath and armor (k.m/W).

3
T is the thermal resistance per unit length of the external serving of the cable (K.m/W).

4
T is the thermal resistance per unit length between cable surface and the surrounding medium (K.m/W).

n is the number of load carrying conductors in the cable (conductors of equal size and carrying the same
load).

1
is the ratio of losses in the metal sheath to total losses in all conductors in that cable.

2
is the ratio of losses in the armoring to total losses in all conductors in that cable.

The permissible current rating is obtained from the above formula as follows:

) T T ( ) 1 ( nR T ) 1 ( nR RT
) 1 ]( ) T T T ( n 0.5T [ W
I
4 3 2 1 2 1 1
4 3 2 1 d
m
Q m
+ + + + + +
+ + +
=



Q is temperature difference between critical isotherm (50 C) and the ambient (critical isotherm is one at
which drying out occurs), m is the ratio of the thermal resistivities of the dry and moist soil zones. The
nonisothermal surface is modeled by introducing an imaginary additional layer of soil d meters thick at the
earth surface, where:
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

0
1
a
d =

a
is the convection coefficient and
0

is the thermal resistivity of the moist soil. The program computes


the convection coefficient.


General Data

General site configuration data as outlined below should be specified. The following items require special
attention:

Ambient temperature and soil resistivity values should correspond to the installation situation and not
to the test condition of the manufacturer. Ambient temperature is the soil ambient at the depth of the
cable if the cable is buried. If the cable is installed in air, ambient temperature means air ambient.
Soil thermal resistivity is normally in the range of 0.8 to 1.3 C-W/m. Values as low as 0.4 and as high
as 4 C-W/m have been recorded in field. Thermal resistivity of the soil is one of the most important
parameters affecting cable ampacity. The higher the value of the resistivity, the lower the ampacity.
Thermal resistivity increases with the decrease in moisture content in the soil. Thermal resistivity of
dry sand can be as high as 5 C-W/m, whereas, thermal resistivity of dry crushed limestone usually
cannot be higher than 1.5 C-W/m. Another factor affecting the value of the soil thermal resistivity is
its compaction. The higher the soil compaction, the lower is its thermal resistivity. If the soil thermal
resistivity is unknown, the more conservative value of 1.3 can be used as a starting point.
The heat source/sink data if any.
For a nonisothermal surface, the user should enter the air ambient temperature. This temperature
should be greater than the soil ambient. If the cables are located at a depth greater than 1.5 m, the
nonisothermal condition does not apply.
For simulation of soil drying out, the user should enter dry soil (and backfill if present) thermal
resistivity. The dry thermal resistivity is larger than the moist values.


Cable in Air

For cables in air, the following possible configurations are supported.

Installation Z E Configuration
C
G

a) Cables in free air, installed on non-continuous brackets,
ladder supports, or cleats:
Single cable 0.21 3.94 0.60
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Two cables, touching, horizontal 0.29 2.35 0.50
Three cables in trefoil 0.96 1.25 0.20
Three cables, touching, horizontal 0.62 1.95 0.25
Two cables, touching, vertical 1.42 0.86 0.25
Two cables, spaced , vertical 0.75 2.80 0.30
e
D'
Three cables, touching, vertical 1.61 0.42 0.20
Three cables, spaced , vertical 1.31 2.00 0.20
e
D'


b) Cables directly clipped to a vertical wall:

Single cable 1.69 0.63 0.25
Three cables in trefoil 0.94 0.79 0.20


Solar Radiation

When cables are in air, the following information is required in addition to the cable arrangement as
shown above:

a) Shaded or un-shaded cable. For shaded cable the next two items do not apply.
b) Intensity of solar radiation (W/m2). The radiation should represent the long-term average value.
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

c) The cable surface absorption coefficient. The following default values are provided, however, the
user can change the value if required:

Compounded jute/fibrous materials = 0.8
Polychloroprene = 0.8
Polyvinylchloride = 0.6
Polyethylene = 0.4
Lead or armour = 0.6


Heat Source/Sink

The heat source/sink in proximity of cables can be simulated with the following four possibilities:

External source specified as constant temperature source inside backfill.
External source specified as constant heat flux source inside backfill.
External source specified as constant temperature source not in backfill.
External source specified as constant heat flux source not in backfill.

Note that the unit of heat source for the heat flux option is defined as W/m
2
. Temperature is given in
degrees C for the case of constant temperature.


Installation

Cable geometrical coordinates should be defined with origin of the coordinate system such that the Y
values for buried cables are always a positive number (Y=0.0 at the ground level). The X values may
be either positive or negative. The choice of the origin of the X-axis in normally decided by the ease
of entering cable coordinates. For cables installed in air, the Y location has no significance and can
be set to 0.

Circuit number identifies the three phases of the cable circuit. The user should not define more than
one cable specified for the same circuit number; all of the three cables of the same circuit should be
of the same cable type.

Selection of a reference (for dissimilar or unequally loaded cables) cable. The program finds the
ampacity of the reference cable at its maximum operating temperature and the ampacities of the
remaining cables will be the highest possible without exceeding their thermal ratings.


Possible Cable Installation Conditions

The following is a list of possible cable installations for self contained cables:
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Cables are in air or cables are in duct and duct is in air.
Cables are directly buried.
Cables are in thermal backfill.
Cables are in duct or in duct bank underground.


For pipe type cable:
Cables are in pipe and pipe is directly buried.
Cables are in pipe and pipe is in thermal backfill.
Cables are in pipe and pipe is in air.

Note that Pipe type cables are treated as three-conductor cables.


Backfill

Backfill data pertain to thermal backfills or to ductbanks. The program can only handle two different
materials surrounding the cable. Only rectangular backfills/ductbanks can be simulated. Backfill or
ductbank is defined by its dimensions and thermal resistivity. The thermal resistivity of the backfill is
usually lower than that of the native soil. Concrete thermal resistivity is usually in the range of 0.5 to 0.8
C-W/m.


Conductor Material

Conductor material can be copper, aluminum, or user defined. If conductor material is your defined, then,
the user should provide the conductor resistivity at 20 C (in Ohm-m) as well as thermal coefficient of
resistance in 1/(C).

Conductor Construction
The conductor construction can be any of the following available choices:

round, stranded
round, compact or compressed
type m, round segmental type m, 4 segment hollow core
hollow core
type m, six segment hollow core
sector shaped
oval
solid
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Note: sector shaped cables are 3-phase cables.


Dried And Impregnated

cable dried and impregnated
cable not dried and impregnated or not applicable

Depending on the selection the program will establish the proper coefficient for calculation of skin and
proximity factors.


