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CriginaIly pubIishcd in I 979 by Lcs ditions dc Minuit, Faris, as
La Diitia:tica Otiqa: ic:ia/: da )ag:mmt by Ficrrc bourdicu.
Thc prcparation oI this volumc was assistcd by grams Irom thc
Translations Frogram oI thc ational Fndowmcnt Ior thc
Humanitics, an indcpcndcnt IcdcraI agcncy, and Irom thc
CuIturaI Fxchangc Scrvicc oI thc Frcnch Ministry oI Forcign
Ahairs. Thc assistancc oI thc Maison dc Scicnccs dc l'Hommc is
aIso apprcciatcd.
Library otCongrcss CataIoging in FubIicarion Oata
bourdicu, Ficrrc.
Oistinction: a sociaI critiquc oI thc judgcmcnt
ottastc.
TransIation oI. La distinction. critiquc sociaIc
du |ugcmcnt.
lncIudcs bibIiographicaI rcIcrcnccs and indcx.
I. lranccCiviIizationI94- . 2. Acsthctics,
lrcnch. 5. SociaI cIasscs Francc. l. TitIc.
OC55.7.b6I 5 I 984 5060944 84-49I
bUI -7+-ZJZ77- (papr)
LOntCnts
tC!JcC IC IC lH_S1JH_UJ_C ld!CH ?1
HIICdUcICH J
Part Sooa/ critique of tbe judgement of Taste 9
C /ISICctJcy C! \UIUtC J
Jhc JIIIcs O! |uIura POOIIIIy 1o
|u!IuraI lcdI_rcc p
Part H Tbe Fconomy of Practices 97
2 C bCca bQJcC JHO l!S tJHS!CtmJICHS 99
|!ass IOndIIIOn and bOcIa IOndIIIOnIn_ I1
A Jhrcc1ImcnsIOna bacc 114
KccOnvcrsIOn bIraIc_Ics 1Z`
C aIUs aHO IC bQJcC C! L!CbIyCS !69
Jhc OmOO_y OcIwccn Ihc baccs 1`
Jhc lnIvcrscs O! bIyIsIIc lOssIbcs ZU6
4 C yHJmcS C! IC lCdS 226
Jhc |OrrcsOndcncc OcIwccn LOOds lrOducIIOn
and JasIc lrOducIIOn ZpU
bymOOIc bIru__cs `
Part H c/ass Tastes and Lq-Sq/es 27
; C bCHSC C! SIHcICH 260
Jhc mOdcs O! ArOgrIaIIOn O! Ihc Ork O! ArI Z
Jhc NarIanIs O! Ihc 1OmInanI JasIc Z6p
Jhc mark O! JImc Z,`
JcmOra! and bIrI Iua !Owcrs p1`
i Cn!m!:
6 \u!Iutl! LCCCW!! 518
KnowIcdgc and Rccognirion 1,
Educarion and rhc Aurodidacr 2o
SIopc and Th:usr 1
Thc Va:ianrs oI PcrirBou:gcois Tasrc ,
Thc OccIining Pcrirc ou:gcoisic p+
Thc Exccu ranr Pcri rc Bou:gcoisic `1
Thc lcw Pcrirc Bou:gcoisic p`+
!:om Oury ro rhc !un Erhic `
hC \hCIcC C! IhC CcCSSl
[
57?
Thc Tasrc Io: cccssiry and rhc P:incipIc
oI ConIo:miry p+
Thc Euccrs oI Oominarion o
8 \u!IutC lnC C!IIIcS 597
ScIccrivc Ocmoc:acy ,,
Srarus and Compcrcncc +`
Thc ighr ro Spcak +11
Pc:sonaI pinion +1+
Thc Modcs oI P:oducrion oI pinion +1
Lisposscssion and Misapp:op:iarion +2
Mo:aI :dc: and PoIiricaI :dc: 42
CIass Habirus and PoIiricaI pinions +p
SuppIy and Ocmand ++
Thc PoIi ricaI Spacc +`1
Thc Spccihc EUccr oI T:ajccro:y +`
PoliricaI !anguagc +`,
\Cnc!uSICn. \lSSCS lnC \!lSShclIICn8 466
Embodicd SociaI Sr:ucru:cs +
KnowIcdgc wirhour Conccprs +
Advanragcous Arr:iburions +`
Thc CIassihcarion Sr:uggIc +,
Thc caIiry oI Rcp:cscnrarion and rhc cp:cscnrarion
oI RcaIiry +o2
CSISctIQI. CWltCS l `Nu_lt \tIQuC C! `utC
\tIIIQuCS 485
Oisgusr ar rhc '!aciIc' +o
Thc 'Tasrc o Rcccrion` and rhc 'Tasrc o Scnsc` +oo
A Ocnicd SociaI RcIarionship +,1
Pa:c:ga and Pa:alipomcna +,+
Thc PIcasu:c oI rhc Tcxr +,o
cotots , tii
Appcndiccs 05
1. Somc Rcccrious ou rhc Mcrhod 503
1dbltJ
2. CompIcmcurary Sourccs 519
3. SrarisricaI Iara 525
4. Associaiious: A Parlour Gamc 46
^orcs 61
Crcdits 60
I ndcx 607
1 CIass prcIcrcuccs Ior siugcrs aud music 1
2 Acsrhcric disposiriou, by cducariouaI capiraI 56
3 Acsrhcric disposiriou, by cIass aud cducariou 57
4 KuowIcdgc oI composcrs aud musical works, by cducariou aud cIass oI
origiu 64
5 Furuirurc purchascs iu rhc domiuaur cIass, by cducariou aud sociaI
origiu 78
6 Somc iudicarors oI ccouomic capiraI iu diucrcur Iracrious oI rhc
domiuaur cIass, 1966 117
7 Somc iudicarors oI cuIruraI pracricc iu diucrcur Iracrious oI rhc domi-
uaur cIass, 1966 118
S Jypcs oI books prcIcrrcd by diucrcur Iracrious oI rhc domiuaur cIass,
1966 119
9 SociaI origiu oI mcmbcrs oI rhc dominaur class, by class Iracriou,
l970 121
10 Rarc oI cmploymcur oI womcu agcd 2534, by cducariou, l962 aud
I96S I34
ll Chaugcs iu morphology aud asscr srrucrurc oI rhc cIass Iracrious,
l954l975 156
l2 Chaugcs iu morphoIogy aud asscr srrucrurc oI rhc cIass Iracrious,
1954196S Ij8
I3 MorphoIogicaI chaugcs wirhiu rhc domiuaur cIass, 19541975 I40
l4 MoqhoIogicaI chaugcs wirhiu rhc middIc cIass, l954l975 140
15 Chaugcs iu cIass morphoIogy aud usc oI cducariouaI sysrcm,
1954l96S 18
l6 AuuuaI houschoId cxpcudirurcs ou Iood: skiIIcd mauuaI workcrs,
Iorcmcu aud cIcricaI workcrs, 1972 181
l7 YcarIy spcudiug by rcachcrs, proIcssiouaIs aud iudusrriaI aud
commcrciaI cmpIoycrs, I972 I84
:iii / Cnt:nt
lS AnnuaI IouscIold cxpcndirurcs on Iood: Iracrions oI rIc dominanr
cIass, l972 I88
l9 Variarions in cnrcrraining, by class Iracrion, l97S 198
20 Variarions in vaIuc placcd by FrcncIwomcn on bodv, bcaury and
bcaury carc, l976 20
2l Class variarions in sporrs acrivirics and opinions on sporr, l97 216
22 Class-Iracrion variarions in moral arri rudcs 12
23 Cpinions on lircrary prizcs, by cIass Iracrion, l969 20
24 CIanccs oI cnrcring rIc dominanr class, and Icrrili ry rarcs, by class
Iracrion, l9707l 2
2 Knowlcdgc and prcIcrcnccs oI csrablisIcd and ncw pcrirc bourgcoisic,
in Paris and in rIc provinccs 64
26 Awarcncss oI sociaI Iacrors in cducarional and social succcss, by cIass
Iracrion, l97l 88
27 Vicws on ways oI rcducing incguaIiry, by class Iracrion, l970 89
2S 'Ion`r know` rcsponscs ro poliricaI gucsrions, bv scx, l97l 40
29 'Ion`r know` rcsponscs ro gucsrions on rcacIing, by cducarionaI Icvcl,
l970 404
30 JIc imposirion cuccr. rcsponscs ro gucsrion on rIc busincss world and
poIirics, by cIass Iracrion, l97l 429
3l JIc imposirion cmcr: rcsponscs ro gucsrion on rIc ncw socialism, by
scx, cIass Iracrion and parry, l97l 40
32 Vicws on poIirical ordcr and moral ordcr, by class Iracrion,
l99-l972 436
33 lcwspapcr rcading by mcn, by cducarional Icvcl, l97 44
34 lcwspapcr rcading by mcn, by agc, l97 44
3 lcwspapcr rcading by mcn and womcn, by cIass Iracrion, l97 446
36 Pcrccnragc oI cacI cIass Iracrion rcading cacI daily and wcckIy
papcr 44S
tgurtJ
Iisrriburion oI prcIcrcnccs Ior rhrcc musical works I
2 JIc acsrhcric disposirion in rIc pcrirc bourgcoisic 9
3 Jhc rcIarionship bcrwccn inhcrircd cuIrural capiraI and cducarional
capiral 8T
4 Spccinc compcrcncc and raIk abour arr 90
5 Jhc spacc oI social posi rions I28
6 Jhc spacc oI liIc-sryIcs T29
7 Iisplaccmcnr oI scIooling rarcs oI l6 ro lS-ycar-olds, l94l9 I9
b Conditions o|cxistcncc, habitus and Ii|cstyIc I7I
9 Thc |ood spacc l 86
l0 ldcaI homcs 248
centmts , ix
il Variantso|thc domi nant tastc. thcspacc o|propcrtics 262
l 2 Vari ants o|thc domi nant tastc. thc spacc o|i ndi vi duaIs 262
l3 Variants o|thc domi nant tastc. si mpIi hcd pIanc diagram o| l s t and 3rd
axcs o|incrtia 266
l4 FiIms sccn. l 27l
l Variants o|pcti t-bourgcoi s tastc. thc spacc o|propcrtics 540
I Variants o|pcti tbourgcoi s tastc: thcspacc o|individuals 540
l 7 Variantso|pctitbourgcois tastc. si mpIi hcdpIanc di agramo|l s t and3rd
axcs o|incrtia 545
l8 FiIms sccn: l! 36l
l 9 Pcrmissivcncss andpoIiticaI prc|crcncc 425
20 pinions on |orcign poIicy and poIitical prc|crcncc 427
2 l Thc poIi ticaI spacc 4 2
rrejsce ta te ca
;
s-
Isa
;
vs
;
e citiaa
I havc cvcry rcason to |car that this book wi|| strikc thc rcadcr as 'vcry
Frcnch'which l know is not a|ways a comp| imcnt.
Frcnch i t is, o|coursc, by virtuc o|i ts cmpi rical objcct, and i tcan bc
rcadasasorto|cthnographyo|Francc,which, though Ibc| icvc i tshows
nocthnoccntric indulgcncc, should hc|p torcncwthc rathcrstcrcotypcd
imagc o|Frcnch socicty that is prcscntcd by thcAmcrican tradi ti on. 8ut
I bc|icvc i ti spossiblc to cntcr into thcsingu|ari ty o|an objcct wi thout
rcnouncingthcambitiono|drawingoutunivcrsa|propositions. I t is, no
doubt,oolybyusiogtbccomparativcmctbod,wbicbtrcatsi tsobjcctasa
'particular casc o| thc possib|c', that onc can hopc to avoid unj ustihably
univcrsalizingthcparticularcasc. Vi th thc aid o
(
!orbcrt E| ias's analy
scs, l do i ndccd cmphasizc thc particularity o| thc Frcnch traditi on,
namcly, thc pcrsistcncc, througb diHcrcnt cpochs and pol i tical rcgimcs,
otbcaristocraticmodcI o'courtsocicty' , pcrsooihcdbya Parisiaobaat.
lsarg.sisi. which, combini nga|| |ormso|prcstigcand al| thc ti tlcso|cco
nomicandcu|tura| nobi l i ty, hasnocountcqartc|scwhcrc,atlcast|orthc
armgancco|i tscu|tura|j udgcmcnts.
i
Itwou|d, howcvcr,bca mistakcto
rcgard all that is said hcrc about thc social uscs o| art and cu|turc as a
collcction o|Parisiancuriositics and |rivo|i ticsand noton|ybccausc,as
ErvingGoHman onccpointcd outto mc, thc Parisian vcrsion o|thc art
o||iving ha ncvcrccascd to cxcrt a sort o||ascination in thc 'Anglo
Saxon` woud, cvcn bcyond thc circ|c o|snobs and socia| i tcs, thcrcby at
tai ni ng a kind o|univcrsa|i ty.
Thc modcl o|thc rclationshipsbctwccnthc univcrsco|cconomicand
socialconditionsandthcunivcrsco|l i |cstylcswhich i sput|orwardhcrc,
xii / Irqa.. ts tb. oghsb-Laogaag. ditiso
bascd on an cndcavour to rctbinkMax cbcr`s opposition bctwccn class
and taod sccmsto mc tobc valid bcyond tbcparticul arIrcncb cascand,
nodoubt, tor cvcrystratihcd socicty, cvcn ittbcsystcm otdistinctivc tca
turcs wbicb cxprcssor rcvcal cconomic and social dihcrcnccs tbcmsclvcs
variablcin scalc and structurc) varics considcrabl y trom onc pcriod, and
onc socicty, to anotbcr.
:
Ior cxamplc, tbc slibtcst tamiliarity witb tbc
structural modcottboubt tcll sonc tbattbc uscotIrcncb words,propcr
namcs, prctcrably noblc, or common nouns-I nstitut dc bcautc, fonh
scur, Hautccouturc,ctc. -pcrtorms tbc samc tunction tor sbops on Iittb
Avcnuc or Madison Avcnucas Lnlisb words likc bairdrcsscr, sbirtmakcr
or intcrior dcsincr on sbop tronts in tbc ruc du Iaubour SaintIOn
orc.

but, morc broadly, tbc scnsc otdistancc, cvcn strancncss, vbicb


scicntihc ob cctihcation itscl tproduccs and wbicb is intcnsihcd by tbc
dihcrcnccs in bistorical traditions, ivin dihcrcnt contcnts to dihcrcnt
rcalizations ottbcsamcstructurcs, must not prcvcnt tbc rcadcr trom rc
hcctin onto bis own socicty, onto bis own position vitbin it, in sbort,
onto bimscl t, tbc analyscs bc is ohcrcd.
Jbat is wby, tboub I am awarc ot tbc dancrs ot a tacilc scarcb tor
artial cguivalcnccs wbicb cannot stand in tor a mctbodical comparison
bctwccn systcms, l sball takc tbc risk otsucstin, witbin tbc limits ot
my knowlcdc otAmcrican socicty and cul turc, somc uidclincs tor a
rcadin tbatsccks to idcntity, bcbind tbc spccihc institution ota particu
larsocicty, tbcstructuralinvariantand, by tbcsamc tokcn, tbccguivacnt
t nstitution in anotbcr social univcrsc. At tbc lcvcl ot tbc `intcrnational '
polcottbc dominant cl ass tbc problcm scarccly ariscs, sincc tbc cul tural
products arc (rclativcl y) intcrnational . |nc could rcpl acc L.s 1w,s
Msd.s by Iartisao k:im,
+
IranccMusiguc by cducational tclcvision
(fbanncl j, _XK, LB ctc. ) and pcrbaps ul tralcttism by sixtics
'camp' ,

vbilc tbc ^m \sr/ k:im s Bss/s vould alas ) rcprcscnt an


unlikcly combination ot tbc wcckly ^sa:./ 0/s.r:at.ar, tbc rcvicw cri-
ttyue and, cspcciall yin itssucccssivccntbusiasms, tbc| ournal 1./ _a./ As
rcards bourcois tastc, tbc Amcrican protcssionals, cxccutivcs and man
acrs mibt ask ottbchl m, book, art and music critics ottbc ^m \sr/
JieJ or maazincs ikc 1i. and ^msu../ tbc samc balanccd, subtly di
vcrsthcd udcmcnts wbicb tbcir Ircncb oppositc numbcrs cxpcct trom
Le Msod orL. Pigars or wccklics l ikc L'r.ss orL. Isiot Jbc titcs
and autbors tavourcd by tbcbcstscllcr rcadcrsbip wil l vary tromcountry
to count ry, but in cacb casc tbcrc will bc a prcpondcrancc ot tbc litc
storics and mcmoirs otcxcmplary bcrocs otbourcois succcss or `nonhc
tion novcls' . Jbc undcmandin cntcrtainmcnt wbicb arisians cxpcct
trom boulcvard tbcatrc, Pcw Yorkcrs will scck in broadvay musicals.
but l bclicvc! bavcsaid cnoub tocncourac myrcadcrs to| oin in tbc
amc, at lcast so as to corrcct my mistakcs and pcrbaps to pursuc tbc
scarcb tor cguivalcnts, wbicb would bavc to bc soubt in son and cin
cma (ls Briit tc bardot likc Marilyn Monroc' I scan Labin tbc Ircncb
Pr:)a:: t tb: Fng/iibLangaag: Fditin / xiii
ohn aync, or Humphrcy Bogart or Spcnccr Jracy:) -and also in
drcss, intcrior dccoration, sport and cooking. For it is ccrtain that on
cach sidc o| thc fhanncl or thc Atl antic somc thi ngs arc compatiblc,
othcrs arc not, and thc prclcrcnccs ola cl ass or cl ass lraction constitutc
cohcrcnt systcms. Jo support this hypothcsis, vhich al l thc cmpirical
anal yscs conhrm, I can invokc Edgar Allan Poc, vho spcl l sout thc link
bctwccn t hc most cvcryday choiccs, i n dccoration, |or cxamplc, and
choiccs in thc ' hnc arts' , sccing in thc ordinary arrangcmcnt o| thc
wcal thy apartmcnts olhis country thc cxprcssion ola vay o|lilc and
thought. 'cspcako|thckccpingolaroomasvcvoul dolthckccping
ola picturclor both thc picturc and thc room arc amcnabl c to thosc
undcviatingprincilcs which rcgul atc all varictics olart, and vcry ncarly
thc samc l avs by vhich vc dccidc on thc highcr mcrits o|a painting,
sumcc lor dccision on thc ad| ustmcnt ola chambcr ' `
In its lorm, too, this bookis ' vcry Frcnch' . Jhisvil l bc undcrstood i|
thcrcadcracccpts that, asI try toshov, thcmodco|cxprcssioncharactcr-
istic o|acul turalproductionalvaysdcpcndson thcl avs olthcmarkctin
which it is oncrcd. Al though thc book transgrcsscs onc o|thc |unda-
mcntal taboos o|thcintcl lcctual worl d, in rcl ating intcl lcctual products
and produccrs to thcirsocial conditionso|cxistcncc-andalso, nodoubt,
/::aai:itdocsso-it cannotcntirclyignorc ordcly thcl avs o|acadcmic
or intcllcctual propricty vhich condcmn as barbarous any attcmpt to
trcat cul turc, that prcscnt incarnation o|thc sacrcd, as an ob|cct o|sci-
cncc Jhat is onc olthc rcason-al ongvith thc costs olbook produc
tion-vhy I havc onl y vcry partial l y rcproduccd thc survcy maic.+l and
thcstatistical data uscd, and havc not alvaysgivcn thccxposition olthc
mcthod as much promincncc as thc rhctoric ol scicntihcity voul d dc
mand. As in thc Frcnch cdition, somc passagcs o| thc tcxt, containing
dctai l cd stati sti cal matcrial , i l l ustrati vccxampl cs ordi scussi onoIanci l l ary
issucs, arc printcd in smal l typcso that thcrcadcrvhosccksan ovcrvicv
olthc main argumcnt may pass ovcr thcm on a hrst rcading ) Likcvisc,
thc stylc ol thc book, vhosc l ong, complcx scntcnccs may oncndcon-
structcd as thcy arcvith a vicv to rcconstituting thc complcxity olthc
social vorld in a l anguagc capabl c olholding togcthcr thc most divcrsc
things vhilc sctting thcm in rigorouspcrspcctivc-stcmspartly lrom thc
cndcavour to mobilizc al l thc rcsourccs olthc traditional modcs olcx-
prcssion, l itcrary, philosophical orscicntihc, so as to say things thatvcrc
dc |acto or dc| urc cxcl udcd lrom thcm, and to prcvcnt thc rcading |rom
slipping backinto thc simplicitics ol thc smart cssay or thc political po-
lcmic`
Final l y, I rcalizc hov much thc spccihcity o| thc Frcnch intcl lcctual
hcld may havc contributcd to thc conccption o|thisbook, in particul ar
to its pcrhaps immodcratc ambi tion o|giving a scicntihc ansvcr to thc
old gucstions olKant' s critiguc ol| udgcmcnt, by sccking in thc struc-
turc olthc social cl asscs thc basis o|thc systcms olcl assihcation vhich
/ Py.c ts th Iog/irhL.q.g Iditiso
ItuCIutC QCtCCQIIOn Ol IhC OCIa WOtd and dCI_naIC IhC OCCI Ol aC
IhCIIC CnOymCnI. uI In an a_C WhCn IhC ChCCI Ol a QtCmaIutC dIVIIOn
Ol 2Out CQataIC anIhtOQOO_ ltOm OCIOO_y, 2nd, WIIhIn IhC laIICt,
IhC OCIOlO_y Ol KnOWlCd_C ltOm IhC OCIOO_y Ol CuIutC, nOI IO mCn
IIOn IhC OCIOlO_y Ol lOOd Ot QOtI, II I QCthaQ IhC adVanIa_C Ol a wOtd
IIll haunICd y IhC ulIImaIC and IOIal QuCIIOnIn_ Ol IhC QtOQhCIIC In
ICllCCIual IhaI OnC I lCd IO tCluC IhC CllInduCCd myOQIa WhICh maKC II
ImQOIlC IO OCtVC and undCtIand CVCtyIhIn_ IhaI human QtaCIICC
tCVCal Ony WhCn IhCy atC CCn In IhCIt muIua tCaIIOnhIQ, IhaI I, a a
IOIaIIy.
PI all CVCnI, IhCtC I nOIhIn_ mOtC unIVCCa Ihan IhC QtOCCI Ol OCC
II]In_ IhC mCnIa ItuCIutC aOCIaICd WIIh IhC Q2tIICuatIIy Ol a OCI2
ItuCIutC. CCauC II QtCuQQOC an CQIICmOlO_ICa tCaK WhICh I aO a
OCIal tCaK, a OtI Ol CItan_CmCnI ltOm IhC lamIIat, dOmCIIC, naIIVC
WOtld, IhC CtIIIQuC (In IhC anIIan CnC] Ol CuIutC InVIIC CaCh tCadCt,
IhtOu_h IhC `maKIn_ It2n_C COVCd Ol IhC KuIan lOtmaII, IO tC
QtOduCC On hI Ot hCt OWn Chall IhC CtIIICa tCaK Ol WhICh II I IhC
QnduCI. Ot IhI tCaOn II I QCthaQ IhC Only taIIOna aI lOt a Ituy
unIVCtal CuIutC.
LstnctOn
Intra4actian
You said it, my good knight! Thcrc ought tobc Iaws to
protcct thc body o|acquircd knowIcdgc.
Takc onc o|ourgood pupiIs, |or cxamplc: modcst and
diligcnt, |rom hiscarIicstgrammarcIasscs hc' s kcpt a Iit-
tlc notcbook |uIl o|phrascs
A|tcr hanging on thc Iips o|his tcachcrs |or twcnty
ycars, hc`s managcd to buiId up an intcIIcctuaI stockin
tradc, docsn`t itbcIong to him as i|it wcrca housc, or
moncy:
Paul Claudcl , le :cu/ter ae :attn, Iay l l l , Sccnc ii
Jhcrc is an cconomy o|cul turalgoods, but it has a spccihc l ogic. Sociol-
ogy cndcavours to cstablish thc conditions in which thc consumcrs o|
cul tural goods, and thcir tastc |or thcm, arc produccd, and at thc samc
timc todcscribc thcdincrcnt ways o|appropriating such o|thcsc ob|ccts
as arc rcgardcd at a particul ar momcnt as works o|art, and thc social
conditions o|thc constitution o|thc modc o|appropriation that is con-
sidcrcd lcgitimatc. But onc cannot |ul l y undcrstand cul tural practiccs
unlcss ' cul turc`, in thc rcstrictcd, normativc scnsc o|ordinary usagc, is
bL1ght bacl intL cuIt1rc in thc anthropological scnsc, and thc cl abo-
ratcd tastc |or thc most rchncd ob| ccts is rcconncctcd with thc clcmcn-
tary tastc |or thc navours o||ood.
hcrcas thcidcol ogy o|charismarcgards tastcinl cgitimatccul turcas
a gi|t o|naturc, scicntihc obscrvation shows that cul tural nccds arcthc
product o|upbringing and cducation. survcys cstablish that al l cul tural
practiccs muscumvisits, conccrt-going, rcadingctc. ) , andprc|crcnccs in
l itcraturc, painting or music, arc closcly linkcd to cducational lcvcl
mcasurcd by gualihcations or lcngth o|schooling) and sccondarily to
social origin. Jhc rcl ativc wcight o| homc background and o| |ormal
cducation thccncctivcncss andduration o|whicharccl osclydcpcndcnt
on social origin) varics according to thc cxtcnt to which thc dincrcnt
cul tural practiccs arc rccognizcd and taught by thc cducational sysrcm,
and thc innucncc o| social origin is strongcst-othcr things bcing
cgual-in'cxtra-curricul ar' andavant-gardccul turc. Jo thcsocial l yrccog-
nizcdhicrarchyo|thc arts, and withincacho|thcm, o|gcnrcs, schoolsor
pcriods,corrcspondsasocial hicrarchyo|thcconsumcrs. Jhisprcdisposcs
! / Intrda:tin
tastcs to luncti on as markcrs ol' cl ass`. Jhc manncr in whi ch cul turc has
bccn acgui rcd l i vcson in thcmanncrolusingit: thc i mportanccat tachcd
to manncrs can bc undcrstood oncc it is sccn that it is thcsc i mpondcr
ablcs olpracticc whi chdi sti ngui sh thc di ncrcnt-and rankcd-modcs ol
cul turc acgui si ti on, carl yorl atc, domcsticorscholastic, and thccl asscso|
i ndi vi dual s whi ch thcy charactcrizc such as 'pcdants' and mndaini|.
Cul turc also has i ts ti tlcs ol nobi l i ty-awardcd by thc cducational
systcm-and i ts pcdigrccs, mcasurcd by scniority i n admi ssion to thc
nobi l i ty.
Jhcdchni ti on o|cul tural nobi l i ty i sthcstakc i na strugglcwhi chhas
gonc on unccasi ngl y, lrom thc scvcntccnth ccntury to thc prcscnt day,
bctwccn groups di ncring in thcir idcas olcul turc and olthc lcgi timatc
rcl ati on to cul turc and to works olart, and thcrclorc di ncring i n thc
condi tions olacgui si tion olwhich thcsc di sposi ti ons arc thc product
Evcn i n thccl assroom, thc domi nant dchni tion ol thc lcgi ti matc way ol
appropriatingcul turc and works olart lavours thosc who havc had carly
acccsstol cgi ti matccul turc, in acul turcd houschold, outsidcolscholastic
di sci pl incs,si ncccvcnwi thi n thccducationalsystcm i tdcval ucsscholarly
knowlcdgc and i ntcrprctation as ' scholastic' orcvcn 'pcdanti c' i n |avour
oldi rcct cxpcricncc and si mpl c dcl ight
Jhclogicolwhat i ssomcti mcscallcd, i ntypical l y'pcdantic' l anguagc,
thc ' rcadi ng` olawork olart, oncrs anob| cctivcbasis lor thi sopposi tion
Consumpti oni s, in thi scasc, a stagc in aproccss o|communication, that
i s, an act o|dcci phcring, dccodi ng, which prcsupposcs practical or cx
pl i ci tmastcjola ciphcrorcodc. Inascnsc,onccansay thatthccapaci ty
toscc (vir, is a luncti on olthcknowIcdgc (iavir,, or conccpts, thatis,
thcwords, thatarcavai l ablc to namc vi si bl c thi ngs, and whi charc, as it
wcrc,programmcs|orpcrccpti on. Aworkolarthas mcaningandi ntcrcst
only lor somconc who posscsscs thc cul tural compctcncc, that is, thc
codc, i nto which it i scncodcd. Jhc conscious orunconscious i mplcmcn
tation ol cxpl i ci t or i mpl i ci t schcmcs ol pcrccption and apprcciation
whi chconsti t utcspictorialormusicalcul turc i sthchi ddcn condition lor
rccognizing thc styl cs charactcri sti c o| a pcri od, a school or an author,
and, morc gcncral l y, lor thc lami l iari ty wi th thc i ntcrnal logic olworks
that acsthctic cn| oymcnt prcsupposcs. A bchol dcrwho l acks thc spccihc
codc lccl slost i na chaosolsoundsand rhythms, col ours and l i ncs, wi th
out rhymc or rcason. ot havi ng lcarnt to adopt thc adcguatc di sposi
tion, hcstopsshortatwhatErwi nPanolskycal l sthc'scnsiblcpropcrtics' ,
pcrcci vi ng a ski n as downy or l accwork as dclicatc, or at thc cmotional
rcsonanccs arouscd by thcsc propcrtics, rc|crring to ' austcrc` col ours ora
' | oy|ul ` mcIody. Hc cannot movc lrom thc ' pri mary stratum ol thc
mcani ng wc can grasp on thc basis o|our ordi nary cxpcricncc` to thc
' stratumo|sccondary mcani ngs` , i . c. , thc' lcvcl olthcmcani ngolwhati s
signihcd` , unlcss hcposscsscs thc conccpts whi chgobcyond thcscnsiblc
propcrtics and whi ch i dcnti ly thc spcci hcal l y styl i sti c propcrtics ol thc
|ntrcdurttcn / )
work.

Jbustbccncountcrwt tb a work otartts not' lovcat hrststbt`as


t s cncrally supposcd, and tbc act otcmpatby, in[vb/ung, wbtcb t s tbc
art-lovcr`s plcasurc, prcsupposcs an act ot cont tt on, a dccodtn opcra
tton, wbt cb tmpl tcs tbc tmplcmcntatton ot a cont ttvc acgut rcmcnt, a
culrural codc.
+
Jbts typtcally t ntcllcctual t st tbcory otarttsttc pcrccptton dt rcctly con
tradt cts tbc cxpcrtcncc ot tbc artlovcrs closcst to tbc lct ttmatc dchnt
tton,acgut st tt onotlctttmatc cul turcbyt nscnstblctamtl tartzattonwt tbt n
tbc tamtly ct rclc tcnds to tavour an cncbantcd cxpcrtcncc ot cul turc
wbtcb tmpltcs torctttn tbc acgut st tton.

