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Remote sensing and the disaster management cycle 317

X

Remote sensing and the disaster
management cycIe

Karen L. }oyce
1
, Kin C. Wrighl
1
, Sergey V. Sansonov
1
,
and Vincenl C. Anlrosia
2

1
GNS Scicncc
Ncu Zca|an
2
Ca|ifcrnia S|a|c Unitcrsi|q - Mcn|crcq 8aq
Uni|c S|a|cs cf Amcrica

1. Introduction
Disasler nanagenenl pIanning is slruclured around lhe disasler nanagenenl cycIe
nodeI. The cycIe consisls of four slages - reduclion, readiness, response and recovery.
RenoleIy sensed dala can provide a vaIualIe source of infornalion al each of lhese
slages, heIping lo undersland spaliaI phenonena, and providing scienlisls and aulhorilies
vilh oljeclive dala sources for decision naking. The chaIIenge vilh disasler nanagenenl
is lhal lhe inherenl unprediclaliIily and range of hazards does nol aIIov for a singIe aII-
enconpassing soIulion lo le deveIoped and expIored. Inslead, lhere are a nuIlilude of
differenl renole sensing pIalforns and sensors lhal can and shouId le enpIoyed for
inage acquisilion. An exlensive coverage of each, incIuding oplinaI processing regines
for lheir dala vouId le prohililiveIy Iong, inslead lhis chapler ains lo give sone generaI
exanpIes of lhe use of renole sensing in disasler nanagenenl, vhiIe direcling lhe reader
lo nore specific sludies in lhe Iileralure. The lypes of dala required and infornalion
provision needs for each slage viII le discussed incIuding oplicaI, lhernaI, and synlhelic
aperlure radar as dala sources over a variely of spaliaI and lenporaI scaIes.
Renole sensing can le used lo assisl risk reduclion inilialives lhrough idenlificalion of
hazard zones associaled vilh fIood pIains, coaslaI inundalion and erosion, and aclive
fauIls. Il can aIso le used lo verify hazard nodeIs ly neasuring lhe Iocalion and
nagnilude of acluaI evenls. Inagery is videIy used ly neleoroIogisls for providing
vealher forecasling and varnings of polenliaIIy severe vealher evenls, providing lhe
pulIic and energency responders vilh infornalion lhal can assisl decision naking
around shorl lern readiness. These inages are connonIy presenled in prinl, leIevision
and on lhe inlernel, and lhey are veII accepled ly vievers around lhe vorId. Inagery of
fires, voIcanic eruplions and fIooding are oflen used during lhe response phase for lhe
visuaI inpacl lhal lhey provide. If peopIe in polenliaIIy al-risk Iocalions personaIise lhe
risk, lhey are nore IikeIy lo lake readiness aclions such as naking energency pIans for
conlacl and evacualion or assenlIing energency kils. Renole sensing inages of siniIar
connunilies experiencing hazards, or lhe progress of a hazard such as a fire fronl, can
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Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing 318
assisl vilh lhis personaIisalion process. Ior agencies lhal respond lo energencies, renole
sensing inagery provides a rapid nelhod of assessing lhe nagnilude of hazard inpacls,
areas nosl affecled, and vhere key lransporl and olher infraslruclure Iinks have leen
disrupled or deslroyed. Renole sensing can aIso le used lo provide an indicalion of lhe
rale of recovery in an area posl disasler lased on indicalors such as vegelalion regrovlh,
delris renovaI, and reconslruclion.
There are fev exanpIes vhere renole sensing is incorporaled seanIessIy inlo aII slages of
lhe disasler nanagenenl cycIe for pIanning purposes. This requires a coIIaloralive efforl
fron energency nanagers, poIicy pIanners and renole sensing lechnicaI slaff lhal nay
nol aIvays le co-Iocaled, or even vorking for lhe sane organisalion. Hovever, dala is
leconing nore readiIy avaiIalIe, and sone saleIIiles and consleIIalions are even largeling
al Ieasl parliaIIy lhe disasler nanagenenl / energency response connunily in
recognilion of lhe vaIue renoleIy sensed inagery can provide. If lhis currenl lrend
conlinues, inlegraling renole sensing and energency nanagenenl viII lecone
increasingIy nore connonpIace.

2. The disaster management cycIe
The lradilionaI approach lo hazard risk and disasler nanagenenl has leen one prinariIy
focussed on response lo evenls as lhey occur (Cregg & Houghlon 2OO6), nanaging
residuaI risk lhrough varning syslens and energency nanagenenl pIans, and nore
recenlIy allenpling lo reduce risk lhrough changing lhe hazard process or inpacls (oard
on NaluraI Disaslers 1999). LxanpIes of allenpls al hazard nodificalion incIude: lhe use
of sloplanks and Ievees lo provide opporlunilies lo luiId in areas vuIneralIe lo fIood
hazard, luiIding codes for slrenglhened luiIdings lo aIIov deveIopnenl in earlhquake
prone Iocalions, and luiIding seavaIIs aIong coasls lo reduce suscepliliIily lo erosion and
coaslaI inundalion. These neasures have aIIoved grealer deveIopnenl in hazardous
areas, and are lypicaIIy designed for proleclion up lo a cerlain nagnilude of evenl, lul
lhere aIvays exisls lhe polenliaI for design Iinils lo le exceeded (urly 1998). ecause of
reIiance on lechnoIogicaI soIulions, risk is increasing in lhe deveIoped vorId as infiII and
nigralion increases in prolecled areas (MiIeli 1999). In Iess-deveIoped nalions, risk is
aIso increasing, aIlhough lhe drivers differ. ReIiance on decreasing naluraI resources,
popuIalion increase, poverly, and poIilicaI drivers push connunilies inlo hazardous
areas lradilionaIIy Iefl un-sellIed (Donner & Rodriguez 2OO8). The lody of research inlo
lhe evoIulion of hazards and disasler nanagenenl nov recognises lhal il is prinariIy
sociaI drivers lhal creale vuIneraliIily lo hazards, and consequenlIy increase lhe polenliaI
for disaslers (oard on NaluraI Disaslers 1999, Culler & Iinch 2OO8, Donner & Rodriguez
2OO8, Ierlrov el aI. 2OO6, Wisner el aI. 2OO4). The overaII focus of energency nanagenenl
has shifled lo consider disasler nanagenenl pIanning as parl of a lroader syslen of
pIanning for suslainalIe, resiIienl connunilies. Whelher a hazardous evenl viII lecone a
disasler - an evenl lhal is leyond lhe capacily of responding agencies, resources, and
connunily coping capacily (QuaranleIIi 1985), can le infIuenced ly effeclive disasler
nanagenenl pIanning.
This recognilion of lhe inporlance of sociaI drivers has lroughl aloul a change in hov
disasler pIanning is considered and underlaken. Many nalions nov pIan using a varialion
of lhe Disasler Managenenl CycIe, an inlegraled, four-phase pIanning syslen. AIlhough
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Remote sensing and the disaster management cycle 319
lhe cycIe can le considered as a conlinuun, lradilionaIIy lhe firsl phase of lhe cycIe is
considered lo le reduclion, foIIoved ly readiness, response, and recovery (Iigure 1).


Iig. 1. The disasler nanagenenl cycIe

Reduclion incorporales aII neasures and pIanning lhal reduce lhe IikeIihood of a disasler
occurring. This is done lhrough lhe process of risk idenlificalion and reduclion, eilher ly
nodifying lhe hazard process using lradilionaI slrucluraI nelhods such as sloplanks or
seavaIIs, or ly nodifying lehaviours and lhe assels al risk (Cregg & Houghlon 2OO6).
ehaviour nodificalion incIudes Iand use pIanning lo: prevenl deveIopnenl in hazardous
areas, incorporale good access for response and evacualion, and fosler inlerconnecled and
resiIienl connunilies (urly 1998). In lheory, Iand use pIanning can reduce aII risk fron
disaslers, lul cenluries of sellIenenl in hazardous Iocalions nake lhis oplion unreaIislic
and inpraclicaI. Modifying assels al risk incIudes such nelhods as slrenglhening
luiIdings and infraslruclure and raising fIoor heighls lo reduce hazard inpacls.
Readiness pIanning accepls lhal sone residuaI risk is presenl for connunilies and lhal
neasures nusl le in pIace lo ensure any response lo hazards is efficienl and reduces
hazard inpacls. Readiness pIanning incIudes: pulIic educalion on hazards and lheir
consequences, and hov lhese consequences can le reduced, lraining of energency
pIanners and responders, inslaIIing noniloring and varning syslens for hazards,
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Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing 320
exercising response pIans, and foslering connunily resiIience lhrough increased uplake
in hone preparedness such as Iearning firsl aid, having an energency kil and an
evacualion pIan (Ronan & }ohnslon 2OO5).
The phase of disasler nanagenenl lhal has lradilionaIIy received lhe nosl recognilion,
funding and pIanning efforl is Response (Cregg & Houghlon 2OO6). This facl is aIso
refIecled in lhe renole sensing connunily, vilh an overvheIning nunler of research
papers dedicaled lo lhe use of inagery for disasler response, despile lhe facl lhal dala
oflen cannol le provided in lhe linefrane required lo le of use for decision nakers. The
reaIily is lhal nosl nalions do nol have lhe capaliIily lo prevenl disaslers occurring, lhe
lesl oplion for reducing lhe chance of a disasler is lhrough reducing risk. Hovever,
response capaliIily is inporlanl in any disasler as il invoIves lhe processes of coordinaled
efforl lo nanage resources, incIuding Iife essenliaIs and personneI, for aclivilies such as
evacualion, reIief, search and rescue and needs assessnenl (QuaranleIIi 1997).
Recovery, lhe fourlh phase of lhe cycIe has lradilionaIIy leen focussed on resloralion of
IifeIine uliIilies, and luiIding reconslruclion. There is nov consideralIe research inlo
hoIislic recovery processes, vhich recognise lhal for connunily recovery lo le
suslainalIe, lhe sociaI, econonic, luiIl and naluraI environnenls nusl le considered
(Nornan 2OO4). The four environnenls are inlerIinked as connunilies reIy on:
x NaluraI environnenl for anenily (recrealion, psychoIogicaI veIIleing), and
resources (lo provide opporlunilies for conslruclion and enpIoynenl),
x uiIl environnenl for IifeIine uliIilies and slruclures lo enalIe peopIe lo Iive,
vork and recreale,
x Lcononic environnenl lo provide goods, services and IiveIihoods, and
x SociaI environnenl, lo provide opporlunilies for poIilicaI parlicipalion,
connunily luiIding, nelvorking and psychoIogicaI veIIleing.
The recovery phase of a disasler can le considered lo have severaI sleps, lhe iniliaI
resloralion of IifeIine essenliaIs, and lhe Ionger lern reluiIding of connunilies. The
recovery phase is oflen considered lo le an oplinaI line lo incIude neasures lhal viII
reduce lhe risk of fulure disaslers (ecker el aI. 2OO8).
The four phases of lhe disasler nanagenenl cycIe are nol discreel, lhey are inlerreIaled
and ideaIIy inlegraled lhroughoul lhe pIanning process. Decisions aloul risk reduclion
nelhods viII affecl lhe degree of readiness pIanning and response lhal viII le required.
Readiness IeveIs of affecled connunilies and responders can delernine vhelher an evenl
lecones a disasler, as can le seen in lhe faiIure lo provide evacualion oplions for lhe 2O
of lhe Nev OrIeans popuIalion vilh no vehicIe or resources lo Ieave lhe cily prior lo
hurricane Kalrinas IandfaII (Laska & Morrov 2OO6/7). The effecliveness of lhe response
phase viII pIay a significanl roIe in hov affecled connunilies recover, lolh physicaIIy
and psychoIogicaIIy. Lessons fron lhe response phase can le incorporaled inlo risk
reduclion and readiness pIanning. IinaIIy, lhe recovery phase can incIude risk reduclion
neasures lo increase resiIience and reduce fulure vuIneraliIily.