Conductor Losses

The a.c. resistance of the conductor at its maximum temperature is computed from:

R
acm
= R
dcm
( 1 + Y
s
+ Y
p
)
Where:

R
dcm
is DC resistance at maximum temperature; R
acm
is AC resistance at maximum temperature; Y
s
is
skin effect factor; Y
p
is proximity effect factor. Y
p
and Y
s
are functions of K
p
and K
s
as well as arguments
of Bessel function. K
s
and K
p
are assumed to be the same for copper and aluminum defined as follows:

Round, stranded dried and impregnated K
s
=1.0 K
p
=0.8
Round, stranded not dried and impregnated K
s
=1.0 K
p
=1.0
Round, compact dried and impregnated K
s
=1.0 K
p
=0.8
Round, compact not dried and impregnated K
s
=1.0 K
p
=1.0
Round, segmental (values apply to conductors having four segments

) K
s
=0.435 K
p
=0.37
Hollow, helical stranded dried and impregnated K
s
=
*
K
p
=0.8
Sector shaped dried and impregnated K
s
=1 K
p
=0.8
Sector shaped not dried and impregnated K
s
=1 K
p
=1.0
*
decided based on
2
i
'
c
i
'
c
1
'
c
1
'
c
S
d d
2d d
d d
d d
K

+
+

= which is function of inside and outside diameter of conductor


Cable Insulation

The insulation material can be selected from the following available choices. When a user has a different
insulation material than those listed below, then, thermal resistivity of the insulation should be provided:

user supplies RHI (insulation thermal resistivity in C-m/W)
solid type or mass impregnated, non draining cable, RHI=6.
LPOF (low pressure oil filled) self contained cable, RHI=5.0
HPOF (high pressure oil filled) self contained cable, RHI=5.0
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

HPOF (high pressure oil filled) pipe type cable, RHI=5.0
external gas pressure cable, RHI=5.5
internal gas pressure, preimpregnated cable, RHI=6.5
internal gas pressure mass impregnated cable, RHI=6.0
butyl rubber, RHI=5.0
EPR, RHI=5.0
PVC, RHI=6.0
polyethylene, RHI=3.5
cross linked polyethylene (XLPE) (unfilled), RHI=3.5
cross linked polyethylene (XLPE) (filled), RHI=3.5
paper-polypropylene-paper-laminate (ppp or ppl), RHI=6.5

The program selects dielectric constant and loss factor coefficients according to the following table (see
the 1988 revision of IEC 287)
Dielectric constant Loss factor
Cables insulated with impregnated paper solid type,
fully-impregnated, pre-impregnated or mass-impregnated non-draining 4.0 0.01
Self-contained, oil filled, low pressure 3.3 0.004
Self-contained, oil filled, high pressure 3.5 0.0045
Oil-pressure pipe-type 3.7 0.0045
External gas-pressure 3.5 0.004
Internal gas-pressure 3.4 0.0045
Butyl rubber 4.0 0.05
EPR
up to 36 kV 3.0 0.020
above 36 kV 3.0 0.005
P.V.C. 8.0 0.1
PE 2.3 0.001
XLPE
up to 36 kV (unfilled) 2.5 0.004
above 36 kV (unfilled) 2.5 0.001
above 36 kV (filled) 3.0 0.005
Paper-polypropylene-paper-laminate (ppp or ppl) 3.5 0.00095

The dielectric loss factor is only taken into account for cables operating at equal or greater phase to
ground voltage than the following:









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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Cable Type Voltage level (kV)
Insulated with impregnated paper solid type 38.0
oil-filled and gas pressure 63.5
Butyl rubber 18.0
EPR 63.5
P.V.C. 6.0
PE 110.0
XLPE unfilled 127.0
XLPE filled 63.5
Paper-polypropylene-paper-laminate (ppp or ppl) 38.0


Skid/Concentric Neutral Material

Skid wires are used in pipe-type cables. Concentric neutral wires can be either bonded and grounded at
one end or at both ends. This version of the program cannot handle both metallic sheath and concentric
wires (but concentric wires and armour wires can be entered). If the cable has both metallic sheath and
concentric neutral wires, then the user should enter sheath with electrical resistivity chosen such that the
final resistance of the sheath per unit length correspond to the parallel connection of the sheath and
concentric wires. For corrugated sheath, the user should enter the average sheath diameter in the
dimension dialog.


Bonding Arrangement

Sheath means metallic sheath/metallic shield/concentric wires. The bonding arrangement is a very
important factor in the computation of ampacity. When sheaths are bonded and grounded at both ends,
large circulating currents may result considerably decreasing cable ampacity. For cross-bonded and
single point bonded systems, only eddy current losses are present (if continuous cylindrical sheath is
present) which are much smaller than the circulating currents. For single point bonded systems, standing
voltages can develop at the open end. If a cross-bonded system has sections of unequal lengths,
circulating currents may occur and are computed by the program. The program will consider unequal
spacing between phases in two-point bonded systems if this information is available. The lengths of the
sections with unequal spacing can also be entered. The program will compute an average inductance of
the cables and this will affect the magnitude of circulating current.


Loss Factor Constant

This constant is used to relate daily load factor (DLF) to the conductor loss factor. A value of 0.3 for ALOS
is suggested in the Neher-McGrath paper. The loss factor is computed using the following formula:

LOSS FACTOR = ALOS*DLF+(1 - ALOS)*DLF
2


If the user wishes to specify a particular loss factor, it is sufficient to specify ALOS=1 and DLF equal to
the required value of the loss factor.




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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Jacket/Pipe Coating Material

Jacket normally applies to the outer covering of the cable for self-contained cables or it can represent
pipe coating for pipe type cables.


Armor/Reinforcement Material

Armor here can represents reinforcing wires or tapes which can be either magnetic or nonmagnetic.
Armor serves as cable protection and should be distinguished from concentric wires that can serve as
neutral conductors for distribution cables or reinforcing conductors for transmission cables. Armor wires
are assumed always to be bonded and grounded at both ends whereas concentric wires can be either
single or two point bonded.


Armor Bedding, Serving Material

If the cable has an armor, then the insulating material below the armor is called armor bedding and over
the armor it is called armor serving. If armor wires are embedded in an insulating material, then the user
has a choice of either a) entering both armor bedding and armor serving with thicknesses equal to one
half of the thickness of the material in which the wires are embedded or b) representing armor bedding
only. If the cable has an armor, then the insulating material below the armor is called armor bedding and
the material over the armor is called armor serving.


Armor Permeability

User can provide values for the longitudinal and transverse relative permeability (AME and AMT) and
angular time delay (GAMMA) for steel wire armor of single conductor cables. For three conductor cables
with steel tape armor user can provide just AME. If program selects the following values: AME = 400,
AMT = 10 when wires are in contact and AMT = 1 when wires are separated, GAMMA = 45 deg.


Insulation Shielding

belted cable or no insulation shielding
copper tape
aluminum tape

This information is not used in the computation of ampacity. The program will add properly the thickness
of insulation shielding to that of the insulation itself.