Jbc 'cyc` ts a roduct ot bts


tory rcroduccd bycducatton.Jbts ts trucottbcmodcotarttsrtc crccp
tton now accctcd as l ctttmatc, tbar t s, tbc acstbcttc dt sost tton, tbc
capact ty ro constdcr tn and tor tbcmsclvcs, as torm ratbcr tban tunctton,
not only tbc works dcstnatcd tor sucb apprcbcnston, t.c., lct ttmatc
works ot art, but cvcryrbt n tn tbc world, t ncl udt n culrural ob| ccrs
wbtcb arc not yct consccratcd-sucb as, at onc ttmc, prtmtttvc arts, or,
nowadays, popular pbororapby or kt tscb-and natural ob| ccts. Jbc
' purc`azc ts a bt stortcal t nvcntton l t nkcd to tbc cmcrcncc otan auton
omous hcl d otarttsttc productton, tbat ts, a hcl d capablc ottmpostn trs
own norms on botb tbc productton and tbc consumprton ot t ts prod-
ucts.
c
An artwbtcb, l tkcall osr I mprcsst ont stpat ntt n, tsrbcproductot
an arttsttc t ntcntton wbt cbasscrts tbcprtmacyottbcmodcotrcprcscnta
tton ovcr rbc ob| cct otrcprcscntatton dcmandscatcortcallyan artcntton
to torm wbtcb prcvtous art only dcmandcd condtttonal ly.
Jbc purc t ntcntton ot tbc arttst ts tbat ota produccr wbo atms ro bc
auronomous, tbatts, cntt rcly tbcmastcr otbts roduct, wbo tcnds to rc
| cct nor onl yrbc 'prorammcs` tmposcd a prtort by scbol ars and scrtbcs,
but also-tol l owtn tbc old btcrarcbyotdotn and saytn-tbc t ntcrprc
rarions supcrimposcd a postcrtort on ht s vork. Thc productton oI an
'opcn work`, tnrrtnstcally and dcl tbcratcly polyscmtc, can rhus bc undcr-
srood as rbc hnalsrac tn rbcconqucsr otarrtsrtcauronomybypocrs and,
tol l owtn tn tbctr toorsrcps, by pat ntcrs, wbo bad lon bccn rcl tanr on
wrt tcrs and tbctr work ot' sbowtn` and ' t l l ustrattn`. Jo asscrt thc au-
tonomy otproducrton ts to tvc prtmacy ro tbat otwbtcb tbc arrtst ts
masrcr, t . c., torm, manncr,srylc,ratbcrrbanrbc`sub| ccr`, thccxtcrnal rct-
crcnt, wbt cb tnvolvcs subordt natton to tuncttons-vcn t tonly tbc mosr
clcmcntary onc, rbar ot rcprcscnrtn, stnt tytn, saytn somcthtn. I t
also mcans a rctusal t orccontzc any ncccsst ty otbcrrban tbat tnscrtbcd
tn tbc spccthc tradt tton ot tbc arrtsttc dtsctpl t nc tn gucstton: rbc sbt tr
trom an arr wbtcb t mtrarcs naturc to an arr wbtcb t mt tarcs arr, dcrtvtn
trom trs own bt story tbccxclustvc sourcc ottts cxpcrt mcnrs andcvcn ot
t ts brcaks wt tb rradt tton. An arr wbt cb cvcr tncrcastnly contatns rctcr
cncc to ttsown bt storydcmands tobcpcrcctvcd bt stortcally, tt asks ro bc
rctcrrcd notto an cxtcrnalrctcrcnt, tbc rcprcscntcd or dcstnarcd `rcalt ty`,
bur ro tbc untvcrsc otpast and prcscntworks otarr. Ltkc arttsttcproduc
4 , Intrda:tin
ti on, in that it is gcncrarcd in a hcld, acsthcric pcrccpti on is ncccssarily
hi storical, i nasmuch as it is di ncrcnti al, rclati onal, attcnrivc to thc dcvi a
ti ons arti| whi ch makc styl cs. Li kc thc so-cal lcd nai vc pai ntcr who,
opcrati ngoutsidc thc hcld and i ts spccihc tradirions, rcmai ns cxtcrnal to
thc hi story o| thc art, thc ' nai vc' spcctatorcannor attai n a spcci hc grasp
o|works o|art which only havc mcani ngr valucin rcl ation to thc
spcci hc hi story o| an arti s tic tradi ti on. Jhc acsthcti c di sposi ti on dc-
mandcd by thc products o|a highl y autonomous hcld o|production is
i nscparablc |rom a spcci hc cul tural compctcncc Jhi s hi storical cul turc
|uncti ons as a pri nci plc o| pcrti ncncc which cnablcs onc to idcnti |v,
among thc clcmcnts oncrcd to thc gazc, al l thc di sti ncti vc |caturcs and
only t hcsc, by rc|crring thcm, consci ousl y or unconsci ousl v, to thc uni -
vcrsc o|possi bl cal tcrnati vcs. Jhi s mastcry is, |or thc mostpart, acgui rcd
si mpl y by contact wi th works o|artthat is, through an i mplici t lcarn-
ing analogousto that which makcs it possiblc to rccogni zc |ami l iar |accs
wi thoutcxpl ici t rulcs or cri tcriaand i t gcncrally rcmai ns at a practical
l cvcl , ir is what makcs i t possiblc to idcnti |y stylcs, i c. , modcs o|cxprcs
si on charactcri sti co|a pcriod, a ci vi l i zati on ora school, wi thout havi ng
to di sti ngui sh clcarly, or statc cxpl i ci tly, thc |caturcs whi ch consti tutc
thci r original i ty. Evcrythi ng sccms to suggcst that cvcn among pro|cs-
si onal valucrs, thccri tcriawhichdcnnc thcs tylisticpropcrticso|thc ' typ-
ical works' on whi ch all thci r | udgcmcnts arc bascd usual l y rcmai n
i mpl i ci t.
Jhcpurc gazc i mpl ics a brcak wi th thcordi nary atti tudc towards thc
world, whi ch, gi vcnthccondi ti ons i nwhi ch it i spcr|ormcd, i salso a so
ci al scparati on. Crtcga y Gassct can bc bcl icvcd whcn hc attri butcs to
modcrn art a sysrcmati c rc|usal o|all that i s ' human' , i. c , gcncric, com
monas opposcd to di sti ncri vc, ordi sti ngui shcd-namcly. thcpassi ons,
cmoti ons and |ccl i ngs whi ch ' ordi nary' pcoplc i nvcsr in rhci r 'ordi nary'
l i vcs. It is as i| thc 'popul aracsthcric' thc guoration marks arc thcrc to
i ndi catc that thi s is an acsthcti c ' i n i tscl |' not ' |or irscl | ' ) wcrc bascd on
thc amrmati on o|thc cont i nui ty bctwccn art and li |c, which i mplics thc
subordi nati on o||orm to |unction Jhi s i ssccn clcarl y in thccasco|thc
novcl andcspcci al l ythcthcatrc, whcrc thcworki ng-class audicncc rc|uscs
any sort o||ormal cxpcri mcntati on and all thc cnccts which, by i ntro
duci ng adi stancc |rom thc acccptcdconvcnti ons as rcgards sccncry,pl ot
ctc. ), rcnd to di stancc thc spcctator, prcvcnti ng hi m |rom gctti ng i n-
vol vcd and |ul l y i dcnt i |yi ng wi th thc charactcrs ! am thi nki ng o|
Brcchti an ' al i cnati on' orthcdi srupti ono|pl ot i nthcnat.aarman|. In
contras t to thc dctachmcnt and di si ntcrcstcdncss which acsthctic thcory
rcgardsas thconl y way o|rccogni zi ng thcwork o| art |or what i t is, i . c. ,
autonomous, i.//itandig, thc 'popul aracsthctic' ignorcs or rc|uscs thc rc
|usal o| ' |aci lc' i nvol vcmcnt and ' vulgar' cn| oymcnt, a rc|usal which i s
thcbasiso|t hctastc |or |ormal cxpcri mcnt. Andpopul ar | udgcmcnts o|
pai nti ngs or photographs spri ng |rom an 'acsthcti c' i n |act i t i s an
|otdo.tio , 5
cthos) which is thccxactopposi tc ot thc Kantian acsthcttc. Mhcrcas, tn
ordcr to grasp thcspccihct ty otthc acsthcticjudgcmcnt, Kant strovc to
distinguish that whtch plcascs trom that whtch gratihcs and, morc cn-
crall y, to disttnguish disintcrcstcdncss, thcsol cguarantor otthcspccth-
caI!y acsthctic guaIi ty ot contcmpl ati on, trom thc i ntcrcst ot rcason
which dchncs thc Good, worki ng-class pcoplc cxpcct cvcry i mac to cx-
pltcitly pcrtorm a tunction, ttonl y that ota sign, and thctr | udgcmcnts
makc rctcrcncc, ottcn cxpl ici tly, to thc norms ot moraItty or arccablc-
ncss. Mhcthcrrcjccting or praising, thcirapprcciation always has an cth-
ical basis.
Populartastc appl ics thcschcmcs otthc cthos, which pcrtatn in thcor-
di naryctrcumstanccs otl i tc, to lcgt timatc works otart, and sopcrtorms a
systcmatic rcduction oIthc thi ngs ot art to thc thi ns ot l i tc. Jhc vcry
scriousncss or naivctywhich this tastc i nvcsts i n hctions and rcprcscn-
tattonsdcmonstratcs acontrario thatpurc tastc pcrtorms a suspcnsionot
'naivc' tnvolvcmcnt whtch i s onc di mcnston ota 'quasi-l udtc' rcl ation-
ship with thc ncccsst tics otthc world. I ntcllcctuals could bc said to bc-
l icvc in thc rcprcscntation-l i tcraturc, thcatrc, painti ng-morc than in
thc thi ngs rcprcscntcd, whcrcas thc pcopl cchicUy cxpcct rcprcscntattons
and thc convcnttons whtch govcrn thcm to allow thcm to bcl i cvc 'na-
ivcly' in thc thi ngs rcprcscntcd. Jhc purc acsthctic is rootcd in an cthic,
orrathcr, an cthos otclcctivcdtstancc trom thc ncccssi tics otthc natural
and social world, whtch may takc thc torm otmoral agnosticism visiblc
whcncthical transrcssionbccomcs an arttsttcati is ) orotan acsthct-
icism which prcscnts thc acsthctic disposi tion as a univcrsally val td prin-
ciplc and takcs thc bourcois dcniaI otthcsocial world to i ts l i mt t. Jhc
dctachmcnt otthcpurc gazc cannot bc dissociatcd trom a gcncraI dispo-
sition towards thc world which is thc paradoxical product otcondttton-
ingbyncgativccconomicncccssitics-al i |c o|casc-thattcndstoinducc
an activc distancc trom ncccssi ty.
Al though art obviouslyohcrs thcgrcatcst scopc to thc acsthcticdispo-
si ti on, thc:c is no arcaotpracticc in which thc aim otpuri tyi n, rchni ng
and sublimatingprimary nccds and i mpulscs cannotasscrt i tscl t, no arca
in which thc styl i zation ot l i tc, that is, thc primacy ot torms ovcr tunc-
ti on, ot manncr ovcr mattcr, docs not producc thc samc chccts. And
nothin is morc distinctivc, morc disttnguishcd, than thc capactty to
contcr acsthctic status on objccts that arc banal or cvcn 'common' bc-
causc thc 'common' pcoplc makc thcm thcirown, cspccially toracsthctic
purposcs, orthcabi l i ty to appIy thcprinciplcs ota' purc' acsthctic to thc
most cvcrydaychoiccs otcvcryday l i tc,c. g., in cooking,clothingordcco-
ration, complctcly rcvcrsing thc popular disposi tion which anncxcs acs-
thctics to cthics.
In tact, through thc cconomtc and social condittons which thcy prc-
supposc, thc di hcrcnt ways ot rcl ating to rcali tics and hctions, otbcl icv-
ing i n hctions and thc rcali tics thcy si mul atc, with morc orlcss distancc
, u/r0dut//0u
anddctachmcnt, arc vcry closcly l i nkcd to thcdincrcntpossiblcpositions
i nsocialspaccand, conscqucntly, bound upwith thcsystcms otdisposi-
tions habi tus} charactcristic otthc dincrcnt classcs and cl ass tractions.
Jastcclassihcs, and i t classi hcs thcclassihcr. Social subjccts, classi hcd by
thcirclassihcations, distinguishthcmsclvcsby thcdistinctionsthcymakc,
bctwccn thcbcautitul and thc ugl y, thcdistinguishcd and thc vulgar, in
which thcir position i n thc obj cctivc classihcations is cxprcsscd or bc-
traycd. And statistical analysisdocs indccd show thatopposi tionssimilar
i n structurc to thosc tound i n cul turaI practiccs also appcar i n cating
habits. Jhcanti thcsisbctwccn guanti ty andgual i ty, substancc and torm,
corrcsponds to thc oppositionl i nkcd to dihcrcnt distanccs trom ncccs-
si tyctwccn thc tastc otncccssi ty, which tavours thcmost'hlli ng' and
mostcconomical toods, andthctastcotIibcrtyor l uxurywhichshi tts
thc cmphasis to thc manncr ot prcscnting, scrvi ng, cating ctc. } and
tcnds to uscstyl i zcd torms to dcny tunction.
Jhc scicncc ot tastc and otcul tural consumption bcgi nswith a trans-
grcssi on that i s in noway acsthctic: it has to abol ish thc sacrcd tronticr
which makcs lcgi timatc cul turc a scparatc univcrsc, i n ordcr to discovcr
thc i ntcll igibIc rcl ations which uni tc apparcntly incommcnsurablc
'choiccs', such asprctcrcnccs in musicandtood, paintingandsport, li tcr-
aturc and hai rstylc. Jhis barbarous rcintcgration ot acsthctic consump-
tion i nto thc world otordinary consumption abol ishcs thc opposi tion,
whichhasbccn thcbasisothighacsthcticssi ncc Kant, bctwccn thc'tastc
otscnsc'andthc'tastc otrchcction',andbctwccn tacilcplcasurc, plcasurc
rcduccd to apIcasurc otthc scnscs, and purc plcasurc, plcasurc purihcd ot
plcasurc, wbicb i s prcdisposcd to bccomc a symbol otmoral cxccllcncc
and a mcasurc otthc capaci ty tor sublimation which dchncs thc truly
human man. Jhc cul turc which rcsults trom this magical division is sa-
crcd. Cul tural consccration docs indccd contcr on thc obj ccts, pcrsons
and situations i t touchcs, a sortotontological promotion akin toa tran-
substantiation. Prootcnough otthis i s toundi n thctwo tol l owingquo-
tations, which might almost havc bccn wri ttcn tor thc dcl ight ot thc
socioIogist:
'hats truck mc most is thi s: nothingcouldbc obsccnc on thc stagc
ot our prcmicr thcatrc, and thc baIlcrinas ot thc Cpcra, cvcn as nakcd
danccrs, syIphs, spri tcs or Bacchac, rctain an inviolablc puri ty. '
'Jhcrc arc obsccnc posturcs: thc sti muIatcd i ntcrcoursc which oncnds
thccyc. CIcarly, it i si mpossibIctoapprovc, aIthoughthci ntcrpolation ot
such csturcs in dancc routincsdocs givc thcm a symboIic and acsthctic
gual i ty whichi sabscnt trom thci ntimatc sccncs thccincmadailyhaunts
bctorc itsspctator' cycs . . . As tor thc nudc sccnc, what can onc say,
cxccpt thatiti sbrictandthcatricaIIy notvcrychcctivc:I will notsay it is
chastc or innoccnt, tor nothing commcrciaI can bc so dcscribcd. lt us
say it i s not shocking, and that thc chictobjcction i s that it scrvcs as a
box-omcc immick.. . . In MnIr, thc nakcdncss tai ls to bc symbolic. '"
Iotrsda.tiso / /
Jbc dcnial ot l owcr, coarsc, vular, vcnal , scrvilc-in a word, natu
ral-n| oymcnt , whtch constitutcs tbc sacrcd spbcrc otcul turc, implics
an amrmatton ot tbc sucriority ot tbosc wbo can bc satishcd witb tbc
sublimatcd, rchncd, disintcrcstcd, ratuitous, distinuisbcdplcasurcs tor
cvcrcloscd to thcprotanc. Jhat ts wbyartand cul tural consumption arc
prcdisposcd, consciouslyand dclibcratclyornot, to tul hl a soctal tunction
otlcitt matin soctal dt hcrcnccs.
5ou!|
Criti|ue
toe JuJement
o T!ste
Pnd WC dC nCI yCI knCW WhCIhCt CU!IUtl! !I!C Cln 8utVIVC
IhC dI8lQQCltlnCC C! dCmC8IC 8CtVln I8
PlIn C8lnCn, L!r ruJJ au AIA Jtn
1s niiaccp
a| calias
SocioIogy is rarcIy morc akin to sociaI psychoanaIysis than whcn it con-
Ironts an objccr Iikc rastc, onc oI thc most vitaI stakcs in thc struggIcs
Iought in thc ncId oI thc dominant cIass and thc ncId oI cuIturaI produc-
rion. Jhis is not onIy bccausc thc judgcmcnt oI tastc is thc suprcmc
maniIcstation oI thc disccrnmcnr which, by rcconciIing rcason and scnsi-
biIity, thc pcdant who undcrsrands without IccIing and thc

who cnjoys wirhour undcrsranding, dcnncs rhc accompIishcd individuaI.
lor s it soIcIy bccausc cvcry ruIc oI propricty dcsignarcs in advancc thc
projccr ot dcnning rhis indcnnabIc csscncc as a cIcar maniIcsrarion oI
phiIisrinism-whcrhcr ir bc rhc acadcmic propricry which, Irom AIois
kicgI and Hcinrich Imin to EIic Iaurc and Hcnri IociIIon, and Irom
rhc mosr schoIasric commcnrarors on rhc cIassics ro rhc avanr-gardc
scmioIogist, insisrs on a IormaIisr rcading oI rhc work oI arr; or rhc up-
pcrcIass propricry which rrcars rasrc as onc oI rhc surcsr signs oI rruc no-
biIiry and cannor conccivc oI rcIcrring rasrc ro anyrhing orhcr rhan irscII
Hcrc thc socioIogist nnds himscII in thc arca par cxccIIcncc oI rhc dc-
niaI oI thc sociaI. lt is not sumcicnr ro ovcrcomc thc iniriaI scII-cvidcnt
appcaranccs, in othcr words, to rcIatc rastc, rhc uncrcarcd sourcc oI aII
'crcarion', to rhc sociaI condirions oI which ir is thc producr, knowing
IuII wcII rhar thc vcry samc pcopIc who srrivc ro rcprcss thc cIcar rcIation
bcrwccn tastc and cducation, bcrwccn cuIturc as thc statc oI that which is
cuItivatcd and cuIturc as rhc proccss oI cuItivaring, wiII bc amazcd rhar
anyonc shouId cxpcnd so much chort in scicntincaIIy proving that scII-
cvidcnr Iacr. Hc musr aIso gucstion thar rcIationship, which onIy appcars
ro bc scII-cxpIanarory, and unravcI rhc paradox whcrcby rhc rcIarionship
. . S:ca/ cr:t:qu: :] t/: ua
[
:m:nt :J 1ast.
W! Cduca!Cna caQ!a s jus! as s!tCn_ n atCas Wc tC CducatCnaI
systCm dCCs nCt tCac. /nd C must dC ts vtCut CVCt UCn_ aUC !C
aQQCaI uncCndtCnay tC !C QCs!Vs!c atU!ta!Cn C! Wa! atC caIICd
!ac!s. ddCn UCnd !C s!a!s!caI tCIatCnsQs UCtWCCn CducatCnaI
caQta Ct sCca Ct_n and ts Ct !at !yQC C! KnCWCd_C Ct Way C! aQ
Qyn_ !, !CtC atC tCatCnsQs UC!WCCn _tCuQs mantann_ dnCtCnt,
and CVCn anta_Cnstc, tCIatCns tC cututC, dCQCndn_ Cn tC cCndtCns
n Wc !Cy acgutCd !Ct cuI!utaI caQta and tC matKC!s n Wc
!Cy can dCtVC mCs! QtC!t !tCm !. Dut WC aVC nCt yCt !nsCd Wt tC
sC!CVdCn!. JC guCstCn !sCI! as tC UC guCstCnCd-n C!Ct WCtds,
!C tCatCn tC cuI!utC Wc ! !ac!y QtVC_Cs-n CtdCt !C Cs!aUIs
WC!Ct a can_C n !C cCn!Cn! and !Ctm C! tC guCs!Cn WCuId nC! UC
suUcCn! !C !tans!Ctm tC tCa!CnsQs CUsCtVCd. JCtC s nC Way Cut C!
!C _amC C! cuI!utC, and CnCs CnIy cancC C! CU]Cct!yn_ tC ttuC na
!utC C! !C _amC s !C CU]Cc!!y as !uIIy as QCssUIC !C VCty CQCta!Cns
Wc CnC s CU_Cd !C usC n CtdCt tC acCVC ta! CUjCc!!catCn. D: t:
]abu/a narratur. JC tCmndCt s mCan! !Ct !C tCadCt as WCII as !C sCc
CC_s!. atadCxcay, !C _amCs C! cu!utC atC QtC!Cc!Cd a_anst CUjCct
!ca!Cn Uy aII tC Qat!aI CUjCc!!catCns Wc tC ac!Cts nVCIVCd n tC
_amC QCt!Ctm Cn Cac C!Ct. scCIatIy ct!cs cannCt tasQ tC CU]CctVC
tCa!y C! sCcC!y aCs!CtCs WtCu! aUandCnn_ !Ct _tasQ C! !C !tuC
natutC C! !Ct CWn ac!Vty, and tC samC s !tuC C! !Ct CQQCnCnts. JC
samC IaW C! mu!uaI Iucd!y and tChCxVC UndnCss _CVCtns tC an!a_C
nsm UC!WCCn `n!CCc!uaIs and `UCut_CCs [Ct tCt sQCKCsmCn n tC
!CId C! QtCduc!Cnj. Pnd CVCn WCn UCatn_ n mnd tc !unctcn
Wc IC_!ma!C cuItutC QCt!Crms n cIuss tCIutICns, CnC s s!II IaUIC tc
UC Cd n!C accCQ!n_ CnC Ct !C C!Ct C! !C sC!n!CtCstCd tCQtCsCnta
!Cns C! cu!utC Wc `n!CICc!uas and `UCut_CCs CndICssIy Un_ at
Cac C!Ct. Q tC nCW tC sCcOIC_y C! tC QtCductCn and QtCducCts C!
cuI!utC as nCVCt CscaQCd !tCm tC QIay C! CQQCsn_ ma_Cs, n Wc
`t_tWn_ ntCIICctuaIs and `IC!tWn_ ntCIICctuaIs [as tC cuttCnt tax
CnCmy Qu!s t suU]Cct !Ct CpQCnCnts und tCt sttatCCs tC an CU]Cct
Vs! tCduc!Cn Wc VCs!Cd ntCtCsts maKC tat muc CasCt. JC
CUjCc!!ca!Cn s aWays UCund !C tCman QattaI, and !CtC!CtC !asC, sC
Cn_ as t !aIs !C ncudC !C QCnt C! VCW !tCm Wc t sQCaKs and sC
!aIs !C cCnsttuc! !C _amC as a WCIC. Lny at tC ICVCI C! !C !CId C!
QCs!Cns s ! QCssUC !C _tasQ UC! !C _CnCtc n!CtCs!s assCca!Cd W!
!C !ac! C! !aKn_ Qat! n !C _amC and !C sQCc!c n!CtCs!s a!tacCd tC
!C dHCtCn! QCs!Cns, and, !tCu_ !s, !C !Ctm and cCn!Cn! C! !C
sC!QCs!Cnn_s !tCu_ Wc !CsC ntCtCs!s atC CxQtCssCd. LCsQtC !C
auta C! CU]CctVty tCy KC tC assumC, nCtCt tC `sCcCIC_y C! tC n
tCIICctuaIs, Wc s ttadtCnaIy !C UusnCss C! `t_!Wn_ n!CICc
!uas, nCt !C cttguC C! `t_tWn_ tCu_t, tC ttadtCnaI sQCcaIty
C! `IC!tWn_ ntCICc!uaIs, s anytn mCtC tan a sCtCs C! symUCIc a
_tCssCns Wc !aKC Cn add!CnaI !CtcC WCn tCy dtCss !CmsCVCs uQ
n !C mQCccaUIC nCu!taI!y C! scCncC. JCy tactIy a_tCC n ICaVn_ d
1/. Hrists.rog sf ca/tar. / i )
dcn vhart scsscnrt al, namclyrhcsrrucrurcotobccrtvcpostrtons vhtchts
rhc sourcc, tnrcr alta, otrhc vtcv vhtch rhc occupanrs otcach posirton
can havc otrhc occupanrs otrhc orhcr postrt ons and vhtch dcrcrmt ncs
rhc spccthc torm and torcc ot cach roup' s propcnstry ro prcscnr and rc
cctvc a roup' s parttal trurh as t ttr vcrc a tul l account ot rhc ob| cctt vc
rclart ons bcrvccn rhc roups.
Jhc analyscs prcscnrcd tn rhts book arcbascd on a survcy by gucsrton-
nairc,carrtcd our tn l96} and l96-6s, ona samplcotJ,ZJ pcoplc. Ap
pcndtx l tvcs tul l tntormatton conccrntn rhc compostrton ot thc
samplc, rhc qucsrt onnatrc, and rhc matn proccdurcs uscd ro anal yzc tr.
Appcndtx} conratns rhc srartsrtcal daradravn tromrhcsurvcy, asvcl l as
dara tromorhcrsourccs. ) Jhc survcy souhr todcrcrmt nc hov rhcculrt
varcd dtspostrtonandculrural compcrcncc rhar arc rcvcal cd tnrhc naturc
otrhc culrural oods consumcd, and tn thc vay rhcyarc consumcd, vary
accordtn ro rhc carcory otacnrs and rhc arca ro vhtch rhcy appl tcd,
trom rhc mosr l ctrtmarc arcas such as patnrtn or mustc ro rhc mosr
`pcrsonal ' oncs such as corhtn, turntrurc or cookcry, and, vt thtn thc
lctrt marc domatns, accordtn ro rhc markcrs-'acadcmtc' and 'non
acadcmtc'-tn vhtch rhcy may bc pl accd. Jvo bastc mcrs vcrc rhus cs
rablishcd: on rhc onc hand, rhc vcry closc rclartonshtp l tnkin culrural
pracrtccs or rhc corrcspondtn opinions ) ro cducartonal capira mca
surcd by gual t hcart ons and, sccondartly, ro soctal orttn mcasurcd by
tarhcr' s occuparton) , and, on rhc orhcr hand, rhc tacr rhar, ar cquivalcnr
lcvcls ot cducartonal captral , rhc vctht otsoctal orttn tn thc pracrtcc
and prctcrcncccxplatntn systcm tncrcascs as onc movcs avay trom rhc
mosr l ctrtmarc arcas ot culrurc.
Jhc morcrhccompcrcnccs mcasurcdarcrccontzcd byrhcschoo sys
!Cn, aDU !C nOtC `acaUCnc !C !cchnqLcs uscd !O nCasutC !Cn, thc
stroncr ts rhc rcl atton bcrvccn pcrtormancc and cducartonal qual thca
tton. Jhc l artcr, as a morc or lcss adcquatc tndtcaror ot rhc numbcr ot
ycars otschol asrtc tnculcarton, uarantccs culrural captral morc or lcss
complcrcly, dcpcndtn on vhcrhcr tt ts tnhcrt tcd tromrhc tamt l y or ac
qutrcd arschool, andso t t tsan uncqual l yadcquatc tndtcator otrhts capt
tal . Jhc srroncsr corrcl att on bcrvccn pcrtormancc and cducartonal
captral quacul tuml capt talrccontzcdand uaranrccd byrhccducartonal
sysrcm vhtch ts vcry uncqual l y rcsponstblc for trs acgutstrion) ts ob
scrvcd vhcn, vt rh rhc gucsrton onrhc composcrs ota scrtcs otmustcal
vorks, rhc survcy rakcsrhc torm ot a vcry 'schol asrtc' cxcrctsc on knovl
cdcvcry closc torharrauhr byrhccducart onal systcmandsrronlyrcc
ontzcd tn rhc acadcmtc markcr.
JC n!CtVCWCt tCad Cu! a !s! C! s!CCn musCa! WCtks anU askCU !hC tC
sQCndCn! !C namC !C CCmQCsCt C! CaCh. b!ysCvCn QCtCCn! C! !CsC W!h
Cn!y a C!P Ct a CAP CCu!U nC! dCn!!y mCtC !an !WC CCmQCsCts [Cu! C!
i<, d 0t/ul Cr///yut 0f /ht _udgmm/ 0f !uJlt
si xtccn works}, comparcd to 4 pcrccnt o| thosc wi th a 8PC, I9 pcrccnt
o| thosc wi th thc burruluunu/, I7 pcrccnt o|thosc whohad gonc to a tcch
ni cal col lcgc [Qtlt/t o0/t} or startcd highcr cducation and onl y 7 pcrccnt o|
thosc havinga qual i hcationcqual or supcrior to a hu. \hcrcas nonc o|
thc manual or clcrical workcrs qucsti oncd was capablc o|nami ng twclvcor
morc o| thccomposcrs o| thcsi xtccn works, 2 pcrccnt o| thc 'artistic pro
duccrs' and thc tcachcrs (and 78pcrccnto|thc tcachcrs in highcrcduca
tion} achicvcd this scorc.
Thc ratc o|nonrcsponsc to thc qucstion on |avouri tc pai ntcrs or picccs
o|music i s also cl oscly corrclatcd wi th lcvcl o|cducati on, wi th a strongop
pos iti on bctwccn thc domi nantcl ass on thc onc hand and thc worki ng
cl asscs, cra|tsmcn and smal l tradcsmcn on thcothcr (Howcvcr, si ncc i n
thi scascwhcthcr ornot pcoplc answcrcd thc qucsti on doubtlcss dcpcndcd
as much on thci r disposi tions as on thci r purc compctcncc, thc cultural prc
tcnsi ons o|thc ncwQtltlt b0urgt0tJttjuniorcommcrcial cxccutivcs, thc
mcdical and social scrviccs, sccrctarics, and thc various cul tural i ntcrmc
di arics (scc Chaptcr }|ound an outlct hcrc. } Si mi l arly, l istcni ngto thc
most ' highbrow' radi ostati ons, FranccMusiquc and FranccCulturc, and to
musical orcul tural broadcasts, owni nga rccord-pl aycr, l i stcni ngtorccords
(wi thout spcci |yi ng thc typc, whi ch mi ni mi zcs thc di Hcrcnccs}, vi si ti ng art
gallcrics, and knowlcdgc o|pai nti ng|caturcs which arcstrongly corrclatcd
wi th onc anothcr- bcy thc samc logic and, bci ngstrongly l i nkcd tocduca
tional capi tal , sct thc various classcs and class |ractions i n a cl car hi crarchy
(wi th a rcvcrsc di stribution |or l istcni ngto varicty programmcs} ln thc
casco|acti vi tics l i kc thc visual arts, or playinga musical i nstrumcnt, whi ch
prcsupposcs a cul tural capi tal gcncral l y acquircd outsidc thc cducational sys
tcm and (rcl ati vcly} i ndcpcndcnt o|thc lcvcl o|acadcmi c ccrti hcation, thc
corrcl ation with social cl ass, which is again strong, is cstablishcd thnugh
social trajcctory which cxplains thc spcci al position o|thc ncw pcti tc bour
gcoi si c}.
Thccl oscr onc movcs towards thcmostlcgi ti matc arcas, such as musi c or
pai nt i ng, and, wi thi n thcsc arcas, whi ch canbcscti n a hicrarchy accordi ng
to thcirmodal dcgrcc o|lcgi ti macy, towards ccrtain gcnrcs orccrtain
works, thc morc thcdi Hcrcnccs i n cducational capi tal arc associ atcd with
majordi Hcrcnccs (produccd i n accordancc with thcsamcpri nciplcs} bc
twccn gcnrcs, such as opcra and opcrctta, or quartcts and symphonics, bc
twccn pcriods, such as contcmporary and classical, bctwccn composcrs and
bctwccn works. Thus, among works o|music, thc UtuJwQtn Cuvttr and
thcC0nrtrl0 [0r /bt c[l Iund (whi ch, as will bccomc apparcnt, arcdi sti n
guishcd by thc modcs o|acqui si ti on and consumption whi ch thcyprcsup
posc}, arc opposcd to thc Strauss wal tzcs and thc 3u/rt |unu, pi cccs whi ch
arc dcvalucd ci thcrby bclonging toa l owcr gcnrc ('l ight music'}orby
thci rpopul arization (si nccthcdialcctic o|di sti ncti on and prctcnsi on dcsig
natcs as dcvalucd ' middlcbrow' art t hosc lcgi ti matc works whi ch bccomc
'populari zcd'}, just as, in thc world o|song, Gcorgcs 8rasscns and Io
Fcrrc arc opposcd to Gcorgcs Guctary and PctulaClark, thcsc di Hcr
cnccs corrcspondi ng in cach casc to di Hcrcnccs i ncducati onal capi tal (scc
tablc I.
l n|act, thc wcight o| thc sccondary |actorsomposi tion o|capi tal, vol
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l , . \.ia/critiqa.) tb.ad.m.nt 1a:t.


umC O| | DhCr| tCd cul t ur1l c1Q| t1l [ Or Oc|1l tr1| CctOry ) , 1_C, Ql 1cC O| rC|
dCDcC-v1r|C | t h thC wOrk. hu, 1 ODC mOvC tO1rd thC Ork th1t
1rC l C1t lC_| t| m1tC [ 1t thC mOmCDt | D guCt| OD ) , |1ctOr uch 1 1_C C
cOmC | DcrC1| D_ly | mQOrt1Dt , |D thC c1C O| k/qca, tn B/u: Or thC Huqar
tan k/a:ca, thCrC | 1 cl OCr cOrrCl 1t| OD | th 1_C th1D | th Cduc1t| OD,
|1thCr OccuQ1t| OD1l c1tC_Ory, Cx Or Ql 1cC O| rC|dCDcC.
Jhus, o|all thc objccts oncrcd |or consumcrs' choicc, thcrc arc nonc
morc classi |yi ngthanlcgi ti matcworkso|an, which, whilc di sti nctivc in
gcncral,cnablcthcproducti ono|di sti ncti onsad i nhni tumby playi ngon
di vi si ons and subdi vi si ons i nto gcnrcs, pcriods, stylcs, authors ctc
\i thi n thc uni vcrsc o|particul ar tas tcs which can bc rccrcatcd by suc
ccssi vc di vi si ons, it is thus possi blc, still kccpi ng to thc ma| or opposi
ti ons, to di sti ngui sh thrcc zoncs o| tastc which roughl y corrcspond to
cducati onallcvclsand social cl asscs , l ) L.itimat.tait., i . c , thc tastc |or
lcgi ti matc works, hcrc rcprcscntcd by thc 4./ 1.p.r.dcati.r ( scc hg
urc l , hi stogram l ) , thc .rt)Faga.orthccn..rt)rtb.LqHand, or,
in pai nti ng, Brcughcl or Goya, which thc mostscl |assurcd acs thctcs can
combi ncwi th thc most lcgi ti matc o|thc arts that arc sti ll in thc proccss
o|lcgi ti mati on ci ncma, | azzorcvcn song hcrc, |orcxamplc, Lo Fcrrc,
acgucs Iouai) i ncrcascs wi thcducational lcvcl and is hi ghcst in thosc
|racti onso|thcdomi nantcl ass that arc richcst in cducati onalcapi tal , 2 )
Midd/./ru'tait., which bri ngs togcthcr thc mi nor works o|thc ma| or
arts, i nthi scasckbaid,in6/a. hi stogram 2 ) , thcHangarianlbaid,,
or in pai nt i ng, Itri l lo, Bunctor cvcn Rcnoi r, and thc ma| orworkso|thc
m| nOr art, uch a _acQuC DrC and \| l Crt Dccaud |D thC 1rt O| On_, |
morc common in thc mi ddlc classcs Jaii.i m,.nn.i ) than i n thC work
| ngclasscs Jaii.ia/air.i ) orin thc' i ntcllcctual ' |ractionso|thcdomi
nant class. 5 ) Fi nally, a/ar' ta:t., rcprcscntcd hcrc by thc choicc o|
workso|socallcd 'light' musi corclassical musi cdcval ucd bypopul ari za
ti on, suchas thc6/a.Dana/. hi stogram 5 ) , La1ratiataorL'r/ii-nn.,
andcspcci all y songs total l ydcvoi do|artisticambi ti on or prctcnsi onsuch
as thosc o| Lui s Mariano, Guctary or Pctula Clark, is most |rcgucnt
among thc worki ngcl asscs andvarics in i nvcrsc rati o to cducationalcapi
tal which cxplai ns why i t i s slightly morc common among i ndus trial
andcommcrci alcmploycrsorcvcnscni orcxccutivcs thanamongpri mary
tcachcrs and cultural i ntcrmcdi arics ) .
hC t hrCC QrOhl C jrCCDtCd | D U_urC I 1rC jCr|Cctl y tyg|c1l O| thOC th1t
1rC |OuDd whCD ODC dr1w 1 _r1Qh O| thC d| t r| ut| OD O| 1 hOl C Ct O|
chO| cC ch1r1ctCr| t | c O| d| hCrCDt cl 1 |r1ct| OD [ 1rr1D_Cd | D 1 h| Cr1rchy,
| th| D C1ch cl 1, 1ccOrd| D_ tO Cduc1t| OD1l c1Q| t1l ) . hC Urt ODC [ thC 0u/
Temerea Catter) rC1QQC1r | D thC c1C O| 1l l thC 1uthOr Or Ork D1mCd
1OvC, 1Dd 1lO lOr uch chO| cC |D thC urvCy QuCt| ODD1| rC [ CC 1jgCDd| x
I ) 1 ` rC1d| D_ jh| l OOQh| c1l C1y 1Dd ` v| | t| D_ muCum Ctc. , thC CcODd
1b. Hrists.rog : ca/tar. / /
Fgrt |tU|OD O QtCCtCDCC Ot |tCC mUCa WOtK y Ca taC|OD.
I-Vcll-1cmQcrcd Llavtcr
manua wOikCis
dOmCstic sCivants
ctaUsmCn , sOpkCCpCis
cCiica and cOmmCicia CmpOyCCs
uniOi administiativC CxCcutivCs
uniOi cOmmCicia CxCcutivCs , sCciCtaiiCs
tCcnicians
mCdica -sOcia sCivicCs
piimaiy tCacCis
cutuia intCimCdiaiiCs , ait ciatsmCn
industiia and cOmmCicia CmpOyCis
puUicsCctOi CxCcutivCs
piivatC-sCctOi CxCcutivCs , CnginCCis
piOCssiOns
sCcOndaiy tCacCis
igCi-CducatiOn tCacCis , ait plOducCis
2-KaQsody tn luc
manua wOikCis
dOmCstic sCivants
ciatsmCn, sOpkCCpCis
cCiica and cOmmCicia CmpOyCCs
uniOi administiativC CxCcutivCs
uniOi cOmmCicia CxCcutivCs , sCciCtaiiCs
tCcnicians
mCdica -sOcia sCivicCs
piimaiy tCacCis
cutuia intCimCdiaiiCs , ait ciatsmCn
industiia and cOmmCicia CmpOyCis
puUic-sCctOi CxCcutivCs
piivatC-sCctOi CxCcutivCs, CnginCCis
piOCssiOns
sCcOndaiy tCacCis
igCi-COucatiOn tCacCis , ait piOducCts
J-lucOanubc
manua wOikCis
dOmCstic sCivants
cia!tsmCn , sOpkCCpCis
cCiica and cOmmCicia CmpOyCCs
uniOi administiativC CxCcutivCs
uniOi cOmmCicia CxCcutivCs , sCciCtaiiCs
tCcnicians
mCdica -sOcia sCivicCs
piimaiy tCacCis
cutuia intCimCOiaiiCs , ait ciatsmCn
industiia and cOmmCicia CmpOyCis
puUic-sCctOi CxCcutivCs
piivatC-sCctOi CxCcutivCs, CnginCCis
piOCssiOns
sCcOndaiy tCacCis
igCi-CducatiOn tCacCis , ait piOducCis
0 !0 0 0 40 0 0

2
I
4 . J
9
I 0 . J
I I
7 . J
I 2 . J
4
J
I 4. J
I J . J
5 I . J
5 5 . J
20. J

5
20
22
2 7 . J
26 . J
42
20
20
2 2 . J
2 2 . J
I J
29
I 9
I 2 . J
I 2
J0. J
5 J . J
49
J 2
54
29 . J
2 I
I J . J
I 0
I 2 . J
2 I . J
20
I 8 . J
I J . J
4
0


x
I 8 / . S:ta/ Crt/tquc //hc udcmcn/ / 1a:/.
K/a]o tn b/u) charactcrt zcs, tn addt tt On tO al l thc Orks and authOrs
mcntt Oncd [ Q us thc Tutug// ]// Go: ) , ' hOtO_rahy , 'cOmlOrtaOl c, cOsy
hOmc ctc. , and thc th rd b/u Oanu/) t s cgual l y val t d lOr ' lOvc stOrtcs
and ` cl can, ttdy hOmc ctc.
Tbc Tdcs a[ Cn/tnru/ ^abht
Arcl artonshtpascl oscasrhar bcrvccn acadcmtccaptral mcasurcd by du
rartonotschool t n and knovlcdc or pracrtccs tn arcas asrcmorc trom
acadcmtccducartonas mustcor patnrtn, norro mcnrtonazz orrhc ctn
cma-l t kc rhc corrcl arton bcrvccn muscum vtstrs and lcvcl ot cduca
rton-ratscs tnrhchthcsr dcrccrhc gucsrt on otrhcstnt hcancc otrhc
rcl art onshtp, tn orhcr vords, rhc gucsrton otrhc rcal tdcnrtry otrhc rvo
l t nkcd rcrms vhtch arc dchncd tn rhctr vcry rcl artonshtp. |nc has cx
pl atncdnorhtnand undcrsroodnorhtnby csrabl t shtnrhccxtsrcncc ot
a corrcl arton bcrvccn an `tndcpcndcnr' vart ablc and a `dcpcndcnr' vart-
ablc. Lnrtl onc has dcrcrmtncd vhar ts dcstnarcd tn rhcparrtcul ar casc,
t.c. , tn cach parrtcul ar rclart onshtp, by cach rcrm tn rhc rclartonshtp tor
cxamplc, lcvcl otcducarton and knovlcdc otcomposcrs ) , rhc srartsrtcal
rcl art onshtp, hovcvcrprcctscly trcanbc dcrcrmtncd numcrtcal l y, rcmat ns
a purc darum, dcvotd otmcantn. And rhc `tnrutrtvc'hal tundcrsrandtn
vtrh vhtch soct olotsrs arc cncral l y sartshcd tn such cascs, vht lc rhcy
conccnrrarc on rchntn rhc mcasurcmcnr ot rhc `tnrcnstry' ot rhc rcla
rtonshtp, rocrhcr vtrhrhc thu:tn / /hc on:/anq otrhcvartablcs or tac
rors rcsulrtn tromrhc nmtna/ tau/t/, otrhc `tndtcarors' vharcvcr rhcy
may tndtcarc) or ot rhc rcrms vhtch dcstnarc rhcm, rcnds ro rulc our
any gucsrtontn otrhc rcrms otrhc rclart onshtp as ro rhc mcantn rhcy
rakc on tn rhar parrtcular rclart onsht p and tndccd rccctvc trom tr.
/h rcrms otrhcrcl art onshtp havc ro bc gucrtcd tn cach casc. rhc tn
dcpcndcnr vartablc-ccuparton, scx, ac, tarhcr's occuparton, placcs ot
rcstdcncc crc. , vhtch may cxprcss vcry dt hcrcnr chccrs-and rhc dcpcn
dcnr vartablc, vhtch may mant tcsr dt spostrtons rhar rhcmsclvcs vary con
stdcrabl y dcpcndtn on rhc cl asscs dt vtdcd up by rhc tndcpcndcnr
vartablcs. Jhus, tor an adcguarc tnrcrprcrarton otrhc dthcrcnccs tound
bcrvccn rhc cl asscs or vtrhtn rhc samc cl ass as rcards rhctr rclarton ro
rhc vartous lctrtmarc arrs, patnrtn, mustc, rhcarrc, lt rcrarurc crc , onc
vould havc ro analysc tul l y rhc soctal uscs, lctrtmarc or t l lctrtmarc, ro
vhtchcachotrhc arrs, cnrcs, vorks or tnsrtrurt ons constdcrcd lcnds tr
scl l Iorcxamplc,norhtn morcclcarl y amrmsonc's `class', norhtn morc
tntal l t bl yclasst hcs, rhanrasrcs tn mustc.Jhts ts otcoursc bccausc, by vtr-
ruc otrhcrartry otrhc condtrtons tor acgutrtn rhc corrcspondtn dtspo
strtons, rhcrc ts no morc `cl asst tacrory' pracrtcc rhan conccrr-otn or
playtn a `noblc' tnsrrumcnr acrt vtrtcs vhtch, orhcrrhtns bctn cgual ,
arc lcss vdcsprcad rhan rhcarrc-otn, muscum-otn or cvcn vtstrs ro
modcrnarr allcrtcs . Bur tr ts also bccauscrhc haunrtn ot`mustcal cul-
7b: Hrt!crraq c/Cu/!ur: / I 9
turc' i s not a cultural display l i kc othcrs. as rcgards i ts social dchni tion,
' musical culturc' i s somcthing othcrthan a quantity otknowlcdgc and
cxpcricnccscombi ncd with thccapaci ty totalkaboutthcm. Musicisthc
most'spiritual'otthcartsotthcspiritanda lovcotmusicisaguarantcc
ot'spirituality' . nc only has to think otthc cxtraordi nary valuc nowa
days con|crrcd on thc lcxis o| ' listcning' by thc sccul arizcd c. g. , psy
choanalytical ) vcrsionsotrcligiouslanguagc. As thccount|cssvariations
on thc soul otmusic and thc music otthc soul bcar wi tncss, music is
bound up with ' i ntcriority' ' i nncr music' ) otthc 'dccpcst' sort and a/
conccrtsarcsacrcd. Forabourgcoisworldwhichconccivcs i ts rclation to
thcpopul accintcrmsotthcrclationshipo|thcsoul tothcbody, ' inscnsi
tivity to music' doubtlcss rcprcscnts a particul arly unavowab|c torm ot
matcriali stcoarscncss. 8ut this i s not al l . Music is thc ' purc' art parcx
ccllcncc. It says nothing and has nctbing tc a lcvcr rcally having an
cxprcssivc tunction, it is opposcd to drama, which cvcn i n i ts most rc
hncd tormsstillbcars a social mcssagc and can onlybc 'put ovcr' on thc
basisotan i mmcdiatc andprotoundamni ty wi th thcvalucsandcxpccta
tionso|i ts audicncc.Thc thcatrcdividcs i tspublicand dividcsi tscl