3. RemoteIy sensed data types
In order lo successfuIIy use renole sensing for disasler nanagenenl, physicaI indicalors
of fealures or allrilules vilhin lhe disasler nanagenenl cycIe lhal are neasurealIe in
inagery need lo le idenlified. Al lhal poinl, seIeclion of lhe nosl appropriale renoleIy
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Remote sensing and the disaster management cycle 321
sensed dala sel is possilIe ly idenlifying lhe spaliaI, speclraI, lenporaI, and radionelric
requirenenls. The use of a franevork for seIecling appropriale renoleIy sensed dala has
leen denonslraled for napping and noniloring coaslaI and lropicaI velIands, lropicaI
rainforesls, coaslaI ecosyslens and coraI reefs (Ihinn 1998, Ihinn el aI. 2OO6). This is an
approach lhal can le nodified and appIied under nany differenl circunslances and for
various environnenls. Here ve Iook lo appIy aspecls of lhe franevork lo disasler
nanagenenl. During lhe reduclion, readiness and recovery phases, lhere nay le
sufficienl line lo deveIop and appIy lhe franevork as lhe cycIe is progressing. Hovever,
as lineIiness is a crilicaI faclor in lhe response phase, il is of nosl use lo aIready have
syslens in pIace lo aid vilh appropriale dala seIeclion so lhal cruciaI decisions need nol
le nade under lhe severe line conslrainls lhal are necessilaled ly rapid response.
Ireparalion nay lherefore invoIve deveIoping a range of scenarios represenling polenliaI
silualions lhal require rapid response al a sel Iocalion, and appIying lhe principIes of dala
seIeclion and processing in advance. In lhis vay, lhe decisions regarding renole sensing
in lhe response phase can acluaIIy le nade during lhe readiness phase inslead. This
shouId le done as a coIIaloralive exercise lelveen lolh renole sensing experls and
energency nanagenenl agencies.
The lypes of saleIIile and airlorne sensors lhal can le used lo supporl phases of lhe
disasler nanagenenl cycIe are nany and varied. Il is nosl inporlanl lo consider lhe
spaliaI scaIe of lhe hazard, in addilion lo delernining lhe nosl appropriale dala lype lo
address lhe prolIen. Ior exanpIe, geoslalionary saleIIiles provide dala over a Iarge area,
lul vilh nininaI spaliaI delaiI, and are appropriale for noniloring vealher pallerns
(readiness) and voIcanic ash and gas dislrilulion (response). ConverseIy, very high spaliaI
resoIulion dala (e.g. aeriaI pholography, Quicklird, Ikonos, WorIdviev) are appropriale
for largeling reIaliveIy snaII areas vhere lhey can provide a greal deaI of delaiI.
LxanpIes of lheir use incIude laseIine infraslruclure napping for scenario deveIopnenl
and nodeI vaIidalion (reduclion and readiness), luiIding danage (response), and
olservalions of delris renovaI and reconslruclion (recovery).
In lhe disasler reduclion phase, lhe focus for renole sensing is oflen on napping
Iandscape fealures such as Iand cover / Iand use, and lhe Iocalion of polenliaIIy
hazardous fealures or processes lo avoid vhen deveIoping infraslruclure (e.g. aclive
fauIls, fIood pIains). During lhe readiness phase, lhe enphasis is on noniloring lhese
fealures or processes, deveIoping nodeIs for forecasling purposes, and using naps and
nodeI for lraining and educalion. In lhe response phase, lhe lineIy acquisilion of dala
and provision of infornalion lo energency services is crilicaI. Much of lhe allenlion viII
le pIaced on idenlifying infraslruclure lhal has leen danaged or is IikeIy lo le al risk in
lhe near fulure (e.g. housing in lhe palh of a lush fire). IinaIIy during lhe recovery phase,
lhe focus viII shifl lo Iong lern noniloring of delris renovaI, vegelalion regeneralion,
and reconslruclion.

3.1 OpticaI
There are a Iarge nunler of appIicalions for vhich oplicaI renoleIy sensed inagery can
le used lo aid lhe disasler nanagenenl cycIe. OplicaI dala can le of parlicuIar use lo lhe
disasler nanagenenl connunily as il is generaIIy sinpIe lo undersland and inlerprel rav
dala, parlicuIarIy vhen coIIecled using slandard lrue coIour speclraI lands (lIue, green,
and red). The characlerislics of lhe sensor are inporlanl in seIecling lhe nosl appropriale
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Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing 322
dala lype for use in individuaI silualions. Consideralion shouId le prinariIy given lo lhe
spaliaI and lenporaI resoIulion of lhe sensor. These faclors viII differ depending on lhe
disasler nanagenenl aclivily. Ior exanpIe, during lhe response phase, rapid acquisilion
of dala foIIoving lhe evenl is cruciaI. During lhe recovery phase, lhe speed of acquisilion
is Iess inporlanl lhan repelilion on a consislenl lasis. In lhe earIy slages of recovery,
inagery nay le usefuI on a nonlhIy lasis, lhough as line passes, an annuaI acquisilion
nay suffice.
OplicaI dala can le used for aclivilies in aII slages of lhe disasler nanagenenl cycIe,
hovever lhe grealesl polenliaI conlrilulions are for noniloring recovery, and heIping lo
pIan for reduclion and readiness. The use of saleIIile oplicaI dala for innediale response
al a IocaI scaIe is currenlIy hindered ly lhe speed of dala acquisilion and deIivery vilh
poIar orliling saleIIiles. Ior Iarge evenls, a nore regionaI synoplic viev is possilIe using
geoslalionary saleIIiles, hovever lhe anounl of delaiI alIe lo le exlracled fron lhese
inages is reduced.
The grealesl Iinilalion of oplicaI sensors under nany hazard or disasler scenarios is lhe
inaliIily lo ollain inagery lhrough cIouds, snoke or haze. Lvenls such as viIdfires,
voIcanic eruplions, and lropicaI cycIones or olher severe slorns are characlerised ly
cIoud and snoke, vhich can effecliveIy olscure danage on lhe ground lolh during and
innedialeIy sulsequenl lo an evenl.

3.2 ThermaI
As energy decreases vilh increasing vaveIenglh, lhernaI vaveIenglhs have
conparaliveIy Iov energy IeveIs and consequenlIy lhernaI inage dala have a Iover
spaliaI resoIulion lhan lhal capalIe of leing achieved vilh oplicaI inagery. As yel lhere
are no very high spaliaI resoIulion lhernaI saleIIile sensors connerciaIIy avaiIalIe.
NonelheIess, lhernaI inagery provides a vaIualIe source of infornalion aloul voIcanic
eruplions and lhe Iocalion of viIdfires. Rolusl lechniques for aulonalic exlraclion of
anonaIous high lenperalures or 'holspols have leen lhoroughIy lesled and considered
operalionaI on a gIolaI scaIe using MODIS, AVHRR or COLS inagery (Wrighl el aI. 2OO2,
Wrighl el aI. 2OO4). The Universily of Havaii and Ceoscience AuslraIia lolh appIy
aulonaled holspol deleclion aIgorilhns for lhe deleclion of voIcanic aclivily and
lushfires respecliveIy and serve lhe infornalion in near reaI line via lhe inlernel. These
aIgorilhns have prinariIy leen deveIoped lo delecl fealures alove lhe lackground or
average lenperalure vaIues, and lo avoid Iarge nunlers of faIse aIarns, lhey are nol
sensilive lo nereIy varn fealures. They are aIso unalIe lo differenliale lelveen lhe lypes
of heal source, so addilion spaliaI infornalion or nanuaI inlerprelalion nay le required.
Higher spaliaI resoIulion lhernaI inagery for anaIysis al IocaI scaIes can le ollained
using ASTLR or Landsal TM/LTM+, lhough neilher of lhese sensors have lhe aliIily lo
provide inagery of rapidIy changing lhernaI fealures, as lheir orlils onIy aIIov lhen an
overpass frequency of approxinaleIy 16 days. NeverlheIess, lolh sensors are usefuI for
lracking Ionger lern lenperalure fIuclualions, such as lhe varning and cooIing cycIes of
voIcanic Iakes (}oyce el aI. 2OO8l, Oppenheiner 1993, Oppenheiner 1997, Trunk &
ernard 2OO8). The higher resoIulion inagery can aIso le of use in caIilraling and
vaIidaling dala ollained fron lhe Iikes of MODIS.
As lhe lenperalure of an oljecl increases, lhe vaveIenglh of peak radialion decreases.
Very hol fealures can lherefore le seen in visilIe or shorlvave infra red (SWIR) inagery
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Remote sensing and the disaster management cycle 323
and oflen lecone saluraled in lhernaI infra red dala if lhey are sufficienlIy Iarge vilh
respecl lo lhe pixeI size. This reIalionship has leen denonslraled using foresl fire size and
lhe lenperalure difference lelveen a snouIdering and fIaning fire lhal couId le of use in
underslanding differenl slages of fire deveIopnenl (CigIio el aI. 2OO8). UnforlunaleIy lhe
SWIR lands on ASTLR vere decIared non-funclionaI in }anuary 2OO9 afler experiencing
lechnicaI difficuIlies since May 2OO7. These five SWIR lands faII vilhin a siniIar speclraI
range as Landsal TM/LTM+ land 7 lhal couId le used as an aIlernalive.