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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Sheath/Reinforcing Material

This can represents: a) reinforcing tape for self contained cables or b) metallic tape over insulation
shielding for pipe type cables. The following choices are available:

user supplies reinforcing tape resistivity, RHT (ohm-m) and temperature coefficient of resistance,
ALFAT ( 1/deg c)
copper RHT=1.7241E-8, ALFAT=0.00393
brass/bronze RHT=3.5E-8, ALFAT=0.003
zinc RHT=6.11E-8, ALFAT=0.004
stainless steel RHT=70.E-8, ALFAT=0.000
steel RHT=13.8E-8, ALFAT=0.0045

Pipe type cables usually have metallic tape over insulation shielding made of copper, bronze or stainless
steel.


Cable Transposition

Transposition of cable reduces the circulation current for single conductor cables which are bonded at
both ends. The choices are:

cables are not transposed
cables are regularly transposed


Pipe Material and Configuration

a) Multiplier for In-Pipe Effect

This is a multiplier in the computation of skin and proximity effects for pipe type cables.

user supplies PIPFAC (multiplier for 'in pipe effects')
stainless steel pipe, PIPFAC=1.0
steel pipe, PIPFAC=1.7
iron pipe, PIPFAC=1.36


Two possible configurations namely triangular and cradled are considered in the program.


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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Material and Construction of the Ductbank or Duct

user supplies duct material thermal resistivity, RHD (c-m/w)
metallic conduit RHD=0.0
fibre duct in air RHD=4.8
fibre duct in concrete RHD=4.8
asbestos duct in air RHD=2.0
asbestos duct in concrete RHD=2.0
PVC duct in air RHD=7.0
PVC duct in concrete RHD=7.0
polyethylene duct in air RHD=3.5
polyethylene duct in concrete RHD=3.5
earthenware duct RHD=1.2
high pressure gas filled pipe type RHD=0.0
high pressure oil filled pipe type RHD=0.0

The duct/ductbank material along with its dimensions are used for the computation of appropriate thermal
resistance. The type of construction is one of the 12 listed above. Construction information together with
the value of RHD is used to compute external thermal resistance of the duct.


Cable Dimensions

The following is the list of cable components for which the dimensions will be required depending on
cable construction:

Cable Conductor Data
Cable Insulation Data
Sheath and nonmagnetic reinforcing tape or metallic binder data
Cable jacket, armor bedding and armor serving data
Skid wires/concentric neutral wires or wire armor or magnetic reinforcement tape
Cable outer diameter, pipe/duct diameters

Conductor
Number of conductors in the cable
Conductor cross sectional area
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Diameter or geometric mean diameter of the conductor
Diameter over the conductor shield
Inside diameter of hollow core cables
Diameter of a round conductor having the same cross section and compaction as the shaped one
Radius of circle circumscribing three sector shaped conductors
Distance between conductor centre and cable centre

Insulation
phase to phase voltage, kV
diameter over the insulation
diameter over the insulation shield
insulation thickness between conductors
insulation thickness between conductors and sheath
thickness of conductor insulation including insulation shielding tapes plus half of any nonmetallic
tapes
thickness of metallic shield
outside diameter of circle circumscribing three insulated sector shaped conductors in a shielded
cable

Sheath and Nonmagnetic Reinforcing Tape or Metallic Binder
diameter over sheath
sheath thickness
diameter over reinforcing tape or metallic binder
thickness of reinforcing tape or metallic binder
width of reinforcing tape or metallic binder for Neher-McGrath. Enter 0.0 for IEC method.
number of reinforcing tapes
Neher-McGrath: length of lay of tapes, m. IEC: 0.0
IEC: enter 10.0 for tapes with long lay, enter 0.0 if tapes are wound at approximately 54 degrees
to the cable axis, enter -1.0 for tapes with short lay. Neher-McGrath: 0.0.

Cable Jacket, Armor Bedding and Armor Serving
diameter over cable jacket
thickness of cable jacket
thickness of armor bedding
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

thickness of armor serving


Skid Wires, Concentric Neutral Wires, Wire Armor or Reinforcement Tapes
diameter over skid wire/concentric neutral assembly
diameter over wire armor
mean diameter over tape armor
diameter of skid wire/concentric neutral wires
diameter of armor wires
cross sectional area of tape armor
length of lay of skid wire/concentric neutral wires
length of lay of armor wires
number of skid wires or concentric neutral wires
number of armor wires

Cable Outer Diameter, Pipe/Duct Diameters
overall cable diameter
inside diameter of duct or cable pipe
outside diameter of duct or cable pipe
Axial spacing between conductors of the same circuit

Last Item is applicable only to 3-core cables with round conductors.


Conductor Dimensions

The present version of the program can handle only either single or three-conductor cables. Pipe type
cables are treated as three-conductor cables, therefore, the number of conductors in this case is 3. Sector
shaped conductors are replaced in the calculations by equivalent circular ones and therefore the user
should provide appropriate dimension as asked. Oval shaped conductors are replaced by equivalent
circular conductors with diameter
or major
xD D d
min
=

Insulation Dimensions

In the computation of thermal resistance of the insulation for sector shaped and circular three-conductor
cables, insulation thickness between conductors as well as insulation thickness between conductor and
the sheath should be provided.


Sheath Dimensions

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

For corrugated sheath, the thickness of the sheath should be the average thickness and the diameter
over the sheath should be equal to the arithmetic average between the internal and external diameter.
The lay of tape is the distance along the tape length between two points where the tape makes one full
turn around the cable.


Skid Wire/Concentric Neutral/Armor Dimensions

Length of lay of the wire is the distance between two points measured along the wire length where the
wire makes a full turn around the cable. The following relation holds between the lay factor and the length
of lay
wire under the Diameter
lay of Length
x =

Where:

X 4 6 8 9 10 12
Lay factor 1.27 1.13 1.07 1.06 1.05 1.03


Outer Dimensions/Overall Cable Diameter

For three-core cables, the average distance between cable center and conductor center is required.
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Running Cable Ampacity Program

To start the cable ampacity program, select the program icon from EDSA technical main menu as shown
below:


Figure 1: Selecting Cable Ampacity Program from Design base 2.0 Main Dialog


Loading Sample Cable/Project Library

There are a number of cable types and projects that are prepared for the users to assist them in running
and operating the program. The program maintains a set of cable type/projects library and the user can
create a new set of cable/project library. Here we will load the sample cable/project library. Select Open
by selecting its icon as shown in the below figure.


Figure 2: Main Menu of Cable Ampacity program








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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

The provided sample cable/project library can be found in the \edsa2005\sample\CableAmpacity
directory. Select the sample library named sample-jobfiles-4-cable-ampacity as shown below:


Figure 3: Opening a cable/project library

Then, the program will load the entire cables/projects library in the sample file into memory.
As can be seen below, the program window will have three parts. The upper left hand side will list the
available cable types library. The lower left hand side, shows the projects library and right hand side will
show either cable construction details (when a cable type is selected, note the highlighted row in the
upper left hand side below) or cables locations in a highlighted project. A project is the same as a study
where the user seeks cables ampacity/temperature for a given cable installation conditions.