Thc
Parisian opposi tion bctwccn rightbank and lcttbank thcatrc, bourgcois
thcatrc and avant-gardc thcatrc, is i ncxtricably acsthctic and poli tical .
lothing comparablc occurs in music wi th somc rarc, rcccnt cxccp
tions ) . Music rcprcscnts thc most radical and mostabsolutc torm otthc
ncgation o|thc world, and cspccially thc social world, which thc bour
gcoiscthos tcnds to dcmand ot all |orms otart.
For an adcquatc i ntcqrctation otwhat would bc i mplicd i n a tablc
corrclatingoccupation, agcorscxwithaprctcrcncctorthc0:/- 7o:r:d
Oavi:r orthc Ccnr:rtc [cr tb: Lg Hand, onc has to brcak both with thc
blind usco|indicators and with spurious, csscntialist analyscs which arc
mcrcly thc univcrsal izing ot a particular cxpcricocc, in ordcr to makc
complctcly cxp|icit thc mul tiplc, contradictory mcanings which thcsc
works takcon ata givcn momcnttor thc total i ty otsoci al agcnts and in
particulartorthccatcgoricsoli ndividualswhom thcydistinguishorwho
diHcr with rcspcct to thcm ( in this particular casc, thc ' i nhcritors' and
thc' ncwcomcrs' ) . ncwould havc to takcaccount, on thconc hand, ot
thc sociallypcrtincntpropcrticsattachcd tocachotthcm, that is, thcso
cia| i magc ot thc works ( 'baroquc'/'modcrn' , harmony/dissonancc,
rigour/lyricism ctc. ) , thc composcrs and pcrhaps cspccially thc corrc
sponding instrumcnts ( thc sharp, rough timbrc ot pluckcd strings/thc
warm, bourgcois timbrc othammcrcd stri ngs ) , and, on thc othcr hand,
thc distributional propcrtics acqui rcd by thcsc works i n thcir rcl ation
ship ( pcrccivcd withvaryi ngclaritydcpcndingon thccasc) with thcdit
|crcnt classcs or class tractions 'a [att ) and with thc corrcsponding
condi tions ot rcccption ( bclatcd knowlcdgc through rccords/carly
knowlcdgc through playing thc piano, thc bourgcois i nstrumcnt par
cxccllcncc).
Z , H :oa/ ci/ia. :] /h. a!.o.o/ :] 1as/.
Thc oppos| t |on |ound at thc lcvcl o| d| str| but| onal propcrt|cs |s gcncral l y
homologous to that |ound at thc lcvcl o| styl i sti c charactcr| sti cs Thi s | s oc
causc homology bctwccn thc pos| tions o| thc produccrs ( or thc works ) i n
thc hcl d o| producti on and thc pos| tions o| thc consumcrs i n soci al spacc
i . c. , i n thc ovcral l class s tructurc or i n thc s tructurc o| thc domi nant class )
sccms to bc thc most trcqucnt casc Roughly spcak| ng, thc amatcur o| Mal
l armc is l i kcly to oc to thc amatcur o| Zola as Mallarmc was to Zol a. O| t
|crcnccs bctwccn works arc prcdi sposcd to cxprcss di Hcrcnccs octwccn
authors, partly bccausc, in both stylc and contcnt, thcy bcar thc mark o|
thci r authors` soci al l y consti tutcd di spos| t| ons ( that is, thc| r soc| al orig| ns.
rctranslatcd as a tuncti on o| thc pos| tions | n thc hcl d o| product| on whi ch
thcsc disposi t| ons playcd a largc part | n dctcrm| ni ng) , and partl y bccausc
thcy rcmai n markcd oy thc social sign| hcancc which thcy rcccivcd trom
thci r opposi ti on, and that o| thc| r authors, |n thc hcld o| product| on ( c. g ,
lctt/right, clcar/ooscurc ctc. ) and whi ch | s pcrpctuatcd by thc un| vcrsi t y
t radi ti on.
I t is also clcarwhatwould bc rcquircd tor an adcquatc intcr
[
rctation
ot thc bourgcois
[
rcdi lccti on tor thc ' I m
[
rcssi onists` , whosc si mul ta-
ncously lyrical and naturalistic adhcrcncc to natural or human naturc
contrasts both wi th rcal i st or critical rcprcscntation ot thc soci al world
[ doubtlcss onc di mcnsion o|thc op
[
osi tion bctwccn Rcnoi r and Goya,
not to mcntion Courbct orOaumicr) and with all torms otabstracti on.
Agai n, t o undcrstand thc class di str| bution ot thc various spons, onc
wouldhavc totakc account otthcrc
[
rcscntationwhich,intcrmsotthcir
spcci hc schcmcs o| pcrccpt i on and apprcci at | on, tbc di crcnt cl asscs bavc
o|thccosts [ cconomic, cul tural and ' physical ' ) and bcnchts attachcd to
thc di hcrcnt sports i mmcdi atc or dctcrrcd 'physical ' bcnchts hcal th,
bcauty, strcngth, whcthcr vi si bl c, through 'bodybui l di ng` or i nvisiblc
through 'kccp-ht' cxcrciscs ) , cconomic and social bcnchts upward mo-
bi l i ty ctc. ) , i mmcdi atc ordc|crrcd symbol ic bcnchts l i nkcd to thc di stri -
buti onal orposi ti onal valuco|cach o|thcsportsconsidcrcd i . c. , all that
cach o|thcm rccci vcs trom i ts grcatcr or lcsscr rari ty, and i ts morc or
lcss clcar association wi th a class, wi th boxi ng, |ootbal l , rugby or body-
bui l di ng cvoking thc working cl asscs, tcnnis and skiing thc bourgcoisic
and gol |thc uppcr bourgcoisic) , gains i n distincti on accrui ng |rom thc
chccts on thc body i tscl t [ c. g. , sl i mncss, suntan, musclcs obviously or
discrcctlyvi si blcctc. ) ortrom thcacccss to highlysclccti vcgroupswhich
somc otthcscs
[
orts givc [ gol |, poloctc. ) .
Tbus thc onl y way ot complctcly cscaping trom thc | nt ui ti oni sm whi ch i n
cvi tably accompanics posi ti vi sti c |ai t h i n thc nomi nal idcnti ty o| thc i ndica
tors woul d bc to carry out astri ctl y i ntcrmi nablcanalysi s ot thc soci al
valuc ot cach ot thc propcrtics or practiccs considcrcda Loui s XV com
modc or a Brahms symphony, rcadi ng Histcria or Le Fiarc, pl ay| ng rugby
1/. Hrists.rog s) ca/tar. / 2I
or thc accordion and s o on. Jhc stati sti cs ot thc cl ass di stri

uti on ot ncws-
papcr rcading would pcrhaps bc i ntcrprctcd lcss bli ndly it sociologists borc
in mi nd Iroust' s analysis ot ' that abomi nablc, voluptuous act callcd rcad-
ing thc papcr, whcrcby all thc mi stortuncs and cataclysms suHcrcd by thc
uni vcrsc in thc last twcnty-tour hours-attlcs which havc cost thc l i vcs ot
htty thousand mcn, murdcrs, stri kcs, bankruptcics, hrcs, poisoni ngs, sui -
cidcs, di vorccs, thc crucl cmotions ot statcsman and actor, transmutcd i nto
a morni ng tcast tor our pcrsonal cntcrtai nmcnt, makc an cxccll cnt and par-
ticul arly bracing accompani mcnt to a tcw mouthtuls ot ra[ au /at!. '
+
Jhi s
dcscription ot :hc acsthctc's variant i nvi tcs an analysis ot thc cl ass vari ations
and thc i nvariants ot thc mcdi atcd, rclati vcly a

stract cxpcricncc ot thc so-


cial world suppl icd by ncwspapcr rcading, tor cxamplc, as a tunction ot
vari ati ons in social and spatial di stancc wi th, at onc cxtrcmc, thc local
i tcms i n thc rcgionaluai l i cs-marriagcs, dcaths, accidcnts-and, at thc othcr
cxtrcmc, i ntcrnational ncws, or, on anothcr scalc, thc royal cngagcmcnts
and wcddi ngs i n thc glossy magazincs ) or i n pol i tical commi tmcnt trom
thc dctachmcnt dcpictcd in Proust' s tcxt to thc acti vi st' s outragc or
cnthusi asm) .
In tact, thc abscncc ot thi s ki nd ot prcli mi nary analysis ot thc social sig-
nihcancc ot thc i ndi cators can makc thc most rigorous-sccmi ng survcys
gui tc unsui tablc tor a sociological rcadi ng. Bccausc thcy torgct that thc ap-
parcnt constancy ot thc products conccals thc di vcrsi ty ot thc social uscs
thcy arc put to, many survcys on consumption i mposc on thcm taxonomics
which havc sprung straight trom thc stati sti ci ans' social unconscious, asso-
ci ati ng thi ngs that ought to bc scparatcd [ c. g. , whi tc bcans and grccn

cans ) and scparating t hings that could

c associ atcd [ c. g. , whi tc

cans and
bananas-thc l attct atc to ttui t as thc tormct atc to vcgctablcs ) . hat is
thcrc to bc said about thc collcction ot products brought togcthct by thc
apparcntly ncutral catcgory 'ccrcals' -rcad, rusks, ricc, pasta, Hour-and
cspcci ally thc class variations in thc consumpti on ot thcsc products, whcn
onc knows that ' ricc' alonc i ncl udcs ' ricc puddi ng' and rtz au graJ, or ricc
cookcd i n broth whi ch tcnd to bc 'wotki ng-cl ass' ) and ' cutticd ticc' motc
'boutgcoi s' or, morc prcciscly, ' i ntcllcctual ' ) , not to mcntion ' brown ricc'
which suggcsts a wholc l i tc-stylc ) ! Jhough, ot coursc, no ' natural' or man-
utacturcd product i s cqually adaptablc to all possiblc social uscs, thcrc arc
vcty tcw that arc pcrtcctly ' uni vocal' and it i s rarcly possiblc to dcducc thc
social usc trom thc thi ng i tsclt Fxccpt tor products spccially dcsigncd tor a
patticular usc l ikc ' sl i mmi ng brcad' ) or closcly ticd to a class, by tradi tion
li kc tcain Francc ) or pricc l i kc caviar ) , most products only dcrivc thcir
social valuc trom thc social usc that is madc ot thcm. As a conscgucncc, i n
thcsc arcas thc only way to hnd thc class variations i s to i ntroducc thcm
trom thc start, by rcplacing words or thi ngs whosc apparcntly uni vocal
mcaning crcatcs no di mcul ty tor thc abstract classihcations ot :hc acadcmi c
unconscious, wi th thc soci al uscs i n which thcy bccomc tul l y dctcrmincd.
Hcncc i t i s ncccssary t o attcnd, tor cxamplc, to uaJ ot photographi ng and
uaJ ot cooking-i n thc casscrolc ot thc prcssurc-cookcr, i . c. , wi thout
counti ng ti mc and moncy, or guickly and chcaply-r to thc products ot
thcsc opctationstami l y snaps or photos ot tol k danci ng, /u[ /urgutgnn
ot curricd ricc.
22 , d \:ia/critiqa.tb.ad-mot : 1a:t.
PQQC1r1DCC, DCCd l rCjC1t, 1l1y uQQOrt 1jjC1r1DCC, 1Dd OC| Ol O_|c1l
c!CDCC, h!ch C1DDOt hDd thC d| UCrCDCC CtCCD thC Oc|1l cl 1C uDl C
!t ! DtrOOUcC thCm |rOm thC trt, | OuDd tO 1QQC1r QrC ud! cCd tO thOC
WhO d! OlVC thC d!UCrCDCC, |D 1l l _OOd |1| th 1Dd ! th ! mQCCc1lC mCthOd,
! mQy y urrCDdCr!D_ tO QO| t!V!t!c 1| Cr|1| rC.
But thc substantial i st modc otthi nki ng is pcrhaps most unrcstrai ncd
whcn it comcs to thc scarch tor ' cxpl anatory tactors` . Sl ipping trom thc
substantivctothcsubstancc toparaphrasci ttgcnstci n) , tromthccon-
stancy otthc substantivc to thc constancy otthc substancc, it trcats thc
propcrtics attachcd to agcnt-ccupation, agc, scx, qual i hcationsas
r.ts i ndcpcndcnt otthc rcl ationshipwi thi nwhich thcy ' act` . Jhiscl i mi-
natcs thc qucstion ot what is dctcrminant in thc dctcrminant variablc
and what is dctcrmi ncd i n thc dctcrmi ncd variablc, i n othcr words, thc
gucstion otwhat, among thc propcrtics choscn, consciously or uncon-
sciously, through thc i ndi cators undcr considcration, consti tutcs thctr-
tinmtrtrqthatts rcallycapablcotdctcrmi ni ng thc rcl ationshipwi thi n
whi ch i t i s dctcrmi ncd. Purcly statistical calculation otthcvariations i n
thc i ntcnsi ty otthc rcl ationship bctwccn a particular indicator and any
givcn practicc docs not rcmovc thc nccd tor thc spccihcally soci ol ogical
cal culati onotthcg t.ts which arccxprcsscd in thcstati sti cal rcl ati onship
and which statistical analysis, whcn oricntcd towards thc scarch tor i ts
own i ntcl l igibil i ty, can hclp todi scovcr. Cnc has to takc thc rcl ationship
i tsclt as thc ob| cct ot study and scruti ni zc i ts sociol ogical signi hcancc
sinq.atin) rathcr than i ts statistical 'signihcantncss` (sqq:atitit ) ,
only i n this way i s i t possiblc to rcpl acc thc rcl ationshi p bctwccn a sup-
poscdly constant variablc and dincrcnt practiccs by a scrics oldincrcnt
_uJsociologicall y i ntcll igiblc constant rcl ationships whi ch arc simul-
tancouslyrcvcalcdandconccalcdi nthcstatistical rcl ationshipsbctwccn a
givcn indicator and dincrcntpracticcs . Jhc trulyscicntihccndcavourhas
tobrcakwith thc spuriousscl l-cvidcnccs oti mmcdi atcundcrstanding to
which thcpscudo-rchncmcnts otstatistical analysi-.g. , path analysis-
bri ng uncxpcctcd rci ntorccmcnt} . In pl acc ot thc phcnomcnal rclation-
shi pbctwccn thisorthat' dcpcndcnt variablc` and variablcs such as lcvcl
otcducationorsoci al origi n, whi charc nomorc than:mmnioi.ntini
andwhoscapparcnt'cxpl anatorypowcr` stcms trom thc mcntal habi ts ot
.mmnsmst knm/tdt otthc social world, i t aims to cstabl i sh ' an cxact
rclation ot wcll -dchncd conccpts` , thc rational principlc ot thc cnccts
which thc statistical rcl ationship rccords ditt tptbintor cxamplc,
thc rclationship bctwccn thc ti tlcs ot nobil i ty or marks ot i ntamy)
awardcd by thc cducational systcm and thc practiccs thcy imply, or bc-
twccn thc disposition rcgui rcd by works otl cgi ti matc art and thc dispo-
si tion which, dcl ibcratcly and consciously or not, i s taught in school s.
N l Knowingt hcrclationship which cxists bc-
twccn cul tural capi tal i nhcri tcd trom thc tamil y and acadcmic capi tal , by
7b: Zri:/::raq :) tu//ur: , 25
vi rtuc ot thc logic ot thc transmission otcul tural capi tal and thc tunc-
tioninotthccducational systcm, onc cannoti mputc thcstrongcorrcl a-
tion, obscrvcd bctwccn compctcncc in musi c or painti ng and thc
practicc it prcsupposcs and makcs possiblc) and acadcmic capi tal, solcly
to thc opcration ol thc cducational systcm still lcss to thc spccihcal l y
artisticcducation i tissupposcdtogivc, which isclcarly almost non-cxis-
tcnt ) . Acadcmic capi tal is i n lact thc guarantccd product ol thc com-
bincd chccts ol cul tural transmission by thc tamily and cul tural
transmission by thc school thc cmcicncy ol which dcpcnds on thc
amount otcul tural capi tal di tcctly i nhcri tcd trom thc tami l y ) . Jhrough
i tsval uc-inculcatingandval uc-imposingopcrations, thcschool alsohclps
to a grcatcr or lcsscr cxtcnt, dcpcnding on thc i ni tial disposi ti on, i . c. ,
classotorigi n) totorm agcncral , transposablcdispositi ontowards lcgi ti-
matc cul turc, which is hrst acgui rcd with rcspcct to scholastical l y rccog-
ni zcd knowlcdgc and practiccs but tcnds to bc appl icd bcyond thc
bounds olthccurri cul um, takingthc lormola ' disintcrcstcd` propcnsi ty
toaccumulatccxpcricncc and knowlcdgcwhich may notbcdi rcctlyprot-
i tablc i n thc acadcmic markct.
Thc cducational systcm dchncsnon-curri cul argcncral cul turc , /a .u/ture
'/t/re' ) , ncgativcly at lcast, by dcl i mi ti ng, wi thi n thc domi nantcul turc, thc
atca o|what i t puts i nto i ts syllabuscs and controls by i ts cxaminations. ! t
has bccn shown that thc most 'scholastic' cul tural objccts arc thosc taught
and rcqui tcd at thc lowcst lcvcls o|school i ng thccxtrcmc |orm o|thc
'scholastic' bcing thc 'clcmcntary' ) , and that thc cducational systcm scts an
incrcasi ngly high valuc on 'gcncral' cul turc and i ncrcasingl y rc|uscs 'scholas-
tic' mcasurcmcnts o|cul tutc such as di rcct, cl oscd qucstions on authors,
datcs and cvcnts ) as onc movcs towards thc highcst lcvcls o|thc systcm.
Inlact, thcgcncralizingtcndcncyolthccul tivatcddisposi tionisonl ya
ncccssary, nota sumcicnt, conditi on lor thccntcrprisc olcul tural appro-
priation, which i s i nscribcd, as an ob| cctivc dcmand, in mcmbcrship ot
thc bourgcoisic and in thc qualihcations giving acccss to its rights and
dutics. Jhis is why wc musthrst stop to considcr what is pcrhaps thc
bcst-hiddcn chcct olthc cducational systcm, thc onc i tproduccs by im-
posing 'ti tlcs` ,

a particular casc ol thc attribution by status, whcthcr


positivc cnnobl i ng) orncgativc stigmati zi ng) , whichcvcrygrouppro-
duccs by assigni ng individuals to hicrarchical l y ordcrcd classcs. hcrcas
thc holdcrs otcducational l y unccrtihcdcul tural capi tal can always bc rc-
gui rcd toprovc thcmsclvcs, bccausc thcyar: onlywhat thcyd mcrcly a
by-product olthcir own cul tural producti on, thc hol dcrs otti tlcs otcul-
tural nobi lityl ikc thc t i tularmcmbcrs otan aristocracy, whosc'bcing` ,
dchncdby thcirhdcl i ty toa l i ncagc, ancstatc, a racc, a past, a lathcrland
or a tradi tion, i s i rrcduciblc to any 'doi ng` , to any know-how or tunc-
tion-nly havc to bc what thcy arc, bccausc all thcir practiccs dcrivc
thcirval uc trom thcirauthors,bcing thc amrmation andpcrpctuation ot
?4 , H 'ecia/ ci/ia: e] //: aog::/ e] 1ost.
rhc csscncc by vt rruc otvhtch rhcy arc pcrtormcd.

!chncd by rhc rtrlcs


vhtch prcdtsposc and lctrt marc rhcm tn bctn vhar rhcy arc, vhtch
makc vhar rhcy do rhc mant tcsrarton otan csscncc carltcr and rcarcr
rhan trs mant tcsrartons, as tn rhc larontc drcam ot a dtvtston ottunc
rtonsbascd on a htcrarchy otbct ns, rhcy arcscpararcd by a dt hcrcncc t n
kt nd tromrhccommoncrs otculrurc, vho arc constncd rorhcdoubly
dcval ucd srarus otaurodtdacr and 'srandtn
,

Artsrocractcs arc csscnrtal tsr. Kcardtn cxt srcncc as an cmanarton ot
csscncc, rhcy scr no tnrrtnstcvaluconrhcdccdsandmtsdccds cnrol lcd t n
rhcrccords andrctsrrtcs otburcaucrartc mcmory. Jhcy prtzc rhcm only
tnsotarasrhcyclcarly mant tcsr, t nrhc nuanccsotrhct rmanncr, rharrhctr
onc t nspt rart on ts rhc pcrpcruartn and cclcbrart n otrhc csscncc by vt r
ruc otvhtch rhcy arc accompl tshcd. Jhc samccsscnrt altsm rcqut rcsrhcm
ro t mposc on rhcmscl vcs vhar rhctrcsscncc t mposcs on rhcm-noblcssc
obl tc-ro ask ot rhcmsclvcs vhar no onc clsc could ask, ro 'l t vc up' ro
rhct r ovn csscncc.
1hts chcct is onc ot thc mcchanisms which, in condi ti ons ot crisis, causc
thc most privi lcgcd i ndi viduals, who rcmain most attachcd to thc tormcr
statc ot ahai rs, to bc thc slowcst to undcrstand thc nccd to changc stratcgy
and so to tal l vi cti m to thcir own privi lcgc tor cxamplc, ruincd noblcs
who rctusc to changc thcir ways, or thc hci rs ot grcat pcasant tami l ics who
rcmai n cclibatc rathcr than marry bcncath thcm ) . It could bc shown, i n thc
samc way, that thc cthic ot noblcssc obl igc, sti l l tound i n somc tractions o|
thc pcasantry and tradi tional cra|tsmcn, conttibutcs signi ncantl y to tbc scl |
cxploitation charactcristi c ot thcsc classcs
Jhtstvcs us an t nsthr t nro rhc chccr otacadcmtc markcrs and classt
hcartons. Hovcvcr, tor a tul l undcrsrandtn vc havc ro constdcr anorhcr
propcrry otall artsrocractcs. Jhc csscncc t n vhtch rhcysccrhcmsclvcs rc
tuscs ro bc conratncd tn any dchntrton. Lscaptn pcrry rulcs and rcula
rtons, tr ts, by narurc, trccdom. Jhus, tor rhc acadcmtc artsrocracy tr i s
onc and rhc samc rht n ro t dcnrt ty vtrh an csscncc otrhc 'culrtvarcd
man' and ro acccpr rhc dcmands t mpl tctrly t nscrtbcd tn tr, vhtch tncrcasc
vtrh rhc prcsrtc otrhc rtrlc.
So rhcrc t s norht nparadoxtcal t n rhc tacr rhar t n trs cnds and mcans
rhccducartonal sysrcm dchncs rhc cnrcrprtscot/ct/tma/c 'au/a:/tu:m'
vht ch rhc acqutstrton ot'cncral culrurc' prcsupposcs, an cnrcrprtsc rhar
ts cvcr morc srronlydcmandcd as onc rtscs tn rhc cducartonal htcrarchy
[ bcrvccn sccrtons, dtsct plt ncs, and spcctal trtcs crc. , or bcrvccn lcvcls ) .
Jhc csscnrtal ly conrradtcrory phrasc 'lctrtmarc aurodtdacrtctsm` ts tn
rcndcd ro tndtcarc rhc dt hcrcncc t n ktnd bcrvccn rhc ht hly val ucd
'cxrracurrtcular' culrurc otrhc holdcr otacadcmtcqual t hcartons and rhc
t l l ctrt marc cxrracurrtcular culrurc otrhc aurodtdacr Jhc rcadcr otthc
popul arsctcncc monrhl y S:tcn:c c/ |tc vho ral ks abourrhc cncrtc codc
1h. His/:.ag :] co//a. / 25
or thc inccst taboo cx
[
oscs himscl t to ridiculc as soon as hc vcnturcs
outsidc thc circlc ot his
[
ccrs, whcrcas Claudc Lvi- Strauss or jacqucs
Monodcanonl ydcrivcadditional
[
rcstigc trom thcircxcursionsinto thc
hcld ot music or
[
hiloso
[
hy. I l lcgitimatc cxtra-curricular cul turc,
whcthcritbc thcknowlcdgc accumul atcd bythcscl t-taught orthc 'cx
[
c-
ricncc'acquircdin and through practicc, outsidc thccontrol otthcinsti-
tution spccihcal ly mandatcd to inculcatc it and omciall y sanction i ts
acquisition, likc thc art otcooking or hcrbal mcdicinc, crattsmcn`s skills
or thc stand-in's irrc
[
l accablc knowlcdgc, is only val orizcd to thc strict
cxtcnt otits tcchnical cmcicncy, without any social addcd-val uc, and is
cx
[
oscd to lcgal sanctions likc thc illcgal
[
racticc ot mcdicinc) whcn-
cvcritcmcrgcs trom thc domcstic univcrsc to com
[
ctc with authorizcd
com
[
ctcnccs.
Jhus, it is writtcn into thc tacit dchnition ot thc acadcmic qualihca-
tion]oah, guarantccing as
[
ccihccom
[
ctcncc likc an cnginccringdi-
[
loma) that it .ah, guarantccs posscssion ot a 'gcncraI cul turc' whosc
brcadth is
[
ro
[
ortionatc to thc
[
rcstigc ot thc qualihcation,

and, con-
vcrscly, that no rcal guarantcc may bc sought otwhat it guarantccs tor-
mal l y and rcal ly or, to
[
ut it anothcr way, ot thc cxtcnt to which it
guarantccs whatitguarantccs.Jhis chcct otsymbolic im
[
ositionismost
intcnsc in thc casc otthc di
[
lomas consccrating thc cul tural clitc. Jhc
qualihcationsawardcdbythclrcnchgaod.s :/.s guarantcc, withoutany
othcr guarantcc, a com
[
ctcncc cxtcnding tar bcyond what thcy arcsu
[
-
[
oscd to guarantcc. Jhis is by virtuc ot a cl ausc which, though tacit, is
hrstly binding on thc qualihcation-holdcrs thcmsclvcs, who arc callcd
u
[
on rcall y to
[
rocurc thc attributcs assigncd to thcm by thcir status.

