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VALUES

INTRODUCTION:
Value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conducts or end state of existence is
personally and socially preferable to the alternatives modes of conduct or end states of
existence. Once it is internalized , it becomes consciously or unconsciously , a standard
or criterion for guiding action , for developing and maintaining attitudes toward relevant
objects and situations , for justifying one’s own and other’s actions and attitudes for
morally judging oneself and others , and for comparing oneself for other’s . Value
therefore, is a standard or yardstick to guide actions, attitudes, evaluations and
justifications of the self and the others.

Values are tinged with moral flavour , involving an individual’s judgement of what is
right , good or desirable . Thus values :
1) Provide standards of competence and morality.
2) Are fewer in number than attitudes
3) Transcend specific objects, situations or persons.
4) Are relatively permanent and resistant to change , and
5) Are more central to the core of a person.
Individuals learn values as they grow and mature. They may change over the life span of
an individual develops a sense of self. Culture, societies and organizations shape values.
Values are important to the study of organizational behaviour because they lay the
foundations for the understanding of attitudes and motivation and because they influence
our perceptions.

FORMATION OF VALUES:
Values are learned and acquired primarily through experiences with people and
institutions. Parents, for example, will have substantial influence on their children’s
value. A parent’s reaction to everyday events demonstrates what is good and bad,
acceptable and unacceptable, important and unimportant. Values are also taught and
reinforced in schools, religious organizations, and social groups. As we grow and
develop, each source of influence contributes to our definition of what is important in
life. Cultural mores have influence on the formation of values. Basic convictions of what
is good or bad are derived from one’s own culture.

TYPES OF VALUES:
(I) Allport and his associates categorized values into six types:-

1) Theoretical
2) Economic
3) Aesthetic
4) Social
5) Political
6) Religious
1) THEORETICAL : Interested in the discovery of truth through
Reasoning and systematic thinking.

2) ECONOMIC : Interest in usefulness and practicality , including the


Accumulation of wealth.

3) AESTHETIC: Interest in beauty, form and artistic harmony.

4) SOCIAL: Interest in people and love as a human relationship.

5) POLITICAL: Interest in graining power and influencing people.

6) RELIGIOUS : Interest in unity and understanding the cosmos as a


Whole.

(II) Rokeach distinguishes between two types of values:-

1) Instrumental value
2) Terminal value

1) INSTRUMENTAL VALUE : It reflects the means to achieving goals ; ie


They represent the acceptable behaviour to
be used in achieving some end state . Instrumental values identified by
Rokeach include:-
a) ambition
b) honesty
c) self-sufficiency
d) courageousness.
Thus instrumental value refers to a single belief that takes the form : I believe
That such and such a mode of conduct (honesty ,courage etc) is personally and
Socially preferable in all situations with respect to all objects .

An instrumental value is a tool or means for acquiring a terminal value .

2) TERMINAL VALUE : Terminal value , in contrast , represent the goals to


Be achieved , or the end states of existence .
Terminal values identified by Rokeach includes :-
a) happiness
b) love
c) pleasure
d) self-respect
e) freedom
Terminal value takes a comparable form : I believe that such and such an end
State of existence ( salvation or world at peace , etc) is personally and socially
Worth striving for .
A Terminal Value is an ultimate goal in a desired status or outcome .

(III) WORK VALUES : Work values are important because they affect how
Individuals behave on their jobs in terms of what is
right and wrong . The work values most relevant to individuals are :
1) Achievement
2) Honesty
3) Fairness

1) ACHIEVEMENT : It is a concern for the advancement of


one’s career . This is shown in such
behaviours as a working hard and
seeking opportunities to develop new
skills.

2) HONESTY : It is accurately providing information and


refusing to mislead others for personal gain.

3) FAIRNESS : It emphasizes impartiality and recognizes


different points of view .

CONCLUSION :
Although individuals vary in their value systems , when they share similar
values at work , the results are positive . This means that organizations
recruiting job candidates should pay careful attention to an individual’s
values.
ATTITUDE

INTRODUCTION:
Attitude is defined as a more or less stable set of predisposition , interest or
purpose involving expectancy of a certain kind of experience and readiness
with an appropriate response . Attitudes are also known as “ FRAMES OF
REFERENCE ” . They provide the background against which facts and events
are viewed . It becomes necessary to know the attitudes of members of an
organizations because they have to perceive specific aspects like pay , hours
of work , promotion ….etc , of their job in the wider context of their
generalized attitudes .
An attitude is also a cognitive element , it remains inside a person. Everyone’s
psychological world is limited and thus everyone has a limited number of
attitudes in business organizations , employees have attitudes relating to world
environment , job security etc . The individual’s attitudes towards these
factors are indicative of his apathy or enthusiasm towards the activites and
objectives of the organization .