3.3 Synthetic Aperture Radar
Synlhelic Aperlure Radar (SAR) is an aclive nicrovave sensor lhal is capalIe of acquiring
dala in harsh vealher and Iighling condilions nol suilalIe for oplicaI sensors, such as
dense cIoud or snoke coverage (LIachi 1987, Iranceschelli & Lanari 1999, Hanssen 2OO1).
Mosl nodern SAR sensors are designed lo acquire dala of various ground resoIulion
eIenenls ranging fron 1OOs of nelres lo 1-3 nelres, lul higher spaliaI resoIulion inages
usuaIIy have significanlIy snaIIer spaliaI coverage and are Iiniled ly saleIIile slorage and
processing capacilies. The incidence angIe of SAR sensors can le nanipuIaled in order lo
inage differenl areas vilhoul changing lhe saleIIile orlil, lhus decreasing necessary
revisil line.
olh lackscaller inlensily and lhe phase of SAR inages can le uliIised. In nosl sludies
onIy lhe reIalive varialiIily of lackscaller inlensily vilhin lhe inage is used lul alsoIule
vaIues can le required for sone nuIli-lenporaI sludies. The precise inlerprelalion of
lackscaller inlensily can le conpIicaled lecause of ils dependence on lhe dieIeclric
properlies of lhe refIecling naleriaI, surface roughness, and sensor vaveIenglh lul al lhe
sane line lhe variely of usefuI infornalion sliII can le easiIy olserved (IandsIides,
lsunani, fIooding, and danage lo infraslruclure). Ihase infornalion of a singIe SAR
inage has no vaIue lul conparison of phases fron lvo SAR inages acquired al dislincl
lines are uliIised in SAR inlerferonelry or InSAR. InSAR is capalIe of producing high
resoIulion ground defornalion naps vilh sul-cenlinelre accuracy (Rosen el aI. 2OOO).
These naps can lhen le used for sludying lhe causes of defornalion such as earlhquakes
or voIcanic aclivily (Massonnel & IeigI 1998). Modern saleIIile SAR syslens are capalIe of
acquiring sinuIlaneous dala vilh nore lhan one poIarisalion (e.g. Radarsal-2, ALOS
IALSAR and TerraSAR-X). This infornalion can le used in various sludies uliIising SAR
poIarinelry and IOLInSAR lechniques, such as Iand cIassificalion, deleclion of areas
affecled ly fire or fIooding (CIoude & Iapalhanassiou 1988, Iollier & Ierro-IaniI 2OO8,
van ZyI el aI. 199O).
Al presenl, connonIy used saleIIile SAR dala is acquired in lhree vavelands: X (3.1 cn),
C (5.6 cn), and L (23.6 cn). Waveland seIeclion depends on lhe lype of appIicalion, Iand-
cover, line span, and avaiIaliIily. The anaIysis of lackscaller inlensily ly delernining
lhreshoIds associaled vilh cerlain fealures can le perforned in slandard CIS or inage
processing soflvare, such as ArcCIS or LRDAS Inagine, lul InSAR, SAR poIarinelry and
IOLInSAR processing require speciaIised soflvare (or add-on noduIes lo lasic packages)
and exlensive processing experience. The price of lhe dala grealIy varies fron a fev
doIIars per inage for pureIy scienlific appIicalions lo a fev lhousand of doIIars for
connerciaI appIicalions. SeveraI recenlIy Iaunched connerciaI saleIIiles are avaiIalIe lo
acquire dala of any hazardous evenl vilh a very shorl deIay and deIiver lhe dala rapidIy
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Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing 324
lo lhe user, lhough lhe cosl of priorily connissioned dala is significanlIy grealer lhan lhal
of archived inagery (RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X and Cosno-Skyned).

4. Remote sensing appIications
4.1 Reduction
Disaslers are sociaI conslrucls in lhal sociaI drivers such as nigralion (forced and
voIunlary), confIicl, nodificalion of naluraI luffer syslens, reIiance on shrinking
resources, privale properly righls, urlan inlensificalion, arlificiaI proleclion slruclures,
and econonic and poIilicaI vuIneraliIily are aII conlrilulors lo peopIe Iiving in hazardous
Iocalions or al IeveIs of vuIneraliIily lhal nake a disasler nore IikeIy. Renole sensing
lechnoIogy can assisl vilh addressing sone of lhese disasler drivers, lhrough providing
lhe dala required lo assisl Iand use pIanners, energency nanagers, and olhers lasked
vilh disasler nanagenenl. Reduclion of risk, and lherefore reduclion in lhe prolaliIily of
a disasler occurring, is an inporlanl parl of lhe disasler nanagenenl cycIe. Renole
sensing can le appIied in disasler reduclion inilialives lhrough idenlificalion and
underslanding of hazards (TalIe 1). This knovIedge is lhen appIied lo niligalion
aclivilies such as Iand use pIanning, engineering slruclures, luiIding codes and hazard
consequences nodeIIing lo delernine nelhods for reducing vuIneraliIily (Cregg &
Houghlon 2OO6). Nole lhal lhe sensor exanpIes given in TalIe 1 and sulsequenl lalIes are
indicalive of currenl or polenliaI inslrunenl use. Many aIlernalive sensors vilh siniIar
characlerislics couId aIso le used.
Underslanding of hazards, lheir nagnilude, frequency, duralion, Iocalion, range and
nanifeslalion (e.g. heavy rainfaII, lephra, slrong vinds) has Iong leen accepled as
essenliaI lo disasler nanagenenl. AIlhough il is prinariIy sociaI faclors lhal anpIify a
hazard evenl inlo a disasler (QuaranleIIi 1985, Wisner 2OO4), inproved knovIedge of
hazards and lheir polenliaI consequences is essenliaI for decision naking aloul
nodifying hazard characlerislics, or nodifying vuIneraliIily of peopIe and assels. Renole
sensing can le used direclIy for hazard idenlificalion (e.g. fIood pIain nodeIIing, sIope
slaliIily and IandsIide suscepliliIily), lul can aIso le used lo derive hazard-independenl
infornalion lhal can le used for disasler reduclion (e.g. laseIine luiIding, infraslruclure,
and lopographic napping). An exceIIenl exanpIe of lhe use of renole sensing for hazard
idenlificalion is provided vilh LiDAR napping of aclive fauIl Iocalion (egg &
MousIpouIou 2OO9 in press). TradilionaIIy fauIl Iocalion is conducled using slereo aeriaI
pholography inlerprelalion foIIoved ly inlensive fieId survey. Hovever lhe horizonlaI
and verlicaI resoIulion provided ly airlorne LiDAR inagery provides lhe capaliIily for
idenlifying fauIl lraces and exlracling eIevalion offsels vilh digilaI dala in an oljeclive
nanner. The idenlificalion of nany previousIy unknovn fauIls in norlhern Nev ZeaIand
is shovn in Iigure 2.







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Remote sensing and the disaster management cycle 325
Type of infornalion Dala required Sensor exanpIe AppIicalion exanpIe
Localion of fauIl
lraces and ruplure
zones
High resoIulion
DLM
Airlorne LiDAR, SAR Use for Iand use pIanning around
aclive fauIls lo reduce risk fron
fulure deveIopnenl in fauIl
hazard Iocalions
IauIl dispIacenenl Inlerferonelric SAR LRS1/2, LNVISAT
ASAR, ALOS
IALSAR
KnovIedge of fauIl dispIacenenl
rales are used in nunericaI nodeIs
in order lo forecasl lhe nagnilude
of possilIe earlhquakes
IIood pIain
napping
DLM Airlorne LiDAR,
LRS1/2, LNVISAT
ASAR, ALOS
IALSAR
Idenlificalion of fIood pIains can
heIp inforn changes in Iand use,
and idenlify areas deveIoping
proleclive neasures (e.g.
sloplanks)
Land cover / Iand
use
OplicaI and
poIarinelric SAR
SIOT, ASTLR
RADARSAT-2
Used for calchnenl nanagenenl
pIanning lo reduce fIood and
IandsIide risk
Vegelalion change Consislenl line
series of dala
SIOT, ASTLR
RADARSAT-2
Delernine droughl zones, inforn
fire hazard napping
Delernining Iahar
and Iava fIov palhs
DLM, high
resoIulion oplicaI
inagery
SAR, Airlorne
LiDAR, SIOT,
AVNIR-2, ASTLR
Hazard zonalion, pulIic
avareness, delernining Iocalion of
safely sheIlers
Localing polenliaI
and acluaI unslalIe
sIopes
DLM,
Inlerferonelric
SAR, high
resoIulion slereo
oplicaI inagery
Airlorne LiDAR,
LRS1/2, LNVISAT
ASAR, ALOS
IALSAR, aeriaI
pholography
Hazard napping for infraslruclure
pIanning
aseIine
infraslruclure naps
Very high
resoIulion oplicaI
inagery
AeriaI pholography,
Quicklird, Ikonos,
WorIdviev
Assisl vilh hazard napping lo
idenlify key infraslruclure al risk -
lhe risk can lhen le addressed
lhrough niligalion or luiIl in
redundancy. Can aIso le used for
Ialer danage assessnenl posl-
disasler
aseIine
lopographic dala
Moderale lo high
resoIulion oplicaI
inagery
SIOT, AVNIR-2,
AeriaI pholography,
Quicklird, Ikonos,
WorIdviev
Hazard nodeIIing
TalIe 1. LxanpIes of infornalion and dala requirenenls during lhe reduclion phase