Jhis proccss occurs at al l stagcs otschooling, through thc mani pula-
tion ot as
[
irations and dcmands-in othcr words, otscl t-imagc and scl t-
cstccmwhich thccducational systcm carrics out by channcIIing pupiIs
towards prcstigious or dcvalucd positions implying or cxcluding lcgiti-
matc
[
racticc. Jhc chcct ot 'alIocation` , i. c. , assignmcnt to a scction, a
discipIinc philosophyorgcography, mathcmatics orgcology, to takc thc
cxtrcmcs) oraninstitution a aoa :/ thatismorc orIcssao, ora
tacul ty) , mainl y o
[
cratcs through thc social imagc ot thc position in
qucstion and thc prospccts ob| cctivcl y inscribcd in it, among thc torc-
most ot which arc a ccrtain ty
[
c otcul tural accumul ation and a ccrtain
imagc otcul tural accom
[
lishmcnt. ` Jhc omcial dihcrcnccs
[
roduccd by
acadcmicclassihcations tcnd to
[
roducc or rcintorcc) rcal dihcrcnccs by
inducing in thc cl assihcd individuals a collcctivcly rccognizcd and su
[
-
portcd bclictin thc dihcrcnccs, thus
[
roducing bchaviours that arc in-
tcndcd to bring rcal bcinginto lincwith omcial bcing. Activitics asalicn
to thc cxplicit dcmands ot thc institution as kcc
[
ing a diary, wcaring
hcavy makc- u
[
, thcatrc-going orgoing dancing, writing
[
ocms or
[
lay-
ing rugby can thus hnd thcmsclvcs inscribcd in thc position allottcd
within thcinstitutionas a tacit dcmand constantIyundcrlincdby various
? / . S:ta/ Crt/tquc /hc udcmcn/ Ta:/c
mcdiarions. Amon rhc mosr imporranr otrhcsc arc rcachcrs' conscious
or unconscious cxpccrarions and pccrroup prcssurc, vhosc crhical ori-
cnrarion is irscl tdchncd by rhc cl ass val ucs brouhr inro and rcintorccd
by rhc insrirurion. Jhis allocarion chccr and rhc srarus assignmcnr ir cn
rails doubrlcss play a maj or rolc in rhc tacr rhar rhc cducarional insriru
rion succccds in imposin culrural pracriccs rharir docs nor rcach and
docs nor cvcn cxplicirly dcmand, bur vhich bcon ro rhc arrriburcs ar
rachcd bysrarusrorhc posirionir assins, rhc gualihcarionsir avards and
rhc social posirions ro vhich rhc l arrcr ivc acccss.
Jhis loic doubrlcss hclps ro cxplain hov rhc lcirimarc disposirion
rhar is acguircd by trcgucnr conracr virh a parricul ar cl ass ot vorks,
namcly, rhclircrary and phil osophical vorks rcconizcd by rhc acadcmic
canon, comcs ro bc cxrcndcd ro orhcr, lcss lcirimarc vorks, such as
avanr-ardc lircrarurc, or ro arcas cnjoyin lcss acadcmic rcconirion,
such as rhc cincma. Jhc cncralizin rcndcncy is inscribcd in rhc vcry
principlc ot rhc disposirion ro rc:nt:c lcgirimarc vorks, a propcnsirv
andcapaciryrorcconizc rhcirlcirimacyand pcrccivcrhcm asvorrhy ot
admirarion inrhcmsclvcs, vhich is inscparablc trom rhc capaciry ro rcc
onizc in rhcm somcrhin alrcady knovn, i. c. , rhc srylisric rrairs appro-
priarc ro characrcrizc rhcm in rhcir sinulariry ' Ir's a Kcmbrandr', or
cvcn' Ir'srhcHc/mc/cd man' ) or as mcmbcrs ota cl ass otvorks 'Ir's Im
prcssionisr' ) . Jhis cxpl ains vhy rhc propcnsiry and capaciry ro accumu
l arc 'raruirous' knovcdc, suchasrhcnamcsothl mdirccrors, arc morc
cl osclyandcxcl usivcly linkcd ro cducarional capiral rhan is mcrc cincma
oin, vhich is morc dcpcndcnr on incomc, pl acc otrcsidcncc and agc.
It ncma_Ot n_, mcasurcd y thc numOcr Ol hl ms sccn amOn_ thc tcnt\
hl ms mcntt Oncd t n thc survcy, t s lOcr amOn_ thc l csscducatcd than
amOn_ thc mOrc ht _hl y cducatcd, Out alsO lOcr amOn_ rOvt nct al s t n
t l l c) than amOn_ art st ans, amOn_ l O t ncOmc than amOn_ ht _ht ncOmc
_rOus, and amOn_ Ol d than amOn yOun_ cOl c. /nd thc samc rcl att On-
sht s arc lOund t n thc survcys Ov thc Icntrc d` ctudcs dcs suO| dc uOl t
ct tc [ Ib) . thc rOOrtt On hO say thcy havc Occn tO thc ct ncma at lcast
Oncc tn thc rcvt Ous cck a mOrc rcl t aOl c t ndt catOr O l Ochavt Our than a
gucstt On On ct ncma_Ot n_ tn thc cOursc Ol thc ycar, lOr ht ch thc tcndcncy
tO Ovcrstatc t s artt cul arl y strOn_ ) t s rathcr _rcatcr amOn_ mcn than
Omcn ( 7. 8 crccnt cOmarcd t O . 5 crccn t ) , _rcatcr t n thc art s arca
[ I 0. ' crccnt ) than tn tOns Ol Ovcr I 00, 000 cOl c , crccnt ) O r t n
rural arcas 5 . crccnt ) , _rcatcr amOn_ scnt Or cxccu tt vcs and mcmOcrs Ol
thc rOlcsst Ons l l . l crccnt ) than amOn_ unt Or cxccutt vcs '. ` crccnt )
Or ccrt ca and cOmmcrct al cmlOyccs ' crccnt ) , skt l lcd manual Orkcrs
and lOrcmcn . 5 crccnt ) , scmt skt l l cd Orkcrs . 5 crccnt ) , smal l cm
l Oycrs . ? crccnt ) and larmcrs and larm Orkcrs ? . crccnt ) . Dut thc
_rcatcst cOntrasts arc Octccn thc yOun_cst ? ?. + crccnt Ol thc ? I -?+ ycar
Ol ds had Occn tO thc ct ncma at |cast Oncc t n thc rcvt Ous cck ) and thc
Ol dcst Onl y 5. ? crccnt Ol t hc 5 ' -+' ycar Ol ds, l crccnt Ol thc 0-+
Thc ristecrag e] ca/tar: , .
ycar olds and I . I pcrccnt o| thc ovcr-6s ) , and bctwccn thc most and lcast
highly cducatcd l 8. 2 pcrccnt ot thosc who had bccn through highcr cdu-
catton, 9. pcrccnt o| thosc who had had sccondary cducati on, and : : pcr-
ccnt o| thosc who had had only pri mary cducation or nonc at all had bccn
to thc ci ncma in thc prcvious wcck) C. S. XI I I a ) .
l 2
Knowlcdgc ot di rcctors i s much morc closcly l i nkcd to cul tural capi tal
than i s mcrc cincma-goi ng. Cnly pcrccnt ot thc rcspondcnts who had an
clcmcntary school di ploma could namc at lcast tour di rcctors |rom a l i st ot
twcnty hlms ) comparcd to l0 pcrccnt ot holdcrs ot thc B!PC or thc /arra-
/aura/ and 2 2 pcrccnt ot thosc who had had highcr cducation, whcrcas thc
proportion i n cach catcgory who had sccn at lcast |our ot thc twcnty hlms
was 22 pcrccnt, 55 pcrccnt and 40 pcrccnt rcspcctivcly. Jhus, al though hlm-
vi cwi ng also varics wi th cducational capi tal lcss so, howcvcr, than vi si ts to
muscums and conccrts ) , it sccms that di Hcrcnccs i n consumption arc not
sumcicnt to cxplain thc di Hcrcnccs i n knowlcdgc ot di rcctors bctwccn
holdcrs ot di Urcnt qual i hcations. Jhis conclusion would probably also hold
good tor | azz, strip cartoons, dctcctivc storics or scicncc hcti on, now that
thcsc gcnrcs havc bcgun to achicvc cul tural consccration.
^
Furthcr proot i s that, whilc i ncrcasi ng slightly wi th lcvcl ot cducation
trom l5 pcrccnt tor thc lcast cducatcd to l8 pcrccnt tor thosc with sccond-
ary cducati on and 25 pcrccnt |or thc most qual i hcd) , knowlcdgc ot actors
varics mai nlyand considcrably-wi th thc numbcr ot hlms sccn. Jhis
awarcncss, l i kc knowlcdgc o| thc slightcst cvcnts i n thc l i vcs ot JV pcrson-
ali tics, prcsupposcs a di sposi ti on closcr to that rcqui rcd |or thc acqui si ti on
o| ordinary knowlcdgc about cvcryday thi ngs and pcoplc than to thc lcgi ti-
matc di sposi ti on. And i ndccd, thcsc lcast-cducatcd rcgular ci ncma-gocrs
kncw as many actors' namcs as thc most highl y cducatcd. Among thosc
who had sccn at lcast |our ot thc hlms mcntioncd, 4 pcrccnt ot thosc who
had had onl y a pri mary cducati on wcrc ablc to namc tour actors, as against
5 pcrccnt ot thosc who had had a sccondary cducation and 47 pcrccnt o|
thosc who had had somc highcr cducation. I ntcrcst i n actors i s grcatcst
among omcc workcrs. on avcragc thcy namcd Z. 8 actors and onc di rcctor,
whcrcas thc crattsmcn and small shopkccpcrs, ski l lcd workcrs and torcmcn
namcd, on avcrayc, onl y 0. 8 actors and 0. 5 di rcctors. Jhc sccrctarics and
j uni or commcrcial cxccuti vcs, who also kncw a largc numbcr ot actorsav-
cragc 2 wcrc morc i ntcrcstcd in di rcctors-avcragc I -and thosc in thc
social and mcdical scrviccs cvcn namcd morc di rcctorsl . 7than actors-
I ) . Jhc rcading ot scnsational wccklics c. g. , lrt Iart ) which givc i ntor-
mation about thc l i vcs ot stars is a product ot a di sposi tion si mi lar to i ntcr-
cs t i n actors, it i s morc trcqucnt among womcn than mcn l 0. 8 pcrccnt
had rcad l:t Iart i n thc last wcck, comparcd to 9. 5 pcrccnt o| thc mcn ) ,
among ski l lcd workcrs and torcmcn [ l 4. pcrccnt ) , scmi-skil lcd workcrs
l 5. 6 pcrccnt ) , or omcc workcrs [ l 0. 5 pcrccnt ) than among | uni or cxccu-
ti vcs 8. 6 pcrccnt ) and cspccially among scnior cxccuti vcs and mcmbcrs ot
thc protcssions 5. 8 pcrccnt ) [ C. S. XXVI I I ) .
By contrast, al though at cquivalcnt lcvcls ot cducati on, knowlcdgc ot
di rcctors i ncrcascs wi th thc numbcr ot hlms sccn, in thi s arca assiduous ci n-
cma-going docs not compcnsatc tor abscncc ot cducati onal capi tal . 4 . pcr-
ccnt ot thc C!P-holdcrs who had sccn at lcast tour ot thc hlms mcntioncd
28 , Z \::ta/ trt/tqu: :) /b: udgo:n/ :) 7a:/:
cOUO DOt DamC a | D_C O| rCctOr, cOmQarCd tO 2`. QCrcCDt O| thOC w| th a
8PC Or thC /a..a/aunat aDO I5 QCrcCDt O| thOC w| th a h| _hCr Cducat|OD
O| QOma.
Such compctcncc i s not ncccssarily acqui rcd by mcans olthc 'scholas-
tic` labours in which somc ' ci ncphi lcs` or' | azz-lrcaks` indulgc c. g. , tran-
scribing hlm crcdits onto cataloguc cards ). Most oltcn it rcsul ts lrom
thc uni ntcntional lcarni ng madc possibl c by a di sposi tion acqui rcd
through domcstic or scholastic i nculcation ol lcgi ti matc cul turc. Jhi s
transposablc disposi ti on, armcd with a sct olpcrccptual and cval uativc
schcmcs that arcavailablc lor gcncral appl icati on, i ncl i ncs i ts owncr to-
wardsothcrcul tural cxpcricnccsandcnablcs him to pcrccivc, classi lyand
mcmorizc thcm di ncrcntl y. hcrc somc only scc 'a cstcrn starring
Burt Lancastcr` , othcrs 'discovcran carlyohn Sturgcs` or' thc latcstSam
Pccki npah` . In idcnti lyi ng what i s worthy olbcing sccn and thc right
way toscc i t, thcyarcaidcd by thci r wholc social group , whi ch guidcs
and rcmi nds thcm wi th i ts ' Havc you sccn . . :' and ' Youmustscc . . . ` )
andby thc wholc corporation ol cri tics mandatcd by thc group to pro-
ducclcgi ti matcclassi hcationsandthcdiscoursc ncccssaril yaccompanying
any artistic cn| oymcnt worthy olthc namc.
It i s possiblc to cxplain in such tcrms why cul tural practi ccs which
schoolsdo nottcach andncvcrcxpl i ci tly dcmandvary i nsuch cl osc rcla-
tion to cducational qual i hcations i t bcing undcrstood, olcoursc, that
wcarcprovisional l ysuspcndingthcdistinctionbctwccn thcschool ` srolc
i n thc corrclation obscrcd and that olthc LthC sLL| al i Z| ng +geocies, io
parti cul ar thc lami l y ) . But thc lact that cducational qual i hcations lunc-
tion as a condition olcntry to thc uni vcrsc ollcgi ti matc cul turc cannot
bc lul l y cxplai ncd wi thout takr ng i nto account anothcr, sti l l morc hi d-
dcn cncct whi ch thc cducational systcm, agai n rci nlorci ng thc work ol
thcbourgcoi slamily, cxcrtsthrough thcvcry condi tionswithin whi ch i t
i ncul catcs. Jhrough thc cducational quali hcation ccrtai n condi tions ol
cxi stcncc arc dcsignatcdthosc which consti t utc thc prccondition lor
obtai ni ng thc qual i hcation and also thc acsthctic disposi tion, thc most
rigorouslydcmandcdolall thc tcrms olcntry which thcworldollcgi ti -
matccul turc always taci tl y ) i mposcs. Anticipatingwhatwill bc dcmon-
stratcd latcr, onc can posi t, i n broad tcrms, that i t i s bccausc thcy arc
l i nkcdci thcrtoa bourgcoi sorigin orto thcquasi-bourgcoi smodcolcx-
i stcnccprcsupposcd by prolongcd schooli ng, or most oltcn) to both ol
thcsccombincd, thatcducati onal quali hcationscomctobcsccnasaguar-
antcc ot thc capaci ty to adopt thc acsthctic disposi ti on.
Pb l bLb L Anyl cgi ti matc work tcnds i nlact to i m-
poscthcnormsoli tsownpcrccptionandtaci tlydchncsas thconlylcgi ti-
matc modc ol pcrccption thc onc which bri ngs i nto play a ccrtain
disposi ti on and a ccrtai n compctcncc. Rccogni zi ng this lact docs not
mcanconsti tutinga particularmodc olpcrccptionas an csscncc, thcrcby
The .rt:/:raq /Cu//ure , 2;
tal l tn tnro rhc t l l uston vhtch tsrhcbasts otrccontrton otarrtsrtclctrt
macy. I rdocs mcan raktnnorcotrhc tacr rharall acnrs, vhcrhcr rhcy
tkc tt or not, vbctbcr or not tbcy bavc tbc mcans ot contormtn to
rhcm, hndrhcmscl vcs ob| ccrtvc y mcasurcd by rbosc norms.Ar rhc samc
rtmc tr bccomcs posst blc ro csrabl tsh vhcrhcr rhcsc dtspostrt ons and
compcrcnccs arc t trs ot narurc, as rhc chartsmartc tdcoloy ot rhc rcla
rton ro rhc vork ot arr vould havc tr, or producrs ot lcarntn, and ro
brtn ro l thr rhc htddcn condtrt ons otrbc mt racl c otrhc uncgual class
dtsrrtburtonotrhc capactry tor tnsptrcd cncounrcrs vtrh vorks otarrand
hth culrurc tncncral .
Lvcry csscnrtal tsr analysts otrhc acsrhcrtcdtspostrton, rhc only soct ally
acccprcd `rthr' vay ot approachtn rhc ob|ccrs soct ally dcstnarcd as
vorks otarr, rhar ts, as borh dcmandtn and dcscrvtn ro bc approachcd
vtrh a spcct hcal l y acsrhcrtc tnrcnrton capablc ot rccogntztn and consrt
rurtnrhcm as vorks otarr, tsbound ro tat l . Kctustnro rakc accounr ot
rhc collccrtvc and tndtvtdual cncst s ot rhts producr ot htsrory vhtch
musr bc cndlcssly `rcproduccd' by cducarton, tr ts unablc ro rcconsrrucr
trs solc ratson d'crrc, rhar ts, rhc htsrortcal rcason vhtch undcrltcs rhc ar
btrrary ncccsstry ot rhc tnsrtrurton. It rhc vork otarr ts tndccd, as Ian
ot sky says, rhar vhtch `dcmands ro bc cxpcrtcnccd acsrhcrt cally' , and t t
any ob| ccr, narural or arrthctal, can bc pcrcctvcd acsrhcrtcal ly, hov can
onc cscapcrhc concl ustonrhar trtsrhc acsrhcrtc tnrcnrtonvhtch `makcs
rbc vork ot arr' , or, ro rransposc a tormul a ot Saussurc's, rbar tr ts rhc
acsrhcrt c potnr ot vtcv rhar crcarcs rbc acsrhcrtc ob| ccr ' Jo cr our ot
rhts vtctousctrclc, Ianotsky hasrocndovrhc vork otarr vtrhan`tnrcn
rton' , tn rhc Schol asrtc scnsc. A purcy `pracrtcal' pcrccprton conrradtcrs
rhts ob| ccrtvc tnrcnrton, | usr as an acsrhcrtc pcrccprton vould tn a scnsc
bc a pracrtcal ncatton ot tbc ob| ccttvc t ntcntt on ot a stna, a rcd tbr
ICr CxJmQ!C, Wt C rCQut rCs J `QrJCttCJ rCsQCnsC. rJRi n_. us, Wi ti n
rhc cl ass otvorkcdupon ob| ccrs, rhcmsclvcs dchncd tn oppostrton ro
narural ob| ccrs, rhccl ass otarrob| ccrsvouldbcdchncd by rhctacrrhar tr
dcmands ro bc pcrcct vcd acsrhcrtcal l y, t . c. , tn tcrms ot torm rarhcr rhan
tuncrton. Bur hov can such a dchntrton bc madc opcrartonal ' Ianotsky
htmscl tobscrvcsrhar t r ts vtrrually t mposstblc ro dcrcrmtnc sctcnrt hcall y
arvhar momcnr a vorkcdupon ob| ccr bccomcs anarr ob| ccr, rhar t s, ar
vhar momcnr torm rakcs ovcr trom tuncrton. ` I tI vrtrc ro a trtcnd ro
tnvtrc ht m ro dtnncr, my lcrrcr ts prt martly a communtcarton. bur rhc
morc I sht tr rhccmpbastsro rbc torm otmyscrtpr, rhc morc ncarly docs
tr bccomc a vork ot l trcrarurc or pocrry. '
i
!ocs rbts mcanrhar rhc dcmarcarton l tnc bcrvccn rbc vorld ot rcch
ntcal ob| ccrsandrhc vorldotacsrhcrtcob| ccrs dcpcnds onrhc `tnrcnrton'
otrhcproduccr otrhoscob| ccrs ' In tacr, rhts `tnrcnrton' tstrscl trhcprod
ucr ot rhc soctal norms and convcnrtons vhtcb combtnc ro dchnc rbc
alvays unccrratn andhtsrortcall y chantn tronrtcr bcrvccn st mplcrcch
ntcal ob| ccrs and ob| crs d' arr. `flasstcal rasrcs' , Ianotsky obscrvcs, `dc
mandcd rhar prtvarc lcrrcrs, lcal spccchcs and rhc shtclds ot hcrocs
30 , S:ta/ Crt/tquc / /hc udcmcn/ / 1a:/c
shoud bc arrtsrtc` . . vhtc modcrn rasrc dcmands rhar archtrccrurc
and ash rrays should bc tuncrtonal `.
,
i
Bur rhc apprchcnston and apprcct arton ot thc vork also dcpcnd on rhc
bcholdcr's tnrcnrton,vhtch tst tscl ta tuncrtonotrhcconvcnrtonanorms
ovcrntnrhcrcartonro rhcvork otarrtna ccrratn htstortcal and soctal
st tuarton and aso otrhc bchodcr's capactry to contorm ro rhosc norms,
t . c. , hts arrtsrtc rratntn. Jo brcak our otrhts ctrcc onc ony has ro ob
scrvcrharrhc t dcal ot`purc' pcrccprtonotavorkotarrquavork otarrts
rhc producr otrhc cnunctarton and sysrcmartzarton otrhc prtnctplcs ot
spcct hcal y acsrhcrtc ctrt macy vhtch accompany rhc consrtrurtn ota
rcart vcy auronomous arrtsrtc hcl d. Jhc acsrhcttc modc otpcrccprton tn
rhc `purc' torm vhtch tr has nov assumcd corrcsponds ro a parrtcular
srarc ot rhc modc ot arrtsrtc producrton. An arr vhtch, l t kc all Iosr
I mprcsstontsr patnrtn, tor cxamplc, ts rhc producr ot an arrtsrtc tnrcn
rtonvhtch asscrrs rhc a/:/u/c rtmaq / /r tcr /un:/tn, otthc modcot
rcprcscnrarton ovcr rhc obccr rcprcscnrcd, :a/crt:ah, dcmands a purcly
acsrhcrtc dtspostrton vhtchcarl tcr arr dcmandcd onl y condtrtonal y. Jhc
dcmt urtc ambt tton otrhc arrtsr, capabl c otapplytn ro an, obccr rhc
purc tnrcntton otan arrtsrtc chorr vhtch tsancnd tn trscl t, cas tor un
l t mtrcd rcccprt vcncss on rhc parr otan acsthcrc capablc otapplytn rhc
spcct hcaly acsrhcrtc tnrcnrton ro any obccr, vhcthcr or not tr has bccn
produccd vtrh acsrhcrtc tnrcnrton.
Jhts dcmand ts obccrt hcd tn rhc arr muscum, rhcrc rhc acsrhcrtc dts
postrtOn bccomcs an t nsrtrurton. ^othtn morc toray mant tcsrs and
achtcvcs rhc auronomiztn ot acsrhcrtc acrtvtry vt savts cxrraacsrhcrtc
tnrcrcsrs or tuncrt ons rhan rhc arr muscum's uxtapost tton ot vorks.
Jhouh orttnally subordt narcd to qutrc dt hcrcnr or cvcn tncompartblc
tunctt ons cructhxandtcrt sh, Itcmandsrt l l l t tc ) , thcscuxtaposcd vorks
ractrly dcmand atrcnrton ro torm rarhcr rhan tuncrton, rcchntquc rarhcr
than rhcmc, and, bctn constructcd t n stylcs that arc murually cxcl ustvc
bur acqualyncccssary, rhcy arc a pracrtcal challcnc ro rhc cxpcctatton
otrcaltsrtc rcprcscnrarton as dchncd by rhc arbtrrary canons otan cvcry
day acsrhcrtc, and so lcad naruray trom srytsrtc rclart vtsm ro rhc ncu
rratzarton ot thc vcry tuncrton ot rcprcscntarton. |bccrs prcvt ously
rrcarcd as coccrors' curtos or ht stortcal and crhnoraphtc documcnrs
havc achtcvcd rhc srarusotvorks otarr, thcrcby marcrtatztn rhc omntp
otcncc ot rhc acsrhcrtc azc and maktn tr dt mculr ro tnorc rhc tacr
thar-t tt t ts nor ro bc mcrcy an arbtrrary and rhcrctorc suspcct amrma
tton otrhts absol utc povcr-arttsrtcconrcmpartonnov hasro tncl udc a
dcrcc ot crudt rton vhtch ts l tablc to damac thc t l l uston ot t mmcdtarc
tumtnarton rhat ts an csscntt a clcmcnr ot purc plcasurc.
lhl ^bl ^L

^h^hLb

^bl Inshorr,ncvcrpcrhapshas morc
bccn askcd otrhc spccraror, vho ts nov rcqutrcd ro `rcproducc' rhc prt
mary opcrarton vhcrcby thc arrisr vtrh rhc compl tctry othts vholc tn
Thc .rt:/:raq /Cu//urc / 3 I
tcl|cctual hcl d) produccd this ocw tctish.
|
8ut ocvcr pcrhaps has hc
bcco givco so much i o rcturo. Thc oaivc cxhibitiooism ot'coospicuous
coosumptioo' , whichsccksdistioctiooi othccrudcdisplayotillmastcrcd
l uxury, i s oothi og comparcd to thc uoiquc capaci ty otthc purc gazc, a
quasicrcativcpowcrwhich scts thc acsthctcaparttromthc commoohcrd
by a radicaldiHcrcoccwhich sccms to bc ioscribcd io 'pcrsoos' . oc ooly
has torcad rtcga y Gassct to scc thcrci otorccmcot thccharismaticidc
ology dcrivcs trom art, which is ' csscotially uopopular, i odccd, aoti
popul ar'aod tromthc' curioussociologicalcHcct' itproduccsbydividiog
thcpublici oto two' aotagooisticcastcs' , thoscwhouodcrstaodaod thosc
who do oot' . ' Thisi mplics', rtcgagocs oo, ' thatsomcposscssao orgao
otuodcrstaodiogwhich othcrs havc bcco dcoicd, that thcsc arc two dis
tioctvarictics otthc humao spccics. Thc ocw art is oottorcvcryooc,li kc
omaotic art, butdcstiocd tor ao cspcciallygittcd mi oority. ' Aod hcas
cribcs to thc ' humi l iatioo' aod ' obscurc scosc oti otcriori ty' i ospircd by
' thisart otprivilcgc, scosuous oobi l i ty, i ostioctivc aristocracy' , thci rri ta
tioo it arouscs io thc mass, ' uoworthy otartistic sacramcots' . 'Fora cco
tury aod a halt, thc pcoplc', thc mass, havc clai mcd to bc thc wholcot
socicty. ThcmusicotStravioskyorthcplaysotPiraodcllohavcthcsocio
logical powcr ot obl igiog thcm to scc thcmsclvcs as thcy arc, as thc
commoo pcoplc', a mcrc iogrcdicot amoog othcrs io thc social struc
turc, thc iocrt matcrial otthchistoricalproccss, a sccoodary tactorio thc
spi ritual cosmos. 8ycootrast, thcyouogarthclpsthcbcst'tokoowaod
rccogoizcoocaoothcrio thcgrcyocssotthcmul titudcaod tolcaro thcir
missioo, which is to bc tcw io oumbcr aod to havc to hght agai ost thc
multitudc. '
| -
Aod t o show that thc scl tlcgi timatiog i magioatioo ot thc ' happy
tcw' has oo l i mi ts, ooc ooly has to quotc a rcccot tcxt by Suzaooc
Laogcr, who isprcscotcd as 'oocotthcworld' s most ioNucoti al philoso
phcrs' . ' I othcpast, thcmasscsdid oot havcacccsstoart, music, paiotiog,
aodcvcobooks,wcrcplcasurcs rcscrvcd tor thc rich. It might havc bcco
supposcd that thc poor, thc commoo pcoplc', would havc coj oycd
thcm cqually, it thcy had had thc chaocc. 8ut oow that cvcryooc cao
rcad, go to muscums, li stco to grcat music, at lcast oo thc radio, thc
j udgcmcot ot thc masscs about thcsc thi ogs has bccomc a rca| i ty aod
through this it has bccomc clcar thatgrcat art is oot a di rcct scosuous
plcasurc. thcrwisc, li kccookicsorcocktails, itwouldNattcruocducatcd
tastc as much as cul turcd tastc.
,
t-
lt should oot bc thought that thc rclatiooship otdistioctioo which
may ormay ootimply thccoosciousi otcotioo otdistioguishiogoocscl t
trom commoopcoplc) is ooly ao iocidcotal compoocot io thc acsthctic
dispositioo. Thcpurcgazcimplics a brcak with thcordi oary atti tudc to
wards thcworldwhich, as such, isasocial brcak. occao agrcc with r
tcga y Gassct whco hc attributcs to modcro artwhich mcrcly t.kcs to
i ts cxtrcmc cooclusioos ao i otcotioo impl icit io art siocc thc Rcoais
32 / 'ecia/ citia. e] t/. aog..ot .] 1ast.
sancc-a systcmattc rctusal ot all that ts ' human` , by vhtch hc mcans thc
asstons, cmottons and tccl t ns vhtchsoioa pcoplcputt nto thctreoi
aag cxt stcncc, and conscqucntly all thc thcmcs and ob| ccts capablc ot
cvoktn thcm. ' coplc l t kc a play vhcn thcy arc ablc to takc an tntcrcst
tn thc human dcsttntcsput bctorc thcm' , tn vhtch ' thcy parttctpatc as t t
thcy wcrc rcall t tc cvcnts.
,
:^
Kc|ccttn thc ' human' clcarly mcans rc|cct-
tn vhat ts cncrt c, t.c. , ceso, 'casy' and t mmcdt atcly acccsstblc, start
tn wtth cvcrythtn that rcduccs thc acsthcttc ant mal to purc and stmplc
antmal t ty, to palablc pcasurc or scnsual dcstrc. Jhc t ntcrcst t n thc
contcnt otthc rcprcscntatton vhtch lcads pcoplc to call ' bcautt tul ' thc
rcrcscntatton otbcautt tul tht ns, cspcctally thosc vhtchspcak most tm
mcdtatcly to thcscnscsand thcscnst bt l t ty, tsrc| cctcd tn tavourotthc tn
dthcrcncc and dtstancc vhtch rctusc to subordtnatc | udcmcnt ot thc
rcrcscntatton to thc naturc ot thc ob|cct rcprcscntcd.
: |
It can bc sccn
that tt ts not so casy to dcscrtbc thc ' purc' azc vt thout also dcscrtbtn
thc natvc azc vht ch t t dchncs t tscl taatnst, and vtcc vcrsa, and that
thcrc ts no o.ata/, t mpartt al, 'purc' dcscrtptton otct thcr otthcsc oppos
tn vtstons vht ch docs not mcan that onc has to subscrtbc to acsthcttc
rcatt vt sm, vhcn tt ts so obvtous that thc ' popul ar acsthcttc' tsdchncd t n
rcatton to ' hth' acsthcttcs and that rctcrcncc to lct tt matc art and t ts
ncattvc | udcmcnt on ' popul ar' tastc ncvcr ccascs to haunt thc popular
cxcrtcncc otbcauty ) . Kctusal or prtvatton' It ts as dancrous to attrtb
utc thc cohcrcncc ota systcmattc acsthcttc to thc ob| ccttvcly acsthcttc
commt tmcnts otordt nary pcoplc as tt ts to adopt, albct t unconsctously,
thc strtctly ncattvc conccptton CI CrCna( V| s| Cn W|C s tC us| s CI
cvcry ' hth' acsthcttc.
lLlL^h

^b

Lvcrythtn takcs placc as tt thc ' popul aracs-
thcttc' vcrc bascd on thc amrmatton ot conttnut ty bctvccn art and l t tc,
vhtch t mpl tcs thcsubordtnatton ottorm to tunctton, or,onc mtht say,
on a rctusal ot thc rctusal vhtch ts thc startt n potnt ot thc hth acs
thcttc, t . c. , thc clcarcut scparatton otordtnary dtspostttons trom thc spc-
cthcally acsthcttc dtspost tt on. Jhc host t l t ty ot thc vorktn cl ass and ot
thc mtddlcclass tracttons lcast rtch tn cutural capt tal tovards cvcry kt nd
ottormal cxpcrtmcntatton asscrts t tscl tboth tn thc thcatrc and t n pat nt-
tn, or stt h morc clcarly, bccausc thcy havc lcss lct tt macy, tn photora
phy and thc ct ncma. I nthc thcatrc as tn thcct ncma, thcpopularaudtcncc
dcl thts tn pl ots that procccd lotcall y and chronolotcal l y tovards a
hay cnd, and ' tdcntt hcs' bcttcr vt th stmply dravn st tuatt ons and char-
actcrs thanvt th ambtuousand symbol t churcs and acttonsor thccnt-
mattc problcms ot thc thcatrc otcrucl ty, not to mcntton thc suspcndcd
antmattonotBcckcttt anhcrocsor thcbland absurdtttcsottntcrcsqucdt-
alouc. Jhctrrcl uctancc orrctusal sprtns not | ust troml ack ottamt l t ar-
t ty but trom a dccprootcd dcmand tor parttctpatton, vhtch tormal
cxcrt mcnt systcmattcal l y dt sappotnts, cspcctaly vhcn, rctustn to ohcr
1h. ristscrag s] ca/tar. , 33
rhc `vular' arrracrtons ot an arr ot t l l uston, rhc rhcarrtcal hcrton dc
nounccs trscl t, as tn al l torms ot `play wirhin a pl ay' . trandcllo suppl tcs
rhc paradtm hcrc, t npl ays tn whtch rhc acrorsarc acrors unablcro acr-
ix charact.rs io .arch s) ao athsr, cs. ci ( sa cs. a ) orc. ssir so
i]rs:iJtandcan Lcncr suppltcs rhc tormul a in rhc rolouc ro 1h.
B/acks `cshall havc rhcpolircncss, which you havcrauhrus,ro makc
communicarion impossiblc. Jbc disrancc inirial l y bcrwccn us wc sball
t ncrcasc, byoursplcndtdcsrurcs, ourmanncrs andourt nsolcncc, torwc
arc also acrors. ' Jhc dcstrc ro cnrcr inro rhc amc, tdcnrityin wirh rhc
characrcrs' oysandsuhcrt ns, worryin abourrhcir tarc, cspousin rhcir
hopcs and tdcals, livinrhctr l t tc, ts bascd on a torm otio:.stot, a sorr
ot dcl tbcrarc `naivcry' , incnuousncss, oodnarurcd crcdul iry `c'rc
hcrc ro cnoy oursclvcs' ) , whtch rcnds ro acccpr tormal cxpcrimcnrs and
spccihcal l y arrtsric chccrs onl y ro rhc cxrcnr rhar rhcy can bc tororrcn
and do nor cr in rhc way ot rhc subsrancc ot rhc work.
Jhcculrural divtdc whtch associarcscach cl ass otworkswirh irs publtc
mcansrhariris norcasyroobrain workincl asspcoplc'shrsrhandudc
mcnrs on tormal tsr t nnovartons in modcrn arr. Howcvcr, rclcvtsion,
which brtnsccrrain pcrtormanccs ot`hth' arr inrorhchomc, orccrrain
culrural insrirurions such as rhc Bcaubour fcnrrc or rhc Matsonsdc l a
culrurc ) , which brichy brin a workincl ass public t nro conracr wtrh
hth arr and somcrtmcs avanrardc works, crcarc whar arc vt rrually cx
pcrimcnral struarions, nctrhcrmorc nor css arrt hctal or unrcal rhanrhosc
ncccssartly produccd by any survcy on lcirimarc cul rurc in a workin
cl ass mt l tcu. |nc rhcn obscrvcsrhccontuston, somcrtmcs al mosrasorrot
panic minlcd wtrh rcvolr, rhar t s induccd by somc cxhibtrs-I am
rht nkin otBcn' s hcap otcoal, on vicw ar Bcaubour shorrly atrcr t r
opcncd-whosc parodtc t nrcnrton, cnrtrcly dchncd t nrcrms otan arrtsrtc
hcld and trsrcl artvcly auronomoushtsrory, issccn as a sorr otarcsston,
an ahronr ro common scnsc and scnstblc pcoplc. Ltkcwtsc, whcn tormal
cxpcrtmcnrarion tnsinuarcs trscl ttnro rhctr tamt l tarcnrcrratnmcnrs c. . ,
JV vartcry shows wirh sophisricarcd rcchnical chccrs, such as rhosc by
canfhrtsrophcAvcrry ) worktncl ass vtcwcrs prorcsr, nor only bccausc
rhcy do nor tccl rhc nccd tor rhcsc tancy amcs, bur bccausc rhcy somc
rt mcs undcrsrandrhar rhcy dcrtvc rhctr ncccsstry tromrhcl otc ota hcld
otproducrion which cxcl udcs rhcm prcctsclybyrhcscamcs. `Idon' rl t kc
rhosc curup rhins ar all , whcrc you scc a hcad, rhcn a nosc, rhcn a
lc.. . . Iirsr you scc a stncr all drawn our, rhrcc mcrrcs ral l , rhcn rhc
ncxrminurc hc'sor armsrwo mcrrcslon. !oyou hndrhar tunny '|h,
usr don' rl ikcir, ir' ssruptd, I don' rscc rhc potnr otdisrorrtn rhins'
a bakcr, Lrcnoblc ) .
Iormal rchncmcnr-wht ch, t nl t rcrarurc or rhcrhcarrc, l cads ro obscu
rtry-ts, t nrhccycsotrhcworktnclasspubl t c, oncstn otwharissomc
rtmcs tcl rro bc adcstrcro kccp rhcunintriarcd ararm' sl cnrh, or, as onc
rcspondcnr satd abour ccrrat n culrural prorammcs on JV, ro spcak ro
54 , . \:ta/Crtttqa:s)tb:ad:m:nt 1at.
othcr initiatcs 'ovcr thc vicvcrs' hcad' l t is part ol thc paraphcrnalia
vhich alvays announccs thc sacrcd charactcr, scparatc and scparating, ol
high cul t urcthc icy solcmnity ol thc grcat muscums, thc grandi osc
l uxury olthc opcrahouscs and maj orthcatrcs, thc dccor and dccorum ol
conccrt-hal l s. Evcrything takcs pl acc as i lthc vorking-cl ass audicncc
vagucly graspcd vhat is impl icd in conspicuous lormality, both i n art
and in lilc, i. c. , a sort olccnsorship olthc cxprcssivc contcnt vhich cx
plodcsin thccxprcssivcncss olpopularl anguagc, and by thcsamc tokcn,
adi stancing, i nhcrcnt i nthccal cul atcdcoldncssolall lormalcxploration,
a rclusal to communicatc conccalcd at thc hcart olthc communication
itscl l, bothinan artvhich takcsback and rcluscsvhati t sccmstodcl ivcr
andin bourgcois pol itcncss, vhosc impcccablc lormalism is a pcrmancnt
varningagai nst thctcmptation ollamil iari ty Convcrscl y, popul arcntcr
tainmcnt sccurcs thc spcctator' s partici pation in thc shov and col lccti vc
participati onin thc lcstivity vhi ch i t occasions llcircus and mclodrama
vhich arc rccrcatcd by somc sporting spcctaclcs such as vrcstl i ng and,
to a l csscr cxtcnt, boxing and al l lorms ol tcam gamcs, such as thosc
vhi ch havc bccn tclcviscd) arc morc 'popul ar' than cntcrtai nmcnts l i kc
dancing or thcatrc, thi s is not mcrcly bccausc, bcing lcss lormal izcd
comparc, lor cxamplc, acrobatics vi th dancing) and lcss cuphcmizcd,
thcy oncr morc di rcct, morc i mmcdi atc satislacti ons lt is also bccausc,
throughthccollcctivclcstivity thcygivc risc toand thcarray olspcctacu
l ardclights thcy oncr l am thinking al soolthc music-hal l , light opcra
or thc big lcaturc hl m) labul ous scts, gl i t tcring cos tumcs, cxcit i ng
musi c, l i vcly acti on, cnthusi asti c actorsl ikc al l lorms ol thc comic and
cspcci al l y thosc vorki ng through satirc orparody olthc 'grcat' ( mi mi cs,
chansonnicrsctc. ) , thcysati sly thctastclorandscnscolrcvcl ry, thc plain
spcaking and hcarty l aughtcr vhich l i bcratc by sct ti ng thc social vorld
hcad ovcr hccls, ovcrturni ng convcnti ons and propricti cs.
ALSTMLTl C Ll STAlCl ^C Jhi s popul ar rcacti on is thc vcry opposi tc ol
thcdctachmcnt olthcacsthctc,vho, asissccn vhcncvcr hcappropriatcs
oncolthcobj ccts olpopul ar tastc c. g , \cstcrns orstri pcartoons ) , in
troduccs a distancc, a gapthc mcasurc ol his di stant di stinctionvis-a
vis ' hrst-dcgrcc' pcrccption, by di spl acing thc i ntcrcst lrom thc 'contcnt ' ,
charactcrs, pl ot ctc , t ot hclorm, to t hcspccihcal l y artis tic cnccts vhich
arconl yapprcciatcd rcl ational l y, through a comparison vith othcrvorks
vhichisincompatiblcvithimmcrsion i n thcsingularity olthcvork im
mcdiatcly givcn. Ictachmcnt, disi ntcrcs tcdncss, i ndi ncrcnccacsthctic
thcory has sooltcnprcscntcd thcscasthconl yvayto rccognizc thcvork
olart lor vhat it is, autonomous, :://:tandig, that onccnds uplorgct ting
that thcy rcal l y mcan di sinvcstmcnt, dctachmcnt, indincrcncc, in othcr
vords, thc rclusal to i nvcst oncscl land takc thin
[
s scriousl y. \orldly
visc rcadcrs olRousscau' s L:ttr::ar/:: :::taJ::,

vho havc long bccn


avarc that thcrc i s nothing morc naivc and vulgar than to i nvcst too
1h. istcag / ca/ta. , 3
much passton tn thc tht ns ot thc mt nd or to cxpcct too much scrtous
ncss otthcm, tcndt n toassumc thatt ntcllcctual crcatt vt ty tsopposcd to
moral t ntcrt ty or polt t tcal conststcncy, havc no ansvcr to Vtrt nt a
ool tvhcnshccrt tt ctzcs thc novcls otcl ls, Lalsvorthy and bcnnctt
bccausc `thcylcavconcvtth a strancscnscottncomplctcncssanddt ssat
tstactt on' and thc tccl t n that tt ts `ncccssary to do somctht n-to otn a
soctcty, or, morc dcspcratcly, to wrt tca chcquc' , tn contrast to vorks l t kc
1rista \haad, or Irid. aad Ir.,adic., vht ch, bctn pcrtcctly `scl tcon
tatncd' , `lcavc onc vtth nodcstrc to do anytht n, cxccpt t ndccd to rcad
thc book aat n, and to undcrstand t t bcttcr.
,
:
but thcrctusal otanysort ott nvolvcmcnt, any `vular' surrcndcr to
casyscductton andcol lcctt vc cnthustasm, vhtch t s, t ndtrcctlyatlcast, thc
orttn otthctastctor tormalcomplcxt tyandobcctlcssrcprcscntattons, ts
pcrhaps most clcarly sccn t n rcacttons to patntt ns. Jhus onc hnds that
thc ht hcr thc l cvcl otcducatt on,
:c
thc rcatcr ts thc proportton otrc
spondcnts vho, whcn askcd whcthcr a scrtcs ot ob ccts would makc
bcautt tul photoraphs, rctusc thc ordt nary obccts ot popular admtra
tt on-ahrstcommunt on, asunsctora landscapc-as `vular' or `uly', or
rc cct thcm as `trtvtal ' , st l l y, a bt t `vct' , or, tn Crtca y Lassct' s tcrms,
nat vcly `human' , and thc rcatcr t s thc proportton vho asscrt thc auton
omy otthc rcprcscntatt on vt th rcspcct to thc thtn rcprcscntcd by dc
clartn that a bcautt tul photoraph, and a tortt ort a bcautt tul pat ntt n,
can bc madc trom obccts soctally dcstnatcd as mcant nIcss-a mctal
tramc, thc bark ota trcc, and cspcctally cabbacs, a trt vt al obcct par cx
ccl l cncc- r as uly and rcpulstvc-such as a car crash, a butchcr's stall
choscn tor thc Kcmbrandt all uston or a snakc tor thc botlcau rctcr
cncc) -r as mtsplaccd-c. . , a prcnant woman scc tablcs Z and } ) .
bncC ! Was nC! QCssU!C !C sC! uQ a _CnunC CQCtmCn!a! s!Ua!Cn, WC
cC!Cc!Cd !hC n!CtVCWCCs s!a!CmCn!s aCU! !hC !hn_s !hCy cCnsdCt `QhC
!C_Cnc and Whch !hCtC!CtC sCCm !C !hCm clQaU!C C! UCn_ CCkCd l! aCs
!hC!ca!!y [as CQQCsCd !C !hn_s Cc!udCd Cn accCun! C! !hCt !tVa!!y Ct
u_!nCss Ct !Ct C!hca! tCasCns ) . JhC caQac!y !C adCQ! !hC aCs!hC!c a!!!udC
s !hus mCasutCd Uy !hC _aQ [Whch, n a hCd C! QtCduc!Cn !ha! CVCVCs
!htCu_h !hC da!Cc!c C! ds!nc!Cn, s a!sC a !mC-!a_, a UacKWltdnCss ) UC
!WCCn Wha! s cCns!!U!Cd as an aCs!hC!c CU| Cc! Uy !hC ndVdua! Ct _tCuQ
cCncCtnCd and Wha! s cCns!!u!Cd aCs!hC!ca!!y n a _VCn s!a!C C! !hC hC!d
C! Q|Cduc!Cn y !hC hC!dCts C! aCs!hC!c !C_!macy.
JhC !C!!CWn_ QuCs!Cn Was Qu! !C !hC n!CtVCWCCs. `LVCn !hC !C!!CWn_
suU| Cc!s, s a QhC!C_taQhCt mCtC !kC!y !C QtCducC a UCau!!u, n!CtCs!n_,
mClnn_Css Ct U_y QhC!C. a !andscaQC, a cat ctlsh C!c. ' n !hC QtC!mnlty
sutVCy, !hC n!CtVCWCCs WCtC shCWn ac!ua! QhC!C_tlQhs, mCs!!y !amCus
CnCs, C! !hC CU| Cc!s Whch WCtC mCtC!y namCd n !hC !u!-scl!C sutVCy-QCU
U!Cs, a QtC_nan! WCman C!c. JhC tClc!Cns CVCkCd Uy !hC mCtC dCl C! !hC
ma_C WCtC Cn!tC!y cCnss!Cn! W!h !hCsC QtCdUcCd Uy !hC ma_C !sC!! [ CV
dCncC !ha! !hC Va!uC a!!tUu!Cd !C !hC ma_C !Cnds !C cCttCsQCnd !C !hC
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1h. Hist:.ag : co/to. , 39