Figure 4: Main Cable Menu after a cable/project library is loaded


Provided Sample Projects

Several sample cable types and sample projects have been prepared for the users convenience. The
following is a short description of the provided sample projects:
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Case Project Name Description
1
Sample for Directly Buried Cables In this study, 3 single core XLPE, Concentric Neutral
Submarine Cables are directly buried and the ampacity of the
cables are computed, cables have non unit daily load factors
2
Sample for Cables in Duct Bank Six 1000 KCMIL, XLPE, with PVC duct cables are arranged
in two circuits and placed in a duct-bank. Ampacity of the
cables are computed, cables have non unit daily load factors
3
Sample from Neher-McGrath
paper
The 138 kV pipe type cable used in the Neher McGrath
paper is used in this study which is discussed extensively in
this guide.
4
Sample for Dissimilar Cables In this study we installation that uses two different cable
types (dissimilar), one cable is Paper Insulated single Core
Cable and the other is a Pipe-type 3 core, 230kV cable.
5
Sample for Cables on Riser Pole This example uses the same cable type as the one used in
the second study, i.e., the XLPE, Concentric Neutral
Submarine Cable. However in this example cables are riser
pole and the cable temperature calculation is request and not
the ampacity

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Step by Step Instructions for Adding a New Cable Type

The user can examine/delete an existing project, make a copy of an existing project, or create a new
project. The same options are also available for a cable, i.e., examine/delete an existing cable, make a
copy of an existing cable, or create a new cable type. To edit a cable type already in the library point with
mouse to row where the desired cable is and with one left mouse click highlight it as shown above, then,
either use the Edit. icon or double left mouse click will open the cable type dialogs as shown below:


Figure 5: Cable Type Dialogs

Several tabs are shown above each corresponding to different cable construction layers, e.g. Insulation,
Sheath, Armor, etc. To edit any of the cable layers, simply select the corresponding tab. Below the dialog
for the Conductor tab is shown (For example, in the figure below, cable conductor material can be either
copper, aluminum or can be defined by the user):

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Figure 6: Cable Conductor Dialog

Using the Drop-Down Menu

Materials of each cable layers can be define by the user. Of course, there are many default materials
defined for each cable layer/section that the user can select. To choose an item from a dropdown menu,
use the mouse to point to the dropdown arrow as shown below (here selection of cable insulation material
is shown as an example) and left mouse click once on the arrow:


Figure 7: Selecting an Item from the Dropdown Menus
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

The list of available materials (in this case insulation) will be presented. To select, point with the mouse
on the desired row and left mouse click once on the highlighted item as shown below:



More details for each cable layers and their materials will be shown in the later sections.

Now, lets see how a new cable type can be added/created.
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Adding/Creating a New Cable Type Using the Wizard

To add/create a new cable type, simply, press the New.. icon in the upper left hand side of the main
dialog as shown below:



A Wizard has been implemented to assist the user in the process of creating a new cable type. The
Wizard will take the user through a step-by-step instructions/dialogs until all of the cable data are
completed. The first screen will prompt the user for general cable data as shown below:


Figure 8: Cable General Data Dialog
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

We will be entering the same cable data for this example as the 138 kV pipe type cable that was used in
the Neher McGrath Paper. In the below dialog, a 3-phase 138 kV, steel pipe type cable along with the
pipe inside and outside diameters is specified.



Upon completion of the above information, select Next to continue to the next step. The Conductor
data dialog is shown below:


Figure 9: Conductor Data Dialog
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

The cable construction per Neher McGrath paper is a round 4-segmental cable. Also, the conductor does
not have any screen/shield. Next, conductor dimension data dialog will be presented as shown below:


Figure 10: Conductor Dimension Data Dialog

The cable cross-section area, diameter over conductor shield (if any) should be entered in the above data
dialog. The data based on the paper is shown in figure below.
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program



The cable insulation data dialog will be shown next as seen in the figure below.


Figure 11: Cable Insulation Data Dialog
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

The insulation material and loss factors are all user defined for this example. The insulation thermal
resistivity based on the paper is 5.5 C-m/W. This cable has no insulation shield/screen.



The insulation dimension data dialog will be the next data dialog that should be completed.

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Figure 12: Cable Insulation Dimension Data Dialog


The diameter over insulation and over insulation shield is the same in this case since we have no
insulation shield.
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


In the next screen, the cable sheath and bonding and transposition data should be provided.


Figure 13: Cable Sheath Data Dialog
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program



Select Next to proceed to the next data dialog, i.e., the cable reinforcing data dialog as shown below:


Figure 14: Reinforcing Tape Data Dialog
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

The reinforcing tape made of brass/bronze is selected based on the data supplied in the Neher McGrath
paper.



Figure 15: Reinforcing Tape Dimension Data Dialog
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


The reinforcing tape dimension data is entered next that is shown in the figure below:



The cable concentric neutral or skid wire can be defined next. For the cable at hand, the cable does not
have any concentric neutral wires but it has a brass/bronze skid wire.

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Figure 16: Concentric Neutral/Skid Wire Data Dialog


The cable Jacket or in case of a pipe type cable, pipe coating material can be specified in the data dialog
shown in the figure below:
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Figure 17: Jacket/Pipe Coating Data Dialog



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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

For this cable a user defined pipe coating material is selected where thermal resistivity of the pipe coating
is provided, i.e., RHJ = 1.0 C-m/W

Figure 18: Armor/Serving/Bedding Data Dialog

This cable has no armor bedding, armor, or armor serving as specified and shown in the above figure.
The last data dialog, is the data regarding the overall cable diameter, pipe material (in case of pipe type
cable), and cable loss factor.
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Figure 19: Overall Cable Dimension Data Dialog


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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


After completing the overall cable dimension dialog, this cable that is just created will be added to the
cable/project library. As shown in the figure below, the newly added cable type is now can be seen in the
list of available cable types.



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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

How to Add/Create a Project/Study

To add a new study/project select New.. from the lower left hand side of the programs main screen as
shown below:



When creating a new project/study, the program requires a number cable installation conditions in
addition to the cables types and their location. In the next screen shown below, there are two tabs one
marked as General where general installation data can be entered and the other tab named Cable
Installation where cable type and location can be specified.

First the general project data should be completed. The general data requirement is show the dialog
illustrated in the figure below:

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


In the above there are several groups of data which is required. These are:

Study/Project Title: The user is recommended to assign an identification record to each study for
easy reference in the future.
Soil resistivity and ambient temperature
Computation option: program can compute ampacity of cables given their maximum operating
temperature or alternaively, program can compute temperature if cable ampacities are given.
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Solution method can be either IEC or Neher McGrath. If all of the cables have unity daily load
factor, then, IEC is the recommended method, otherwise, Neher McGrath should be selected
Cables can be in air, buried directly, being in backfill or ductbank
Heat source/sink data in any adjacent to the cables
Duct dimension and material
Non-iso thermal earth surface simulation
And finally if the program should include soil drying out condition

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Figure 20: Project/Study General Data Dialog


The general installation data entered based on the Neher McGrath paper is shown in the below screen:

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program



After completing the General data, the cable locations and type needs to be identified. Use the mouse to
select the Cable Installation tab as shown above. The data dialog appears in the figure shown below.