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A
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a
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c
e
s

i
n

G
e
o
s
c
i
e
n
c
e

a
n
d

R
e
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o
t
e

S
e
n
s
i
n
g
3
2
6

Iig. 2. Idenlificalion of knovn and nev aclive fauIls using high resoIulion airlorne LiDAR dala acquired in Iale 2OO6 (egg &
MousIpouIou 2OO9 in press). Landsal LTM+ faIse coIour conposile (5,4,2) acquired in 2OO1 is insel for a conlexluaI overviev of
lhe sile. Of lhe aclive fauIl lraces shovn here, approxinaleIy 85 vere unknovn lefore underlaking lhis sludy. AIso of nole
aIso is lhe discovery of a Iarge inIand area lhal is leIov sea IeveI (eIevalion <On) and is a polenliaIIy hazardous region for
lsunani reIaled inundalion
w
w
w
.
i
n
t
e
c
h
o
p
e
n
.
c
o
m
Remote sensing and the disaster management cycle 327
RenoleIy sensed dala acquisilions can le used lo inforn Iand use pIanning, a key looI
lhal aulhorilies and connunilies enpIoy lo avoid or niligale hazard risk (urly 1998).
y idenlifying lhe Iocalion and characlerislics of hazards, Iand use pIanning nelhods can
le appIied lo address lhe risk lhese hazards pose. IIanning nelhods incIude napping
hazard zones (Iocalion and range of hazard inpacl) and idenlifying lhe prolaliIily of
occurrence. Hazard naps are appIied lo deveIoped and green fieId (undeveIoped) Iand
and oplions for risk lrealnenl delernined. Trealnenl oplions can incIude neasures such
as sellack zones (no deveIopnenl vilhin lhe hazard zone, e.g. proxinaI lo aclive fauIls or
vilhin coaslaI erosion or inundalion zones), or speciaI luiIding codes (e.g. nininun fIoor
heighls alove lase fIood IeveI) can le inlroduced lo reduce lhe risk lo assels and peopIe
(CodschaIk el aI. 1998). Underslanding of hazard infornalion is one of a nunler of
crilicaI faclors infIuencing individuaI and group decision naking for risk nanagenenl
(Ialon & }ohnslon 2OO1). Where hazard infornalion is readiIy avaiIalIe lo lhe pulIic in a
variely of forns, incIuding naps, lhere is a grealer IikeIihood of pulIic supporl for risk
reduclion inilialives inlroduced lhrough Iand use pIanning (urly 2OO1).
Olher nelhods for Iand use pIanning lased on renole sensing dala incIude idenlifying
changes in Iand use on fIood pIains lo assisl vilh fIood hazard nodeIIing. In lhe cily of
London, Canada, Landsal inages laken over a 25 year period have leen used lo
delernine lhe spread of urlan deveIopnenl (Nirupana & Sinonovic 2OO7). The
consequenl increase in inpernealIe surface cover faciIilaled nore rapid runoff and Iess
naluraI alsorplion of rainfaII. When conpared vilh fIood hydrographs, lhe rale of Iand
use change correIales vilh snaIIer rainfaII evenls producing fIooding. The lenefils lo
fulure Iand use pIanning are lhal il can le delernined hov Iand use changes affecl lhe
fIood hazard risk, and lhis viII guide fulure deveIopnenl in a vay lhal niligales lhe
effecls of conlinued urlan spravI.
CoIIecling assel dala via high resoIulion renole sensing aIIovs for idenlificalion of
infraslruclure and luiIdings in hazardous Iocalions, vhich can lhen le largeled for
slrenglhening or re-Iocalion. Assel dala is aIso essenliaI for hazard consequence
nodeIIing, vherely hazard dala is conlined vilh assel dala and fragiIily (vuIneraliIily)
infornalion lo delernine polenliaI Iosses. uiIding fragiIily lo hazards is lased on such
faclors as conslruclion naleriaIs (earlhquake, voIcanic ash faII, lsunani), engineering
design (lsunani, IandsIide, earlhquake), luiIding heighl (vind), fIoor areas (earlhquake),
proxinily of olher slruclures and vegelalion (fire) and roof pilch angIe (ash faII, snov),
and fIoor heighl (fIood, lsunani). Renole sensing nelhods for coIIecling luiIding and
infraslruclure dala require high lo very high resoIulion saleIIile or airlorne inagery and
is oflen conpIeled using nanuaI digilizing or nore recenlIy, segnenlalion and oljecl
orienled cIassificalion. OplicaI inagery is oflen conpIenenled ly LiDAR dala, vhich can
nol onIy aid in delecling luiIding edges, lul is aIso used for caIcuIaling luiIding heighls.
Incorporalion of renoleIy sensed dala inlo a CIS is vilaI during lhis phase for recording
spaliaI allrilules and conlining vilh olher dala sels.
Renole sensing lechnoIogy can aIso le appIied lo neasure lhe success of risk reduclion
inilialives. A connon nelhod for addressing fIood risk is lhe conslruclion of sloplanks
lo conlain fIood valers for an evenl of a given nagnilude. AeriaI reconnaissance during
najor fIooding evenls can idenlify vhelher sloplanks are perforning lo design slandard
and idenlify areas of veakness, overlopping or faiIure. Moniloring of non-slrucluraI risk
reduclion iniliales is aIso possilIe. To address coaslaI hazard erosion and inundalion risk,
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Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing 328
nany connunilies choose non-slrucluraI oplions such as leach renourishnenl and dune
resloralion. In IIorida, airlorne LiDAR caplured over line has leen appIied lo neasure
coaslaI erosion fron hazards, aIongside lhe success of non-slrucluraI leach resloralion
nelhods lhrough delernining changes lo leach norphoIogy (Shreslha el aI. 2OO5).
Anolher exanpIe of neasuring lhe effecls of risk reduclion inilialives is anaIysing posl-
disasler inages of rainfaII induced IandsIides on Iand under differenl vegelalion covers
for Iarge evenls. Iron anaIysis of aeriaI pholographs (olIique and verlicaI) of an evenl in
2OO4 vhich inpacled lhe Iover Norlh IsIand of Nev ZeaIand, il vas delernined lhal
vegelalion cover pIayed an inporlanl roIe in reducing Ioss of produclive soiI, and
reducing IandsIide hazard lo assels (Hancox & Wrighl 2OO5).

4.2 Readiness
Readiness pIanning and aclivilies are underlaken in lhe reaIisalion lhal residuaI risk fron
hazards has lhe polenliaI lo creale energencies, and in sone cases, disaslers for affecled
popuIalions. Readiness is lhe idenlificalion and deveIopnenl of necessary syslens, skiIIs
and resources lefore hazard evenls occur. The desired oulcone of readiness pIanning and
aclivilies is lhal response lo hazards is nore coordinaled and efficienl, connunilies
experience Iess lrauna, and recovery lines are reduced (QuaranleIIi 1997). LxanpIes of
readiness aclivilies incIude pulIic educalion, preparedness aclivilies, lrainng and exercising,
evacualion pIanning, deveIoping hazard noniloring and pulIic aIerling syslens, and pulling
in pIace slale, nalionaI and inlernalionaI pIans and agreenenls for assislance and aid.
Readiness aclivilies and pIanning are underlaken al a nunler of IeveIs lo increase resiIience
and response capaliIily for individuaIs, househoIds, organisalions, and slales or nalions. The
provision of good hazard and assel infornalion lo assisl lhese aclivilies is essenliaI and
exanpIes vhere renole sensing can assisl lhis phase are given in TalIe 2. Il is inporlanl in lhis
phase lo prepare an archive of and gain faniIiarily vilh lhe nosl up lo dale spaliaI
infornalion incIuding (lul nol Iiniled lo) inagery, DLMs, and veclor dala. This infornalion is
required lo assisl vilh danage assessnenl during lhe response and recovery phases.
Al lhe individuaI and househoId IeveI lhere are idenlified faclors lhal conlrilule lo vhelher
peopIe viII lake aclions lo prepare for disaslers. IersonaIisalion of risk is essenliaI (arnes
2OO2, SIovic el aI. 2OOO), e.g. WiII il affecl ne`, Do I need lo do sonelhing aloul il, and
Whal can I do aloul il`. Olher faclors incIude leIief in lhe lenefils of hazard niligalion
(oulcone expeclancy) and lheir leIief lhal vhal lhey personaIIy can do viII nake a
difference (reduce negalive oulcone expeclancy) (Ialon 2OO6). Al a connunily IeveI,
parlicipalion in connunily affairs and projecls, and individuaIs aliIily lo infIuence vhal
happens in lheir connunily (enpovernenl) and lhe IeveI of lrusl lhey have in differenl
organisalions (lrusl) have aIso le shovn lo le key predicalors of resiIience. Therefore,
connunicalion of risk in a neaningfuI vay is an essenliaI parl of preparedness pIanning.
RenoleIy sensed dala such as LiDAR are used lo produce high resoIulion hazard and risk
naps, vhich are used ly aulhorilies lo connunicale infornalion aloul Iocalion and range
of hazards lo lheir connunilies. If individuaIs leIieve lhal a hazard is IikeIy lo affecl lhen
delrinenlaIIy vilhin an underslandalIe and perlinenl linefrane, lhey are nore IikeIy lo
lake aclions lo prepare. These aclions nighl incIude having energency suppIies in lhe
hone, an aclion pIan for evacualion and energency conlacl vilh olher househoId nenlers,
firsl aid lraining or lraining as a civiI defence voIunleer. The principIe of risk perceplion
aiding preparedness appIies lo lolh slalic and dynanic hazards, e.g. fauIl lrace or fIood
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Remote sensing and the disaster management cycle 329
pIain napping vs. cycIone or lushfire progression. RenoleIy sensed inages shoving lhe
progression of a lushfire fronl or lhe lrack of a cycIone are connonIy used ly lhe nedia lo
inforn lhe pulIic of vhere hazards are occurring and vhere lhey are IikeIy lo inpacl as
lhey evoIve. As connunily resiIience research has shovn, avareness of hazards is nol lhe
onIy faclor in lriggering acluaI preparedness aclions, hovever il is one significanl driver
(Ialon 2OO6, Ialon & }ohnslon 2OO1, Ronan & }ohnslon 2OO5).