val uc at tributcd t o thc thi ng) . Photogtaphs wctc uscd pattly to avoid thc
l cgi ti macyi mposing cHccts ot pai nt i ngs and pattly bccausc photogtaphy i s
pcrcci vcd as a motc acccssiblc practicc, so that thc j udgcmcnts cxprcsscd
wcrc l i kcl y to bc lcss unrcal .
Al though thc tcst cmploycd was dcsigncd to collcct s tatcmcnts ot atti sti c
i ntcntion ra:hcr than to mcasurc thc abi | i ty to put thc i ntcntion i nto ptac
ticc in doing pai nti ng or photogtaphy ot cvcn in thc pctccption ot wotks
ot att, it cnablcs onc to idcnt i ty thc tactots whi ch dctctmi nc thc capaci ty to
adopt thc postutc soci al l y dcsignatcd as spcci hcal l y acsthcti c. factotial analy
si s ot j udgcmcnts on ' photogcni c' obj ccts rcvcals an opposi ti on within cach
class bctwccn thc tracti ons tichcst i n cul t utal capi tal and poorcst in cco
nomi c capital and thc tracti ons tichcst i n cconomi c capi tal and pootcst in
cul tutal capi tal . ln thc casc ot thc domi nant cl ass, highctcducation tcachcts
and arti sti c produccts ( and sccondaril y, tcachcrs and thc ptotcssi ons ) atc op
poscd to i ndusttia| and commcrci al cmploycrs, privatcscctot cxccuti vcs and
cnginccrs atc i n an i ntctmcdi atc posi tion. I n thc pcti tc bourgcoisic, thc cul
t utal i ntcrmcdi atics ( di sti nctl y scpatatcd ttom thc closcst ttacti ons, thc pti
mary tcachcrs, mcdical scrvi ccs and art ctattsmcn ) arc opposcd to thc smal l
shopkccpcrs or crattsmcn and thc omcc wotkcts .
In addi ti on to thc tcl ati onshi p bctwccn cul tutal capi tal and thc ncgativc
and positivc i ndiccs ( rctusal ot 'wctncss' , thc capaci ty to val ori zc thc tti vi al )
ot thc acs thctic di sposi tionr, at lcast, thc capaci ty to opctatc thc arbi
traty classihcation whi ch, wi thi n thc uni vctsc ot wotkcdupon obj ccts, dis
ti ngui shcs thc obj ccts soci al l y dcsignatcd as dcsctving aod dcmanding an
acsthctic approach that can tccogni zc and consti tutc thcm as wotks ot att
thc stati sti cs cstabl i sh that thc prctcrtcd obj ccts ot woul dbc acsthctic pho
togtaphy, c. g. , thc tol k dancc, thc wcavct ot thc l i ttlc gi tl with hcr cat, arc
in an intcrmcdi atc posi ti on. Thc ptoporti on ot rcspondcnts who considcr
that thcsc thi ngs can makc a bcauti tul photogtaph is highcst at thc lcvcls
ot thc CAP and BEPC, whctcas at highct lcvcls thcy tcnd to bc j udgcd
ci thcr i ntcrcsti ng or mcaninglcss.
Thc ptoportion ot tcspondcnts who say a 6tst communion can makc a
bcauti tul photo dccl i ncs up to thc lcvcl ot thc /t:m:e and thcn ti scs agai n at
thc highcst lcvcl . This is bccausc a rclati vcl y l atgc propotti on ot thc highcst
qual i hcd subj ccts asscrt thcit acsthctic disposi ti on by dccl ati ng that any ob
j cct can bc pcrccivcd acsthcti cal |y. Thus, in thc domi nant cl ass, thc propor
ti on who dccl atc that a sunsct can makc a bcauti tul photo i s gtcatcst at thc
l owcst cducati onal lcvcl , dccl i ncs at i ntcrmcdiatc lcvcls ( somc highcr cduca
tion, a minor cnginccting school ) , and grows strongly agai n among thosc
who havc complctcd scvctal ycars ot highct cducation and who tcnd to con
sidcr that anythi ng i s sui tablc tot bcauti tul photography.
Thc stati sti cs al so show that womcn atc much motc l ikcly than mcn to
mani tcst thci t tcpugnancc toward tcpugnant, hottiblc ot distastctul obj ccts.
44 5 pcrccnt ot thcm, as agai nst 35 pctccnt ot thc mcn, considct that thctc
can onl y bc an ugly photogtaph ot a woundcd man, and thctc atc si mi l at
di Hcrcnccs tor thc butchcr's stal l 33.5 and 27 pctccnt ) , thc snakc 30.5 and
2I.5 pctccnt ) ot thc ptcgnant woman 45 and 33.5 pctccnt ) , whctcas thc
gap disappcats with thc sti l l l i tc 6 and 6.5 pctccnt ) and thc cabbagcs 20.5
and l9 pcrccnt ) . Thc ttadi ti onal di vi si on ot labout bctwccn thc scxcs as
40 / 'ecia/ cri/ia. e/ //. aog..o/ . 1as/.
signs ' humanc' or ' humani tarian' tasks and |ccli ngs to womcn and morc
rcadi l y al lows thcm chusions and tcars, in thc namc ot thc opposi tion bc
twccn rcason and scnsibi l i ty, mcn arc, cx omcio, on thc sidc o| cul turc
whcrcas womcn l i kc thc working cl ass ) arc cast on thc sidc o| naturc
omcn arc thcrctorc lcss i mpcrativcly rcgui rcd to ccnsor and rcprcss 'natu-
ral' tccl i ngs as thc acsthctic di sposi tion dcmands whi ch i ndi catcs, incidcn-
tally, that, as wi l l bc shown subscgucntl y, thc rctusal o| naturc, or rathcr
thc rctusal to surrcndcr to naturc, which i s thc mark o| domi nant groups-
who start wi th J:qcontrol-is thc basis o| thc acsthctic disposi tion ) .
omcn' s rcvulsion is cxprcsscd morc ovcrtl y, a t thc cxpcnsc o| acsthcti c
ncut rali zati on, thc morc complctcly thcy arc subj cct to thc tradi tional
modcl o| thc scxual division o| labour and i n othcr words ) thc wcakcr
thcir cul tural capital and thc lowcr thcir posi tion in thc social hicrarchy
omcn in thc ncw pcti tc bourgcoisic, who, in gcncral , makc much grcatcr
conccssion to aHcctivc considcrations than thc mcn in thc samc catcgory
al though thcy arc cgually l i kcly to say that thcrc can bc a bcauti |ul photo-
graph o| cabbagcs ) , much morc rarcly acccpt that a photograph o| a prcg-
nant woman can onl y bc ugly than womcn in any othcr catcgory 5 l .
pcrccnt o | thcm, as agai nst 7 0 pcrccnt o | thc wivcs o | industrial and com-
mcrcial cmploycrs, 69. pcrccnt o| thc wi vcs ot cra|tsmcn and shopkccpcrs,
47. pcrccnt ot thc wi vcs ot manual workcrs, clcrical workcrs or j unior cx-
ccuti vcs ) . In doi ng so thcy mani |cst si mul tancously thci r acsthctic prctcn-
sions and thcir dcsi rc to bc sccn as 'l ibcratcd' |rom thc cthical taboos
i mposcd on thcir scx.
Jhus, notht n morc rtorously dt stt nutshcs thc dt hcrcnr cl asscs rhan
thc dtspost tt on ob| ccttvcly dcmandcd by thc lctrt marc consumprton ot
l cgi i marc vorks, rhc aprt tudc |or taki ng a spcci hcal l y acsthcti c poi nt ot
vtcv on ob| ccts al rcady consrt tutcd acsthcttcally-and rhcrctorc pur
torvard tor rhc admt ratt on otrhosc vho havc lcarncd ro rccontzc thc
stnsotthc admt rablc-and rhc cvcn rarcr capactry ro consrt turc acsrhcrt
call yob| cctsrhararc ordtnary or cvcn 'common' bccauscrhcy arc appro
prtatcd, acsthcttcal l y orothcrvtsc, by rhc 'common pcoplc' ) orro appl y
rhc prtnctplcs ota ' purc' acsrhcrtc t n thc mosr cvcryday chotccs otcvcry-
day l t tc, tn cookt n, drcss or dccorart on, tor cxamplc.
Statt sttcal cnqut ry t st ndtspcnsablc t nordcrto csrabl tsh bcyond dtspurc
thcsoctalcondt tt onsotposst bt l t ry vhtch vt l l havcro bc madc morc cx
pl tct t otthc ' purc' dtspost tt on. Hovcvcr, bccausc tr t ncvtrably looks l tkc
a schol asrtc rcst t ntcndcd ro mcasurc rhc rcspondcnrs aat nsr a norm rac
trly rcardcd as absol urc, tt may tat l ro caprurc rhc mcant ns vhtch thts
dtspost tt on and thc vholc atttrudc ro rhc vorld cxprcsscd t n tt havc tor
thc dt hcrcnt soctal cl asscs. hat thc lotc otrhc rcst vould lcad onc ro
dcscrtbcas a dchctcncy and that tsvhat t t ts, trom thcsrandpotnrotthc
norms dchnt n lctrt marc pcrccprt on otvorks ot arr ) ts a!Ja a rctusal
vhtch stcms trom a dcnunctatt on otthc arbt trary orosrcnrartous ratut
rousncss otsryl t stt ccxcrctscs orpurcly tormaltsrtccxpcrt mcnrs. A ccrratn
' acsthcttc' , vhtch matnratns that a phororaph t s usrt hcd by rhc ob| ccr
7b: Zris/::raq :) tu//ur: , i
photographcdor bythcpossiblc uscotthcphotographi ci magc, i s bcing
brought i ntoplay whcn manualworkcrs almosti nvariably rc| cctphotog-
raphy tor photography` ssakc c.g. , thc photo otpcbblcs) as usclcss, pcr-
vcrsc or bourgcoi s: 'A wastc ot hl m` , 'Jhcy must havc hl m to throw
away` , 'I tcll you, thcrc arc somc pcoplc who don` tknowwhattodowi th
thci rti mc` , 'Havcn` t thcy got anythi ngbcttcrtodowi th thcirtimc than
photograph things l i kc that:` 'Jhat`s bourgcoi sphotography. `
I t must ncvcrbc|orgottcn that thc worki ngclass ' acsthctic' i s a domi natcd
' acsthctic' whi ch is constantly obl igcd to dchnc i tscl |in tcrms o| thc domi-
nant acsthctics. Thc mcmbcrs o|thc workingcl ass, who can nci thcr ignorc
thc highart acsthcti c, whi ch dcnounccs thci r own ' acsthcti c' , norabandon
thcir soci al l y condi tioncd i ncl i nations, but sti l l lcss procl ai m thcm and l cgi t
i matc thcm, o|tcn cxpcricncc thci r rcl ati onshi p to thc acsthctic norms in a
two|old and contradictory way. This is sccn whcn somc manual workcrs
grant' purc' photographs a purcly vcrbal rccogni tion thi s i s also thc casc
wi th many pcti tbourgcoi s and cvcn somc bourgcois who, as rcgards pai nt-
ings, |or cxamplc, di Hcr |rom thc workingcl ass mai nl yby what thcy know
i s thc right thi ng to say ordo or, sti l l bcttcr, not to say) . ' I t's bcauti |ul ,
buti t woul dncvcr occurto mc to takc a pi cturc o|a thi ngl i kc that' , 'Ycs,
it's bcauti |ul , but you havc to l i kc it, i t' s not my cup o|tca. '
^^ ^^ ~ t^^l ^^

^bl

I t is no accidcnt that, whcn onc scts
aboutrcconstructi ng i ts logic, thcpopular' acsthctic`appcarsas thcncga-
tivc opposttc otthc Kanti an acsthctic, and that thcpopularcthosi mpli c-
i tly answcrs cach proposi tion ot thc 'Analyti c ot thc Bcauti tul ` wi th a
thcsi s contradicting i t. I nordcr to apprchcndwhat makcs thc spccihcity
ot acsthctic | udgcmcnt, Kant i ngcniously distinguishcd 'that which
plcascs' trom' t hat whi chgrati ncs' , and, morc gcncral l y, s t rovct oscparatc
'di si ntcrcstcdncss` , thc solc guarantcc otthc spccihcally acsthcti c qual i ty
ot contcmplation, trom 'thc i ntcrcst ot thc scnscs` , whi ch dchncs ' thc
agrccablc`, and trom ' thc i ntcrcst otRcason` , which dchncs 'thc Good` .
By contrast, worki ng-class pcoplc, who cxpcct cvcry i magc to tulhl a
tunction, i tonly thatotasign, rctcr, ottcn cxpl i ci tly, to norms otmoral-
i ty or agrccablcncss in all thci r | udgcmcnts. Jhus thc photograph ota
dcad soldicr provokcs | udgcmcnts whi ch, whcthcr posi ti vc or ncgativc,
arc always rcsponscs to thc rcal i ty ot thc thi ng rcprcscntcd or to thc
tunctionsthcrcprcscntationcoul dscrvc, thchorrorotwarorthcdcnun-
ciation ot thc horrors otwar which thc photographcr is supposcd to
producc si mply by showing that horror. Si mi l arly, popular naturalism
rccogni zcs bcauty i n thc i magc ota bcauti tul thi ng or, morc rarcly, i n a
bcauti tul i magc ota bcauti tul thing: ' low, that` sgood, i t` salmost sym-
mctrical. Andshc`s a bcauti tulwoman. A bcauti tul womanalwayslooks
goodi naphoto. ` Jhc Parisian manual workcrcchocs thcplain-spcaking
otHippias thcSophi st. 'I` ll tcl l hi mwhatbcauty i sandI` mnotl i kcly to
2 , . \::ta/ trt/tqu: :) /b: udg:m:n/ :) 7a:/:
bc rc|utcd by hi m' Jhc |act is, Socratcs, to bc lrank, a bcauti lul woman,
that' s what bcauty i s' Plato, Gr:a/:r Hqtas, 28c ) .
Jhi s' acsthcti c' , whi chsubordi natcs thc lorm and thcvcry cxi stcncc ol
thc i magc to i ts lunction, i s ncccssari l y pl ural i sti c and condi tional Jhc
i nsi stcncc wi th whi ch thc rcspondcnts poi nt out thc l i mi ts and condi-
ti ons o| val i di ty ol thcir | udgcmcnts, di sti nguishi ng, lor cach photo-
graph, thc possiblc uscs oraudicnccs, or, morc prcciscly, thc possiblc usc
lor cach audicncc ' As a ncws photo, i t' s not bad' , ' Al l right, il i t' s lor
showi ng to ki ds' ) shows that thcy rc| cct thc idca that a photograph can
plcasc' uni vcrsal l y' ' Aphoto olaprcgnant woman i sal l right lormc, not
|or othcrpcoplc' , said a whi tc-col l arworkcr, who has to usc his conccrn
|or propricty as a way o|cxprcssing anxicty about what i s 'prcscntablc'
andthcrclorccnti tlcdtodcmand admi rati on Bccauscthci magc i salways
| udgcd by rclcrcncc to thc luncti on it lul hl s lor thcpcrson who looks at
it or whi ch hc thi nks it coul d |ul hl lor othcr cl asscs ol bcholdcrs, acs-
thcti c | udgcmcnt naturally takcs thc lorm ola hypothcti cal j udgcmcnt
i mpl i ci tl y bascd on rccogni ti on ol'gcnrcs' , thc pcrlcction and scopc ol
whi ch arc dchncd by a ::n::/ Al most thrcc-guartcrs ol thc | udgc-
mcntscxprcsscdbcgi nwi than ' i l' , and thc cnorttorccogni zc cul mi natcs
in cl assihcationi nto agcnrc, or, whi chamounts to thcsamc thi ng, in thc
attri bgti on ola social usc, thc di ncrcnt gcnrcs bcing dchncd i n tcrms ol
thci r usc and thci r uscrs ' l t' s a publ i ci ty photo` , ' l t' s a purc documcnt' ,
' l t' s a l aboratory photo' , ' l t' s a compcti tion photo' , ' l t' s an cducational
photo' ctc. ) . And photographs olnudcs arc almost always rccci vcd wi th
commcnts that rcducc tbcm to tbc stcrcotypc ol thci r social luncti on.
' Al l right i n Pigal l c' , ' l t' s thc sort ol photos thcy kccp undcr thc
countcr. ' lt i s not surpri si ng that this 'acsthcti c' , which bascs apprcci a-
ti on on i nlormati vc, tangi bl cormoral i ntcrcst, can onl y rclusc i magcs ol
thc tri vi al , or, whi ch amounts to thcsamc thi ng i n tcrmsolthi s logic,
thctri vi al i ty olthci magc | udgcmcntncvcrgi vcs thci magc olthcob| cct
autonomy wi th rcspcct to thcob| cctolthc i magc Clall thccharactcris
tics propcr to thc i magc, only col our ( whi ch Kant rcgardcd as l css purc
than |orm) can prcvcnt rc| ccti on olphotographsoltrivial thi ngs. oth
i ng i s morc al i cn to popul ar consciousncss than thc idca olan acsthcti c
plcasurc that, toputi t i n Kantian tcrms, is i ndcpcndcnt olthccharming
ol thc scnscs. Jhus | udgcmcnts on thc photographs most strongly rc
| cctcd on grounds ol luti l i ty pcbblcs, bark, wavc ) almost always cnd
with thc rcscrvati on that 'in colour, it might bc prctty' , and somc
rcspondcnts cvcn managc to |ormul atc thc maxi m govcrni ng thcir atti-
tudc, whcn thcy dccl arc that ' il thc col ours arc good, a col our photo-
graph is al ways bcauti lul . ' In short, Kant is i ndccd rclcrring to popul ar
tastcwhcn hcwri tcs . 'Jastc thatrcgui rcs an addcd clcmcnt o|charm and
cmoti on lor i ts dcl ight, not to spcak oladopting thi sas thc mcasurc ol
i ts approval , has not yct cmcrgcd lrom barbari sm. ' `
Rc|usal ol thc mcani nglcss ( in:inqant ) i magc, whi ch has nci thcr
1h. His/:.ag : co//o. , 3
scnsc norintcrcst, or ot thc ambiguous imagc mcans rctusing to trcat i t
asa hnal i ty wi thoutpurposc, asani mac sini tyi n i tscl t, and thcrctorc
having no othcr rctcrcnt than i tscl f Jhc val uc ot a photoraph ts mca-
surcd by thc i ntcrcst ot thc i ntormation it convcys, and by thc clarity
with which it tul hl s this i ntormativc tunction, i n short, i ts lcgibil i ty,
whi ch i tscl t varics with t hc lcgibil i ty oti ts i ntcntion or tunction, thc
| udcmcnt i t provokcs bcin morc or lcss tavourablc dcpcndin on thc
cxprcssivc adcquacy otthcsigni hcrto thc signi hcd. It thcrctorc contains
thccxpcctation otthc ti tl corcaption whi ch, bydccl arinthcsini tying
i ntcntion, makcs i tpossiblc to judgc whcthcr thc rcali zation signihcs or
i l l ustratcs it adcquatcl y. I ttormal cxplorations, i n avant-gardc thcatrc or
non-hurativc paintin, or si mply classical music, arc disconccrtin to
working-cl ass pcoplc, this is partly bccausc thcy tccl incapablcotundcr-
standing whatthcsc things mustsigni, insotaras thcy arc sins. Hcncc
thcuni ni tiatcd may cxpcricnccasinadcquatcand unworthyasatistaction
that cannot bc groundcd in a mcaning transccndcnt to thc ob|cct. lot
knowin what thc ' i ntcntion' is, thcy tccl incapablc otdi stinuishin a
tourdc torcc trom clumsi ncss, tcll inga ' sinccrc' tormaldcvicctromcyni-
cal imposturc.
Thccon|cssions with which manual wo:kc:s |accd with modcrn pictu:cs bc-
t:ay thci: cxcl usion ' l don' t undc:stand what it mcans' or ' l likc it but
don' t undcrstand it' ) cont:ast with thc knowing silcncc o|thc bourgcois,
who, though cqual ly disconcc:tcd, at lcast know that thcy havc to rc|usc-
o: at lcast conccalthc naivc cxpcctation o|cxp:cssivcncss thatisbct:aycd
by thc concc:n to 'undcrstand' 'p:ogrammc music' and thc titlcs |oistcd on
so many sonatas, concc:tos and symphonics arc sumcicnt indication that
thiscxpcctation is not an cxcIusivcly popularonc )
Buttormal rchncmcnti s also that whi ch, by torcgroundingtorm, i . c. ,
thc artist, his spccihc intcrcsts, hi s tcchnical problcms, his chccts, hi s al-
l usions and cchocs, throws thc thing i tscl ti nto thc backgroundand prc-
cl udcs dircct communion with thc bcauty ot thc world-a bcautituI
chi l d, a bcauti tul girl, a bcautitul ani mal or a bcauti tul landscapc. Jhc
rcprcscntation is cxpcctcd to bc a tcast tor thc cycs and, l i kc still l i tc, to
' sti r up mcmorics and anticipations ot tcasts cn| oycd and tcasts to
comc. '

lothin is morc opposcd to thc cclcbration otthc bcauty and


|oy otthc world that is l ookcd tor in thc work otart, ' a choicc which
praiscs' , than thc dcviccs ot cubist or abstract pai nting, which arc pcr-
ccivcd and unani mouslydcnounccd as aggrcssions aainst thc thing rcp-
rcscntcd, agai nst thc natural ordcr and cspccially thc human torm. I n
short, howcvcrpcrtcctlyi tpcrtorms i ts rcprcscntativc tunction, thcwork
is onl y sccn as tul l yjustihcd i tthc thing rcprcscntcd is worthy otbcing
rcprcscntcd, it thc rcprcscntativc tunction i s subordinatcd to a hihcr
tunction, suchasthatotcapturingandcxaltingarcalitythatisworthyot
44 / H 'ecia/ ci/ia. e //. aog.m/ e 1ast.
bcin madc ctcrnal . Such ts thc basisotthc'barbarousrastc` to vhtch rhc
most antt thcttcal torms otrhc domt nant acsrhcrtc alvaysrctcr ncartvcly
and vhtch only rccontzcs rcalst rcprcscnrart on, t n orhcr vords, a rc
spccttul , humblc, submtssivc rcprcscntation otobccrs dcsinarcd by thctr
bcauty or thct r soctal t mportancc.
^bl b l b ^L ^bl l b hcn taccd vt th lctrt matc
vorks otart, pcoplc most l acktn thc spccihc compctcncc appl yro thcm
thcpcrccptual schcmcs otthctrovn crhos, thcvcryoncs vhtch strucrurc
thctr cvcryday pcrccptton otcvcryday cxtsrcncc. Jhcsc schcmcs, tvtn
risc to products ot an unwt l cd, unscl tconscious systcmattcity, arc op
poscd ro thc morc orlcsstul l ystatcd prt nctplcs otan acsrhcrt c.
^
Jhc rc
sulr ts a sysrcmattc'rcductton' otrhc tht ns otarr to thc tht ns otl t tc, a
brackctin ottorm tn tavour ot'human' conrcnr, vhtch tsbarbartsm par
cxccllcncc tromrhc standpotnr otrhc purc acsrhcrtc.
i
Lvcrythtn takcs
pl acc as tt thc cmphasts on torm could onl y bc achtcvcd by mcans ota
ncutraltzatton ot any kt nd otahccrtvc or crhtcal t nrcrcsr tn rhc obj ccr ot
rcprcscntatton vhtch accompantcs vt thoutanyncccssary causcchcct rc
latt on mastcry ot thc mcans otrasptnrhc dtsrinctivc propcrrics vhtch
thts parttcular torm takcs on t n t ts rcl attons vtrh othcr torms i. c. ,
throuh rctcrcncc to rhc unt vcrsc ot vorks ot arr and t ts htstory ) .
Controntcd wi th a photograph ot an old woman' s hands, thc cul turally
most dcprivcd cxprcss a morc or lcss convcntional cmotion or an cthical
compl i ci ty but ncvcr a spcci hcal l y acsthctic j udgcmcnt othcr than a ncga-
ti vc onc ) . ' Ch, shc' s got tcrribly dc|ormcd hands' . . . Jhcrc's onc thing
don' t gct thc lc|t hand ) i t' s as i | hcr l c|t thumb was about to comc away
trom hcr hand. Funny way o| taking a photo. Jhc old girl must' vc workcd
hard. Looks l i kc shc' s got arthri ti s. Shc' s dchni tcly cripplcd, unlcss shc' s
holding hcr hands l i kc that i mi tatcs gcsturc) ` Ycs, that' s it, shc's got hcr
hand bcnt l i kc that. Iot l i kc a duchcss' s hands or cvcn a typi st' s' . .
rcal l y |ccl sorry sccing that poor old woman' s hands, thcy' rc all knottcd,
you might say' manual workcr, Paris ) . i th thc lowcr mi ddlc cl asscs, cx
altation ot cthical vi rtucs comcs to thc torctront 'hands worn out by
toi l ' ) , somcti mcs ttngcd wi th populi st scnt i mcntal i ty ' Poor old thi ng' Hcr
hands must rcally hurt hcr. It rcal ly givcs a scnsc ot pai n' ) , and somcti mcs
cvcn conccrn tor acsthctic propcrtics and rc|crcnccs to pai nti ng makc thcir
appcarancc. ' I t' s as i t it was a painting that had bccn photographcd . .
Must bc rcally bcauti tul as a pai nti ng' clcrical workcr, Paris ) . 'Jhat rc-
mi nds mc o| a pi cturc saw in an cxhi bi ti on ot Spanish pai nti ngs, a monk
wi th his hands claspcd i n tront ot him and dctormcd hngcrs' tcchni ci an,
Paris ) . ' Jhc sort o| hands you scc i n carly Van Goghs, an old pcasant
woman or pcoplc cating potatocs' | uni or cxccutivc, Paris ) . At highcr lcvcls
in thc social hicrarchy, thc rcmarks bccomc i ncrcasingly abstract, wi th
othcr pcoplc' s ) hands, labour and old agc |uncti oni ng as al lcgorics or sym
bols which scrvc as prctcxts tor gcncral rcHcctions on gcncral problcms.
Thc Hrt:/:raq / Cul/urc , 15
`JhCC atC |hC hanO C CmCCnC WhC ha WCtkCO |CC muCh, OCn_ VCty
hatO manua WCtk . . . P a ma||Ct C aC| | VCty unuua |C CC hanO kC
|ha| [ Cn_ nCCt, lat ) . `JhCC |WC hanO unQuC|CnaUy CVCkC a QCCt anO
unhaQQy CO a_C [ |CaChCt, QtCV nCC ) . Pn aC|hC|Cn_ tCCtCnCC |C Qan|-
n_, CuQ|utC Ct |Cta|utC, mCtC tCQuCn|, mCtC VatCO anO mCtC uU|y
hanOCO, tCCt| |C |hC nCu|taa|Cn anO O|anCn_ WhCh UCut_CC O-
CCutC aUCu| |hC CCa WCtO tCQu tC anO QCtCtm. ` ! hnO |h a VCty
UCau| u QhC|C_taQh. | |hC vCty ymUC C |C . | Qu| mC n mnO C
auCrts Od sCrvant-WCman . . . ha| vOman _CsturC, a| CnCC VCty hum-
UC . . . | |CttUC |ha| WCtk anO QCVCt|y atC C OCCtmn_ [ Cn_ nCCt,
lat ) .
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W|h unuua _h|n_, QtCVCkC VCty m at tCaC|On. Nanua WCtkCt, anO
CVCn mCtC C Cta|mCn anO ma hCQkCCQCt, tCaC| W|h hCttCt anO O-
_u|. ` WCuOn | kC |ha| QhC|C n my hCuC, n my tCCm. | n | VCty
nCC |C CCk a|. | ta|hCt Qa nu [ manua WCtkCt, QtCVnCC ) . ` hC
OCaO' Lha|y, CnCu_h |C kCCQ yCu aWakC a| n_h| . . . _ha|y, hCttUC,
OCn | Wan| |C CCk a| | [ hCQkCCQCt, QtCVnCC ) . hC mC| C |hC CBCC
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a ` t_h|u Ct ` unQCaan| |C CCk a| , CmC C |hCm |ty |C ChataC|CtC |hC
|CChnQuC. `JhC QhC|C | VCty WC |akCn, VCty UCau| u , Uu| hCttUC [ CCt-
Ca WCtkCt, lat ) . `ha| _ VC |hC mQtCCn C CmC|hn_ mCn|tCu
|hC CXQtCCn Cn |hC 2CC C |hC man Ct WCm2n WhC |hC uUjCC| C |hC
QhC|C anO |hC an_C tCm WhCh | ha UCCn |akCn, |ha| |C ay CCkn_ uQ
tCm UCCW [ j unCt CXCCu|VC, lat ) . L|hCt aQQCa |C aC|hC|C tCCtCnCC,
m2ny Ot2Wn tCm |hC CnCm2. ` P ta|hCt an|2|C Ct| C ChataC|Ct, Ct a|
Ca| ta|hCt UattC . . . | CCuO UC a tCyCt ChataC|Ct, DCt_man a| a QnCh,
6 / Z \o:ta/ trt/tqu: o//b: udg:m:n/ : 1a:/:
Jhc 2CQ _2sWCtks |y n _ht
Ct QCth2Q CVCn L|sCnstC| n, |n Itan the Terrt//e . l | kC | t 1 Ct tCChn|
C 2n, l2t!s ) . %Cst C thC sCn!Ct CXCCut! VCs lnO mCm|Cts C thC QtCCssCns
hnO tC QCtC_!2Qh `|C2ut u 2nO `CXQ!CssVC 2nO m2kC tCCtCnCC nCt Cny
tC thC h ms C C!_m2n, \!sCn `CCs, tCyCt, lnO CthCts, |ut 2sC tC thC
thC2t!C, nVCkn_ 2mCt, %2C|Cth Ct h2CnC s Pthl C.
hCn CCntCntCO W th 2 QhCtC_!2Q C thC 2Cq _2s tChnCty, WhCh !s
| i kely to di sconcert real i st expectati ons botb by i ts subj cct, an i ndustrial
CCmQCX, nC!m2y CXC uOCO tCm thC WCtO C C_| t| m2tC tCQ!CsCnt2tCn,
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QCXCO, hCs t2tC, 2nO CVCntu2 y, |n mCst C2sCs, 2Om t OCC2t. `Pt htst s_ht
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sCmCthn_ usCO n 2n CCctt|C QCWCt st2t|Cn . . . l c2n t m2kC Cut Wh2t |t is,
| t s 2 mystCty tC mC [ m2nu2 WCtkCt, QtCV|nCCs ) . ` `CW, th2t CnC tC2y
|CthCts mC, l h2VCn t _Ct 2nythn_ tC s2y 2|Cut t . . . l C2n t sCC Wh2t |t
CCuO |C, 2Q2tt tCm tC _ht n_. lt ! sn t C2t hC2O _hts, | t WCu On t |C 2
st!2_ht nCs kC t2t. CWn CtC C2n sCC 2 !2| n_ 2nO l _CCOs t, nC,
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CCCttCnCs, l OCn t knCW 2nyth|n_ 2|Cut th2t [ m2nul WCtkCt, l2t|s ) .
PmCn_ sml CmQCyCts, WhC tCnO tC |C hCt C tC mCOCtn 2tt CXQCt mCnts
2nO, mC!C _CnCtl y, tC 2 2tt n Wh|Ch thCy ClnnCt sCC thC m2tks 2nO
t!2CCs C WCtk, 2 sCnsC C CCnus!Cn CtCn C2O tC s mQC tCus2 . `hlt s C
nC ntCtCst, t m2y |C 2 VCty hnC, |ut nCt Ct mC. l t 2W2ys thC s2mC
t| n_. lCtsCn2 y th2t stuU C2VCs mC CCO [ Ct2tsm2n, QtCV| nCCs ) . ` l VC
tt!CO tC WCtk Cut | t !C2 y !s 2 QhCtC. lC!h2Qs | t s l tCQtCOuCtCn C 2
Ot2Wn_ OCnC W th 2 cW QCnC| | nCs . . . l WCu On t knCW Whlt tC OC W| th
l QhCtC | kC th2t. lC!h2Qs t su| ts mCOCtn t2stCs. lQ 2nO OCWn Wth thC
QCnC! lnO thCy kC t. PnO 2s C! thC QhCtC 2nO thC QhCtC_t2QhCt, tCy
OCn t OCsCtVC 2ny CtCO| t, thCyVC OCnC nCth n_ 2t 2 . JhC 2tt|st OO | t 2 ,
hC s thC CnC WhC Cu_ht tC t2kC tC CtCO| t, hC s thC CnC WhC OtCW | t [ shCQ
T/r ZrtJtcrraq c[Cu/turr , 4/
kcccr, rOvtnccs) . Lmcc Orkcrs and | untOr cxccuttvcs, hO arc j ut as
dIscOnccrtcd as thc manua Orkcrs and sma cmOycrs, Out arc cs In
ctncd tO admt t tt than thc !Ormcr and !css t nctncd than thc !attcr tO cha!
!cn_c thc !c_t tt macy O! hat cha!!cn_Cs thcm, css O!tcn dcc!tnc tO _tvc a
vcrdIct. ` !tkc tt as a hOtO . . . Occausc t t s a! dran Out, thcyrc | ust
t ncs, t t sCcms t mmcnsC t O mc . . . A vast tccc O! caUO!dtn_ . . . |s j ut
t_ht , caturcd Oy thc camcra [ ccrtca Orkcr, larts ) . ` DuUct tkcs dOIn_
thIn_s tkc that [ tcchntctan, larts) . Dut On!y amOn_ mcmOcrs O! thc dOmt
nant c!ass, hO mOst OItcn rccO_ntzC thc OO| cct rcrcscntCd, dOcs | ud_C
mcnt O! !Orm takc On !u! autOnOmy vts-a-vts | ud_cmcnt O! cOntcnt [ ' t
t nhuman Out acsthcttca!!y Ocautt!u Occausc O! thc cOntras|s ) , and thc rc
rcscntattOn Is archcndcd as such, IthOut rc!crcncc |O anythtn_ Othcr
than t tsc! Or rca t tIcs O! thc samc cas [ 'aOstract at nttn_ , `avant-_ardc
ay` ctc. ) .
Jhc varIatIOns In thc attt tudc tO a vcry cOmaraO!c OO|Cct, a mcta! !ramC,
rOvtdc a numcrtca! rOO! O! thts. thc rOOrtIOn O! rcsOndcnts hO thtnk
It cOud makc a Ocautt!u hOtO ts crccnt amOn_ manua! Orkcrs and
dOmcsttc scrvants, 9 crccnt amOn_ cra!tsmcn and sma! hOkcccrs, 9.
crccnt amOn_ thc c!crtca! Orkcrs and | untOr admt nIstrattvc cxCcuttvc, 24
crccnt amOn_ thc rt mary tcachcrs and tcchntctans, 24. crccnt t n thc
dOmInant cass-and 7U crccnt amOn_ thc sccOndary and hI_hcr-cducattOn
tcachcr. [ Lnc may asumc that Ihc rcactIOns arOuscd Oy thc archItccturc O!
thc DcauOOur_ |cntrc OOcy thc samc rtnct!Cs. )
C aC|C|Cm Wc makC |C at|t|C t D|CD|On |C at OI |C
` at| OI VD_ mQ tC a Ot| OI mOta a_DO|Cm, |C QCtICC| aD||C OI
thC C|htca Ot QOt|OD Wtch uOOrdtDa|C att |O thC VauC OI |C ar| OI
VD_. C aCtC|C t D|CD|OD CaD OD y COD|taOC| |C OQO |OD OI |hC
C|O Ot |C DOtm OI |C C|tC WtC, a| CaC mOmCD|, OCbDC |C C_t |t
ma|C OUjCC| aDO mOOC OI tCQtCCD|a|OD IOt |C OUCtCH| OCta CaC,
cxc!udt D_ trOm thc uDt vCrsc c! thc ` rcQrcscDtaOc ccr|at D rca t t tcs aDd
ccr|atD Ways OI rCQtCCDttD_ thCm. hu |C CatCs|, aDO O |hC mO| Itc
QuCD| aDd mOs| QcCtacu at Way |O ` OCk (gatrr) |C UOur_COts Uy
QtOvt D_ |hC cxtCDt O! ODCs QOWCr tO cOD!cr aCsthC|t c s|atus t s tO trauJ-
rrJJ CVCr mOtC taOcay |C C|hCa CCDOtQ [ C. _. , D ma||Ct OI Cx )
ht ch thc O|hCr CassCs accCQ| cVcD Wt tt D |hC atCa Whtch |hC dOmDaD|
dtsQOst tt OD OCbDCs a aCsthC|t C. \r, mOrC u| y, | t> OODC Oy cODICtrtD_
aCs|hC|t C s|a|us OD O| CC| Or Ways OI tCQrCCD|t D_ tCm |a| arc CxcuOCd
Uy |C dOm DaD| aC|hC|tC OI |C tmC, Ot OD OU| CC| |a| atC _VCD aC
|C|C |a|u y OOm| Da|Cd ` aCtC|C .
Lnc On!y has tO rcad thc tndcx O! cOntcnts rccCnt!y uOtshcd Oy .r! !
tan! I 974 ) , a `va_ucy mOdcrn rcvIc run Oy a cIguC O! acadcmtcs hO
arc va_ucy art htstOrIans [ as an avant_ardc at ntcr ntccy ut t t ) , htch
OccuIcs a sOrt O! ncutra Ot nt In thc hcd O! avant-_ardc art crt tIcIsm Oc
twccn lahar! Or .r! Ir and .r!t!ua Or 0]u. n thc Ist O! !caturc and
tItcs Onc hnds. .[rtra [ Onc tItc. `Art must Dc !Or A ) , .rdt!r!ur [ tO
8 / H .ia/ critiyu: th: ua:m:nt 1ast.
ti dcs, i ncl udi ng ' Archi tccturc wi thout an Arch| tcct` ) , ccmi. 5trqs ( hvc
ti dcs, ninc pagcs out o| thc |ortysi x in thc wholc | ndcx ) , Kids ' rt, Kits.h
thrcc ti tlcs, hvc pagcs ) , Phctcrah ( two t i tlcs, thrcc pagcs ) , 5tr--t rt
h|tccn t i dcs, twcntythrcc pagcs, i ncl udi ng 'Art in thc Strcct` , ' Art in thc
Strcct, first Episodc` , ' Bcauty in thc BackStrccts . You ust Havc to Know
How to Look' , ' A Suburo Scts thc Pacc' ) , 5om.-Fi.ticn |tcia ( two ti dcs,
thrcc pagcs ) , |ndrrcund onc ti dc) , 0ritinIdcramsCrati ( two ti tlcs,
|our pagcs ) . Thc ai m o| i nvcrti ng or transr-ssin, which is clcarly mani
|cs tcd by thi s list, is ncccssarily contai ncd wi thi n thc l i mi ts assigncd to
it a contrario oy thc acsthcti c convcntions i t dcnounccs and by thc nccd
to sccurc rccogni ti on o| thc acsthctic naturc o| thc transgrcssion o| thc
l i mi ts i . c. , rccogni ti on o| i ts con|ormi ty to thc norms o| thc transgrcssi ng
group) . Hcncc thc almost Markovian l ogi c o| thc choiccs, wi th, |or thc ci n
cma, Antonioni , Chapl i n, ci ncmathcquc, Eiscnstc| n, croti ci smpornography,
fcl l i ni , Codard, Kl ci n, Monroc, undcrground, Varhol .
Jhis commi tmcnt tosymbolic transgrcssion, which is ottcn combi ncd
with poli tical ncutral ity orrcvol utionap acsthcticism, is thc almostpcr-
tcct anti thcsis otpcti t-bourgcois moralism or otwhat Sartrc uscd to call
thc rcvol utionary's 'scriousncss
,
.