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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

To add a cable type to the study, use the mouse to point to Add Cable.. icon and then click once the left
mouse button.


Figure 21: Adding a Cable to a Study/Project






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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

In the data dialog shown below, first we should specify which cable is to be used in the study. Press
Select Cable... icon as shown below to see a list of available cables in the library.



List of cables in the library are shown in the figure below. Simply, use the mouse to highlight the desired
cable and then press OK button to accept the selection. In the case at hand we will choose the cable we
created in the previous section 138 kV Pipe Type Cable from NM paper.


Figure 22: Selecting a Cable from the Cable Type Library
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Now the select cable identification is shown in the upper portion of the data dialog below.



The cable in this study based on the Neher McGrath paper is directly buried 3 feet below the ground
surface with the maximum conductor temperature of 70 C. Daily load factor of 85% or 0.85 p.u. is also
specified. Press OK to accept the data entries. It can be seen from the figure below, it is possible to add
more cable type (s) to this study by just repeating the same process (choosing Add Cable.. icon) .

Since there is no additional cable in this study, press OK to complete study/project data .

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program




The study is just created is now can be seen in the list of existing studies as shown in the lower left hand
side of the figure shown below:
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program




How to Run a Steady-State Simulation

Now that we have completed all the necessary data for the cable installation conditions, the ampacity
computation can be performed. To start the ampacity calculation, first use the mouse to point to the
desired study in the list of existing studied/projects as shown in the lower left hand side of the above
screen. For example, in the above screen in the list of studies, the study named This is a new project to
use newly created pipe type cable is highlighted. Now that the study is selected choose the Run-
>Steady-State Simulation option from the menu bar shown at the top portion of the above figure. Once
this is selected the program will start the ampacity computation and will show the result in the report
browser window that is shown below:

The report browser screen show below can be used to view the result and also save a copy of the text
result for later printing or inclusion in a document. Select the DONE icon once the examination of result
is completed.

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Figure 23: Report Browser Window Showing the Result of Ampacity Calculation


:


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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Page 2 of the report for a steady-state analysis


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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program



Page 3 of the report for a steady-state analysis
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Program Validation and Verification for Steady-State Analysis

The steady-state module of the cable ampacity program has been used numerous to assess its validity.
In this section we will compare the result of this program against the result for a pipe type cable in the
Neher McGrath paper. The cable is a 138 kV - 2000 KCMIL High-Pressure Oil-Filled Pipe-type Cable in
8.625 inch outside diameter pipe. The Cable shielding consists of an intercalated 7/80.003 inch bronze
tape with 1 inch lay and a single 0.1 0.2 inch D shaped brass skid wire having 1.5 inch lay. The cables
will lie in cradled configuration. The pipe is located 36 inches (3 feet) below the earth surface in soil
having thermal resistivity of 0.85 K.m/W. An ambient temperature of 25 C is assumed. This problem is
chosen from page 25 of the Neher McGrath paper and cable cress section as well as dimensions are
shown below:



Figure 24: 138 kV, 2000 MCM high pressure oil-filled, 3-conductor, pipe type cable.

1. 2000 KCMIL copper conductor - diameter (DC) = 1.632 = 41.453 mm.
2. Insulation thickness (t) - 0.505 = 12.83 mm.
3. Outside diameter of sheath (DS) - 2.661 = 67.589 mm.
4. Inside diameter of pipe (DP) - 8.125 = 206.375 mm.
5. Outside diameter of pipe (DPO) - 8.625 = 219.075 mm.

The EDSA cable ampacity program for the above case produces very close result as those reported in
the IEEE paper as summarized below:

Table 1: Comparing Results of Neher McGrath and EDSAs Cable Ampacity Program
Reference Neher McGrath IEEE Paper EDSAs Cable Ampacity Program
Cable Ampacity (amp) 905 901
Deviance (%) - 0.44


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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Transient Analysis- Cyclic and Emergency Loading

The method for calculating cyclic and emergency current power cable ratings has been elaborated for
many years and has been standardized in form of IEC standards based on the application of a step
function. The Transient analysis in the EDSAs power cable analysis program is implemented based on
the principles described in the IEC Publication 60853-2. The program uses the lump parameters and
image methods to calculate the transient temperature variation of cables. The transient analysis module
similar to the steady-state module supports similar/dissimilar cables, equally/unequally loaded cables. In
order to perform transient simulations, the user should assign a load curve (basically a set of steps
functions) to each cable in the study, total simulation time, and the maximum current for which the load
curve (step functions) are to be scaled. Before performing transient analysis, the stead-state program will
automatically run for the study in question. As mentioned before, this is required in order to obtain the
lumped parameters model. Since the mathematical approach of the transient program is adopted from
IEC 60853, the user is referred to this publication for further details.

The transient analysis program should assist the users to seek the answers to the following questions:

What the final conductor temperature would be (with the defined load curve) if cable loading
increases by certain amount and duration?
How long cables in a study can be operated (with the defined load curve) if cable loading
increases by certain amount?
What is the maximum current the cables can carry for a specified period of time if the temperature
of the conductor not to exceed by certain amount?

The transient analysis program utilizes the techniques outlined in the IEC 60853. The transient program
requires the steady-state temperature and ampacity of the cables which is used as initial conditions for
the time domain simulations. Therefore, the transient program runs automatically the steady-state
program before starting the transient computations.


How to Run a Transient Simulation

To access the transient analysis module, select the study of the interest (press the left mouse button on
the row where the study is shown) and then select Run option as shown below:

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Figure 25: Selecting the Transient Analysis Option
To start the transient program, select Transient Simulation option as shown above. The main dialog of the
transient program is shown in Figure 26. On the upper left portion of this figure the user will be presented with the
list of the cable(s) in the study (for the case at hand we only have one cable). The loading pattern (load curve) has
been defaulted to Typical which can be changed at the user discretion. In the lower left portion of this figure, the
transient simulation parameters are shown.



Figure 26: Transient Analysis Main Dialog
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

The simulation parameters are:
Load Curve Scaling factor: this factor will be multiplied by all of the step functions defined in the user defined load
curve (pattern).

The simulation period: This is the total simulation time in hours (for example the user can be examine conductor
temperature over a 2 days period, i.e., 48 hours)

Simulation Step: Is the interval for which the transient program will compute the cables response to the load curve.
Also, the reporting of the results will be done at the same interval (step). The simulation step should be provided in
hours.