Type of infornalion Dala required Sensor exanpIe AppIicalion exanpIe
Severe vealher
varnings
RADAR,
lroadscaIe visilIe
and infra red
inagery
COLS, NOAA,
Meleosal
Irovide vaIualIe advanced varning
of severe evenls lo lhe pulIic and
energency pIanners via
neleoroIogisls
Movenenl and
ground
defornalion
InSAR and IS-
InSAR
LRS-1/2, LNVISAT
ASAR, ALOS
IALSAR
Rale of novenenl for sIov noving
IandsIides. Oflen acceIeralion of
defornalion rales neans lhal a Iarge
evenl is aloul lo foIIov. LarIy
deleclion of defornalion in voIcanic
regions is used for forecasling of
possilIe eruplions
SoiI noislure Long vaveIenglh
SAR
SMAI Waler shorlage Ieading lo droughl
and agricuIluraI produclivily
decIine, aliIily of soiIs lo relain
valer lo indicale fIood and IandsIide
polenliaI
Cround
lenperalure
varialiIily
ThernaI inagery,
or SWIR in lhe
case of very hol
fealures
ASTLR, MODIS,
AVHRR
Moniloring healing and cooIing
cycIes of voIcanoes lo undersland
pre-eruplive characlerislics for
forecasling purposes
CoaslaI and
lalhynelric
napping
SONAR, Laser
deplh ranging
LADS, Topex
Ioseidon / }ason
Tsunani hazard nodeIIing
DispIay and
adverlisenenl of
polenliaI hazards
Moderale lo high
resoIulion oplicaI
inagery, oflen
overIaying a
DLM
AeriaI pholography,
Quicklird, Ikonos -
usuaIIy using lIack
and vhile or lrue
coIour conposiles for
ease of underslanding
Ior use in pulIic educalion aloul
hazards and risks lo fosler grealer
readiness of individuaIs, househoIds
and organisalions

Use in civiI defence energency
nanagenenl exercises lo provide
reaIislic scenarios lhal viII assisl
vilh slaff professionaI deveIopnenl
and pIanning
Delecling sea
lenperalure or
alnospheric
pressure change in
cycIone/hurricane/
lyphoon generaling
Ialiludes
road scaIe
lhernaI inagery,
geoslalionary
MODIS, COLS,
AVHRR
Advance varning of severe vealher
approaching lo connence
TalIe 2. LxanpIes of infornalion and dala requirenenls during lhe readiness phase

Al lhe inslilulionaI IeveI, a slrong focus is pIaced on lhe deveIopnenl of pIans and
reIalionships. A prinary vay lo lesl lhe effecliveness of lhese preparedness pIans and
reIalionship funclions is lhrough civiI defence energency nanagenenl exercises. In order
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Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing 330
for exercises lo provide an effeclive Iearning experience for parlicipanls, reaIislic hazard
scenarios nusl le deveIoped. RenoleIy sensed dala can assisl lhis process lhrough lhe
crealion of hazard naps, providing reaIisn lo exercise injecls (nev infornalion aloul
hazards or consequences as lhe exercise pIays oul).
Al IocaI lo nalionaI scaIes, ollaining an overaII piclure of lhe hazardscape, idenlifying al risk
areas, and priorily hazards for resources and pIanning is essenliaI. Cranger (2OOO) discusses
lhe deveIopnenl of infornalion infraslruclure for disasler nanagenenl in Iacific isIand
nalions, lased on renoleIy sensed dala, and CIS inlerprelalion. Ior counlries vilh Iiniled
ludgels, coIIaloralion lo purchase renoleIy sensed dala for disasler pIanning is leneficiaI
lecause of cosl savings, lhe opporlunilies for skiII and process sharing, and lhe consislency
of dala for nodeIIing (Cranger 2OOO).
As discussed previousIy, hazard nodeIIing is inporlanl for risk reduclion (seclion 4.1), il is
aIso inporlanl for readiness, as for nany hazards residuaI risk diclales lhal an effeclive
energency response viII le lhe nosl praclicaI soIulion for disasler nanagenenl. Ior
exanpIe, Nev ZeaIand has severaI aclive voIcanoes, Ml Ruapehu is lhe Iargesl of lhese.
Ruapehu is a nalionaI park and has lvo connerciaI ski fieIds in operalion on ils sIopes.
Depending on lhe line of year, visilors lo lhe nounlain are engaged in a variely of
recrealionaI, educalionaI and scienlific aclivilies. The grealesl hazards associaled vilh lhe
voIcano are eruplive evenls and Iahar fIov (Carrivick el aI. 2OO9). The voIcano has a craler
Iake al lhe sunnil vhich produces periodic Iarge Iahars during eruplions and lephra dan
lursls. These Iahars foIIov channeIs vhich are lridged ly lhe nain lrunk raiIvay Iine and
Slale Highvay 1, as veII as passing lhrough ski fieId and hiking areas. A Iahar evenl in
1953, lefore lridges vere raised and slrenglhened, deslroyed lhe Tangivai raiI lridge, and
a passenger lrain unalIe lo slop vas deraiIed resuIling in lhe dealh of 151 peopIe. WhiIe
lridges have leen nodified lo reduce risk, consideralIe readiness pIanning has aIso leen
underlaken lo ensure lhal lhe evenls such as lhe 1953 disasler cannol happen again (CaIIey
el aI. 2OO4).
IoIIoving eruplions in 1995 and 1996 a Iarge lephra dan forned on lhe craler rin aIIoving
lhe Iake lo fiII lo higher lhan nornaI IeveIs. The voIcanic rocks of Craler Lake rin nov had a
veakness, a seclion of lhe rin conprised of veaker lephra, vhich vouId faiI vhen Iake
IeveIs reached a cerlain heighl. Lxlensive nodeIIing of polenliaI Iahar fIov palhs and
veIocilies vas underlaken lased on high resoIulion renoleIy sensed dala (Carrivick el aI.
2OO9). The palh vas verified using aeriaI pholography, LiDAR, ASTLR and IALSAR
inagery afler lhe evenl (}oyce el aI. 2OO9l). The nodeIIing provided lhe necessary hazard
infornalion for aulhorilies lo nanage lhe risk lhrough a suile of preparedness aclivilies. A
lund (Ievee) has leen conslrucled lo prevenl Iahar fIov onlo lhe nain highvay, and a
conprehensive noniloring and aIarn syslen vas conslrucled lo delecl Iahar lreak ouls. An
inlegraled response pIan invoIving energency nanagers, poIice, lhe fire service, road
nanagers, raiIvays operalors, ski fieId slaff, scienlisls and nalionaI park nanagers, vas
deveIoped lo slop aII lrains oulside lhe hazard zone, cIose lhe highvay, lrigger varnings
and response pIans al lhe ski fieIds (nove lo ridges avay fron fIov palhs) (Leonard el aI.
2OO5), and Iocale and evacuale any hikers or vorkers in hazard zones vilhin lhe nalionaI
park. The lephra dan lursl earIy in 2OO7, and lhe response lased on high quaIily nodeIIing
venl as pIanned. The Iahar vas of consideralIe size lul renained vilhin expecled channeIs
and lhe onIy significanl danage vas lo an unoccupied pulIic loiIel luiIding al lhe Tangivai
nenoriaI sile.
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Remote sensing and the disaster management cycle 331
Lahar fIovs and eruplions renain an ongoing hazard al Ruapehu. To assisl vilh
preparedness for lhese hazards, renole sensing is parl of lhe suile of noniloring syslens
enpIoyed lo delecl changes in voIcanic aclivily. A conlinalion of synlhelic aperlure radar,
ASTLR lhernaI inagery (Iigure 3), and OMI UV/visilIe inagery is acquired on a rouline
lasis for noniloring defornalion, Craler Lake lenperalures and gaseous enissions
respecliveIy.



Iig. 3. ThernaI noniloring of Ml Ruapehu. (a) SIOT-5 inage ollained 15 March 2OO8
denonslrales Iand cover for conlexluaI purposes, (l) Average lenperalure inage caIcuIaled
fron nighl-line ASTLR lhernaI dala lelveen 3 Seplenler 2OO7 and 28 Seplenler 2OO8,
and (c) Ml Ruapehu Craler Iake sulsels using ASTLR nighl-line lhernaI dala. Nole lhe
lenperalure scaIe change for iIIuslralive purposes.

The use of renoleIy sensed dala of a previous evenl can le used in lhis phase lo conslrain
geophysicaI nodeIs and heIp provide reaIislic scenarios for fulure evenls. Ior exanpIe,
InSAR can le used lo exanine lhe defornalion effecls of a singIe evenl (such as an
earlhquake) ly acquiring onIy lvo inages as cIose in line as possilIe, one lefore and one
afler lhe evenl. Using lhis lechnique, lhe IALSAR L-land sensor on loard lhe ALOS
saleIIile vas successfuIIy used lo nap co-seisnic defornalion of a nagnilude 6.7 earlhquake
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Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing 332
in lhe vicinily of Ceorge Sounds, off lhe coasl of lhe Iover Soulh IsIand on 16
lh
Ocloler 2OO7
(Ielersen el aI. 2OO9 in reviev). Afler processing lvo IALSAR inages (22 }uIy and 22
Ocloler 2OO7) dispIacenenls vere apparenl in lhe coaslaI region cIosesl lo lhe epicenlre
(Iigure 4). LandsIides vere aIso experienced in lhe area (lhough nol evidenced in lhis
figure). The Iong vaveIenglh L-land is of parlicuIar use in lhis region due lo ils aliIily lo
penelrale dense vegelalion lo relrieve lhe ground signaI. The anounl and Iocalion of
defornalion is used in nodeIIing sludies lo eslinale earlhquake paranelers in order lo
Iearn nore aloul lhe leclonics of lhis renole region. As lhis is an uninhaliled area of Nev
ZeaIand, lhere vas no olserved infraslruclure danage lhal nay have olhervise
necessilaled acquisilion of high resoIulion oplicaI inagery for response or recovery
purposes.