CHARACTERSTATICS OF ATTITUDES :

1) An attitude is the predisposition of the individual to evaluate some objects


in a favourable or an unfavourable manner .
2) The most pervasive phenomenon is “attitude” . People at work place have
attitudes about lots of topics related to them . These attitudes are firmly
embedded in a complex psychological structure of beliefs .
3) Attitudes are different from values . Values are the ideas , whereas
attitudes are narrow , they are our feelings , thoughts , and behavioural
tendencies towards a specific objects or situation .
4) Attitude is a predisposition to respond to a certain set of facts .
5) Attitudes are evaluative statements – either favourable or unfavourable
concerning the objects , people or events .

An attitude is “ a mental state of readness , organized through experience ,


exerting a specific influence upon a person’s response to people , objects
and situations with which its is related ” .

COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES
There are 3 components of attitudes . They are :-
1) Cognitive Component
2) Affective Component
3) Behavioural Component
1) COGNITIVE COMPONENT : This component includes the
Beliefs an individual has
about a certain person , objects or situation . The belief that
“discrimination is wrong” is a value statement .Such an cognitive
component of an attitude . Learned beliefs , such as “ you need to
work long hours to get ahead in this job”, lead to attitudes that
have an impact on behaviour in the work place .The cognition
component of an attitude reflects a persons perceptions and
beliefs . The cognitive elements are evaluative beliefs and are
measured by attitude scales or by asking , about thoughts .The
statement “ I believe Japanese workers are industrious ” , reflects
the cognitive component of an attitude .
The cognitive components sets the stage for the more critical part
of attitude – its affective component .

2) AFFECTIVE COMPONENT : The component refers to the


Person’s feelings that results
from his or her beliefs about a person , objects or situation . A
person who believes hard work earns promotions may feel anger
or frustration when he /she works hard but is not promoted .The
affective component becomes stronger as an individual has more
frequent and direct experience with a focal object , person or
situation . ‘Affect’ is the emotional component of an attitude . It
refers to an individual’s feeling about something or someone .
Statements such as “ I like this ” or “ I prefer that ” reflects the
affective component of an attitude .

3) BEHAVIOURAL COMPONENT : This component refers to


The individual’s
behaviour that occurs as a result of his or her feeling about the
focal person , object or situation . An individual may complain ,
request a transfer , or be less productive because he or she feels
dissatisfied with work . The behavioural component of an
attitude refers to the intention to behave in a certain way towards
someone or something . The behavioural component is the
intention to behave in a certain way towards an object or person .
For Example , our attitudes towards women in management may
be inferred from an observation of the way we behave toward a
female supervisor .We may be supportive , passive or hostile
depending on our attitude .
The behavioural component of an attitude is measured by
observing behaviour or by asking a person about behaviour or
intentions .
ATTITUDE FORMATION :

Attitudes are acquired from parents , teachers and peer group


members . We model our attitudes after those we admire , respect
or fear . We observe the way family and friends behave and we
shape our attitudes and behaviour to align with theirs . People
also intimate the attitude of popular individuals and those they
admire and respect .
Attitude are learned . Individuals acquire attitudes from several
Sources but the point to be stressed is that the attitudes are
Acquired but are not inherited . Our responses to people and
Issues evolve over time .Two major influence on attitudes are:-
1) Direct Experience
2) Social learning

1) DIRECT EXPERIENCE : Attitudes can develop


from a personally
rewarding or punishing experience with an object . It with
an object or person is a powerful influence on attitudes .
research has shown that attitudes that are derived from
direct experience are stronger are held more by indirect
experience . One reason attitudes derived from direct
experience are so powerful because of their availability.
This means that the attitudes are easily accessed and are
active in our cognitive processes .
a) classical conditioning
b) operant conditioning
c) vicarious learning

a) CLASSICAL CONDITIONING : One of the basic


processes
underlying attitude formation can be explained on
the basis of learning principles . People develop
associations between various objects and the
emotional reactions that accompany them .

b) OPERANT CONDITIONING : Attitudes that are


reinforced , either
verbally or non-verbally , tends to be maintained.
conversely , a person who states an attitude that
elicits ridicule fro others may modify or abandon
the attitude .

c) VICARIOUS LEARNING : In which a person


learns something
through the observance of others can also account
for attitude development , particularly when the
individual has no direct experience with the objects
about which the attitude is held . It is through
vicarious learning processes that children pick up
the prejudices of their parents .

3) SOCIAL LEARNING : In social learning , the family


Peer groups and culture shape
An individual’s attitude in an indirect manner .
Substantial Social learning occurs through modeling, in
which individuals acquire attitudes by merely observing
others . For an individual to learn from observing a model,
four processes may take place :-
i) The learner must focus attention on the
model .
ii) The learner must retain what was observed
from the model .
iii) Behavioural reproduction must occur ; ie ,
the learner must practice the behaviour .
iv) The learner must be motivated to learn from
the model .