Figure 27: Defining a Load Curve


Defining Load Curve (Loading Pattern)

The user can define a loading pattern by specifying a series of step functions and then save it in the library for later
use in any simulations. To define a load curve, assign a name to it. For example, in the above figure a load curve has
been given identification of New. Then, a series of step functions should be defined. Figure 28 shows as example
of load curve. Each step function is defined by its period (hours) and magnitude of current (in % of steady state
maximum current defined in the steady-state analysis). It should be noted that the current cannot be more 100%.
The load curve scaling factor defined in the transient simulation parameters will be multiplied by each of these step
functions in the transient analysis. After all of the step functions are defined press the button marked as Save to
Lib to store the newly created load curve to the transient library (see figure below). The graph of a load curve can
be displayed by pressing the button View Curve as shown in Figure 28. Figure 29 shows the graph for the sample
load curve just saved into the transient library.
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Figure 28: Saving of Load Curves to the Transient Library


Figure 29: Graph of Sample Load Curve

To assign a load curve from the library to a cable of the study, select the cable of the interest by double left mouse
button on the row where the cable of interest is shown (see figure below).

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Figure 30: Assigning a Load Curve to a Cable

The dialog for assigning a load curve is shown below. The dropdown shown on the right hand side of the below
figure can be used to select a load curve from the transient library. In the example below there are two load curve
available from the library namely, Typical and New. After selecting the load curve of interest press OK to
confirm the assignment.


Figure 31: Selecting a Load Curve from Transient Load Curve Library

To change the simulation parameters, such as load curve scaling factor, just place the mouse in the data field and
press the left mouse button. The default values can be changed to any value within acceptable limits. In this
example, simulation period is specified to be 48 hours (2 days), load curve scaling factor of 120 % with simulation
step of 1 hour.

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Figure 32: Defining the Transient Simulation Parameters

After the transient data entry is completed, press the button marked as Calculate to start the transient
computations. Once the analysis is performed the options View Result and View Graph becomes accessible.
These buttons are grayed out if the analysis is not performed successfully (see Figure 33).


Figure 33: Performing the Transient Simulation

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Figure 34: Inspecting the Transient Analysis Result

To display the result of a transient simulation, press the button marked as View Graph. The plot of cables
(conductors) temperatures as well as the load curves will be displayed as illustrated in Figure 35.


Figure 35: Graphical Display of the Transient Simulation Results

The text report of the transient simulation result can be examined by pressing the button marked as View Result.












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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Program Validation and Verification for Transient Analysis

The validation and verification of the transient analysis program against published technical papers was
not possible due to lack of appropriate references. It was decided to validate the program in the following
fashion.

First, we will perform a transient analysis for a given cable type and installation conditions subject to one
step function lasting for a long period of time (i.e. simulating steady-state) assuming a load curve scale
factor. The cable temperature at the end of the transient simulation run will be noted, say T
f
. Next we will
perform a steady-state simulation by specifying conductor temperature to be T
f
and will compute the
cable ampacity. The computed cable ampacity should be equal to the load curve scale factor specified in
the transient simulation run. It should be noted that the results obtained in this manner will not be 100%
identical since the transient uses the lumped parameters model obtained in the steady-state as per IEC
60853 which is an approximation of the cable model.

Adopting the above approach to validate and verify the transient program, we use the same pipe type
cable as in the Neher McGrath paper. The corresponding study, which was also used in the steady-state
program validation, is shown below. It can be seen from the below figure that the load curve pattern in
this case is defined as 100 % step function lasting 2000 hours. We have also defined a load curve scale
factor of 120% with simulation period of 1000 hours.



The result of the transient simulation for this study is shown in Figure 36. The result shows that the conductor
temperature reaches approximately 91.2 C.

Next, we will seek the ampacity of the pipe type cable having temperature of 91.2 C in the steady-state module. The
cable installation screen is shown in Figure 37.
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program


Figure 36: Transient Simulation Results for the program V&V


Figure 37: Cable Installation Screen Defining Final Temperature Obtained in the Transient Simulation

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Finally the steady-state simulation is performed for the modified conductor temperature as shown below:



The result of the simulation is shown below. The cable ampacity in this case is 1119 Amps. Table below summarize
the result of the V&V:

Table 2: V&V of the EDSAs Transient Simulation Program
Reference Steady-state Simulation Transient Simulation
Cable Ampacity (amps) 1119 1.2*904=1084.8
Difference (%) - -3.05

The above table shows that the result obtained by the transient program when simulating a long lasting step
function is in excellent agreement with the results obtained in the steady-state simulation.



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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

References Bibliography


AIEE Trans., "Symposium on Temperature Rise of Cables," Vol. 72, Part II, p. 530-62, 1953.
AIEE Committee Report, "A-C Resistance of Pipe-Cable Systems with Segmental Conductors,"
AIEE Trans. Vol. 71, Part III, p. 393-414, 1952.
AIEE Publication S-135-1, Power Cable Ampacity Tables, ICES Publication, pp. 46-426, 1962.
Arnold, A. H. M., "Proximity Effect in Solid and Hollow Round Conductors," Journal IEE, Vol. 88,
Part II*, p. 349-59, Aug., 1941.
Arnold, A.H.M., "Eddy-Current Losses in Multi-Core Paper-Insulated Lead-Covered Cables,
Armored and Unarmored, Carrying Balanced 3-Phase Current," Journal IEE, Vol. 88, Part I, p.
52-63, Feb., 1941.
Beasley, W.A., "Hot Circuits Can Be Expensive," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl. Vol. 1A-19, July/August
1983.
Bosone, L., "Contribution to the Study of Losses and of Self-Induction of Single-Conductor
Armored Cables," L'Elettrotecnica, p.2, 1931.
Buller, F.H. and Neher, J.H., "The Thermal Resistance between Cables and a Surrounding Pipe
or Duct Wall," AIEE Trans, Vol. 69, Part I, p. 342-9, 1950.
Buller, F.H. and Woodrow, C.A., "Load Factor and Equivalent Hours Compared," Electrical World,
Vol. 92, No. 2, p. 59-60, 1928.
Buller, F.H., Neher, J.H. and Wollaston, F.O., "Oil Flow and Pressure Calculations for Self-
Contained Oil-Filled Cable Systems," AIEE Trans. Vol. 75, Part I, 1959.
Buller, F.H., "Thermal Transients on Buried Cables," AIEE Trans. Vol. 70, Part I, p. 45-55, 1951.
Buller, F.H., " Artificial Cooling of Power Cable," AIEE Trans. Vol. 71, Part III, p. 634-41, 1952.
Burrell, R.W.; Morris, M., "A-C Resistance of Conventional Strand Power Cables in Non-Metallic
Duct and in Iron Conduit," AIEE Trans. Vol. 74, 1955, Part III, p. 1014-23.
Greebler, P.; Barnett, G.F., "Heat Transfer Study of Power Cable Ducts and Duct Assemblies,"
AIEE Trans. Vol. 69, Part I, 1950, p. 351-69.
Heiman, R.H., "Surface Heat Transmission," ASME Trans. Vol. 51, Part I, p. 287-302, 1929.
IEEE Trans. on Ind. Appl., "Neher-McGrath Calculations for Insulated Power Cables," Vol. 1A-21,
No. 5, September/October 1985.
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IPCA Publication, Ampacity Tables for Solid Dielectric Power Cables Including Effect of Shield
Losses, pp. 53-426 and NEMA Publication WC 50-1976.
Meyerhoff, L. and Eager, Jr., G.S., "A-C Resistance of Segmental Cables in Steel Pipe," AIEE
Trans Vol. 68, Part II, p. 816-34, 1949.
Meyerhoff, L., Pipe Losses in Non-Magnetic Pipe, AIEE Trans. Vol. 72, Part III, p. 1260-75,
1953.
National Electric Code, National Fire Protection Association Tables 310-20 through 310-30, 1988.
Neher, J. H., "The Temperature Rise of Buried Cables and Pipes," AIEE Trans. Vol. 68, Part I, p.
9-21, 1949.
Neher, J.H., "The Temperature Rise of Cables in a Duct Bank," AIEE Trans. Vol. 68, Part I, p.
540-9, 1949.
Neher, J.H., "The Determination of Temperature Transients in Cable Systems by Means of an
Analogous Computer," AIEE Trans. Vol. 70, Part II, p. 1361-71, 1951.
Neher, J.H., "A Simplified Mathematical Procedure for Determining the Transient Temperature
Rise of Cable System," AIEE Trans. Vol. 72, Part III, p. 712-8, 1953.
Neher, J.H. and McGrath, M.H., "The Calculation of the Temperature Rise and Load Capability of
Cable Systems," AIEE Trans. on Power Appl. Sys., Pt. III, Vol. 76, pp. 752-772, October 1957.
"NEMA Report of Determination of Maximum Permissible Current Carrying Capacity of Code
Insulated Wires and Cables for Building Purposes," June 27, 1938.
Rosch, S.J., "The Current Carrying Capacity of Rubber Insulated Conductors," AIEE Trans. Vol.
57, p. 155-67, April 1938.
Schurig, O.R. and Frick, G.W., "Heating and Current-Carrying Capacity of Bare Conductors for
Outdoor Service," G.E. Review, Vol. 33, p.141, 1930.
Schurig, O.R., Kuehni, H.P. and Buller, P.H., "Losses in Armored Single-Conductor, Lead-
Covered A-C Cables," AIEE Trans. Vol. 93, No. 1, p. 417, 1929.
Simmons, D.M., "Calculation of the Electrical Problems of Underground Cables," The Electric
Journal, May-November, 1932.
Wedmore, E.B., "The Heating of Cables Exposed to the Sun in Racks," Journal IEE, Vol. 75, p.
737-48, 1934.