Iig. 4. Cround defornalion foIIoving Ceorge Sounds earlhquake in Ocloler 2OO7.
ackground inage is a Landsal 7 LTM+ lrue coIour conposile scene

Moniloring Ionger lern ground defornalion effecls such as lhal produced ly ground valer
exlraclion, voIcanic aclivily or sIov noving IandsIides is conducled using nuIlipIe SAR
inages over a period of line. Using lhis lechnique il is possilIe lo delecl sul cenlinelre
scaIe ground novenenl over Iarge areas lhal couId olhervise onIy le nonilored or delecled
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Remote sensing and the disaster management cycle 333
using nelvorks of in-silu CIS. Wilh lhis nelhod, lhe C-land sensor on loard lhe LNVISAT
saleIIile vas alIe lo delecl sul-cenlinelre defornalion in lhe AuckIand region (Iigure 5).
This figure vas crealed using a slack of 117 inages, spanning lhe period 17 }uIy 2OO3 and 9
Novenler 2OO7. InSAR is used in lhis nanner for Iong lern noniloring and produces a rale
of change over line. Il is leIieved lhal nosl of lhe olserved InSAR signaI shovn here is
caused ly exlraclion of groundvaler, hovever lhe Iink lo voIcanic aclivily has aIso leen
invesligaled (Sansonov el aI. 2OO9 in reviev).




Iig. 5. Moniloring upIifl and sulsidence in AuckIand. ackground inage is a green land
grey scaIe nosaic of SIOT-5 and Landsal 7 LTM+ inagery.

4.3 Response
Response aclivilies are prinariIy focussed on prolecling Iife and properly during disaslers.
Aclivilies such as evacualions, search and rescue, sandlagging aIong riverlanks, evaIualing
luiIding safely, eslalIishing innediale energency sheIler, selling up connand posls and
olher shorl-lern lasks faII inlo lhe response phase. Renole sensing can le used here lo
provide innediale danage assessnenl if lhe dala can le provided in a lineIy nanner, and
aIso lo assisl evacualion pIans lhrough lhe conlinalion of olserving vealher pallerns and
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Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing 334
hazard lehaviour (e.g. fire fronl approaches, valer IeveI rises). Olher exanpIes of lhe use of
renole sensing during lhe response phase are given in TalIe. 3. IdeaIIy, recovery aclivilies
connence vhen lhe response phase legins, lo ensure an inlegraled process for hoIislic
recovery. This neans lhal danage assessnenls underlaken via renole sensing during lhe
response phase viII aIso le inlegraI lo lhe recovery phase.

Type of
infornalion
Dala required Sensor exanpIe AppIicalion exanpIe
Inundalion SAR, oplicaI Radarsal, SIOT,
ASTLR Quicklird,
Ikonos
Delernine nagnilude, Iocalion and
duralion of inpacls.
Use SAR vhen cIoud cover is sliII
prolIenalic
Widespread
slorn or
earlhquake
induced
IandsIides
SAR, noderale -
high resoIulion
oplicaI
Radarsal, SIOT,
ASTLR Quicklird,
Ikonos
Delernine nagnilude, Iocalion and
duralion of inpacls.

VoIcanic ash and
gases
Shorlvave infra
red, lhernaI
infrared
COLS, TOMS/OMI,
MODIS
HighIy lenporaIIy varialIe, so
nininun of daiIy inagery required.
Used for voIcanic ash advisories and lo
varn airIines of hazardous fIighl palhs
IulIic
infornalion
during evenls
High resoIulion
oplicaI inagery
Quicklird, Ikonos Assisl lhose al risk lo personaIise
hazard lhreal
Ship Iocalion SAR Terra SAR-X, Cosno
Sky-Med
Localing ships in lhe ocean during
slorn
Co-seisnic and
posl-seisnic
defornalion
InSAR LRS-1/2, LNVISAT
ASAR, ALOS
IALSAR
Confirning nagnilude of earlhquake
and forecasling possilIe aflershocks
TalIe 3. LxanpIes of infornalion and dala requirenenls during lhe response phase

During lhe response phase, lhe lenporaI reIevancy of renole sensing infornalion is cruciaI
lo aIIov disasler nanagers lo pIan effeclive niligalion slralegies on dynanic silualions. In
lhe case of viIdfire evenls, il is crilicaI lo have currenl and lineIy inleIIigence on lhe fire
Iocalion, fire-fronl, and fueI condilions. Near-reaI-line infornalion aIIovs lhe fire
nanagenenl lean lo pIan fire allack approprialeIy, consequenlIy saving resources, line and
possilIy Iives. ConcurrenlIy, lhe infornalion nusl le of sufficienl spaliaI resoIulion lo aIIov
delaiIed laclicaI assessnenls and decisions lo le nade on lhe viIdfire condilion, and le
speclraIIy-reIevanl lo lhe phenonenon leing olserved or neasured.
Despile lhe speclacuIar nalure of inagery oflen caplured during a disasler evenl, lhe use of
renole sensing during lhe response phase has experienced nixed IeveIs of success,
parlicuIarIy in lhe case of saleIIile pIalforns. RegionaI scaIe inagery of effecls associaled
vilh lhe deveIopnenl of fire fronls (hol spol deleclion), voIcanic eruplions (gas and ash
enissions), or lropicaI cycIones (inundalion) is generaIIy successfuI vhere lhe area of inpacl
is sufficienlIy Iarge. Ior exanpIe, lhe viIdfire nanagenenl agencies in lhe Uniled Slales
currenlIy uliIize lhernaI-infrared (TIR) saleIIile dala provided ly MODIS lo provide
synoplic, 2-4 lines-daiIy hol-spol deleclion of fire al conlinenlaI scaIes (U.S. Ioresl Service
2OO9). The spaliaI resoIulion of MODIS is Iov / noderale (1OOO nelers), and is used lo
derive a regionaI eslinale of fire dislrilulion. AIlhough lhe lenporaI frequency of lhe
MODIS dala is sufficienl for regionaI fire assessnenl, ils spaliaI resoIulion is insufficienl for
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Remote sensing and the disaster management cycle 335
nore IocaIised evenls, or for assessing lhe specific on-ground inpacl. ConverseIy, poIar
orliling saleIIiles vilh approprialeIy high spaliaI resoIulion generaIIy do nol have lhe
overpass frequency or dala reIay capaliIily lo provide inagery quickIy enough lo le of use
for innediale response. The space science connunily is allenpling lo address lhis issue
vilh lhe Iaunch of saleIIile consleIIalions such as Rapid Lye and lhe Disasler Moniloring
ConsleIIalion (InlernalionaI coIIaloralion lelveen AIgeria, China, Nigeria, Turkey and lhe
UK). There are aIso avenues for coIIaloralion lelveen inlernalionaI organisalions for dala
acquisilion and provision in lhe evenl of disaslers, such as lhe InlernalionaI Charler for
Space ased Disaslers (Ilo 2OO5), and SenlineI Asia (Kaku el aI. 2OO6). WhiIe polenliaIIy
providing a consideralIe anounl of dala, neilher of lhese looIs can yel le used for
innediale or firsl response due lo lhe currenl line deIay lelveen requesling and receiving
dala. As such, research inlo airlorne pIalforns has proven lo le of grealer uliIily for rapid
dala and infornalion provision.
In 2OO6, 2OO7 and 2OO8, lhe NalionaI Aeronaulics and Space Adninislralion (NASA) and lhe
U.S. Ioresl Service coIIaloraled lo evaIuale and denonslrale lhe use of Iong-duralion, Iarge
Unnanned Airlorne Syslens (UAS), innovalive sensing syslens, reaI-line onloard
processing, and dala deIivery and visuaIisalion lechnoIogies lo inprove lhe deIivery and
usefuIness of renole sensing dala on viIdfire evenls. The oljeclives vere lo denonslrale lhe
capaliIilies of providing sensor-derived, CIS-conpalilIe, geo-reclified, processed dala on
viIdfire condilions lo incidenl nanagenenl leans vilhin 15-ninules of acquisilion fron lhe
sensors on lhe UAS. The characlerislics of lhis syslen render il ideaI for energency response
lhal is nol jusl isoIaled lo viIdfire evenls.
During lhe 2OO6, 2OO7 and 2OO8 U.S. viIdfire season, a series of nissions vere fIovn over
viIdfires in lhe veslern U.S. lo denonslrale lhe inlegralion of lhe alove-nenlioned
lechnoIogies lo provide near-reaI-line infornalion lo disasler nanagers. The nissions vere
fIovn on lhe NASA ||nana, a nodified CeneraI Alonics - AeronaulicaI Syslens, Inc.
Iredalor- (MQ-9) Unnanned AeriaI VehicIe (UAV), designed specificaIIy for supporling
NASA science nissions. The ||nana is capalIe of nediun / high aIlilude and Iong-duralion
(24-hours) operalions, naking il an ideaI pIalforn for disasler evenl noniloring. The ||nana
UAS fIev nissions vilh lhe NASA AMS-WiIdfire sensor onloard, vhich can le renoleIy
operaled and provides aulononous dala processing capaliIilies (Anlrosia & Wegener
2OO9).
The use of lhe ||nana and acconpanying syslens has proven successfuI over a nunler of
evenls. In Ocloler 2OO7, four nissions vere fIovn over lhe Sanla Ana viIdfires in a five-day
period (Iigure 6a) and lhe resuIlanl infornalion vas used lo depIoy fire fighling resources.
In Iale }une 2OO8, Iighlning slorns in norlhern CaIifornia igniled lhousands of fires, lhal
grev logelher lo lecone over 25 najor incidenls covering niIIions of acres of foreslIands.
The nalionaI airlorne renole sensing assels vere overvheIned and vilh a slale energency
decIared, lhe ||nana and AMS-WiIdfire vere requesled lo supporl viIdfire dala coIIeclion
operalions. During lhe renainder of lhe sunner, lhe ||nana fIev four nissions in CaIifornia,
providing near-reaI-line dala on nunerous viIdfires. The AMS-WiIdfire reaI-line dala
vere used effecliveIy lo Iocale a najor fire surge encroaching on Iaradise, CaIifornia (Iigure
6l). The dala vas used lo supporl lhe energency evacualion decision of lhe enlire
popuIalion of lhe connunily, an effeclive denonslralion of lhe crilicaIily of near-reaI-line
renole sensing infornalion supporling disasler nanagenenl operalions.