Social learning can take place through the following ways :-


a) The family
b) Peer Groups
c) Modelling

a) THE FAMILY : A person can learn attitudes through


The imitation of parents . If parents
have a positive attitude towards an object and the child
admires his parents , he is likely to adopt a similar a
attitude , even without being told about the object , and
even without having direct experience . Children also
learn to adopt certain attitudes by the reinforcement
they are given by their parents when they display
behaviours that reflect an appropriate attitude.

b) PEER GROUPS: Peer pressure moulds attitudes through


groups acceptance of individuals who
express popular attitudes and through sanctions such as
exclusion from the group , placed on individuals who
espouse ( promote ) unpopular attitudes .

c) MODELLING : Substantial Social Learning occurs


through modeling in which individuals
acquire attitudes by merely observing others .The observer
overhears other individuals expressing an opinion or watch
them engaging in a behaviour that reflects an attitude , and
the observer adopts this attitude .
WORK ATTITUDES AND JOB SATISFACTION

Attitudes at work are important because directly or indirectly , they affect work
behaviour. Although many work attitudes are important , two attitudes in particular have
been emphasized :-
1) Job satisfaction
2) Organizational commitment

1) JOB SATISFACTION : Job satisfaction is a pleasurable or positive emotional state


Resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience
The most important factors conductive to job satisfaction are :
1) Mentally challenged work
2) Personality – job fit
3) Equitable rewards
4) Supportive working conditions
5) Supportive colleagues
6) Whistle blowing
7) Social responsibility

1) MENTALLY CHALLENGED WORK : Employees tend to prefer


jobs that give them
opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of
tasks, freedom and feedback on how well they are doing. Under
conditions of moderate challenge , most employees will experience
pleasure and satisfaction .

2) PERSONALITY –JOB FIT : People with personality types congruent


with their chosen vacations should find
they have the right talents and abilities to meet the demands of their
jobs ; and because of this success , have a greater probability of
achieving high satisfaction from their work. It is important, therefore
to fit personality factors with job profiles .

3) EQUITABLE REWARDS : Employees want pay systems and


promotion policies that they perceive
as being just , unambiguous , and in line with their expectations .
when pay is seen as fair based on job demands, individual skill level
and industry pay standards , satisfaction is likely to result . Similarily
employees seek fair promotion policies and practices . Promotion
provide opportunities for personal growth , more responsibilities and
increased social status . Individuals who perceive that promotion
decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to experience
job satisfaction .

4) SUPPORTIVE WORKING CONDITIONS : Employees prefer


Physical conditions
that are comfortable and facilitate doing a good job . Temperature ,
light , noise and other environmental factors should not be extreme
and provide personal comfort . Further , employees prefer working
relatively close to home in clean and relatively modern facilities and
with adequate tools and equipment .

5) SUPPORTIVE COLLEAGUES : Employees have need for social


interaction . Therefore having
friendly and supportive co-workers and understanding supervisor’s
lead to increased job satisfaction . Most employees want their
immediate supervisor to be understanding and friendly , those who
offer praise for good performance , listen to employees’s opinions
and show a personal interest in them .

6) WHISTLE BLOWING : Whistle blowers are employees who inform


authorities of wrongdoings of their company
and co-workers . Whistle blowing is important because committed
organizational members sometimes engage in unethical behaviour in
an intense desire to succeed . Organizations can manage whistle
blowing by communicating the conditions that are appropriate for
the disclosure of wrongdoing. Clearly delineating wrongful
behaviour and the appropriate ways to respond are important
organizational actions .

7) SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY : Corporate social responsibility is the


obligations of an organization to
behave in ethical ways in the social environment in which it operates .
socially responsible actions are expected of organizations . Current
concerns include protecting the environment , promoting worker
safety , supporting social issues , investing in the community etc .
Managers must encourage both individual ethical behaviour and
organizational social responsibility .

MANAGERIAL ETHICS :

Managerial Ethics are standards of conduct or moral judgement used by


managers of organizational in carrying out their business .

Archie B Carroll notes that three major levels of moral or ethical


judgement characterize managers as :-
1) Immoral management
2) Moral management
3) Amoral management

1) IMMORAL MANAGEMENT : Immoral management not only


lacks ethical principles but also
is actively opposed to ethical behaviour . This perspective is
characterized by principles or exclusive concern for company
gains , undue emphasis on profits , company success at virtually
any price , lack of concern about the desires of others to be
treated fairly , views of laws as obstacles to be overcome , and
a willingness to “ cut corners ” .