Jhccthical indihcrcnccwhich thc acs
thcticdisposition impl ics whcn it bccomcs thc basis otthc art otliving is
in tact thc root ot thc cthical avcrsion to artists ori ntcl lcctuals ) which
mani tcsts i tscl tparticul arly vchcmcntly among thc dccl i ning and thrcat-
cncd tractions ot thc pctitc bourgcoisic cspccially indcpcndcnt cratts-
mcn and shopkccpcrs, who tcnd to cxprcss thcir rcgrcssivc and
rcprcssivc disposi tions tn all arcas ot practicc cspccial l y in cducational
mattcrs and vis-a-vis s tudcnts and studcnt dcmonstrati ons ) but also
among thc rising tractions ot that class whosc striving |or vi rtuc and
whosc dccp insccurity rcndcr thcm vcry rcccptivc to thc phantasm ot
'pornocracy'.
Jhc purc disposi tion is so univcrsally rccognizcd as'lcgi timatc that no
voiccis hcard pointingout that thcdchni tion otart, and through it thc
art otliving, is an ob| cct otstrugglc among thc cl asscs. Oominatcd l i tc-
stylcs (ats a tttr ) , which havc practically ncvcr rcccivcd systcmatic cx
prcssion, arc almost always pcrccivcd, cvcn by thcir dctcndcrs, trom thc
dcstructivc or rcductivc vicwpoi nt ot thc dominant acsthctic, so that
thcironlyoptionsarcdcgradationorscl t-dcstructivc rchabili tation 'pop-
ul ar cul turc'. Jhis is why it is ncccssary to look to Proudhon
+
tor a
naivclysystcmaticcxprcssion ot thc pcti t-bourgcois acsthctic, whichsub
ordinatcs art to thc corc val ucs otthc artotliving and idcnti hcs thccyn
ical pcrvcrsion ot thc artist's l i tc-stylc as thc sourcc ot thc absol utc
primacy gtvcn to torm.
'Lndcr thc i nnucncc otpropcrty, thc artist, aa:d in his rcason, dis
s/ot io his oa/s, :ma/ aod uithot dioi is thc i mpurc imagc otcgo-
ism. Jhc idca ot,osti. and host, sl idcs ovcr his hcart without taking
root, and otall thc cl asscs otsocicty, thc artist class is thc poorcst in
strongsouls and noblc charactcrs.'

1h Hist.ag co/to , 9
' Art tor art's sakc, as i t has bccn callcd, not having i ts lcgi timacy
wi thi n i tscl t, bcing bascd on nothi ng, is nothi ng. It is d/ao.hg otthc
hcart and disss/otiso otthc mind. Scparatcd trom riht and duty, cul ti-
vatcd and pursucd as thc highcst thought otthc soul and thc suprcmc
mani tcstation othumani ty, art or thcidcal , strippcd otthcgrcatcrpart ot
i tscl t, rcduccd tonothi ng morcthanan xotmmt aotas, aod th smss,
is thc sourcc otsio, thc origin otal l scrvi tudc, thc poisoncd spring trom
which, accordin to thc Biblc, Uow all thcmi.atias and abomi nations
otthc carth . . . Art tor art's sakc, I say, vcrsc tor vcrsc' s sakc, stylc tor
stylc'ssakc, torm tor torm' ssakc, tantasy tortantasy'ssakc, al l thc discascs
whi chl i kc a plaguc otlicc arc gnawing away atourcpoch, arc :i. in all
i ts rchncmcnt, thc quintcsscncc otcvil.
,

Mhat is condcmncd is thcautonomy ot torm and thc artist's right to


thc tormal rchncmcnts by which hc claims mastcry otwhatought to bc
mcrcly a mattcr ot 'cxccution' . ' I havc no quarrcl with nobility, or
clcancc, orposc, orstylc, orgcsturc, orany aspcct otwhat cons :i tutcs
thc cxccution ot a work ot art and is thc usual objcct ot tradi tional
cri ticism.'

Ocpcndcnt ondcmand i n thc choicc otthcirobjccts, artiststakc thcir


rcvcnc in thc cxccution. 'Jhcrc arc church paintcrs, history paintcrs,
gcnrc paintcrs [ in othcr words, paintcrs otanccdotcs or tarccs ) , portrai t
paintcrs,landscapcpai ntcrs, animal painrcrs,scascapcpaintcrs, paintcrsot
Vcnus, paintcrs ottantasy. Cncspccial i zcs i n nudcs, anothcr i n drapcry.
Jhcn cach onc cndcavours to di sti nguish hi mscl t by onc otthc mcans
which contri butc to thc cxccuti on. Cnc gocs i n tor skctching, anothcr
tor colour, this onc attcnds to composi ti on, that onc to pcrspcctivc, a
thi rd tocostumc or l ocal colour, oncshi ncs through scntimcnt, anothcr
throuh his idcali zcd orrcalistic hurcs, yct anothcr rcdccms thc tuti l i ty
ot hi s sub| cct by thc hncncss o|hi s dctail. Each strivcs to havc hi s own
trick, his own 'jc nc sais quoi ' , a pcrsonal manncr, and so, wi th thc hclp
ottashi on, rcputations arc madc and unmadc.'

In contrast to thi s dccadcnt art cut qhtrom social l i tc, rcspccting nci-
thcr God nor man, an art worthy otthc namc must bc subordinatcd to
scicncc, moral i ty and justicc. It must aim to arousc thc moral scnsc, to
i nspi rc tccIi ngs otdignty and dcl icacy, to i dcal i zc rcal i ty, to substi tutc
tor thc thing thc idcal otthc thing, by painting thc truc and not thc rcal.
In a word, i t mustcducatc. Jo do so, it must transmi t not 'pcrsonalim
prcssions' [ li kc Oavid in 1h 1moiscot 0ath, or Oclacroi x ) but, l i kc
Courbct in Ls Ia,saas a Hagg, rcconstitutc thc social and historial
truth whichah mayjudgc. [ ' Lach otusonly has to consul thimscl ttobc
ablc, attcr brict considcrati on, to statc a j udgcmcnt on any work ot
art. ' )

And it woul dbc a pity to concludcwi thoutquoting a culogy ot


thc small dctachcd housc which woul d surcly bc massivcly cndorscd by
thc middlc and workingclasscs. 'I wouldgivc thc Louvrc, thc Juilcrics,
lotrc-Oamc-andthcVcndmccol umni nto thcbargain-tol i vc in my
own homc, in a /itt/ hos o, 0 asio, whcrc I would l i vc alonc, in
0 / 5ecia/ cri/ia. /h. adg..r/ . 1as/.
rhc mt ddlc ota l trrlc plorotround, a guarrcr otan acrc or so, vhcrc I` d
havc varcr, shadc, a l avn, and st l cncc. ^nd t t rhouhr ot purrtn a
sraruc tn tr, tr vouldn'r bc auptrcr or an ^poll o-rhosc cnrlcmcn arc
norhtnro mc-nor vtcvs ot London, Komc, |onsranrtnoplcor Ycntcc.
Lodprcscrvcmctromsuch placcs' I'd purrhcrcvhar I l ack-mounratns,
vtncyards, mcadovs, oars, covs, shccp, rcapcrs and shcphcrds.
,
+
LlTR AL | ZAT| C AL TH L || VL RSL C| PCSS | BLLS Lnl tkc non
spccthc pcrccprton, rhc spcct hcal l y acsrhcrtc pcrccprton ot a vork ot arr
tn vhtchrhcrc arc otcoursc dcrccs otaccompltshmcnr ) ts armcd vtrh
a pcrrtncncc prtnctplc vhtch ts soct al l y consrtrurcd and acgutrcd. Jhts
prtnctplc otsclccrton cnablcs tr ro ptck our and rcratn, trom amon rhc
clcmcnrs ohcrcd ro rhc cyc c. . , lcavcs or clouds constdcrcd mcrcly as
tndtccs or stnals tnvcsrcd vtrh a dcnorartvc tuncrton-' Ir' s a popl ar' ,
'Jhcrc' s otn ro bc a srorm' ) , all rhc sryl t srtc rratrs-and only rhosc-
vhtch, vhcn rclocarcd tn rhc unt vcrsc ot sryl tsrtc posstbtl trtcs, dt srtn-
utsh a parrt cular manncr ot rrcartn rhc clcmcnrs sclccrcd, vhcrhcr
cloudsor lcavcs, rhar t s, a srylcas a modc otrcprcscnrartoncxprcsstnrhc
modc otpcrccprtonandrhouhrrhar ts propcr ro a pcrtod, a class or class
tracrton, a roup otarrtsrs or a parrtcular arrtsr. ^o srvl t srtc characrcrtza
rton ota vork otarr t s posstblc vtrhour prcsuppostn ar lcasr t mpl tctr
rctcrcncc ro rhccomposstblc alrcrnartvcs, vhcrhcr st mulrancous-ro dts
rtnutsh tr trom trs conrcmporartcs-r succcsst vc-ro conrrasr tr vtrh
carltcrorl arcr vorks by rhc samcora dt hcrcnr arrtsr. Lxhtbtrtonsdcvorcd
ro an arrtsr's vholc ocuvrc or ro a cnrc ( c. . , rhc srt l l - l t tc cxhtbtrton tn
Bordcaux tn l9s ) arc rhc obccrtvc rcal t zarton ot rhc hcld ot tnrcr-
chancablc sryl t srtc posstbt l trtcs vhtch ts brouhr tnro play vhcn onc
'rccont zcs' rhcst nul art rtcs otrhccharacrcrt srtcsrylcota vork otarr. ^s
L. H. Lombrtch dcmonsrrarcs, tcr Mondrtan's Breadaa, Beei. keei.
onl y rakcs on trs ' tul l mcantn' tn rcrms ot a prcvt oustdca ot Mondrtan` s
vorkandotrhccxpccrartons tr tavours Jhc ' t mprcsst on otayabandon'
t vcn bv rhc play otbrthr, srronly conrrasrtn parchcs otcolour can
only artsc tn a mtnd tamt l t ar vtrh ' an arr otsrrathr l tncs and a tcv prt
mary colours tn carctul l y bal anccd rccranlcs' and capablc otpcrcct vtn
rhc 'rclaxcd srylc ot popul ar mustc' tn rhc dt srancc trom rhc ' scvcrtry'
vhtch t scxpccrcd. Andas soon as onc t matncs rhts patnrtn arrrtburcd
ro Ltno Scvcrtnt, vho rrtcs ro cxprcss tn somc ot hts patnrtns 'rhc
rhyrhm otdancc mustc tn vorks otbrt l l t anr chaos` , tr ts clcar rhar, mca
surcd by rht s sryl t srtcyardsrtck, Mondrtan's pt crurc vould rarhcrsucsr
rhc hrsr Brad./arg |onccrro.
+
Jhc acsrhcrtc dtspostrton, undcrsrood as rhc aprtrudc tor pcrcctvtn
and dcctphcrtn spccthcal l y sryl tsrtc characrcrtsrtcs, ts rhus tnscparablc
trom spccthcal l y arrtsrtc compcrcncc. Jhc larrcr may bc acgutrcd by cx
pl tctr l carnt n or st mply by rcular conracr vtrh vorks ot arr, cspcct al lv
rhosc asscmblcd t n muscums and allcrtcs. vhcrc rhc dt vcrstry ot rhctr
Pict Mondrian, BraJua B
[
t N
[
t
?

Gino Scvcrini, Onamr: Htr
[
[)ht: [ !h Ba/ 1a/artn
Pict Mondrian,
|atn!tn
[

2 / 5eoa/ critia. e) th. adg..t e 1ast.


oriina tuncrions is ncurraizcd by rhcir bctn dtspl aycd in a pacc con
sccrarcd ro arr, so rhar rhcy invirc purc tnrcrcsr t n torm. Jhis pracrical
masrcry cnablcs irs posscssor ro struarc cach clcmcnr ot a unt vcrsc otar
risric rcprcscnrarions in a class dchncd in rclarton ro rhc cl ass composcd
ot al rhc arrisric rcprcscnrarion consciously or unconsciously cxcludcd.
Jhus, an awarcncss otrhc sryisric tcarurcs which makc up rhc sryisric
oriinairy otarhcworks ota pcriodrclarivcro rhoscotanorhcrpcrtod,
or, wirhin rhiscass, otrhc works otonc schoorcarivc ro anorhcr, orot
rhcworks otonc arrtsr rclarivc ro rhc works othts school or pcrtod, or
cvcn otan arrisr' sparrt cular pcrtodor work rcl artvc ro hts wholc ocuvrc,
isinscparabctroman awarcncss otrhcsryisricrcdundancics, i c., rhcryp
ica rrcarmcnrs otrhc picrorial marrcr whtch dchnc a srylc In shorr, a
rasp otrhcrcscmbanccsprcsupposcsimpicirorcxpicirrctcrcnccrorhc
dihcrcnccs, andviccvcrsa. Arrriburion is always t mptciry bascdon rctcr
cncc ro `rypica works' , consciousy or unconsciously scccrcd bccausc
rhcy prcscnr ro a parricuary hih dcrcc rhc guatrtcs morc or css cx
piciryrcconizcd as pcrrincnr t n a ivcn sysrcm otclassihcarion. Lvcry
rhin sucsrs rhar, cvcn amon spcctat srs, rhc crircria ot pcrrincncc
which dchnc rhc sryisric propcrrics ot `rypical works' cncral ly rcmain
implicir andrharrhc acsrhcricraxonomicsimpiciry mobiizcd ro disrin
uish, classity and ordcr works otarr ncvcr havc rhc riour whtch acs
rhcric rhcorics somcrimcs rry ro lcnd rhcm.
In tacr, rhc simpc pacin which rhc amarcur or spcciaisr pcrtorms
whcn hc undcrrakcs arrriburon has norhtn in common wirh rhc cnu
incly scicnrihc inrcnrion ot raspin rhc work' s t mmancnr rcason and
raison d'crrc by rcconsrrucrtn rhc pcrcct vcd siruarion, rhc sub|ccrt vcly
cxpcrtcnccd problcmaric, which is norhin orhcr rhan rhc spacc otrhc
posirions and sctposirionins consrirurin rhc hcld and wtrhtn which
rhc arrisric inrcnrion otrhc arrisr tn gucsrion has dchncd irscl t, cncrally
by opposirion. Jhc rctcrcnccs which rhis rcconsrrucrin opcrarion dc
ploys havc norhin ro do wtrh rhc kinds ot scmanric ccho or ahccrivc
corrcspondcncc which adorn cclcbrarop dtscoursc-rhcy arc rhc indts
pcnsablcmcans otconsrrucrin rhc hcd otrhcmaric orsrylisrtcpossibit
ricsinrclarion ro which, ob| ccrivcly andro somccxrcnr sub| ccrivcly, rhc
possibiirysclccrcd by rhc arrisr prcscnrcdirscl t Jhus,ro undcrsrandwhy
rhccary Komanricpainrcrs rcrurncdro primirivcarr,oncwoudhavcro
rcconsrirurc rhc wholc univcrsc otrctcrcncc otrhcpupis ot!avid, wirh
rhcironbcards and Lrcck cosrumcs, who, 'ourdoinrhcir masrcr'scur
ot anrtguiry, wanrcd ro o back ro Homcr, rhc Biblc and fssian, and
condcmncd rhcsrycotcassica anriguiry irsctas rococo`, Yan Loo`
or ompadour`. '
+:
Jhtswoud lcad oncbackro rhcincxrricably crhical
and acsrhcric alrcrnarivcs-uch as rhc tdcnrt hcarion ot rhc naivc wirh
rhc purc and rhc narural-inrcrms otwhichrhctrchoiccswcrc madc and
which havc norhin n commonwirhrhcrranshisrorical opposirions bc
lovcd ot tormalisr acsrhcrcs.
+
T
[
Hri:ts.rag s] 6o/tor 5
Butthccclcbrant' sordcvotcc'si ntcntionisnotthatotundcrstandin,
and, in thc ordinary routinc otthc cult otthc work otart, thc play ot
acadcmic or urbanc rctcrcnccs has no othcr tunction than to brin thc
work i nto an i ntcrminablc circuit otintcr-lci timation, so that a rctcr-
cncc tojan Brcuhcl' sBsoot s Hrs lcnds dinity tojcan-Michcl Pi-
cart's Bsoot P/sur uith Iarst, | ustas, in anothcrcontcxt, rctcrcncc
to thc lattcrcan, bcin lcss common, scrvc to cnhancc thc tormcr. Jhis
play otculturcd allusions and analoicscndlcsslypointinto othcranal-
oics, whtch, likc thc cardinal opposi tions tn mythica orrttual systcms,
ncvcrhavc to| ustithcmsclvcsbystatinthcbasisotthc rclattnwhich
thcypcrtorm,wcavcsaroundthcworksacomplcxwcbottacti tiouscxpc-
ricnccs, cach answcrin and rci ntorcin all thc othcrs, which .rats thc
cnchantmcntotartisriccontcmplation. I t isthcsourccotthc' idolatry' to
which Proust rctcrs,whichlcads onc tohnd'an actrcss'srobcora socicty
woman' s drcss bcautt tul . . . not bccausc thc cloth is bcauti tul but bc-
causc t t ts thc cloth paintcd by Morcau or dcscribcd by Balzac. '
++
Anal oy, tunctionin as a circularmodc otthouht, makcs it posstblc
to tour thc wholc arca otart and l uxury uithsot o:r /a:iog it Jhus
ChitcauMarauxwtnccan bc dcscrtbcd wt th thcsamcwords asarcuscd
to dcscribc thc chitcau, | ust as othcrs will cvokc Proust apropos ot
Monct or Ccsar !ranck, whi ch is a ood way ottalkin about nctthcr.
'Jhc housc ts t n thc imac otthc vintac. lobc, austcrc, cvcn a l i ttlc
solcmn. . . . Chitcau Maraux has thcairotanancicnttcmplcdcvotcd to
thc cult otwinc . . . . Vincyard ordwcll i n, Maraux disdains all cmbcl-
lishmcnts. But | ust as thc winc has to bcscrvcd bctorc it untolds all i ts
charms, so thc rcsidcnccwaits tor thc visitor to cntcrbctorc t t rcvcals i ts
own. In cach casc thc samc words sprin to onc'sl i ps. clcancc, distinc-
tton, dcl icacy and thatsubtlc satistactionivcnbysomcthinwhich has
rcccivcd thc most attcntivc and i ndccd lovin carc |or cncrations. A
winc lon maturcd, a housc lon inhabitcd. Maraux thc vintac and
Maraux thc chJtcau arc thc product ottwo cgually rarc thins. rigso
aod tio. '

OlSTACL FRCM ECESS!TY Jo cxplain thc corrclation bctwccn cduca-
tionalcapi tal and thc propcnsi ty or at lcast thc aspi ration to apprcciatc a
work ' i ndcpcndcntl yoti ts contcnt' , as thc cul turally most ambitious rc-
spondcntsputit, and morc cncrally thc propcnsi ty to makc thc 'ratui-
tous' and 'disintcrcstcd' invcstmcntsdcmandcdbylci timatc works, itis
not sumctcnt to potnt to thc tact that schooli n providcs thc l i nuistic
toolsand thcrctcrcnccswhichcnablcacsthcticcxpcricncc tobccxprcsscd
andtobc constttutcdby bcin cxprcsscd. hatisin tact amrmcd in this
rclationshtp i s thc dcpcndcncc ot thc acsthctic disposi tion on thc past
and prcscnt matcrial conditions otcxistcncc which arc thc prccondition
otboth i ts constitution and i ts application and also otthc accumuation
o| cuI turaIcapi tal [ whcthcrornotcducationallysanctioncd) whichcan
5 / H oa/ citiyo s, th odgmo/ , 1ast
onlybc acquircd by mcans otasort otwithdrawal trom cconomic ncccs-
si ty. Jhc acsthctic disposi ti on which tcnds to brackct ohthc naturc and
tunction otthc ob|cct rcprcscntcd and to cxcludc any ' naivc` rcaction-
horrorat thc horriblc, dcsirc tor thcdcsirablc, pious rcvcrcncc tor thcsa-
crcdalong with all purcly cthical rcsponscs, in ordcr to conccntratc
solcly upon thc modc otrcprcscntation, thc stylc, pcrccivcd and apprc-
ciatcd by comparison wi th othcrstylcs, is onc dimcnsion ota total rcla-
tion to thc world and to othcrs, a l i tc-stylc, in which thc chccts ot
particular conditions ot cxistcncc arc cxprcsscd in a ' misrccognizablc`
torm.
.
Jhcsccondi tionsotcxistcncc, which arc thcprccondition tor all
lcarning otlcgi ti matc cul turc, whcthcrimplicit and dihusc, as domcstic
cul tural training gcncrally is, or cxplicit and spcci hc, as in schol astic
training, arc charactcrizcd by thc suspcnsion and rcmoval otcconomic
ncccssity and by ob| cctivc and sub| cctivc distancc trom practical urgcn-
cics, which is thc basis otob| cctivc and sub| cctivc distancc trom groups
sub| cctcd to thosc dctcrminisms.
Jo bc ablc to play thc gamcs otcul turc with thc playtul scriousncss
which Plato dcmandcd, a scriousncss without thc 'spiri t otscriousncss` ,
onchas tobcl ongtothcranksotthoscwhohavc bccn ablc,notncccssar-
ily to makc thci rwholccxistcncc a sort otchildrcn`s gamc, as artists do,
but at lcast to maintain tor a long timc, somcti mcs a wholc l i |ctimc, a
chi l d`s rclation to thc worl d. Al l chi l drcn start l i tc as babybourgcois, in
a rcl ation ot magical powcr ovcr othcrs and, through thcm, ovcr thc
world, but thcygrowoutotitsooncrorlatcr. ) Jhisisclcarlysccnwhcn,
by an accidcnt otsocial gcnctics, into thc wcll-pol iccd world otintcllcc-
tual gamcs thcrc comcs onc o|thosc pcoplc onc thi nks otRousscau or
Chcrnyshcvsky ) who bring inappropriatc stakcs and i ntcrcsts i nto thc
gamcsotcul turc, whogctso involvcd i n thcgamcthat thcy abandon thc
margin otncutralizing distancc that thc :/!osi bclictin thc gamc ) dc-
mands, who trcat i ntcllcctual strugglcs, thc ob|cct otso many pathctic
mani tcstos, asasi mplcgucstion otright and wrong, l i tc anddcath. Jhis
is why thc logic o| thc gamc has al rcady assigncd thcm rlcs-cccntric
or boor-which thcy will /a, dcspitc thcmsclvcs in thc cycs ot thosc
who know how tostay wi thi n thcboundsotthc i ntcllcctual i l l usion and
who cannotscc thcm any othcr way.
Jhc acsthctic disposition, a gcncralizcd capacity to ncutralizc ordinary
urgcncics and to brackct ohpractical cnds, a durablc inclination and ap-
titudc tor practicc wi thout a practical tunction, can only bc consti tutcd
within an cxpcricncc ot thc world trccd trom urgcncy and through thc
practicc otactivitics which arc an cnd i n thcmscl vcs, such as scholasti c
cxcrciscs orthccontcmplation otworks otart. Inothcrwords, i t prcsup-
poscs thc distancc trom thc world otwhich thc ' rlc distancc` brought
to l ightby Lrving Gohman is a particularcasc) whi ch is thc basis otthc
bourgcois cxpcricncc otthc worl d. Contrary to whatccrtain mcchanistic
thcorics would suggcst, cvcn in i ts most spcci hcally artistic di mcnsion
7he Hritcrraq c] Cu/ture / 55
thc pcdagogic action o|thc |amily and thc school opcratcs at lcast as
much through thc cconomic and socia| conditions whi ch arc thc prc
condition o|its opcration as through thc contcnts which it inculcatcs.

Thc scho|asticworld o|rcgul atcdgamcs and cxcrcisc|orcxcrcisc' sakc is,


at |cast in this rcspcct, |css rcmotc than i t might appcar |rom thc ' bour
gcois'world and thc countlcss 'disintcrcstcd' and 'gratuitous' acts which
go tomakc upi ts distinctivcrari ty,suchas homcmaintcnanccanddcco
ration, occasioning a daily squandcring o|carc, timc and labour ( o|tcn
through thci ntcrmcdiary o|scrvants ) , walkingand tourism, movcmcnts
without any othcr aim than physical cxcrcisc and thc symbolic appro
priation o|a world rcduccd to thc status o|a landscapc, or ccrcmonics
and rcccptions, prctcxts |or a display o|ritual l uxurics, dccors, convcrsa
tions and hncry, not to mcntion, o|coursc, artistic practiccs and cnj oy
mcnts. It is not surprising that bourgcois adolcsccnts, who arc both
cconomically privilcgcd and ( tcmporarily) cxcludcd |rom thc rcali ty o|
cconomic powcr, somcti mcs cxprcss thcir distancc |rom thc bourgcois
world which thcy cannot rca||y appropriatc by a rc|usal o|compl icity
whosc mostrchncdcxprcssion is apropcnsity towards acsthctics and acs
thcticism. In thisrcspcctthcysharccommongroundwith thc womcno|
thcbourgcoisic, who, bcing partially cxc|udcd |rom cconomic activity,
hnd|u| hl mcntinstagc-managingthcdccoro|bourgcoiscxistcncc,whcn
thcy arcnotsccking rc|ugc orrcvcngc in acsthctics.
Economicpowcri shrstand|orcmostapowcrtokccpcconomicncccs
sity atarm' s|cngth. This is why it univcrsa|| yasscrts i tsc||bythcdcstruc
tiono|richcs,conspicuousconsumption, squandcring,andcvcry|ormo|
gratuitcu luxury. Thus, whcrcas thc court aristocracy madc thcwholco|
| i |cacontinuousspcctac|c,thcbourgcoisichascstablishcdthcopposition
bctwccn what is paid |or and what is |rcc, thc intcrcstcd and thc disin
tcrcstcd, i n thc|ormo|thcopposi tion, which Vcbcrsawas charactcriz
ing i t, bctwccn placc olwork and placc o| rcsidcncc, working days and
ho|idays, thcoutsidc ( malc) and thci nsidc ( |cmalc) , busincss and scnti
mcnt, industry andart, thcwor|do|cconomicncccssityandthcworldo|
artistic|rccdomthatissnatchcd,bycconomicpowcr, |romthatncccssity.
Matcrial or symbolic consumption o|works o| art constitutcs onc o|
thc suprcmc mani|cstationso|eae, i n thcscnscboth o|obj cctivc lcisurc
and sub|cctivc |aci|ity.
s
Thcdctachmcnto|thcpurcgazccannotbcscpa
ratcd |rom a gcncra| disposition towards thc 'gratuitous' and thc 'disin
tcrcstcd' , thc paradoxical product o|a ncgativc cconomic conditioning
which, through |aci | i ty and |rccdom, cngcndcrs distancc visavis ncccs
sity. At thc samc timc, thc acsthctic disposition is dchncd, objcctivcly
and sub|cctivc|y, i n rclation to othcr dispositions. bjcctivc distancc
|rom ncccssity and |rom thosc trappcd within it combincs with a con
sciousdistanccwhichdoub|cs|rccdombycxhibitingit. As thcobjcctivc
distanccromncccssi tygrows,| i |c-stylcincrcasing|ybccomcs thcproduct
o what Wcbcr cal|s a ' sty|ization o| | i |c', a systcmatic commi tmcnt
56 / H eoa/ ci/ia e t/ aoomt .] 1ast:
which oricnts and organizcs thc most di vcrsc practiccs thc choicc o| a
vintagc ora chccsc or thc dccoration o|a holiday homc in thc country.
Thi s amrmation otpowcr ovcr a dominatcd ncccssity always impl ics a
claimtoalcgi timatc supcriori ty ovcr thosc who,bccausc thcy cannot as
scrt thc samc contcmpt |or conti ngcncics in gratui tous l uxury and con
spicuous consumption, rcmain dominatcd by ordi nary intcrcsts and
urgcncics.Thctastcsot|rccdomcan only asscrt thcmsclvcsassuch in rc
lationto thc tastcso|ncccssity,whicharc thcrcbybrought to thc lcvcl o|
thc acsthctic and so dchncd as vulgar. This claim to aristocracy is lcss
l ikcly to bc contcstcd than any othcr, bccausc thc rclation o|thc 'purc' ,
'disintcrcstcd' disposi tion to thc conditions which makc it possiblc, i . c. ,
thcmatcrial conditions o|cxistcnccwhi charc rarcst bccausc mosttrccd
trom cconomic ncccssi ty, has cvcry chancc o| passing unnoti ccd. Thc
most'classi(ing' privilcgc thus has thc privilcgc o|appcaring to bc thc
most natural onc.
1HL AL!ML1| C LNL A !ML LNL O! O| 1| NC1| ON Thus, thc acs
thctic disposition is onc dimcnsion o|a distant, scl |assurcd rclation to
thc world and to othcrs which prcsupposcs objcctivc assurancc and dis
tancc. It isonc mani tcstation otthc systcm o|dispositions produccd by
thcsocialconditioningsassoci atcd with aparticularclasso|conditionso|
cxistcncc whcn thcy takc thc paradoxical |orm o| thc grcatcst |rccdom
conccivablc, at agivcn momcnt, with rcspcct to thcconstraints otcco
nomicncccssity. 8utit isalso adistinctivccxprcssion otaprivilcgcd po
sition in social spacc whoscdistinctivc valuc is obj cctivcly cstablishcd in
its rcl ationship to cxprcssions gcncratcd |rom diHcrcnt conditions. Likc
cvcry sorto|tastc, itunitcs and scparatcs. 8cingthcproductotthc con
ditionings associatcd witha particularclasso|condi tionso|cxistcncc, it
uni tcs all thoscwho arc thc product otsimilar conditions whilc distin
guishing thcm tromall othcrs. And i tdistinguishcs in an csscntial way,
sincc tastc is thc basis otall that onc haoplc and things and all
that onc is tor othcrs, whcrcby onc cl assihcs oncscl |and is classihcd by
othcrs.
Tastcs ( i. c. , manitcstcd prctcrcnccs ) arc thc practical amrmation o|an
incvi tablc didcrcncc. It is no accidcnt that, whcn thcy havc to bc j usti-
hcd,thcyarcasscrtcdpurclyncgativcly,by thcrctusalotothcrtastcs.
+-
In
mattcrsottastc,morcthananywhcrcclsc,alldctcrminationisncgation,
:
and tastcs arc pcrhaps hrst and torcmost distastcs, disgustprovokcd by
horrororvisccral intolcrancc ( ' sickmaking' ) o|thctastcs otothcrs. ' Oc
gustibus non cst disputandum' . notbccausc ' tous lcs gots sontdans la
naturc' , butbccausccach tastctcclsi tscl ttobcnatura|and so italmost
is, bcinga habituswhich amounts to rcj cctingothcrs as unnatural and
thcrctorc vicious. Acsthctic intolcrancc can bc tcrribly violcnt. Avcrsion
todihcrcntl i |cstylcsispcrhapsoncotthcstrongcstbarricrsbctwccn thc
classcs,classcndogamyiscvidcncco|this. Thcmosti ntolcrablcthing |or
thoscwho rcgard thcmsclvcs as thcposscssors o|lcgitimatcculturc is thc
1h Hist.ag co/to / 5
sacrilcious rcuni tin o t tastcs which tastc dictatcs shall bc scparatcd.
Jhis mcans that thc amcs otartists and acsthctcs and thcirstrulcs tor
thc monopoly otartisticlci ti macy arc lcss i nnoccnt than thcy sccm. At
stakc i n cvcry strulc ovcr art thcrc is also thc imposition otanartot
living, that i s, thc transmutation otan arbi trary way otliving i nto thc
lci timatc way otl i tc which castscvcryothcrwayotlivini nto arbitrari-
ncss.
i
Jhc artist's l i tc-stylcisalwaysa challcngc thrown at thcbourcois
l i tc-stylc, whichi t sccks to condcmn as unrcal and cvcn absurd, by asort
otpractical dcmonstration otthccmpti ncss otthcvalucs and powcrs it
pursucs. Jhc ncutral izin rclation to thc world which dchncs thc acs-
thcticdispositionpotcntiallyimpl ics a subvcrsion otthcspi ritotscrious-
ncss rcgui rcd by bourcois invcstmcnts. Likc thc visibly cthical
| udgcmcntsotthoscwholackthcmcans tomakcart thcbasisotthcirart
otlivin, to scc thc world and othcr pcoplc throuh l i tcrary rcminis-
ccnccsandpictorial rctcrcnccs, thc' purc' andpurclyacsthctic| udcmcnts
otthc artist and thc acsthctc spring trom thc dispositions otan cthos,

butbccausc ot thc lci timacywhich thcycommandso lonas thcirrcla-


tionship to thc dispositions and intcrcsts ot a roup dchncd by stron
cultural capital and wcak cconomic capital rcmains unrcconizcd, thcy
providcasortotabsolutc rctcrcnccpoi ntinthcncccssarilycndlcssplayot
mutually scl t-rclativizin tastcs. By a paradoxical rcvcrsal , thcy thcrcby
hclp to lci timatc thc bourgcois claim to ' natural distinction` as dihcr-
cncc madc absolutc.
Cb| cctivcly and sub| cctivcly acsthctic stanccs adoptcd in mattcrs l i kc
cosmctics, clothin or homc dccoration arc opportuni tics to cxpcricncc
or asscrt onc's position in social spacc, as a rank to bc uphcld or a dis-
tancc to bc kcpt. It gocs without sayin that thc social classcs arc not
cgually inclincd and prcparcd to cntcr thisamc otrctusal and countcr-
rc|usal , and that thc stratcgics ai mcd at trans|orming thc basic disposi-
tions ot a l i tc-stylc i nto a systcm ot acsthctic principlcs, ob| cctivc
di hcrcnccs i nto clcctivc distinctions, passivc options consti tutcd cxtcr-
nallyby thc logic otthc distinctivcrclationships ) intoconscious, clcctivc
choiccsarc in tactrcscrvcd tor mcmbcrsotthc dominantclass,i ndccd thc
vcry top bourgcoisic, and tor artists, who as thc i nvcntors and protcs-
sionals otthc 'styl izationotl i tc' arc aloncablc to makc thcirartotlivin
onc ot thc hnc arts. By contrast, thc cntry ot thcpctitc bourgcoisic i nto
thc gamc otdistinction is markcd, i ntcralia, by thc anxicty otcxposin
oncscl t to classihcation by ohcrin to thc tastc otothcrs such intalliblc
indiccs otpcrsonal tastc as clothcs or turniturc, cvcn a simplc pair ot
armchairs, as i n onc otlathalic Sarrautc' s novcl s. As tor thc working
classcs, pcrhaps thcir solc tunction in thcsystcm otacsthctic positions is
to scrvcas a toi l , a ncgativc rctcrcncc point, in rcl ation to which all acs-
thctics dchnc thcmsclvcs, by succcssivc ncgations.

Inoringorinorant
otmanncrand stylc, thc ' acsthctic' [ ni tsclt) ot thc workinclasscs and
cul turally most dcprivcd tractions otthc middlc classcs dchncs as ' ni cc' ,
'prctty' , ' lovcly' [ rathcrthan'bcautitul' ) thingsthatarcal rcadydchncdas
58 , H .ia/ ci/:o ] /h o!gom/ ] 1as/
such in thc 'acsthctic' ot calcndars and postcards. a sunsct, a littlc girl
playing with acat, a tol kdancc,an old mastcr, a hrst communion, achil-
drcn`s proccssion. Jhc striving towards distinction comcs in with pctit-
bourgcois acsthcticism, which dclights in all thc chcap substitutcs tor
chic ob| ccts and practiccs-rittwood and paintcd pcbblcs, canc and rat-
ha, 'art' handicratts and art photography.
Jhis acsthcticism dchncs i tscltagainst thc 'acsthctic` otthc working
cl asscs, rctusing thcir tavouritc sub|ccts, thc thcmcs ot 'vicws' , such as
mountain landscapcs, sunscts and woods, orsouvcnirphotos,such as thc
hrst communion, thc monumcnt or thc ol d mastcr scc hgurc ! ) I n
photography, this tastcprctcrsob|cctsthatarc closc to thoscotthcpopu-
lar acsthctic but scmi-ncutralizcd by morc or lcss cxplicit rctcrcncc to a
pictorial tradition or by a visiblc stylistic intcntion combining thc
human picturcsquc wcavcr at his loom, trampsquarrcl ling, tol kdancc)
with gratuitous torm pcbblcs, ropc, trcc bark ) .
Tcchoi ci aos sccm to oHct thc putcst totm o t ' midd|cotow' tastc Thci t
tastcs i o photogtaphy |ocatc thcm ccot tal | y i o thc sttuctutc ot thc middlc
c| asscs scc hgutc 2 ) , wi th thc ctattsmco, smal l shopkccpcts, clctical wotk
cts aod j uoiot cxccutivcs i ocl i oiog towatds thc wotkiog class aod thc pti
maty tcachcts aod ocw pcti t ooutgcoi s i ocl i oi og towatds thc uppct cl asscs.
Thcy atc patti culat| y dtawo to thc objccts most typical ot mi ddlcotow pho
togtaphythc wcavct, thc sti l l l i tcwhctcas thc ocw pcti t boutgcois ptctct
ooj ccts whi ch thcy scc as l yi og outsidc thc tcpcttoi tc ot thc t tadi tiooal acs
thctic aod |hCtClOtC mOtC 'Ot_ D1 [ tOQC, C1UU1_C ) , 1Dd 1O thOC UCOD_
iog to thc 'soci al pi ctutcsquc' ( ttamps quattcl l i ng) .
I t i s signihcantthatthismiddlc-brow artparcxccllcncchndsoncotits
prctcrrcd sub| ccts in onc otthcspcctaclcs most charactcristic otmiddlc-
browcul turc alongwith thccircus, lightopcraand bul l-hghts ) , thc toIk
dancc which is particularIy apprcciatcd by skiIlcd workcrs and torcmcn,
| unior cxccutivcs, clcrical and commcrcial cmployccs ) C.S. VI I ) . Likc
thc photographic rccordingot thc social picturcsquc, whoscpopulistob-
| cctivism distanccs thc lowcrcIasscs by constituting thcmas an ob|cct ot
contcmplation or cvcn commiscration or indignation, thc spcctacIc ot
thc'pcoplc' makingaspcctaclcotitscl t, asin tol kdancing,is an opportu-
nity to cxpcricncc thc rclationship otdistant proximity, in thc torm ot
thcidcalizcd visionpurvcycd by acsthctic rcaIism and populist nostalgia,
which is a basic clcmcnt in thc rclationship otthc pctitc bourgcoisic to
thc working or pcasant classcs and thcirtraditions. But this middlc-brow
acsthcticismin turnscrvcsas a toil to thc mostaIcrt mcmbcrs otthc ncw
middlc-class tractions, who rcjcctits tavourcd sub|ccts, and to thcsccond-
ary tcachcrs whosc acsthcticism thc acsthcticism ot consumcrs, sincc
thcy arc rcIativcly intrcqucnt practitioncrs otphotography and thcothcr
arts ) purports to bc ablc to trcat any ob|cct acsthctically, with thccxccp-

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60 / soa/ critia. s] t/. amt s] 1ast.


tton ot thosc so constt tutcd by thc mt ddcbrov art ot thc pctt tc bour
cotstc such as thc vcavcr and thc tol kdancc, vhtch arc dccmcd mcrcly
`t ntcrcsttn
,
) .
+
Jhcsc vouldbc acsthctcs dcmonstratc by thctr dt stt nc
tt vc rctusals that thcy posscss thc practtca mastcry ot thc rcl attonshtps
bctwccn ob| ccts and roups vht ch ts thc basts otall j udcmcnts otthc
typc `[a tat t' `I t looks . . . ' `[a tat t pctt tbourcot s' , `[a tat t nouvcau
rtchc' ctc. , vt thout bct n abc to o so tar as to ascrtbc bcauty to thc
most markcd ob| ccts otthc popular acsthcttc hrst communton) or thc
pctt tbourcot s acsthcttc mothcr and cht l d, tol k dancc vhtch thc rcla
ttons otstructura proxt mt ty spontancously lcad thcm to dctcst.
Lxpl t ct tacsthcttc chotccs arc t n tact ottcn constt tutcd t n opposttton to
thc chotccs otthcroups closcst t n soct a spacc, vtth vhom thc compc
tt tt on ts most dtrcct and most t mmcdtatc, and morc prcctscl y, no doubt,
t n rcl att on to thosc chot ccs most clcarly markcd by thc t ntcntton pcr
cctvcd as prctcnston ) ot marktn dt stt nctt on vt savts l ovcr roups, such
as, tor t ntcl lcctuas, thc prt mary tcachcrs' Brasscns, can Icrrat or Icrrc.
Jhus thc son, as a cul turalpropcrty vht ch l tkcphotoraphy) ts almost
unt vcrsal l yacccsstblc andcnutncly common stncc hardly anyonc tsnot
cxposcd at oncmomcnt or anothcr to thc `succcsscs' ot thc day , calls tor
partt cul ar vttl ancc trom thosc vho tntcnd to mark thctr dt hcrcncc. Jhc
t ntcllcctuals, arttsts and ht hcrcducatton tcachcrs sccm to hcst tatc bc
tvccn systcmattc rctusal otvhatcan onl y bc, at bcst, a mtddlcbrov art,
and a sclccttvc acccptancc vhtch mant tcsts thc untvcrsal t ty otthctr cul
turc and thct r acsthcttc dt sposttt on. Ior thct r part, thc cmpoycrs and
protcsstonas, vho havc l t ttlc tntcrcst tn tC ` ! ntC Cct ua Cn_, ! nO! catC
thctr dt stancc trom ordtnary sons by rc|ccttn vt th dt sust thc most
popul ar and most `vular' st ncrs, such as s fompanons dc l a fhan
son, Mtrct l l cMathtcu, AdamoorShctla, and maktn an cxccpttontor thc
odcst and most consccratcd st ncrs l tkc Ldt th tator fharlcs Jrcnct )
orthosccoscst toopcrctta and bcl canto. Buttt ts thc mtddlccl asscs vho
hndt nson as t nphotoraphy anopportunt ty to mant tcst thctrartt stt c
prctcnston by rctustn thc tavourt tc st ncrs otthc vorktn classcs, such
as Mt rct llc Mathtcu, Adamo, fharlcs Aznavour or Jtno Kosst , and dc
cartn thctr prctcrcncc tor thc stncrs vho cndcavour to dtnt ty thts
` mt nor' cnrc. Jhat ts why thc prt mary tcachcrs dt stt nutsh thcmscl vcs
most clcarly trom thc othcr tracttons ot thc pctt tc bourcotstc tn thts
arca, vhcrc, morc cast l y than t n thc domat n otlct tt matc art, thcy can
t nvcst thctracadcmt cdtspost ttons and asscrt thctrovn tastc tn thc chotcc
otst ncrs vhoohcrpopul t stpoctry tn thc prt maryschool tradt tt on, such
as acqucs Iouat or Brasscns vho vas on thc syllabus ot thc Sat nt
foud cntrancc cxamt natton a tcv ycars ao) .