63

Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

APPENDIX I: IEC & Neher-Mcgrath Cable Ampacity Calculations Methodology

Traditional cable sizing methods address the issue of maximum allowable ampacity strictly from the point
of view of the cable and system load characteristics. In other words, they are generally limited to factors
such as insulation rating and voltage drop. In reality, cable ampacity is a much more complex concept
that hinges on many other factors.

The allowable conductor temperature for the type of insulation being used is the main factor that defines
the ampacity of a cable. A complete approach to the problem requires the integration of all aspects of
cable system design such as:

Load characteristics
Cable type
Conductor material & size
Insulation thickness and properties
Shield connections
Environment
Installation conditions


Figure 38: Basic Thermal Circuit

Of course, other system conditions and load-flow characteristics may limit the rating of the cable to values
lower than its ampacity. The basic calculation procedure for studying the thermal behavior of an element
corresponds to the thermal equivalent of Ohm's law, which is shown in above Figure. Here we can see
that Heat (Watts) is equivalent to electrical current, and Thermal Resistance (thermal ohm-foot)
corresponds to electrical resistance (ohms). When heat circulates through the circuit's thermal resistance,
64

Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

a temperature drop ( ) is established. Thermal resistance values depend on material properties,
thermal resistivity, and geometric characteristics.
C
65

Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Thermal resistivity is defined in units of watt cm C /
watt /
C 1
for both, the metric and imperial systems. In
Europe, however, is defined as . To illustrate the significance of this unit, consider the
following: a material that possesses a resistivity of
m C
watt cm/
2
/ cm
, will experience a temperature
rise when a heat flow equivalent to 1 flows through a 1 cm section of the material.
C 1
watt


1 Thermal Ohm-Foot
(1 Thermal Ohm-Meter)
1 Watt
dT = 1
o
C
1 Foot
(1Meter)
Figure 39: Definition of Thermal-Ohm Units

In the United States, the ampacity calculations are based on a unit cable length of 1 foot, thus defining a
Thermal-Ohm-Foot (TOF) ( ) as the thermal resistance that causes a -temperature
increase, when 1 watt of heat per foot of conductor is generated. The equivalent metric unit is called the
Thermal Ohm Meter (TOM), and is expressed as (
watt / foot C C 1
watt / m C ). The above Figure illustrates the
concept of Thermal-Ohm-Foot/Meter.


Conductor
Ohmic Losses
Dielectric Losses Shield Losses Pipe Losses
C
cond
C
ins
C
shield
C
fluid
C
pipe
C
earth
R
earth
R
shield-fluid
R
ins/2
R
fluid
R
fluid-pipe
R
pipe-earth
R
ins/2
T
earth
T
pipe
T
shield
T
cond
Figure 40: Mathematical Model of a Cable Thermal Circuit

Figure above, illustrates a mathematical model that describes the thermal circuit of a self-cooled buried
transmission cable. This model is typical of a pipe-type cable system, which is one of the most common
types of cable used in transmission applications. While conventional models may include conductor and
66

Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

dielectric losses and maybe even shield effect, they fail to take into account crucial thermal elements
such as pipe fluid, and earth losses. Each of the components are summarized as follows:

Temperatures: Conductor
Cable/earth interface
Ambient

Losses: Ohmic ( ) R I
2

Dielectric (insulation)
Shield/sheath (eddy & circulating currents)
Pipe (edddy-current & hysteresis )

Thermal Resistance: Electrical insulation
Dielectric
Pipe covering
Earth
Mutual heating effect of nearby heat sources (steam mains)
Mutual heating effect of other nearby cable systems
Shield - Fluid
Fluid - Pipe
Duct material
Air space
Concrete envelope

Thermal Capacitance: Conductors
Insulation
Shield
Fluid
Pipe
Earth

In the particular case of cables in free air, one must consider the effect of solar radiation, which increases
the temperature rise, and the effect of the wind, which decreases it. As seen from the above list of
elements, the true ampacity of a cable depends on many factors, which are often ignored by traditional
methods. This leads to poor/dangerous design specifications.