2) MORAL MANAGEMENT : Moral management strives to


follows ethical principles and
percepts . While moral managers also desire to succeed , They
seek to do so only within the parameters of ethical standards
and the ideals of fairness , justice and due process . As a result ,
moral managers pursue business objectives that involve
simultaneously making a profit and engaging in legal and
ethical behaviour .

3) AMORAL MANAGEMENT :The amoral management approach


is neither immoral nor moral but ,
rather , ignores or is oblivious to ethical considerations .

There are two types of amoral management :


i) Intentional
ii) Unintentional

i) INTENTIONAL : Amoral managers do not include


ethical concerns in their decision
making , or behaviour , because they basically think
that general ethical standards are more appropriate
to other areas of life than to business .

ii) UNINTENTIONAL: Amoral mangers also do not think


about ethical issues in their
business dealings , but the reason is different . These
mangers are basically inattentive or insensitive to the
moral implications of their decision – making , actions
and behaviour . Overall , amoral mangers pursue
profitability as a goal and may be generally well
meaning , but intentionally they pay little attention
to the impacts of their behaviours on others .

CHARACTERSTATICS OF MANAGERIAL ETHICS

S.NO: ORGANIZATIONAL IMMORAL AMORAL MORAL


CHARACTERSTATIC MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT
1. Ethical Norms Management Management is Management
decisions , actions neither moral nor activity conforms
and behaviour immoral , but to a standard of
imply a positive decisions lie ethical , or right ,
and active outside the sphere behaviour .
opposition to to which moral Conforms to
what is moral judgements apply. accepted
(ethical) . Management professionals
Decisions are activity is outside standards of
discordant with or beyond the conduct . Ethical
accepted ethical moral order of a leadership is
principles . An particular code. commonplace on
active negation of May imply a lack the par of
what is moral is of ethical management .
implied . perception and
moral awareness .
2. Motives Selfish , Well –intentioned Good.
management but selfish in the Management
cares only about sense that impact wants to succeed
its or the on others is not but only within
company’s gain considered . the confines of
sound ethical
precepts (fairness,
justice , due
process)

3. Goals Profitablility and Profitability Profitability


organizational .Other goals are within the
success at any not considered confines of legal
price obedience and
ethical standards .
4. Orientation toward law Legal standards Law is the ethical Obedience toward
are barriers that guide , preferably letter and spirit of
management must the letter of the the law . Law is a
overcome to law . The central minimal ethical
accomplish what question is what behaviour . prefer
it wants . we can do to operate well
legally . above what law
mandates .

5. Strategy Exploit Give managers Live by sound


opportunities for free rein . ethical standards .
corporate gain Personal ethics assume leadership
.Cut corners when may apply but position when
it appears useful . only if managers ethical dilemmas
choose . Respond arise .
to legal mandates Enlightened self –
if caught and interest .
required to do so .

IMPROVING ETHICAL BEHAVIOUR

Unethical behaviour by employees can affect individuals , work teams and


Even the organizations . Organizations thus depend on individuals to act
Ethically . The ethical issues that individuals face at work are complex .
Today’s manager need to create an ethically healthy climate for his/her
employees, where they can do their work sincerely , with high productivity
and confront a minimal degree of ambiguity regarding what constitutes
right and wrong behaviour .
Making ethical decision is part of each manager’s job . It has been suggested
by K.R.Andrews that ethical decision – making requires 3 qualities of
individuals .
1) The competence to identify ethical issues and evaluate the
consequences of alternative courses of action.

2) The self – confidence to seek out different opinions about the


issues and decide what is right in terms of a particular situation.

3) Tough – mindedness –the willingness to make decisions when all


that needs to be known cannot be known and when the ethical issue
has no established unambiguous solution .
VALUES AND ETHICS

Sometimes , some people consider values and ethics synonymous and use them
Interchangeably . However the two have different meanings . The major difference
Between the two is that VALUES are beliefs that affect an individual’s judgemental
Ideas about what is good or bad . The ETHICS is the way the values are acted out .
Ethical behaviour is acting in ways consistent with one’s personal values and the
Commonly held values of the organization and society .

VALUES AND ATTITUDES


Both values and attitudes are tinged with morals . There are some similarities and some
Some dissimilarities between the two :

SIMILARITIES :

1) Both are learned or acquired from the same sources – experience with people ,
objects and events .
2) Both affect cognitive process and behaviour of people .
3) Both are durable , deep rooted and difficult to change .
4) Both influence each other and more often than not , are used interchangeably .

DISSIMILARITIES :

S.NO: ATTITUDE VALUE


1. Attitude exhibit predisposition to respond Values represent judgemental
ideas in relation to what is
right .
2. Attitude refers to several beliefs relating Values represent single beliefs
to a specific object or situation . focused on objects or situation .

3. Attitudes are the offshoot of one’s Values are derived from social
personal experiences . and cultural mores .