!n aOO tCn tC thC Oata QtCVOCO Uy thC utVCy QuCtCn, uC Wa aC maOC


CI thC hnOn_ CI a utVCy Uy thC CQnCn tCCatth OCQattmCnt CI thC
1h Hists.ag s] co/to / 6I
frcuch oroadcast| ug scrv|cc , O RTf) C S XlX) audo|th| rty | udcpth | u
tcrv|cwsdcs|gucd to grasp thccoustcl l at| ouo|prc|crcuccs audrc|usals | u
coud| t| ousas closc asposs|blc toord| uary couvcrsat| ou. Thcsc | utcrv|cws
couhrmcd that, as thcORTfsurvcy also shows, thc morc strougly a s|ugcr
| sprc|crrcd oy thc lcss cul t|vatcd, thc morc hcorshc | s rc|uscdoy thc most
cul t|vatcdwhosc tastcs | u th| sarcaarcalmostcxclus|vclycxprcsscd | u rc
j cct|ous Thcsc rc|usals, almostalways cxprcsscd |u thcmodc o|d| stastc, arc
o|tcu accompau|cd oy p| ty| ug or | ud|guaut rcmarks aoout thc corrcspoud
|ug tastcs ' l cau' t uudcrstaud how auyouccau l | kc that' ' )
S| m| l arly, ouchuds thatthcdccl | u| ug pct| tc ourgco|s|csystcmat|cally rc
jccts thcv| rtucs that thc ucw pctitc oourgco| s| cmost rcad| l ycl a| ms |or | t
scl | w| tty, rchucd, styl | sh, art|st|c, | mag| uat|vc ) , whcrcas thcl attcrs|guals
| ts acsthct|c prctcus|ou oya rc|usal o|thcmost typ|cally ' oourgco| s' couhg-
urat|ousaud oy a couccru to go aga| ustcommou j udgcmcuts, |u wh|ch acs
thct|c comm| tmcuts hgurc prom| ucutl y Thus, whcu askcd to statc thc |dcal
qual| t|cs o|a |r|cudora domcst| c| utcr|or, thcy producc motlcy como|ua
t|ous such as 'art|st|c, soc|aolc, amus| ug, com|ortaolc,casy to ma| uta| u,
| mag|uat|vc' salcs rcprcscutat|vc, Par|s ) , 'dyuam| c, pragmat|c, styl| sh, stud
|cd, warm, | mag|uat|vc' gallcry d| rcctor, I| l lc ) , ' dyuam|c, rchucd, prag
mat| c, com|ortaolc, harmou|ous, cosy' rad|oprcscutcr, I| l l c ) . lt |s aga|u a
s| m|larproccss thatlcads thc mcmocrs o|thcpro|css|ous to d|st| ugu|sh
thcmscl vcs |rom ucwcomcrs to thcoourgcois|coy rcjcct|ug thcqual| t|cs o|
amo| t| ou audupwardmoo| l | ty, such as 'pragmat| c' , ' dyuam|c' o|tcu choscu
oy mauagcr|al cxccut|vcs ) , or thc most 'prctcut| ous' adj cct|vcs, such as ' styl
| sh' or' rchucd' , wh|ch arc much |avourcd oy thc ucw pct| tc oourgco|s|c
It may alsobcassumcd that thc amrmation otthcomnipotcnccotthc
acsthctic gatc tound among highcr-cducation tcachcrs, thc group most
inclincd to say that all thc ob|ccts mcntioncd could makc a bcautitul
photograph and toprotcss thci rrccognitionotmodcrn artorotthcartis-
t|c st at usotthcphotograph, s tcmsmuchmorc |romascl |d| st| ngu| sh| ng
i ntcntion than trom a truc acsthctic uni vcrsal i sm. Jhis has not cscapcd
thc most knowing avant-gardc produccrs, who carry sumcicnt authori ty
to challcngc, i tnccdbc, thcvcry dogmaotthcomnipotcnccotart,

and
arci naposi tion torccognizc this tai thas a dctcnsivcmanocuvrc toavoid
scl tcxposurc by rccklcss rctusals. ' Mho would say this. "Mhcn I lookat
a pi cturc, I ` m not i ntcrcstcd i n what i t rcprcscnts ' lowadays, thcsort
ot pcoplc who don` t know much about art. Saying that is typical ot
somconc who hasn` t any idca about art. Jwcnty ycars ago, I`m DO1 cvcn
surc that twcnty ycars ago thc abstract paintcrs would havc said that, I
don` t think so. It` scxactly whata guy says whcn hc hasn` t a cluc. "I` m
notoncotthcsc ol d togics, I knowwhatcounts is whcthcri t` sprctty
,
avant-gardcpaintcr, agc ) ) Jhcy alonc, at all cvcnts, can ahord thc au-
dacious i mposturc otrctusing all rctusals by rccupcrating, in parody or
sublimation, thc vcry ob| ccts rctuscd by thc l owcr-dcgrcc acsthcticism.
Jhc' rchabi li tation` ot' vulgar` ob|ccts is morc risky, but also morc 'prot-
i tablc` , thc smallcr thc distancc in social spacc or timc, and thc 'horrors`
2 / H \:ia/ cri/iqu: ] /b: ud
f
m:/ ] 1a:/:
otpopular kitsch arc casicr to ' rccupcratc` than thosc otpctit-bourcoi s
i mi tation, | ust as thc 'abomi nations' otbourcoi s tastc can bci n to O
tound ' amusin' whcn thcy arc sumcicntly datcd to ccasc to bc 'compro-
mi sin' .
Sumcc | t to po| ut outthat, |u add| t|ou to thoscsuojccts wh|ch had al rcady
occu coust| tutcd as acsthct|c at thc t| mco|thcsurvcy, c| thcroya p|ctor|al
trad| t|ou c g. , thc mctal |ramco|lgcr orGroma|rc, thctrampsquarrcl
l | ug, a var| auto|au old thcmc o|rcal | stpa| ut|ugo|tcu takcu up | uphotog
raphy, or thc outchcr'sstall ) , oroy thc photograph| c trad| t|ou c g , thc
wcavcr, thc|ol kdaucc, thcoark) , mosto|thc' oaual' suoj cctshavc suosc
qucutl yoccu coust| tutcd acsthct|cally oy ouc avautgardc pa|utcror auothcr
|orcxamplc, thcsuusctovcr thcsca, oy R|chcr, who pa|uts typ|cally ro
maut| claudscapcs |rom photographs, or Loug aud Ful tou, fugl |sh pa|utcrs
who makc 'couccptual ' l audscapc photographs, orcvcu Laud Art, orthc car
crash, oy Audy Warhol , or thc tramps' quarrc| , w|th thc ' tramps slccp| ug |u
thc Bowcry' o|thcAmcr|cau hypcrrcal| sts, or thc |rstcommuu| ou, oy Bo|
tausk|, who hascvcu g|vcu art|st|c status to thc |am| l yal oumctc ) Thc
oul y' uurccupcratcd' aud, |or thcmomcut, ' | rrccupcraolc' suoj ccts arc thc |a
vour| tc thcmcs o|hrstdcgrcc acsthct| c| sm, thcwcavcr at h| s loom, thc |ol k
daucc, t hctrccoark, audt hcwomau suckl|uga ch| l d Thcy arc too c| osc t o
|avourt hcJauut| ugo|au aosol utc powcro|acsthct|c coust| tut| ou, audoc
causc thcy do uot allow d| staucc tooc mau| |cstcd, thcy arc morc l | aolc to
oc m| stakcu |or ' |rstdcgrcc' | utcut|ous Rcappropr|at|ou |s that much morc
d| mcul twhcu thc acsthct|c|u| tscl |wh|ch | t works ou clcarly mau| |csts rcc
ogu| t| ou o|thcdom| uautacsthct|cso that thcd| st| uct|vcdcv|at|ou |s | | ao|e
togo uuuot|ccd
Jhcartistarccs wi th thc ' bourcois` in oncrcspcct. hcprctcrsnaivcty
to ' prctcntiousncss' Jhc csscntial mcrit o|thc 'common pcoplc' is that
thcy havc nonc o| thc prctcnsions to art or powcr) which i nspi rc thc
ambi ti ons o| thc 'pcti t bourcoi s' . Jhci r i ndi hcrcncc taci tly acknowl-
cdcs thc monopoly. Jhat is why, i n thc mytholoy otartists and i ntcl-
lcctuals, whosc outUanking and doublc-ncating stratcgics somcti mcs
lcad thcm back to 'popular' tastcs andopintons, thc 'pcoplc' soottcn pl ay
a rolc not unl ikc that ot thc pcasantry in thc conscrvativc idcoloics ot
thcdccl i nin aristocracy
lu |act, thc| r'prctcus|ou' lcavcs thcpct | t oourgco|spart| cul arlyd|sarmcd | u
thclcss lcg| t | matc oruotyctlcg| t| matc doma| uswh| chthccul tural 'cl| tc'
aoaudou to thcm, whcthcr |u photography or | uc| ucma, |u wh|ch thc|r am
o| t|ousarc o|tcu cxprcsscd as |sshowu, |or cxamplc, | u thc |act that thc
gap octwccu thcpct| tc oourgco|s|caud thcoourgco|s|c| s much lcss w|dc
rcgard|ugkuowlcdgc o|c| ucmad| rcctors thau o|composcrs ) Thc ucwstylc
pct| toourgco| s, who, cou|routcd w| th oo cct| vcly raukcd j udgcmcuts, arc
aolc tochoosc thc ' r|ght' auswcr, arc almostas d|sarmcd as thc work| ug
1b. Hrists.rag s) ca/tar. / 63
classcs whcn faccd with an opportuni ty for acsthctic consti tution of an ob-
|cct ( not a singlc small art-dcalcr says that a car accidcnt can makc a bcauti-
ful photo, and thc scrap-yard arouscs similar rcsponscs ) .
Lulurn Pcd

cc
Whilcvariations i ncducational capi tal arc always vcry closcly rclatcd to
variations in compctcncc, cvcn in arcas, likc cincma or j azz, which arc
ncithcr taught nor dircctly asscsscd by thc cducational systcm, thc |act
rcmainsthat, atcquivalcnt lcvcls o|cducationalcapital, diHcrcnccs in so
cial origin ( whosc 'cHccts' arc alrcady cxprcsscd in diHcrcnccs in cduca
tional capital ) arc associatcd with important diHcrcnccs in compctcncc.
Thcsc diHcrcnccs bccomc all thc morc striking ( cxccpt at thc highcst
cducational lcvcls, whcrc ovcr-sclcction tcnds to ncutralizc diHcrcnccs o|
tra|cctory) , hrstly,whcnoncappcalslcsstoastrict,andstrictlyasscssablc,
compctcnccandmorc toasorto||amiliarity with culturc, and,sccondly,
3 oncmovcs |rom thc most'scholastic'and' classical ' arcas o|cul turc to
lcss lcgi timatc and morc ' outlandish' arcas o|thc 'cxtra-curricul ar' cul-
turc, whichisnottaughtinschoolsbutisvalucdin thcacadcmicmarkct
and can o|tcn yicld high symbolic proht. Thc rclativc wcight o|cduca-
tional capital in thc systcm o| cxplanatory |actors can cvcn bc much
wcakcrthan thato|socialoriginwhcn thcrcspondcntsarc onlyrcquircd
to cxprcss a status-induccd |amil iarity with lcgitimatc or soon-to-bc lc-
gitimatcd culturc, aparadoxical rclationship madc up o|thatmixturc o|
scl |assuranccand ( rclativc) ignorancc, cxprcssing trucbourgcois rights,
which arc mcasurcd by scniority.
At cgual cducational lcvcls, thc proportion who say thcy know at lcast
twclvc of thc musical works mcntioncd incrcascs morc 'shaqly than thc pro-
portion who can attributc at lcast twclvc of thcm to thcir composcrs, as
onc movcs from thc working class to thc uppcr class [ and thc gap is vcry
narrow among graduatcs ) [ scc tablc 4 ) . Jhc samc logic govcrns thc didcr-
cnccs by scx, cxccpt that thcy arc lcss markcd. hcrcas, as rcgards com-
poscrs, no didcrcnccs arc mund bctwccn thc scxcs among individuals of thc
samc class, strong didcrcnccs appcar i n favour of womcn as rcgards famili ar-
ity with works, cspccially in thc middlc and uppcr classcs [ i n thc working
class, this knowlcdgc is vcry l i mi tcd i n both scxcs ) , i n thc two most fcmi-
ninc occupational catcgoricsthc mcdical and social scrviccs and sccrc-
taric+all thc pcrsons gucstioncd claimcd to know at lcast thrcc of thc
works. Jhis dihcrcncc in thc cxpcricntial or statcd rclationship to music i s
no doubt pardy cxplaincd by thc fact that thc tradi tional division of labour
assigns to womcn famil iarity with thc things of art and li tcraturc.
Jhc dihcrcnccs l i nkcd to social origin arc also vcry strong as rcgards
knowlcdgc of hl m di rcctors, which, at cqual cducational lcvcls, riscs with
social origin. O too docs thc proportion who asscrt that ' ugly` or trivial
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1b. Hrists.rag s ca/tar. / 65
ob| ccts can makc a bcautiful photograph. ^ccdlcss to say, corrcsponding to
thc didcrcnt modcs ot acguisition, thcrc arc didcrcnccs in thc naturc of thc
works prcfcrrcd. Jhc didcrcnccs l inkcd to social origin tcnd to incrcasc as
onc movcs away from thc acadcmic curriculum, from li tcraturc to painting
or classical music and a fortiori | azz or avant-gardc art.
An carlicr survcy showcd that studcnts of working-class or middlc-class
origin who had scorcs similar to thosc of studcnts of bourgcois origin in
classical culturc tcll back as thc tcst movcd towards 'cxtra-curricular` cul-
turc, i. c. , both avant-gardc thcatrc and Paris 'boulcvard` [ mi ddlc-brow) thc-
atrc. Cnc hnds an cntircly analogous rclation hcrc bctwccn thc artistic
produccrs and thc sccondary tcachcrs [ or cvcn thc art tcachcrs, who-as is
cvidcnt i n anothcr survcy now bcing analyscd-spccially whcn thcy arc of
working-class or middlc-class origi n, mostly havc vcry 'classical` tastcs and
arc much closcr to thc tcachcrs than to thc artists ) .
Jhosc who havc acgui rcd thc bulk of thcir cultural capital i n and for
school havc morc 'classical ` , satcr cultural i nvcstmcnts than thosc who havc
rcccivcd a largc cultural inhcri tancc. For cxamplc, whcrcas thc mcmbcrs of
thc dominant class wi th thc highcst gualihcations [ thc agr/gatiso or a di-
ploma from a grao as/ ) ncvcr mcntion ccrtain works or ccrtain paintcrs
typical of middlc-brow culturc, such as Budct or \trillo, havc considcrablc
knowlcdgc of composcrs, and prctcr thc / 1r. c/a:i.r or thc Iir
/ir :ait., thc highly cducatcd mcmbcrs of thc working and middlc classcs
morc oftcn makc choiccs which indicatc thcir rcspcct for a morc 'scholastic`
culturc [ Goya, Lconardo, Brcughcl, attcau, Raphacl ) , and a signihcant
proportion of thcm concur with thc opinion that 'pai nti ngs arc nicc but
dimcult` . By contrast, thosc who origi natc from thc dominant class know
morc works and morc oftcn choosc works furthcr from 'scholastic` cul turc
( Braguc, cso..rts ]sr th. Lq Hao) Similarly, thosc mcmbcrs of thc cstab-
lishcd pctitc bourgcoisic [ craftsmcn, shopkccpcrs, clcrical and commcrcial
cmployccs, | unior cxccutivcs ) who havc rclativcly low cducational capi tal
( BEPC or bclow) makc choiccs clcarly markcd by thcir tra| cctory. Jhus,
thosc who arc rising socially show thcir rcspcct for lcgi timatc cul turc in
various ways [ c. g. , thcy arc morc l i kcly to agrcc that 'pai ntings arc nicc but
dimcul t` ) and choosc works typical of middlc-brow [ Budct, \ trillo) or
cvcn popular tastc ( B/a Oaoa/ ) Howcvcr, thosc whosc fathcrs bclongcd
to thc uppcr classcs manifcst, at cguivalcnt lcvcls of cducational capi tal,
grcatcr familiari ty with musical works [ al though thcy arc no morc familiar
with thc composcrs` namcs ) , | ust as thcy morc oftcn say thcy l i kc thc Im-
prcssionists, visit muscums morc ottcn and morc oftcn choosc acadcmically
consccratcd works [ Raphacl or Lconardo) .
HANNLk ANO HANNLk O! ACQU! ! 1! ON Cultural or l i nguistic)
compctcncc, which is acqui rcd in rcl ation to a particular hcld tunction
ingbothasasourccotinculcationandasamarkct,rcmainsdchncdbyi ts
conditions otacqui si ti on. Thcsc conditions, pcrpctuatcd i n thcmodcot
utilizationi . c. , inagivcnrclationshiptoculturcorlanguagc-tunction
likcasortot' tradc-mark',and,byli nki ngthatcompctcncctoaparticular
markct,hclptodchncthcvalucoti tsproductsi nthcvariousmarkcts. In
^^ , \ecia/ cri/ia. e/ /h. adg..r/ e/ 1as/.
othcr vords, vhat arc raspcd throuh tndtcators such as cducattona
cvcl or socta orttn or, morc prcctscy, tn thc structurc ot thc rcatt on
sht p bctvccn thcm, arc a/:e dt hcrcnt modcs ot productton ot thc cutt
vatcd habt tus, vht ch cncndcr dt hcrcnccs not ony tn thc compctcnccs
acqutrcd but also tn thc manncr ot appytn thcm. Jhcsc dt hcrcnccs tn
manncr constt tutc a sct ot sccondary propcrttcs, rcvcatn dt hcrcnt con
dt ttons otacqutst tton and prcdtsposcd to rccctvc vcry dt hcrcnt vaucs tn
thc vartous markcts.
Knovtn that `manncr' ts a symbotc manttcstatton vhosc mcantn
and vaucdcpcnd as much on thc pcrcctvcrs as on thc produccr, onc can
scc hov t t ts that tbc manncr ot ustn symbotc oods, cspcctay thosc
rcardcd as thc attri butcs otcxcccncc, constt tutcs onc ot thc kcy mark
crs ot`cl ass' and also thc tdcavcapon tnstratctcsotdtsttnctton, that ts,
as roust put t t, `thctnhnt tcy vartcd art otmarktndtstanccs' . Jhctdco
oy otnatura tastccontrasts tvo modat ttcs otcul tura compctcncc and
t ts usc, and, bchtnd thcm, tvo modcs ot acgutst tton ot cuturc
-
Jotal ,
cary, t mpcrccptt bc carntn, pcrtormcd vt thtn thc tamt y trom thc car
tcst days ott tc and cxtcndcd by a schol asttccarntn vhtch prcsupposcs
and compctcs t t , dt hcrs trom bclatcd, mcthodtca carntn not so much
tn thc dcpth and durabttty ott ts chccts-as thc tdcooy otcutura `vc
nccr' voul d havc t t-as tn thc modat ty ot thc rcatt onshtp to l anuac
and cuturc vht ch tt st mul tancousy tcnds to tncucatc.

I t contcrs thc
sctccrtatnty vhtch accompantcs thc ccrtatnty otposscsstn cutura c
t tt macy, and thc casc vhtch ts thc touchstonc otcxcccncc, tt produccs
thc paradoxtca rcattonshtp to cuturc madc up ot sctconhdcncc amtd
rcatt vc) tnorancc andotcasuancss amt d tamttart ty, vhtch bourcots
tamttcs hand dovn to thctr ohsprtn as tt tt vcrc an hctrl oom.
Jhc compctcncc ot thc `connotsscur', an unconsctous mastcry otthc
tnstrumcnts ot approprt att on vhtch dcrtvcs trom sov tamt t artzatton
and t s thc basts ottamtt art ty vt th vorks, ts an `art' , a practtca mastcry
vht ch, t kc an art ot thtnktn or an art ot l t vtn, cannot bc transmt t tcd
solcl y by prcccpt or prcscrt ptt on. Lcarntn t t prcsupposcs thc cqut vacnt
ot thc prooncd contact bctvccn dtsctpc and mastcr tn a tradt tt ona
cducatton, t . c. , rcpcatcdcontact vtth cuturavorks and cuturcd pcopc.
And | ustas thcapprcnttccordtsctpc can unconsctousy acqutrc thc rucs
ot thc art, tncludtn thosc that arc not consctousy knovn to thc mastcr
ht msct, by mcans otasctabandonmcnt, cxcudtn anaystsand sccctton
otthcccmcnts otthccxcmpary conduct, so too thc artovcr, tna scnsc
surrcndcrtn ht mscl t to thc vork, can tntcrnal tzc t ts prtnctpcs ot con
structt on, vt thoutthcsccvcr bctn brouht to hts consctousncss and tor
muatcd or tormuabc as such, and thts ts vhat makcs a thc dt hcrcncc
bctvccn thc thcory otart and thc cxpcrtcncc ot thc connotsscur, vho ts
cncraly tncapabc otstattn thc prtnctplcs ot hts | udcmcnts. By con
trast, al t nstt tutt onal tzcd carntn prcsupposcs a dcrcc ot ratt onatza
tton, vht ch cavcs t ts mark on thc rcatt onshtp to thc oods consumcd.
Jhcsovcrctnpcasurc otthc acsthctc dtspcnscs vtth conccpts It ts op
T/r ZrtJtcrraq c[Cuuurr / /
poscd as much to thc thoughtlcss plcasurc ot thc ' naivc` glorihcd i n idc-
ology through thc myth ot chil dhood and thc i nnoccnt cyc) as to thc
supposcdly plcasurclcss thought ot thc pctit bourgcois and thc 'parvcnu` ,
who arc always cxposcd t o thosc torms ot acsthctic pcrvcrsion which put
knowlcdgc abovc cxpcricncc and sacrihcc contcmplation ot t hc work to
discussion ot thc work, atJt/rJtJ to aJkrJtJ, l ikc hlm-buns who know
cvcrything thcrc is to know about hlms thcy havc not sccn. ` ot that
thc cducational systcm cvcr cnti rcly tulhls i ts rational tunction. thc cs-
scntial part ot what schools communicatc is again acquircd incidcntall y,
such as thc systcm ot cl assihcation which thc school systcm inculcatcs
through thc ordcr i n which it inculcatcs knowlcdgc or through thc prc-
supposi tions ot i ts own organization thc hicrarchy ot disciplincs, scc-
tions, cxcrciscs ctc. ) or i ts opcration modc ot asscssmcnt, rcwards and
punishmcnts ctc. ) . But, in ordcr to transmi t at al l , it has to pcrtorm a
dcgrcc ot rational i zation ot what i t transmits. Thus, tor cxamplc, in placc
ot practical schcmcs ot cl assihcation, which arc always partial and linkcd
to practical contcxts, it puts cxplicit, standardi zcd taxonomics, hxcd oncc
and tor all in thc torm ot synoptic schcmas or dualistic typologics c. g. ,
'classical`/'romantic` ) , whi ch arc cxprcssly inculcatcd and thcrctorc con-
scrvcd i n thc mcmory as knowlcdgc that can bc rcproduccd i n virtually
idcntical torm by all thc agcnts sub| cctcd to i ts action.
JO avOtd any aOsOutt zattOn OI thc cuturc tn rcatiOn tO whtch thc autOdt
dact' s mtddc-OrOw cuturc ts OO|ccttvcy dchncd, t t has tO Oc rcmcmOcrcd
that thc ht_hcr Onc rtscs tn thc sOcta htcrarchy, thc mOrc Onc' s tastcs arc
shagcd

y thc Or_ant zattOn and OcrattOn OI thc cducattOna systcm, whtch


ts rcsOnstOc IOr tncucattn_ thc `rO_rammc' [ sya

us and tntccctua
schcmcs ) whtch _Ovcrns `cu!ttvatcd mtnds cvcn tn thctr ursut t OI thc `cr
sOna tOuch` and thctr asgtrattOn tO 'Ort_tna t ty' . Ltscrcanctcs bctwccn cdu
cattOna guathcattOns and cutura cOmgctcncc [ tnkcd tO sOcta tra|cctOry
and ar_cy attrtOutaOc tO thc dOmcsttc transmtsstOn OI nOn-schOasttc cu
tura cat ta ) arc, hOwcvcr, sumctcnty Ircgucnt tO sa!c_uard thc trrcductOt
t ty, rccO_ntzcd cvcn Oy acadcmtcs, O! `authcnttc' cuturc tO `schOasttc'
knOwcd_c, whtch as such ts dcvaucd.
By providing thc mcans ot cxprcssion which cnablc practical prctcr-
cnccs to bc brought to thc lcvcl ot quasisystcmatic discoursc and to bc
consciously organizcd around cxplicit principlcs, thc cducational systcm
makcs possiblc a morc or lcss adcquatc) symbolic mastcry ot thc practi-
cal principlcs ot tastc. As grammar docs tor l i nguistic compctcncc, i t ra-
tionalizcs thc ' scnsc ot bcauty` , i n thosc who al rcady havc i t, giving thcm
thc mcans ot rctcrring to principlcs ot harmony or rhctoric, tor cxam-
plc ) , prcccpts, tormulac, instcad ot rclying on i mprovisation, i t substi-
tutcs thc i ntcntional quasi systcmaticity ot a tormal acsthctic tor thc
ob| cctivc systcmaticity ot thc ' acsthctic-in-itscl t` produccd by thc practi-
cal principlcs ot tastc. Thus acadcmicism is potcntially prcscnt i n cvcry
68 / H soa/ Crtttqu: th: ua:m:nt 1a:t:
t1t|OD1 QCd1_O_y wh| ch tCDds tO cODVCy QtCcCmC1 , t n 1 dOctt|D1 sCt O|
CxQ | c| t DOtms 1Dd |Otmu 1C, CxQ |c| ty t1u_ht, _CnCt1 y DC_1tt VC t1thCt
th1D QO| t| VC, Wh1t tt1d| t|OD1 C1tD| D_ tt1nm| t | D thC IOtm OI 1 tOt1
tyC d| tCcty _t1QCd |D Qt1ct|cC. Dut 1OVC 1 -1Dd th| | why 1CthCtC
sO 1hOt QCd1_O_uC 1Dd QCd1_O_y-thC t1t|OD1 tC1ch| D_ OI 1tt QtOV|dC
sut| tutC IOt d| tCct CxQCt|CDcC, | t OUCt hOtt cut OD thC OD_ Q1th OI
I1m| | 1t| 1t| OD, |t m1kCs QOs|C Qt1ct| cCs wh|ch 1tC thC QtOduct O| cOD
cCQt 1Dd tuCs | DstC1d OI sQt|D_|D_ ItOm thC sujjOCO QODt1DCt ty O|
t1tC, thCtCy OUCt|D_ 1 O ut|OD tO thOC WhO hOQC tO m1kC uQ IOt Ot
t| mC.
hC | dCOO_y OI D1tut1 t1tC OWC | t Q 1us| | | ty 1Dd | t Cmc1cy tO thC
I1ct th1t, |kC 1 thC |dCOO_|c1 stt1tC_|C _CDCt1tCd | D thC CVCtyd1y c 1ss
ttu__C, |t oataa/izs tC1 d| UCtCDcC, cODVCtt|D_ d| UCtCDcC |D thC mOdC
OI 1cQu| | t|OD OI cu tutC | DtO d| UCtCDcC O| D1tUtC, | t ODy tCcO_D|C
1 C_| t| m1tC thC tC 1t| OD tO cu tutC [ Ot 1D_u1_C ) wh| ch C1t C1t thC
V| | C m1tk OI | t _CDC|, wh| ch h1 DOth| D_ `1c1dCm| c , `schO 1st| c ,
` OOk| h , `1UCctCd Ot `tud|Cd 1Out | t , ut m1D| ICt y | t C1C 1Dd D1t
ut1 DC th1t ttuC cu tutC |s D1tutC-1 DCw mytCty OI | mm1cu1tC cOn
cCQt| OD. h| | cC1ty sCCD | D thC tCm1tk O| 1D 1CthCtC OI thC cu | D1ty
1tt, WhO Wt| tCs DO d| UCtCDt y |tOm |CttC t1nc1stC whCD thC 1ttCt, |D 1
dCV1t1t| D_ cODIC|OD IOt 1D 1tt h| stOt|1D, tC| Cc t ` | DtC Cctu1 | Cd kDOw
Cd_C , wh|ch c1D ODy ` tCcO_D| C , | D I1VOut OI `V|su1 CxQCt|CDcC , thC
OC mC1D OI 1ccC tO ` ttuC V| | OD
,
.
' 1ast mut DOt C cODIuCO W| th gastoo, hCtC1 t1tC | thC oat
aa/ gq OI tCcO_D| | D_ 1Dd OV|D_ QCtICct| OD, _1ttODOmy | thC Ct OI
a/s wh| ch _OVCtD thC cu t|V1t|OD 1Dd da.atiso Ol t1tC. \1sttODOmy ts
tO t1tC 1 aooa 1Dd | tCt1tutC 1tC tO thC /itag sms ^DO th| t|D_s
u tO thC hC1tt OI thC QtOCm. |I thC _OutmCt | 1 OC| c1tC .oosissa, |s
thC _1ttODOmC 1 daot . . . hC _OutmCt | h| OwD _1ttODOmC, | ut 1
thC m1D OI t1tC | h| OWD _t1mm1t|1D . . . Ot CVCtyODC | 1 _OutmCt,
th1t | Why WC DCCd _1ttODOmC. C mut OOk uQOD _1ttODOmC 1
WC OOk uQOD QCd1_O_uC | D _CDCt1 . thCy 1tC OmCt| mCs | DtOCt1C jCO
1Dt, ut thCy h1VC thC| t uC. hCy COD_ tO thC /u, oast a, 1Dd
|t | uQ tO thCm tO | mQtOVC th| ath oio gm y mC1D OI t1ct, tC
tt1| Dt 1DO CC_1Dt |_htDC . . . hCtC | uch 1 th| D_ 1 1d t1tC . . . 1Dd
QCtOD OI rommt kDOW th| iostio.ti:/, Ot thOC WhO dO DOt, tuC
1tC DCCdCd. '
DOW!Cd_C y CXQCt|CDcC, Wh| ch, | kC ^Qu| D1 .sgoiti Di _m
ta/is, ICC 1Dd dCQ OtC thC CCDt|1 | D1dCQu1cy OI WOtd 1Dd cODcCQt tO
CXQtC thC tC1| ty ` t1tCd | D myt| c1! uD| OD, tC| Cct 1 uDWOtthy thC | D
tCCctu1 OVC OI 1tt, thC kDOWCd_C Wh| ch |dCDt| UC CXQCt|CDcC OI thC
WOtk W| th 1D | DtCCctu1 OQCt1t|OD OI dCc|QhCt| D_. `
SCHCLARS AO GITLIMI hC O| UCtCDcC | D m1DDCt th1t | Dd|c1tC
d| UCtCDcC | D mOdC OI 1cQu| | t|OD-| . C. , | D CD| Ot| ty OI 1ccC t O thC
dOm| D1Dt c1-Wh| ch 1tC _CDCt1y 1Oc| 1tCd W|th O| UCtCDcC | D cOm
1b. Hrists.rog s ca/tar. , 9
&
LOurt t znd
usty Lczrnn_
TRl SSCTl !
! m nC| utQtCO |C hCat |h
_Cn|Cman ay
JhC |h n_ hC aO n |h unQCa-
an| tay.
lC muCh a| CCut|, anO a CnC
m_h| CXQCC|,
lC hatC |hC CCut| m|tu| C
n|CCC|,
PnO, a a CCut|Ct, OCCnO W|h C|
JhC _nCtanCC |ha| n h n|CtC|.
CllTANORF
`Cu tC VCty hatO nOCCO Cn |hC
QCCt CCut|,
NhCh hCat CaCh Oay hCW QCCQC
C yCut Ct|,
NhC OCa n n|CCC|ua WatC,
OCCty |,
LCmQan |ha| |hC t CatCCt atC
U _h|CO Uy |,
CQCtC | WtC|ChCO |a|C, anO
UamC |hCt CWn
\nhaQQy a utC Cn |ha| Cau8C
aCnC.
lCtm | mC, N|Ct JtC| n, W|h
OuC
CQCC| Ct yCut _tCa| namC, |C ay
|ha| yCu
PnO a yCut knO WCuO OC WC
| C OCu
JhC CCut| n |CnC C hath anO
QuCtuCu,
Jha| |hC CCut| nC| C hCt| C
W| anO Utan
P yCu anO a yCut CtUUn_
tCnO man|an,
Jha| a |h n_ |hCtC atC VCWCO
W|h CCmmCn CnC,
Jha| _CCO |a|C, |CC, muCh n
CVOCnCC,
PnO |ha| | knCWCO_C C |hC
WCtO utQaC
JhC u|y Catnn_ C QCOan|C aC.
TRl SSCTI !
! | ha _CCO |a|C, yCu ay ' ! Cn y
| haO!
CLITA!ORF
Nha| makC yCu ay, b t, |ha| |
|a|C UaO'
j. B. F. dC NCC|C, L-s /--s sarat-s
( ! 6`Z ) D Th- L-am-d Ladt-s, t|aDatCd
DtC D_ h Vc|C y hcha|d u|
( ICv YC|k aDd LCDdCD, a|cCu|t D|acC
jCVaDCVch, V`8) , pp. ! `-! I 8.
&&&&&&
postrton otcaptral , arc prcdtsposcd ro mark dt hcrcnccs wtrht nrhcdomt
nanr class, ust as dt hcrcnccs t n culrural capt tal mark rhc dt hcrcnccs bc
rwccn rhc cIasscs.
+
Jhar ts why manncrs, cspcctally rhc manncr ot
rcl artonshtp to l ct rt marc culrurc, arc rhcsrakc t n a pcrmancnrsrrulc.
Jhcrc can bc no ncurral sratcmcnr tn rhcsc mattcrs rhc rcrmsdcstnat
t n rhc oppost n dtspostrtons can bc rakcn as compl t mcnrary or pcora
rtvc dcpcndt n on thcpot nrotvtcw. I t tsno acctdcnrrharrhcoppost tt on
bctwccn rhc `scholasrtc' [ or `pcdanrtc' and rhc sodoio, rhc chorr-
lcssly clcanr, ts ar rhc hcarr ot dcbarcs ovcr tastc and culrurc tn cvcry
ac bcbt nd two ways ot productn or apprcctartn cul rural works,
tr vcry clcarly dcstnarcs rwo conrrasrt n modcs ot acgutstrton, and,
t n thc modcrn pcrtod ar cast, two dt hcrcnr rc att onshtps to thc cduca-
rtonal sysrcm.
c / \ecia! citia. e) t/. adomt e) 1ast.
I n Francc, l i tcrary dcbatc in thc hrst hal | o| thc scvcntccoth ccntury
wasdominatcdby thcantagonismbctwcco thcd:t::Chapcl aio, 8alzac,
La Mcsnardicrc, Farct, Collctct, d' Aubignac ctc. , who lookcd to I talian
thcorists,and ultimatcly toAristotlc, tor thc rulcs thcysought toi mposc
on thc construction o|li tcrary works,