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Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing 336



Iig. 6. (a) IIighl roules required lo cover 11 najor viIdfires CaIifornia over four days in
Ocloler 2OO7, and (l) AMS-WiIdfire 3-land graphic inage overIay and fire hol-spol delecls
(yeIIov areas) of lhe Canyon ConpIex fire approaching Iaradise, CaIifornia. The dala vas
acquired on 8 }uIy 2OO8. The hol-spol delecl dala, shoving lhe fire noving rapidIy lovards
Iaradise, assisled in lhe evacualion delerninalion for residenls in lhe vicinily. This norlh-
vieving 3-D dala is dispIayed on CoogIe Larlh lackground infornalion.

One of lhe key faclors lo lhe success of lhis syslen is lhe provision of nol onIy dala, lul
infornalion lhal can le ingesled and uliIised innedialeIy ly energency nanagers lo aid
lheir decision naking. Iarl of lhis speed of infornalion deIivery is allriluled lo lhe
aulononous processing onloard lhe UAS lo creale geo-reclified inage rasler producls
(CeoTIII) and hol-spol deleclion veclor fiIes (.snp fiIes). An energency silualion is nol lhe
line lo le experinenling vilh nev aIgorilhns or processing lechniques, lhus il is necessary
lo ensure rolusl lechniques have leen lhoroughIy lriaIIed and considered operalionaI pre-
evenl (}oyce el aI. 2OO9a). The veclor and rasler producls generaled vilh lhis syslen are
lransnilled via lhe ||nana leIenelry syslen, lhrough a connunicalions saleIIile lo servers
on lhe ground, vhere lhey are aulonalicaIIy processed inlo KeyhoIe Markup Language
(KML) fiIes, conpalilIe vilh CoogIe Larlh and nade avaiIalIe in near-reaI-line al NASA
servers. The conlinalion of lhe near-reaI-line inagery and lhe sinpIe CoogIe Larlh
visuaIisalion capaliIilies are a poverfuI looI lhal requires nininaI (or no) lraining in ils
enpIoynenl. Lnledding a renole sensing speciaIisl vilhin lhe energency nanagenenl
lean can furlher assisl vilh dala inlegralion, infornalion underslanding, and fieIding
speciaIized requesls.
AIlhough lhe Weslern Slales UAS Iire Inaging Missions vere focused on denonslraling
renole sensing capaliIilies lo viIdfire nanagenenl enlilies, lhey resuIled in direcl
energency supporl lo nalionaI incidenls in aII lhree years. Those nissions aIIoved a
conprehensive assessnenl of lhe lechnoIogies and resuIled in lhe adaplalion and
inlegralion of various conponenls inlo operalionaI use. The key conponenls lo lhe
usefuIness of lhe dala vere lhe lineIiness of lhe dala (fron acquisilion lo producl
deIivery) and lhe sinpIe fornal vhich lhe dala vas avaiIalIe for visuaIisalion and decision-
naking. WhiIe lhese faclors are inporlanl al aII slages of lhe disasler nanagenenl cycIe,
lhey lecone parlicuIarIy crilicaI during lhe response phase, vhere rapid decision naking is
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Remote sensing and the disaster management cycle 337
nosl inporlanl. The provision of sinpIe holspol infornalion aIso neans lhal lhe energency
nanagenenl lean is nol overvheIned vilh loo nuch dala or loo nany visuaIisalion
oplions. The choice of using CoogIe Larlh as a fronl-end dispIay of lhe dala vas a carefuI
decision lo provide infornalion in a fornal and soflvare syslen lhal vas easiIy operaled
and readiIy avaiIalIe lo lhe fire nanagenenl connunily. Iire Incidenl Connand lean
nenlers do nol have lhe line lo Iearn nev soflvare capaliIilies or nev looIs vhiIe lhey
are in lhe nidsl of a najor viIdfire nanagenenl aclivily. CoogIe Larlh provided a user-
friendIy capaliIily lo aIIov quick dala inlegralion, zoon capaliIilies, 3-D visuaIisalion and
ease of use.
The use of UAVs presenls opporlunilies as veII as risks. UAVs provide increased range and
fIighl line and lhe aliIily lo penelrale environnenls lhal nighl le loo hazardous for piIoled
aircrafl (Henson 2OO8). Mission and pIalforn cosls currenlIy precIudes innediale
adaplalion of UAS syslens ly disasler nanagenenl agencies, lul lhe disasler supporl
nissions ve shovcased are najor sleps forvard in denonslraling UAS uliIily and sensor
and processing capaliIilies avaiIalIe righl nov! These lechnoIogies need nol le considered
for use onIy vilh unnanned vehicIes, lul can le adopled for piIoled aircrafl, and hopefuIIy
for saleIIile pIalforns in lhe fulure. Aulononous onloard processing has leen lriaIIed vilh
Hyperion for idenlifying holspols associaled vilh voIcanic eruplions (Davies el aI. 2OO6),
lhough lhe chaIIenge renains lo progress lhese lechniques lo operalionaI slalus.

4.4 Recovery
The use of renole sensing lo aid or nonilor disasler recovery is perhaps lhe Ieasl deveIoped
appIicalion of lhis lechnoIogy. Hovever, lhis is an area vhere lhe renole sensing
connunily couId conlrilule a greal deaI lhrough lhe provision of oljeclive line series
anaIysis over Iarge areas vilh lolh high and nediun IeveIs of spaliaI delaiI. In olher
speciaIisalions, line series anaIysis of renoleIy sensed dala is an eslalIished lechnique.
LnvironnenlaI appIicalions such as deforeslalion and urlan spravI are connon largels. In
each case, lhe noniloring oljeclive is cIear. In disasler recovery, lhere are oflen sone very
cIear indicalors lhal can easiIy le neasured and nonilored vilh renole sensing inagery.
Sone of lhese indicalors incIude conslruclion and sulsequenl renovaI of nediun and Iong-
lern energency sheIlers, delris renovaI, connencenenl and conpIelion of nev
conslruclion or reconslruclion (luiIdings, lridges, roads), vegelalion regrovlh, and
reduclion of siIlalion fron valervays afler fIooding evenls (TalIe 4).












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Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing 338
Type of infornalion Dala required Sensor exanpIe AppIicalion exanpIe
Rale of recovery e.g.
delris renovaI,
vegelalion regrovlh,
reconslruclion

Moderale lo very
high resoIulion
inagery in a
conlinuous line
series
AeriaI pholography,
Quicklird,
WorIdviev, Ikonos
Conpare lhe effecliveness of
differenl recovery slralegies,
Delernine if aid funding is leing
used approprialeIy, WiIdIife
halilal recovery (eg afler fire),
Idenlify 'residuaI risk - areas nol
recovered are nore vuIneralIe lo
fulure evenls
Infraslruclure and
faciIilies Iocalions
Very high
resoIulion
inagery
AeriaI pholography,
Quicklird,
WorIdviev, Ikonos
Creale nev laseIine naps
Revised DLM InSAR, LiDAR LRS-1/2, LNVISAT
ASAR, ALOS
IALSAR
Necessary afler Iarge earlhquake
or voIcanic eruplion if lhe IocaI
and regionaI eIevalion changes
Slalus Quo Very high
resoIulion
inagery
AeriaI pholography,
Quicklird,
WorIdviev, Ikonos
IIan areas for funding aIIocalion
TalIe 4. LxanpIes of infornalion and dala requirenenls during lhe recovery phase

Using high spaliaI resoIulion lhe anounl of housing reconslruclion can al Ieasl le visuaIIy
idenlified ly lhe presence and alsence of lIue larpauIins covering roofs foIIoving
Hurricane Kalrina (HiII el aI. 2OO6). ConceivalIy an aulonaled deleclion nelhod couId le
deveIoped lo idenlify lhese quickIy and repealedIy in a line series dalasel. The aulhors aIso
provide a Iisl of olher recovery reIaled fealures olservalIe over line vilh Quicklird dala. In
Iigure 7, lhe progression of recovery in a snaII area of Nev OrIeans can le seen vilh high
resoIulion dala. NolalIe fealures in lhe inage acquired a veek lefore lhe hurricane are a
Iarge car park, sporling fieIds, and residenliaI housing (Iigure 7a). The progression cIearIy
shovs inundalion in lhis area (Iigure 7l), and renaining sedinenl shorlIy afler lhe valer
sulsidence. y March 2OO6, lenporary housing is evidenl in lhe Iocalion of lhe car park, and
is sliII visilIe lhree years afler lhe evenl, lhough lhe nunler of roofs covered in lIue
larpauIins has decreased. An anaIysis of lhe reIalive rale of change is given in Iigure 7k,
denonslraling lhal inpervious surfaces and Iines of connunicalion such as roads noved
lovards recovery quile quickIy afler lhe evenl, vhiIe nalure vegelalion lakes sonevhal
Ionger. Sone roofing danage and a svinning pooI appear lo renain in an unrepaired slale
lhree years afler lhe evenl. The key here is lhal a line series of dala is vilaI lo delernine if
any change is occurring, and lo furlher exlracl rales of change.
Recovery rales foIIoving a videspread IandsIiding evenl in norlhern Nev ZeaIand can aIso
le seen fron a series of SIOT-5 and ALOS AVNIR-2 inagery (Iigure 8). Here lhe
IandsIiding is apparenl as lrighl scars in lhe coIour infra red inagery acquired four nonlhs
afler lhe evenl (Iigure 8l). One year Ialer, recovery of nany of lhe grassy sIopes on lhe
easlern porlion of lhe inage can le seen, vhiIe lhe IandsIides in lhe veslern region are aIso
leconing overgrovn (Iigure 8c). This recovery lecones even nore apparenl in lhe series of
NDVI inages, vhich highIighl lhe conlrasl lelveen IandsIides (lIack) and surrounding
vegelalion (various shades of grey) (Iigure 8d-f). In an area lhal vas covered vilh nany
lhousand IandsIides (}oyce el aI. 2OO8a), saleIIile renole sensing is lhe onIy line and cosl
effeclive nanner of dala coIIeclion for underslanding recovery in lhe area. SiniIar
lechniques couId le used lo Iook al nalive halilal regeneralion foIIoving lushfires.