Virtually every steady-state ampacity calculation in the United States is performed according to the
Neher-McGrath method. This procedure quantifies with extreme accuracy the added heating effect
imposed by each and every one of the elements previously listed. A non-US practice is to employ the IEC
287 method, which is the metric equivalent to the Neher-McGrath procedure. IEC 287, however, has a
better treatment of sheath losses for single conductor cables. Both methods are applicable to both single
and three-conductor cable in various installations, such as cable in air, cable in duct, and cable buried in
earth.
67

Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

68

APPENDIX II: Some Useful Diagrams and Figures

Cable type: Pipe / Location: In Air

Cable type: Pipe / Location: Buried
Cable type: Duct / Location: Air

Soil
Soil
Air
Air
Duct
Duct
Ground
Ground
Conduit/ Pipe
Air Air
Pipe Type Cable

Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

Cable type: Duct / Location: Buried

So
Ground
Duct















Cable type: No Pipe - No Duct / Location: Buried

Soil Soil








Cable Construction Type
OIL
Triplex Configuration
Single conductor
Oil-filled cable
Cradle
Configuration
3-Conductor
Cables in Duct
Cables in flat
configuration
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Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

70
Magnetic Armor or Reinforcement Type


Non-Magnetic Armor
3-Conductor Cables.
Magnetic pipe/ conduit
3-Conductor Cables.
Magnetic pipe/ conduit
1-Conductor Close
Triangular Cables.
Magnetic pipe/ conduit
1-Conductor Cradled
Cables.
Non-Magnetic Armor
1-Conductor Close
Triangular Cables.
Non-Magnetic Armor
1-Conductor Cradled
Cables.






















Thermal Circuit Type
Two Core Belted
Circular Conductor
Three Core Belted
Circular Conductor

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71
Conductor Shield/Screen and Jacket


Conductor
Insulation
J acket
t
C
t
i

D
J





















Insulation
Armor, Binder for RI (tai)
Jacket
Belt for RI (tbi)
Core (tci)

Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

72
External Cover
Armour Type
Armour Bedding
Sheath Reinforcing Material
Concentric Wires
Sheath Type
Insulation Shield
Insulation Type
Conductor Shield
Conductor Material


Figure 41: Cable Topology / General Parameters Self Contained Cables
The figure above is a complete cable topology, which outlines the general range of the information
required for a typical cable ampacity calculation.



Figure 42: Typical Pipe Cable Cross-Section

Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

73
Configuration of Cable in the Duct/Conduit:


Figure 43: Configuration of Cable in the Duct/Conduit


Figure 44: Ductbank G
b
Factor


Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

74

APPENDIX III: Tables of Material Properties


Different types of insulating material are listed below. The user can select specific inductive capacitance
of insulation (
r
) based on the type of cable.

Table 3: Specific Inductive Capacitance of Insulation
Materials Insulation (
r
)

Polyethylene 2.3
Paper Insulation (Solid type) 3.7 (IPCEA Value)
Paper Insulation (Other type) 3.3 - 4.2
Rubber and Rubber-like compounds 5.0 (IPCEA Value)
Varnished Cambric 5.0 (IPCEA Value)

The thermal resistivities of different materials are listed in table below. The user has the option to select
the material thermal resistivities depending on the type of cable, its protective coverings, and the
materials for duct installations.

Table 4: Thermal Resistivity of Various Materials
Material in Ccm/watt
Paper Insulation (Solid type) 700 (IPCEA Value)
Varnished Cambric 600 (IPCEA Value)
Paper Insulation (other types) 500 - 550
Rubber and Rubber-like 500 (IPCEA Value)
Jute and Textile Protective Covering 500
Fiber Duct 480
Polyethylene 450
Transite duct 200
Somastic (Jacket) 100
Concrete 85

For cables in ducts or pipes, the constants A' and B' from below table are used for calculation of thermal
resistance (R
SD
) of the air space between the cable surface and the duct internal surface. The user needs
to supply the values of the constants from table below depending on the installation of the cable.

Table 5: Pipe Constants
Condition A B
In Metallic Conduit 3.2 0.190
In Fiber Duct in Air 5.6 0.330
In Fiber Duct in Concrete 4.6 0.270
In Transite Duct in Air 4.4 0.260
In Transite Duct in Concrete 3.7 0.220
Gas - Filled Pipe Cable at 200 psi 2.1 0.680
Oil - Filled Pipe Cable 2.1 2.450












Advanced Power Cable Ampacity Program

75

Table 6: Conductor Material
Material Resistivity ( )ohm.m @ 20 C. TemperatureCoefficient (
20
) per K at 20 C
Copper 1.7241 x 10

3.93 x 10


8 3
Aluminum 2.8264 x 10

4.03 x 10


8 3
Lead or Lead Alloy 21.4 x 10

4.0 x 10


8 3
Steel 13.8 x 10

4.5 x 10


8 3
Bronze 3.5 x 10 3.0 x 10


8 3
Stainless Steel 70.0 x 10

Negligible
8
Aluminum 2.84 x 10

4.03 x 10


8 3
Brass 6.24 x 10

4.5 x 10


8 3

Table 7: Dielectric Loss
Types of cables U
o
(kV) (line to ground)

Cables insulated with impregnated paper 30
Cables with other kinds of insulation:
Butyl rubber 15
EPR 15
PVC 6
PE 110
XLPE 45


Table 8: Resistivities of Materials
Material Thermal resistivity (K.m/W)

Paper insulation in solid type cables 6.0
Paper insulation in oil-filled cables 5.0
Paper insulation in cables
with external gas pressure 5.5
Paper insulation in cables
with internal gas pressure:
a. Pre impregnated 6.5
b. Mass impregnated 6.0
PE 3.5
XLPE 3.5
Polyvinyl chloride:
up to and including 3 kV cables 5.0
greater than 3 kV cables 6.0
EPR:
up to and including 3 kV cables 3.5
greater than 3 kV cables 5.0
Butyl rubber 5.0
Rubber 5.0
Protective coverings:
Compounded jute and fibrous materials 6.0
Rubber sandwich protection 6.0
Polychloroprene 5.5
PVC:
up to and including 35 kV cables 5.0
greater than 35 kV cables 6.0
PVC/bitumen on corrugated aluminum sheaths 6.0
PE 3.5



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76

Materials for duct installations:

Concrete 1.0
Fibre 4.8
Asbestos 2.0
Earthenware 1.2
PVC 7.0
PE 3.5



Table 9: Absorption Coefficients of Solar Radiation
Materials Absorption Coefficients

Bitumen/Jute serving 0.8
Polychloroprene 0.8
Polyvinylchloride (PVC) 0.6
Polyethylene (PE) 0.4
Lead of Armor 0.6

For the cable diameters in the range of 25 mm to 100 mm, the constants UU, V and Y in following tbale
are used for calculation of thermal resistance of the air space between the cable surface and the duct
internal surface.

Table 10: Constants For Ducts Or Pipes
Installation condition UU V Y
2





In metallic conduit 5.2 1.4 0.011
In fibre duct in air 5.2 0.83 0.006
In fibre duct in concrete 5.2 0.91 0.010
In asbestos cement:
duct in air 5.2 1.2 0.006
duct in concrete 5.2 1.1 0.011
Gas pressure cable in pipe 0.95 0.46 0.0021
Oil pressure pipe type cable 0.26 0.0 0.0026
Plastic ducts Under consideration by IEC
Earthenware ducts 1.87 0.28 0.0036