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Iig. 7. Tine series of high resoIulion inagery in Nev OrIeans (a) efore Hurricane Kalrina, (l) Soon afler lhe heighl of lhe slorn,
(c-j) Various line inlervaIs foIIoving lhe recovery process, and (k) Inlerpreled rale of recovery. Inages are DigilaI CIole and
CoogIe Larlh 2OO9.
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Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing 340


Iig. 8. Recovery of vegelalion afler a videspread IandsIiding evenl in norlhern Nev
ZeaIand, }uIy 2OO7. (a) SIOT-5 CIR ollained lefore lhe evenl, (l) SIOT-5 CIR ollained
shorlIy afler lhe evenl, (c) ALOS AVNIR-2 CIR inagery ollained one year Ialer, and (d-e)
NDVI inages of lhe aforenenlioned dala.

AnaIysis of line series inagery couId aIso heIp lo nonilor lhe effecliveness of differenl
recovery slralegies. y exlracling recovery rales fron dala acquired al appropriale line
inlervaIs, lhis assessnenl couId heIp guide recovery pIans for fulure evenls of a siniIar
nalure. This vouId aIso heIp idenlify areas of residuaI risk lhal require ongoing noniloring
unliI lhe physicaI recovery process conpIeled.

5. ConcIusions
Renole sensing can le used lo inforn nany aspecls of lhe disasler nanagenenl cycIe. An
exhauslive coverage of aII polenliaI appIicalions vouId le inpossilIe in a singIe look
chapler, hovever ve have shovn severaI good exanpIes fron vhich inspiralion can le
soughl for fulure use. Il is inporlanl lo consider aII aspecls of disasler nanagenenl, ralher
lhan focussing on energency response. y incorporaling renole sensing inlo reduclion and
readiness aclivilies, lhis can aIso educale lolh energency nanagenenl slaff and lhe
connunily aloul lhis lype of infornalion so lhal lhey are faniIiar vilh ils use under a
response and inherenlIy pressured silualion.
The key eIenenls lo faciIilale lhe usefuIness of renole sensing dala in supporl of lhe
disasler nanagenenl connunily are leing alIe lo provide lhe appropriale infornalion in a
speclraIIy, lenporaIIy, and spaliaIIy reIevanl conlexl. AddilionaIIy, one nusl le avare of
lhe infornalion requirenenls of lhal disasler nanagenenl connunily, and laiIor lhe
renole sensing infornalion lo neel lhose needs. Thal can onIy cone lhrough cIose
coIIaloralions lelveen lhe disasler nanagenenl connunily and lhe renole sensing /
geospaliaI connunily.

6. AcknowIedgements
AII SIOT 5 inagery used in lhis chapler is CNLS. This nanuscripl incorporales dala
vhich is }apan Aerospace LxpIoralion Agency ("}AXA") (2OO8). The dala has leen used in
lhis nanuscripl vilh lhe pernission of }AXA and lhe ConnonveaIlh of AuslraIia
www.intechopen.com
Remote sensing and the disaster management cycle 341
(Ceoscience AuslraIia) ("lhe ConnonveaIlh"). }AXA and lhe ConnonveaIlh have nol
evaIualed lhe dala as aIlered and incorporaled vilhin lhe nanuscripl, and lherefore give no
varranly regarding ils accuracy, conpIeleness, currency or suilaliIily for any parlicuIar
purpose. Lnvironnenl ay of IIenly provided lhe Iicence lo use lhe LiDAR dala. Thank you
lo Andy Cray for assislance vilh graphics and lo IhiI CIassey and David }ohnslon for
chapler reviev.

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Rcscarcn, 135, 1-2, 29-49

8. GIossary
Nole lhal lhe saleIIile sensors Iisled here and vilhin lhe lexl are sinpIy exanpIes of lhe
lypes of inslrunenls lhal can le used, ralher lhan leing a conpIele Iisling of aII possiliIilies.

ALOS AVNIR-2 }apanese Space Agency (}AXA) Advanced Land Olserving SaleIIile
Advanced VisilIe and Near Infrared sensor. UsefuI for IocaI lo
regionaI scaIe napping and noniloring
ALOS IALSAR }apanese Space Agency (}AXA) Advanced Land Olserving SaleIIile L
and SAR saleIIile. UsefuI for defornalion noniloring in regions of
dense vegelalion
ASAR C and Advanced Synlhelic Aperlure RADAR
ASTLR Advanced Spacelorne ThernaI Lnission and RefIeclion Radioneler
on loard NASAs Terra saleIIile. UsefuI for noniloring voIcanic
aclivily
AVHRR Advanced Very High ResoIulion Radioneler (NOAA - NalionaI
Oceanic and Alnospheric Adninislralion). UsefuI for regionaI lo
nalionaI scaIe appIicalions
CIR CoIour Infrared - lhree land slandard dispIay of green, red and near
infrared Iighl dispIayed as lIue, green and red respecliveIy
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Remote sensing and the disaster management cycle 345
DLM DigilaI eIevalion nodeI
DMC Disasler Moniloring ConsleIIalion. InlernalionaI coIIaloralion
lelveen space agencies in AIgeria, China, Nigeria, Turkey and lhe
UK for regionaI scaIe napping (oplicaI)
LRS Luropean Space Agency SaleIIile vilh a suile of SAR and oplicaI
sensors
LNVISAT Luropean Space Agency SaleIIile vilh a suile of SAR and oplicaI
sensors
COLS Ceoslalionary OperalionaI LnvironnenlaI SaleIIiles - used for
nelroIogicaI appIicalions
Ikonos Very high spaliaI resoIulion connerciaI saleIIile (CeoLye). UsefuI for
IocaI scaIe napping and noniloring (e.g. luiIdings and assels)
InSAR Inlerferonelric Synlhelic Aperlure RADAR - lechnique used for
neasuring surface defornalion
KML KeyhoIe Markup Language - nalive Ianguage for CoogIe Larlh fiIes
LADS Laser Airlorne Deplh Sounder
Landsal LTM+ Lnhanced Thenalic Mapper pIus. UsefuI for Iong lern regionaI scaIe
napping and noniloring, lhough lechnicaI naIfunclioning Iinils
dala coverage
Landsal TM Thenalic Mapper. UsefuI for Iong lern regionaI scaIe napping and
noniloring
LiDAR Lighl Deleclion and Ranging. Used for crealing very high spaliaI
resoIulion DLMs
Meleosal Luropean geoslalionary neleoroIogicaI saleIIile
MODIS Moderale ResoIulion Inaging Speclroneler. Used for holspol
noniloring of fires and voIcanic aclivily on a regionaI lo conlinenlaI
scaIe
NASA NalionaI Aeronaulics and Space Adninislralion
OMI Ozone Moniloring Inslrunenl - used for noniloring voIcanic gas
enissions
IOLInSAR IoIarinelric Inlerferonelric Synlhelic Aperlure RADAR
IS-InSAR Iernanenl Scallerers Inlerferonelric Synlhelic Aperlure RADAR
Quicklird Very high spaliaI resoIulion connerciaI saleIIile (DigilaI CIole).
UsefuI for IocaI scaIe napping and noniloring (e.g. luiIdings and
assels)
RADARSAT Canadian Space Agency C and SAR saleIIile
RapidLye ConsleIIalion of five high resoIulion oplicaI saleIIiles, lhe
conlinalion of vhich provides a daiIy revisil capaliIily
SAR Synlhelic Aperlure RADAR. Aclive sensor capalIe of capluring dala
lhrough cIouds, snoke and haze
SMAI SoiI Moislure Aclive Iassive - scheduIed for Iaunch in 2O12
SIOT SaleIIile Iour IOlservalion de Ia Terre - Irench Space Agency
(CNLS - Cenlre NalionaI dLludes SpaliaIes) coIour infrared and
panchronalic earlh olservalion saleIIile

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Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing 346
SWIR Shorl Wave Infrared. Used for voIcanic ash and gas noniloring and
aIso vegelalion appIicalions
Terra SAR-X X-land SAR saleIIile
TIR ThernaI Infrared, used for fire and voIcanic aclivily noniloring
Topex Ioseidon }oinl CNLS / NASA saleIIile aIlinelry nission, used for sludying sea
IeveI, ocean lalhynelry, lides and ocean currenls (nov succeeded ly
}ason)
UAS Unnanned Airlorne Syslen
UAV Unnanned AeriaI VehicIe
UV UIlra VioIel - non-visilIe shorl vaveIenglh radialion, usefuI for
voIcanic gas eslinalion
WorIdviev Very high spaliaI resoIulion connerciaI saleIIile (DigilaI CIole).
UsefuI for IocaI scaIe napping and noniloring (e.g. luiIdings and
assels). CurrenlIy onIy panchronalic.

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Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Edited by Gary Jedlovec
ISBN 978-953-307-005-6
Hard cover, 742 pages
Publisher InTech
Published online 01, October, 2009
Published in print edition October, 2009
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Remote sensing is the acquisition of information of an object or phenomenon, by the use of either recording or
real-time sensing device(s), that is not in physical or intimate contact with the object (such as by way of
aircraft, spacecraft, satellite, buoy, or ship). In practice, remote sensing is the stand-off collection through the
use of a variety of devices for gathering information on a given object or area. Human existence is dependent
on our ability to understand, utilize, manage and maintain the environment we live in - Geoscience is the
science that seeks to achieve these goals. This book is a collection of contributions from world-class scientists,
engineers and educators engaged in the fields of geoscience and remote sensing.
How to reference
In order to correctly reference this scholarly work, feel free to copy and paste the following:
Karen E. Joyce, Kim C. Wright, Sergey V. Samsonov and Vincent G. Ambrosia (2009). Remote sensing and
the disaster management cycle, Advances in Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Gary Jedlovec (Ed.), ISBN:
978-953-307-005-6, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/advances-in-geoscience-and-
remote-sensing/remote-sensing-and-the-disaster-management-cycle