and at thc samc timc strovc to


ground thcsc rulcs io rcasonand thc eooaios, who rc|uscd to bc
bound by prcccpt, madc thcir plcasurc thcir guidc and pursucd thc in
hni tcsimal nuanccs which makc up thc 'jc nc sais quoi' and thc dcl icatc
pcr|cction o| savoi r vi vrc. Thc grcat dcbatcs ovcr tastc which l i tcrary
works arousc or dramatizc ( such as thc qucstion o|thc prccicux, who
by codi|ying and rationalizing saloo dclicacy, an art o| living dchocd
as i ndchnablc, changcd i ts wholc oaturc) involvc not only thc vi rtucs
with which thcdiHcrcnt |ractionso|thcdomioaotcl ass idcnti , but, as
thc Chcval icr dc Mcrc so wcll puts it, ' thc maoncrs o| practisiog
thcm, which arc thcmsclvcs kindsotvi rtucs' , and through which scnior
i ty in thci r class, and thcir way otgctting thcrc, arc cxprcsscd or bc
traycd.
lnnumcrablc illustrations could bc ci tcd trom thc vast li tcraturc dcsigncd to
codi ty, inscparably, ordi naty bchaviour and thc crcation and pcrccption ot
works ot art, in short cvcrything which talls undcr thc absol utc | urisdiction
ot tastc, onc ot thc kcy words ot thc agc,
~
but onc cxamplc will sumcc, bc-
causc it cxplici tly l inks manncr, modc ot acguisi tion and thc group it dcsig-
natcs. 'Jhc author [FUrcticrc, thc bourgcois author ot L ksao /sargsis
who had criticizcd La Fontainc and Bcnscradc| shows clcarly that hc is nci-
thcr ot socicty nor ot thc court and that his tastc is ot a pcdantry onc can-
not cvcn hopc to rccti ty. Ccrtain things arc ncvcr undcrstood i t thcy arc
not undcrstood at oncc. somc hard and rough minds will ncvcr bc lcd i nto
thc charm and gracc ot Bcnscradc`s ballcts and La Fontainc's tablcs. Jhat
door is closcd to thcm, and so is minc . . . Cnc can only pray to God tor
such a man and hopc ncvcr to havc dcalings with him` Mmc. dc >vign,
lcttcr to Bussy-Rabutin, l4 May l686 ) .
Paradoxically, prccoci ty i s an cHccto| scniority. aristocracyi s thc |orm
par cxccllcncc o|prccoci ty si ncc i t i s nothiog othcr than thc scniority
whichi sthcbi rthrighto|thcoHspringo|aocicot |amil ics ( at lcast i nso
cictics i n which agc and aristocracyvi rtually cquivalcnt notionsarc
rccogni zcd as valucs) . And this ini tial status-dcrivcd capi tal is cnhanccd
by thc advantagcs which prccocious acquisi tioo o| lcgiti matc culturc
givcs in lcarningcultural skills, whcthcrtablc manncrs or thc art o|con
vcrsation, musicalculturcorthcscnsco|propricty,playingtconisorpro
nunciation. Thc cmbodicd cultural capi tal o| thc prcvious gcncrations
|unctionsasa sorto|advancc ( botha hcad-start and a crcdi t) which, by
providing |rom thcoutsct thccxamplc o|culturc iocaroatcd in |amiliar
modc|s, cnablcs thc ncwcomcr to start acquiri ng thcbasic clcmcnts o|
7be Hri!crraq c]Cu/!ure / i
6&&&&&&"
bzsc Or Lultvztcd
^zturzlncss
'l would havc a man know cvcry-
thing and yct, by his manncr ot
spcaking, not bc convictcd ot hav-
ng studicd. ' Antoinc Gombaud,
Chcvalicr dc Mcrc ( cc:-c: ) , O
/a .so:rsatiso
'hat nccds corrcction in most
tcachcrs is somcthing too composcd,
which rccks ot art and study. Jhc
aim must bc to makc it sccm natu-
ral. ' Mcrc, Os agroos
' But knd words on all mattcrs,
agrccably uttcrcd, will grati ty cvcry
lstcncr. it cannot go turthcr, it i s
thc mastcgiccc ot intclligcncc . . . .
Say to thcm nothing which savours
ot study or sccms tar-tctchcd. Abovc
all , sincc thcy arc wcll plcascd with
thcir own worth, rctrain trom in-
structing thcm on any mattcr, or
corrccting thcm, whatcvcr mistakcs
you obscrvc thcm to makc. ` Mcrc,
O /a .so:rsatiso
'Jhis civili ty is pcrccivcd in thc
fcaturcs, thc manncr, in thc slightcst
actions ot thc body and mind, and
thc morc onc considcrs i t, thc morc
onc is charmcd by i t, without rcaliz-
ing whcrc i t comcs trom . . . . For
cvcrything that is donc out ot con-
strai nt or scrvitudc, or has any tracc
ot coarscncss, dcstroys it. And to
rcndcr a pcrson amiablc in his ways,
you should plcasc him as much as
you can and takc carc not to burdcn
him with tcdious instructions. `
Mcrc, Os agoos
' Pcrsons ot rchncmcnt arc somc-
ti mcs obligcd to turn a hand to
many things, cvcn thc things ot
which thcy know lcast. In such a
casc, thcy should not bchavc l ikc
protcssional crattsmcn, whosc solc
conccrn is to hnish thcir task. A
gcntlcman should scck, not so much
to bc cxpcrt i n what hc undcrtakcs,
as to undcrtakc i t likc a gcntlc-
man . . . Jhis air ot casc which
comcs trom a tortunatc birth and an
cxccllcnt habit is onc ot thc amcni-
tics ot a gcntlcman, hc should sct
about cvcn thc most dimcult task
with such dctachmcnt that it sccms
to cost him no cdort. ` Mcrc, Os
agroos
6&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&
thc |cgitimatc cu|turc, trom thc bcginning, that is, in thc most uncon
scious and impa|pab|c wayand to dispcnsc with thc |abour otdccu|
turation,corrcction and rctraining that is nccdcd to undo thc cHccts ot
inappropriatc |carning. Lcgi timatc manncrs owc thcir va|uc to thc tact
that thcy manitcst thc rarcst condi tions otacquisition, that is, a socia|
powcrovcrtimcwhich istacit|yrccognizcdasthcsuprcmccxcc||cncc. to
posscss things tmm thc past, i . c. , accumu|atcd, crysta||izcd history, aris
tocratic namcs and ti t|cs, chtcaux or' statc|y homcs', paintings and co|
|cctions, vintagc wincs andantiqucturniturc, is to mastcr timc, through
all thosc things whosc commontcaturc isthatthcycan on|ybc acquircd
in thc coursc ottimc, by mcans ot timc, againsttimc, that is, by inhcri
tancc or through dispositions which, likc thc tastc tor o|d things, arc
2 , H .ia/ Cr!!!qu ] !h ud_m:u! :] 1as/
likcwisconlyacgui rcd wi th timc and applicd by thosc who can takc thci r
timc
fvcry grouptcudsto sct up thcmcauso|pcrpctuat|ug| tscl |ocyoud thc |
u| tc | ud|v|duals | u whom | t |s |ucaruatcd Th| swasouco|Durkhc| m's
|uudamcutal | us|ghts ) lu ordcr to do so, |t cstaol|shcs a wholcsct o|mcch
au| sms, such asdclcgat|ou, rcprcscutat|ou audsymool | zat| ou, wh|ch cou|cr
uo| qu| ty audctcru| ty. Thc rcprcscutat|vc c. g , thc k| ug) | sctcrual As
Kautarov| tch hasshowu, thc k|ug has two ood|cs, a o|olog|ca|, morta|
oody, suoj cct to o|olog|ca| | uhrm| t|cs, pass|ou or | mocc| l | ty, aud a pol | t|ca|
oody, | mmortal, | mmatcr|al aud |rccd |rom | uhrm| t|cs orwcakucsscs

Hc
cau sccurc uo|qu| ty oy dclcgat|ug to othcrs thc author| ty w| th wh|ch hc |s
| uvcstcd H|s taxcs arc lcv|cd oy]ru u/tqu )rm, aud, as Post ooscrvcs,
thc dc|cgatc who holds)/ua )!!a agmdt 'cau do cvcryth| ug that thc
maudatorh| mscl |cau do' , thauks to h|s)rrura!t ad muta ]artmda. ``
Aga| u, uutvrt!a uu mrt!ur. Dcath, |rom thc po| ut o|v|cw o|groups,
| s ouly au acc|dcut, audpcrsou| hcd collcct|vcs orgau| zc thcmscl vcs |u
such a way that thcdcm|sco|thc mortal ood|cs wh|ch oucccmood|cd thc
grouprcprcscutat|vcs, dclcgatcs, agcuts, spokcsmcuocs uotadcct thc
cx| stcucc o|thcgroupor thc |uuct|ou | u wh| ch | t | s rcal | zcd. dtgut!a uu
mrt!ur.
l | th| s |s acccptcd aud | t woulduccd to oc cstaol |shcd morc systcmat|-
cal l y ) , thcu cap|tal makcs |t poss|olc to appropr|atc thccollcct|vcly pro
duccd aud accumul atcd mcaus o|rcal l yovcrcom| ugauthropolog|ca| l | m| ts
Thcmcauso|cscap|ug |rom gcucr|c al|cuat|ous |uc|udc rcprcscutat|ou, thc
portra| torstatuc wh|ch | mmortal|zcs thcpcrsou rcprcscutcd somct| mcs,
oy a sort o|p|couasm, |u o|s owu l | |ct| mc ) , aud ocoor| a|s, toc tomostouc,
thcwr| ttcu word, ar )rmutu, wh|ch cclcoratcs aud ' hauds ou to postcr
| ty' , aud, | upart|cular, h| stor|cal wr| t| ug, wh| chg| vcs a pl acc |u lcg| t| matc
h| story-hcucc thcpart|cularstatus wh| ch thc puo| | c, cspcc| al l y thc oour-
gco|s puol | c, g| vcs to h| stor|aus, thc mastcrs o|sc|cut| |cctcru| zat|ou-aud
thc commcmorat|vcccrcmou|cs |u wh| ch thc group odcrs tr|outcs o|hom
agcaud grat| tudc to thc dcad, who arc thcrcoy showu tooc st||| | | v| ug aud
act|vc. Thus |t cau ocsccu that ctcrual | | |c |s ouc o|thc most soughta|tcr
soc|al pr|v| lcgcs, thcqual| ty o|thcctcru| ty dcpcuds, o|coursc, ou thc qua|
| ty audcxtcut o|thcgroup prov|d|ug |t, audcau raugc|rom a rcqu|cm
mass orgau| zcd oy thc |am| l y to au auuual uat|oual ho| |day.
Itthctorcoinarumcntsucstsan 'analysisotcsscncc' thouh tar
rcmovcd, it wouldsccm, trom Hcidccr and his 'old chcst' ) , that is bc
causc mostroupshavcsouht to l ay down absol utc, hnal dihcrcnccs by
mcansot thc i rrcvcrsibi l i ty ottimc, whichivcsi nUcxiblcriourtocvcry
torm otsocial ordcr bascd on thc ordcr otsucccssions Jhc holdcrs and
clai mants tosucccssiontathcr and son, owncrand hcir, mastcrand dis
ciplc, prcdcccssor and succcssor-arc scparatcd by nothi ng, cxccpt timc,
but thcrc is cvcry sort otsocial mcchanism to makc thisap unbridc
ablc Jhus, in thcstrulcbctwccn thcdi hcrcnt' manncrs' , i c , thcdihcr
cnt manncrs otacgui rin, thcdominant roups arc al wayson thc sidc ot
Tb- Zristscrag s/ 6u/tur- , /)
thc mosti nscnsiblc and i nvisiblcmodc otacgui si tion, that i s, thc oldcst
and mostprccious onc. Jhi s is whatprovidcs thc invari ant clcmcnts ot
thc dominant discoursc and givcs an ai r ot ctcrnal youth to ccrtai n
thcmcs,al thoughthcyarci nrcal i tystrictlysi tuatcdanddatcd,l i kcall thc
commonpIaccs otcIcgant di sgui si tion on i nnatc tastc or thc bl undcring
ot'pcdants'.
A practca mastcry of socal sgnhcancc, bascd on functona and structural
homoogy, undcrcs and fac tatcs cvcryday rcadng of thc 'classcs', and,
cvcn morc, sncc t s a practcal usc, tcrary guotaton, a gu tc spcctal usc
of dscoursc whch s a sort of summons to appcar as advocatc and w tncss,
addrcsscd to a past author on thc bass of a soca soldarty dsguscd as n
tccctua sodar ty. 1hc practca scnsc of mcanng, whch stops short of
obcctng thc soca amnty whch makcs t possblc-stncc that would
nufy thc dcsrcd chcct, by rcatvzng both thc rcadng and thc tcxt-pro
vdcs smu tancousy a soca usc and a dcnal of thc soca bass of that usc.
!dcnti i ng thci nvariantsmust not, howcvcr, lcadustotrcataparticu-
Iarstatc otthc strugglc as ctcrnal, and a truc comparativc study would
havc to takc account ot thc spccihc torms that thc strugglc and thc
thcmcs in which it i scxprcsscd takc on whcn thcob| cctivc rcl ations bc-
twccnthccl asstractionschangc. Itsccms, torcxamplc,thatin thcscd
hal totthc scvcntccnth ccntury thc growi ng authority otthc mondains
andotthccourt, combi ncdwith thc tcndcncyothigh socictytobccomc
morccul tivatcd, rcduccd thcdistanccbctwccn doctcs and mondains, this
lcd to thc riscota ncwspccics otman otlcttcrs, typincd by thc]csui ts
Kapi n and Bouhours,

mastcrs ot rhctoric who wcrc thcmsclvcs both


doctcs and mondains, who trcgucntcd artists and ari stocrats and hclpcd
toproducca synthcss of thc dcmands of thc court and thc acadcmy ( and
didsobyshi tting thc ccntrc otthc dcbatc trom thc gucstion otworthy
sub|ccts to that otthc styIc i n which thcy might bc trcatcd) .
Smlary, nowadays, thc fact that an tncrcasngly argc proporton of thc
busncss bourcosc ts makng ntcnsvc usc of thc cducatonal systcm ( and
cspccay, n Irancc, thc rana oc/ ) s tcndn to modfy thc form of thc
rcatonshp bctwccn thc mondatn and thc schoastc-cutura cxccllcncc
ncrcasngy bclons to thosc who combnc thc two modcs of acguston-
and conscgucnty thc contcnt of thc rttual ant thcscs n whch thc oppos
ton bctwccn 'schoars' and 'gcntlcmcn' s cxprcsscd `
Jhccascotthc rclations bctwccn thc ni nctccnth-ccntury Gcrman uni-
vcrsi tics and thcprincclycourts rcprcscnts anothcrstatc otthcpowcr rc-
lation, rcsul ti ngi nadihcrcntconhgurationotthcimagcsotthc scholarly
virtucs and thc courtly vi rtucs. As ^orbcrt El i as vcry clcarly shows,
bourgcois i ntcllcctuaIs wcrc muchcarl icrandmuchmorccompIctcly in-
tcgratcd i nto thc world otthc court i n Francc than i n Gcrmany. Jhc
, H 5so./ critia. s] tb. admmt s] Tast.
CODVCDttOD OI tyC 1Dd IOrm OI CtVt t ty wht Ch dOmtD1tC thC CduC1
ttOD1 ytCm 1Dd 1 t t QrOduCt, tD Q1rttCu1r thC 1ttCDttOD _tvCD tO
1D_u1_C 1Dd tO t DtCCCtu1 QrOQrtCty, dCrtVCd, tD thC C1C OI lr1DCC,
IrOm COurt OCtCty, whCrC1 tD LCrm1Dy thC t DtCt_CDtt1, CQCCt1y t D
thC uDtVCrt ttC, Ct t tC I uQ t D OQQOtttOD tO thC COurt 1Dd thC lrCDCh
mOdC tt w1 t mQOrttD_, ummtD_ uQ t t vttOD OI ` ht_h OCtCty tD thC
1Dtt thCt OCtwCCD `Lt vt t z1ttOD , Ch1r1CtCrt zCd Oy IrtVO t ty 1Dd uQCrhCt
1 t ty, 1Dd `Lu turC , dChDCd Oy CrtOuDC, QrOIuDdt ty 1Dd 1uthCDttCt ty. '
D OthCr wOrd, thCrC t t hC 1mC O1tC OQQOt ttOD OCtwCCD dOCtC 1Dd
mODd1tD, wtth tdCDttC1 CODtCDt, Out wt th thC V1uC rCVCrCd. hCrC thC
dOCtC COud DOt 1Crt thCt r 1utODOmy CxCCQt Oy 1CrttD_ thCtr OwD vt r
tuC 1Dd thCtr OwD `m1DDCr OI Qr1CtttD_ thCm , thCrCOy dCV1 ut D_ ht_h
OCtCty VtrtuC.
hC I1Ct rCm1tD th1t thC `QCd1Dt t tu1ttOD t DCVCr CDtt rCy COmIOrt
1OC. A_1tDt thC `QOQu 1CC 1Dd wtth thC mODd1tD 1rttOCr1Cy-whO
h1VC CVCry rC1OD 1O tO 1CCCQt t t, tDCC thCy h1vC 1D t DtCrCt t D Ot rth
rt_ht-hC t t DC t DCd tO 1CCCQt thC tdCO O_y OI t DD1tC t1tC, tDCC tt t
thC ODy 1OO utC _u1r1DtCC OI ht CCCtt OD, Out 1_1tDt thC mODd1tD hC t
IOrCCd tO 1Crt thC v1 uC OI ht 1Cgut rCmCDt, 1Dd, t DdCCd, thC V1 uC OI
thC wOrk OI 1Cgut t tt OD, thC `Ow ChOrt tO tmQrOvC thC mt Dd , 1 1Dt
Qut t t, wht Ch t 1 OCmth tD thC CyC OI thC mODd1t D, Out tD ht OwD CyC
ht uQrCmC mCrt t.
Thc cmbarrassmcnt o| acadcmic mi nds, i ndcbtcd and commi ttcd to acquisi-
tion, surtaccs whcncvcr it is a qucstion ot tbc adcquatc approacb to a work
o| art and thc right way to acqui rc i t, and thc contradiction is at thc hcart
o| a|| thci r acsthctic thcorics, not to mcntion thcir attcmpts to cstab|ish a
pcdagogy o| art. Thc idco|ogy o| natura| gi|ts is too potcnt, cvcn wi thi n
thc cducationa| systcm, |or an cxprcssion o| |ai th i n thc powcrs ot a ratio
na| pcdagogy aimcd at rcducing thc practica| schcmcs o| |ami | iarity to codi-
hcd ru|cs, dcspi tc thc |act that this practica| aHrmation o| thc ' natura|
right' to art is thc natura| wcapon o| thosc who appca| to know|cdgc and
idcas and aim to discrcdi t thc divinc right o| thc advocatcs o| i mmcdiatc
cxpcricncc and p|casurc. For cxamp|c, thcrc arc a|| thc dcbatcs ovcr thc
tcaching o| art morc spcci hca||y, thc tcaching o| drawing)-a contradic-
tion i n tcrms |or somc, who ho|d that bcauty i s ncithcr taught nor |carnt,
but is a gracc transmi ttcd |rom invcstcd mastcrs to prcdcs tincd discip|cs, |or
othcrs, a hc|d o| pcdagogy | i kc any othcr. nc thi nks, |or cxamp|c, o| thc
po|cmics bctwccn thc advocatcs o| rationa| pcdagogy, such as Gui | | aumc,
and thc champions ot thc charismatic vicw, such as Ravaisson, ovcr thc in
troduction o| drawing |cssons i nto gcncra| cducation i n thc car|y ycars o|
thc Thi rd Rcpub| i c. )
EXPERI EICE AIO KICWLEOCE dCOO_y t 1D t utOD CODttCDt wt th
t DtCrCt, Out 1 wC_rOuDdCd t ut OD. hOC whO t DVOkC CxQCrtCDCC
1_1tDt kDOwCd_C h1VC 1 O1t IOr thCt r QrC| udtCC tD thC rC1 OQQOtttOD
OCtwCCD thC dOmCttC C1rDtD_ 1Dd thC ChO1ttC C1rDtD_ OI CuturC.
1h Hist.ag ca/ta , 5
Bourcos cul turc and thc bourcos rclatton to cuIturc owc thctrtntmt-
tablc charactcr to thc fact that, lkc popular rcl tton as sccn by Groc-
thuyscn, thcy arc acgurcd,prc-vcrbally, bycarly t mmcrson n a wordof
cul tvatcd pcoplc, practccs and obccts. hcn thc chld rows up tn a
houschold tn whch musc ts not onIy lstcncd to [ on ht-h or radto
nowadays) butalso pcrformcd [ thc ' muscal mothcr' ofbourcots auto-
boraphy) , anda forttor whcn thcchld t sntroduccd at ancarlyacto
a 'nobIc' tnstrumcnt-spccaIIy thc panothc chcct s at Icast to pro-
ducca morcfamlarrcIatonshpto mustc,whtch dthcrsfrom thcaIways
somcwhatdstant,contcmplatvcandoftcnvcrboscrclattonofthoscwho
havc comc to mustc throuh conccrts or cvcn onIy throuh rccords, tn
much thcsamcway as thcrclatton topanttnofthoscwhohavc dscov-
crcd t bcIatcdIy, n thc guas-scholastc atmosphcrc ofthc muscum, dtf-
fcrs fromthcrcIatondcvcIopcdby thoscborn tntoaworldhIIcdwthart
ob ccts, famtIarfamtIypnpcrty, amasscd bysucccssvccncratons, tcstt-
qn to thcr wcalth and ood tastc, and somcttmcs ' homc-madc' [ lkc
am orcmbrodcrcd lncn) .
LthCtCDCC tDkCd tO OCtz Ott_tD ztC DO dOuOt mOt mztkcd t D QCtODz
QtOduCttOD OI Vtuz ztt Ot thC QzytD_ OI z mutCz tDttumCDt, zQtttudC
whtCh, OOth tD thCtt zCQuttttOD zDd tD thCtt QCtIOtmzDCC, QtCuQQOC DOt
ODy dtQOtttOD zOCtztCd wtth OD_ CtzOthmCDt tD thC wOtd OI ztt zDd
Cu tutC Out zO CCODOmtC mCzD [CQCCtzy tD thC CzC OI QtzDO-QzytD_)
zDd QztC ttmC. t CQuz CduCzttODz CVC, thCy Vzty ttOD_y Oy OCtz Ott
_tD. hu, zmOD_ hOdCt OI thC barralauna!, l l . QCtCCDt OI thC tCQOD
dCDt whO Ott_tDztC ItOm thC dOmtDzDt, Cz zy thCy OItCD Qzy z mutCz
tDttumCDt, COmQztCd wtth QCtCCDt OI thOC OI mtddC-Cz Ot wOtktD_
Cz Ott_tD. mOD_ _tzduztC, thC COttCQODdtD_ QtOQOtttOD ztc ... QCt
CCDt zDd QtCCDt. ztDttD_ zDd CuQtutC, tCzttVCy DC_cCtCd y tbOC
wtth thC ht_hCt QuzthCzttOD, ztC zO, zt CQuz cduCzttODz CVc, muCh
mOtC COmmOD zmOD_ tCQODdCDt OI dOmtDzDt-Cz Ott_tD.
btztu-tDkCd Izmttzttty t mzDtICtCd tD, IOt cxzmQc, kDOwCd_C OI thC
OQQOttuDtttC zDd CODdtttOD tOt zCQutttD_ wOtk Ot ztt, wbtCh dcQCDd DOt
ODy OD thC mztCttz zDd Cututz CzQzCtty tO zQQtOQttztC Out zO OD OD_
tzDdtD_ mCmOCthtQ tD z OCtz wOtd tD whtCh ztt, OCtD_ zD OO CCt OI zQ
QtOQttzttOD, t QtCCDt tD thc IOtm OI Izmttzt, QCtODz OOcCt. bu, tD thC
utVCy COmmttODCd Oy thC NtDttty OI LututC [ L. o. VII ) , thC QCtCCDtz_C
OI tCQODdCDt zOC tO _tVC zD zDwCt whCD zkCd thC OwCt QttCC zt whtCh
`ODC CzD DOw Ouy zD Ott_tDz tthO_tzQh Ot Ctt_tzQh Oy z CODtCmQOtzty
QtOICtODz ztttt VzttC CODtdCtzOy Oy OCtz Cz, tzD_tD_ ItOm lc. . QCt
CCDt OI z_ttCututz wOtkCt, l ). 6 QCtCCDt OI uDktCd zDd CmtktCd
wOtkCt zDd l.6 QCtCCDt OI CCttCz zDd COmmCtCtz CmQOyCC tO 66.6 QCt
CCDt OI CDtOt CXCCuttVC zDd QtOICtODz.
Jhcchoccofworkssuch3 thcc-a ]- :/. i u.-1 [ muchmorc
lrcqucnt amon thosc who pIay an nstrumcnt-spccally thc ptano-
thzn zmon othcrs ) or ir-].-: .: /.s s-:/.,.s s much morc stronly
6 / 5oa/ critique /tbe udmmt / Tast.
ltnkcd to soctal ortgtn than to cducational capi tal . By contrast, with
works l tkc thc 0eh- Tmered c/arier or thc rt ] Fuue, thcrc is a
strongcr corrclation wi th cducational capi tal than wi th social origin.
Through thcsc indicators, dcspi tc thci r impcrtcctions, onc can distin-
gutsh dtdcrcnt rclattons to thc hicrarchical , hicrarchizing world ot cul-
tural works, whtch arc closcly linkcd to a sct ot intcrrclatcd didcrcnccs
and whtch stcm trom didcrcnt modcs ot acquisi tiondomcstic and
scholasttc, or cxclusivcly scholastic-t cultural capi tal. Thus, whcn Ro-
land Barthcs makcs an acsthctic out ot a particular rclation to music,
produccd by carly, domcsttc, ' practical` acquaintancc, and dcscribcs acs-
thcttc cnj oymcnt as a sort ot tmmcdiatc communication bctwccn thc l is-
tcncr`s body and thc pcrtormcr`s ' i nncr body` , prcscnt in ' thc grain ot thc
stngcr`s votcc` or ' thc pad ot thc ptanist`s hngcrs` , hc is in tact rctcrring to
thc oppositton bctwccn two modcs ot acquisition.
Cn thc onc hand, thcrc ts music tor rccord collcctors l inkcd to a dc-
mand arising trom thc 'growth ot thc numbcr ot listcncrs and thc disap-
pcarancc ot practi tioncrs` ) , an cxprcssivc, dramatic, scntimcntally clcar
art ot communtcation, ot undcrstanding. 'This culturc . . . wants art,
wants mustc, provtdcd thcy bc clcar, that thcy "translatc an cmotion
and rcprcscnt a signthcd thc "mcaning ot a pocm) . an art that inocu-
latcs plcasurc [ by rcducing i t to a known, codcd cmotton) and rcconcilcs
thc subcct to what in music .an /e said: what is said about it by Instttu-
tion, Crtttcism, Cptnion. `

Cn thc othcr hand, thcrc ts an art whtch prc-
tcrs thc scnstblc to scnsc, whtch hatcs cloqucncc, grandiloqucncc, pathos
and thc pathctic, thc cxprcssivc and thc dramatic. This is Frcnch mucdtr,
Ouparc, thc latcr Faur, Ocbussy, cvcrything that in anothcr agc would
havc bccn callcd purc music, thc i nti mism ot thc piano, thc matcrnal
instrumcnt, and thc intimacy ot thc bourgcois salon. In this anti thcsis
bctwccn two rclations to music which arc aways dchncd, morc uncon-
sciously than consciously, i n rclation to cach othcr-thc tastc tor thc art-
ists ot thc past, Panzcra or Cortot, lovcd cvcn tor thcir i mpcrtcctions
wh|ch cvokc thc trccdom ot thc amatcur, impl ics a distastc tor modcrn
pcrtormcrs and thcir i mpcccablc rccordtngs tor mass production-nc
agatn hnds thc old opposi tion bctwccn thc doctc, who is bound
to thc codc [ tn cvcry scnsc) , thc rulcs, and thcrctorc thc I nsti tu tion
and Crt ttctsm, and thc hcdonistic mondatn, who, bcing on thc stdc
ot naturc, thc ' natural` , is contcnt to tccl and cn|oy, and who cxpcls
all tracc ot t ntcllcctualtsm, didacttcism, pcdantry trom his artistic
cxpcncncc.
OB]LC1 iBSSONS Evcry matcrial i nhcri tancc is, strictly spcaking, also a
cul tural tnhcrttancc. Family hcirlooms not only bcar matcrial wi tncss to
thc agc and continui ty ot thc lincagc and so consccratc i ts social idcntity,
whtch is inscparablc trom pcrmancncc ovcr timc, thcy also contribu tc in
a practtcal way to i ts spiritual rcproduction, that is, to transmi tting thc
The dristecrag e/ ctare ,
valucs, vi rtucs andcompctcnccs whi ch arc t hcbasis o|lcgi ti matc mcm-
bcrship i n bourgcois dynastics. hat is acgui rcd i n daily contact wi th
ancicntob| ccts, by rcgularvi si ts toantiguc-dcalcrs andgallcrics,or, morc
simply, by moving in a uni vcrsc o| |ami l iar, i nti matc ob| ccts ' which arc
thcrc` , as Rilkc says, 'guilclcss, good, si mplc, ccrtain` , is ot coursc a ccr-
tain ' tastc` , whi chi snothingothcrthana rclationo|i mmcdiatc |ami l iar-
i ty wi th thc thi ngs ot tastc. But it is also thc scnsc o| bclonging to a
morc polishcd, morc pol i tc, bcttcrpoliccd world, a world which is | usti-
hcd i ncxi sti ng by i ts pcr|cction, i ts harmony andbcauty, a world which
hasproduccd BccthovcnandMozartandcontinucs toproduccpcoplcca-
pablc o|playing and apprcciating thcm. And hnally it is an i mmcdiatc
adhcrcncc, at thc dccpcst lcvcl o| thc habitus, to thc tastcs and distastcs,
sympathics and avcrsions, |antasics and phobias which, morc than dc-
clarcd opinions, |orgc thc unconscious uni ty o|a class.
I|a group` s wholc l i |c-stylccan bc rcadon|rom thc stylc i t adopts in
|urnishing or clothing, thi s i s not only bccausc thcscpropcrtics arc thc
ob| ccti hcation o|thccconomic and cul tural ncccssity which dctcrmincd
thci rsclcction, butalso bccausc thcsocial rcl ationsob| cctihcd in |ami l i ar
ob| ccts, i n thcirl uxury orpovcrty, thcir' di sti ncti on` or' vulgari ty`, thci r
'bcauty` or 'uglincss`, i mprcss thcmsclvcs through bodi l y cxpcricnccs
whi ch may bcas pro|oundlyunconscious as thc guictcarcss otbcigc car-
pcts or thc thi nclammi ncss ottattcrcd, garish linolcum, thcharsh smcll
otblcach orpcr|umcs as i mpcrccptiblc as a ncgativc sccnt. ' Evcry i ntc-
riorcxprcsscs, in i ts ownlanguagc, thcprcscnt and cvcn thc paststatc o|
i ts occupants, bcspcaking thc clcgant scl |-assurancc o|i nhcri tcd wcal th,
thc nashyarroganccotthcnouvcauxrichcs, thcdiscrcctshabbi ncsso|thc
poorand thcgildcd shabbi ncss o|'poorrcl ations` striving to li vc bcyond
thcir mcans, onc thinks ot thc chi l d i n . H. Lawrcncc`s story 'Jhc
Rocking- Horsc Minncr' who hcars throughout thc housc and cvcn in
his bcdroom, tul l otcxpcnsivctoys, ani nccssantwhi spcring. 'Jhcrc must
bc morc moncy. ` Expcricnccs o|thi s sort would bc thc matcrial o|a so-
cial psychoanalysis whi ch sct out to grasp thc logic whcrcby thc social
rcl ationsobj cctihcd in thi ngs andalso, olcoursc, in pcoplcarc inscnsibly
i ntcrnalizcd, taking thcir placc in a lasting rclation to thc world andto
othcrs, whi ch mani |csts i tscl t, tor cxamplc, in thrcsholds ot tolcrancc ot
thc natural and soci alworld, otnoi sc, ovcrcrowding, physical or vcrbal
violcncc-and otwhi ch thc modc o|appropriation o|cul tural goods is
onc di mcnsion.
+
Jhc cncct o| modc o| acguisi tion is most markcd in thc ordinary
choiccs o| cvcryday cxi stcncc, such as |urni turc, clothi ng or cooking,
whi ch arc particul arly rcvcali ngotdccp-rootcd and long-standingdispo-
si tions bccausc, lying outsidc thc scopc ot thc cducational systcm, thcy
havc to bc con|rontcd, as it wcrc, by nakcd tastc, wi thout any cxpl icit
prcscription or proscription, othcr than trom scmi-lcgi timatc lcgi ti miz-
in agcncics such as womcn` s wcckl ics or ' idcal homc` magazincs.
/8 , 5soa/ O:ti
/
u- s/ tb- udgmmt s/ Tast-
1hs mcans that, howcvcr mpcrfcct t may bc, gtvcn thc prcscnt statc of
functonng of thc cducatona systcm, thc mn ma ratonazaton mpcd
by cvcry nsttutonalzcd pcdagogy, tn parttcuar thc transformaton of cass
'scnsc', functonng n practca form, tnto parttay codhcd knowcdgc
[ c. g. , tcrary hstory, wth ts casshcatons by prods, gcnrcs and stycs ) ,
has thc chcct of rcducng, a t cast among thc most ovcr-sccctcd survvors,
thc wcght of what s abandoncd to nhcrt tcd 'scnscs' and, conscgucnty,
thc dhcrcnccs nkcd to cconomc and cutura nhcrtancc. l t s aso truc
that thcsc dhcrcnccs contnuc to functon t n othcr arcas, and that thcy rc-
covcr thcr fu forcc as soon as thc ogc of thc struggc for dstncton
movcs ts rca stakcs nto thcsc arcaswhch t of coursc aways tcnds
to do.
hC zd CCtvC thC rCQODdCDt hzvC ChOCD tO dCCrOC zD DtCrOr, zDd
thC OurCC OI thCr IurDturC, zrC mOrC COCy DkCd tO thCr OCz Or_D
thzD tO thCr CduCztODz QuzhCztOD [ uD kC thCr ud_CmCDt OD QhO
tO_rzQh Or thCr kDOwCd_C OI COmQOCr) , OCCzuC DOthD_, QCrhzQ,
mOrC drCCty dCQCDd OD Czry CzrDD_, CQCCzy thC CzrDD_ whch
tzkC QzCC wthOut zDy CxQrC DtCDtOD tO tCzCh, thzD thC dQO tOD
zDd kDOwCd_C thzt zrC DvCtCd D cOthD_, IurDhD_ zDd COOkD_ Or,
mOrC QrCCCy, D thC wzy COthC, IurDturC zDd IOOd zrC OOu_ht. hu,
thC mOdC OI zCQutOD OI IurDturC [ dCQzrtmCDt tOrC, zDtQuC-dCzCr,
hOQ Or Cz %zrkCt) dCQCDd zt C1t z muCh OD OCz Or_D z OD
ChOOD_. At CQuz CduCztODz CvC, thOC mCmOCr OI thC dOmDzDt
Cz whO wCrC zO OOrD DtO thzt CzwhO, mOrC OItCD thzD thC
OthCL, nhcr tcd somc of thc r furn turc-acgu rcd thc r furn turc [ csQc
Czy thOC vD_ D zr ) IrOm zD zDtQuCdCzCr mOrC OItCD thzD thOC
OOrD DtO OthCr CzC, whO tCDdCd tO Ouy IrOm a dCQzrtmCDt tOrC, z
QCCz zCd hOQ Or thC Cz %zrkCt. [ hC zt CQCCzy IrCQuCDtCd OD
Table umttutC QutChzC tD thC dOmtnzDt Cz, y CduCzttOD zDd OCtz! Ott_tD [ QCtCCDtz_C OI
uQODdCDt WhO Ou_ht thCt t IutDt tutC ItOm CzCh OutCC)
duCzttODz LCQzttmCDt bQCtztzCd Cz ADttQuC-
QuzthCzttOD bOCtz Ott_tD tOtC hOQ mztkCt AuCttOD dCzCt
LOWCt thzD zC OtktD_ zDd mtddC CzC 2. 1 I . I I 0 I 1. !!.
lQQCt CzC I I . 2!. I . 0 ! I . 1!.
CChDtCz OtktD_ zDd mtddC CzC I !. !6. 1. !2. 0 1.
COC_C lQQCt CzC 6. 0 21. !0. 20. 6.
LtCCDCC OtktD_ zDd mtddC CzC I I .0 28. I I . 0 I I . 0 2 I .
lQQCt CzC 1. : 2 I . : 2 I . : I 1. 19.0
A_tC_zttOD, OtktD_ zDd mtddC CzC 2 I . 16. !2. 0 2 I . 1!. 0
_tzDdC CCOC lQQCt CzC I8. 0 29. 0 8. 0 I !. 0 60.
z. bOmC tCQODdCDt tDdtCztCd mOtC thzD ODC OutCC.
T/r ZrtJtcrraq c[Cu/turr / /9
thc onc hand by thc rising mcmbcrs ot thc dominant class who havc
most cducational capi tal, and on thc othcr hand by mcmbcrs ot thc dom-
inant class, born i nto that class, who havc lcss cducational capi tal than
thci r origin promiscd, i . c. , thosc who havc had onc or two ycars ot highcr
cducation-cc tablc . )
And i t is probably i n tastcs i n [ccd that onc would hnd thc strongcst
and most indciblc mark ot i ntant carning, thc lcssons which longcst
withstand thc distancing or collapsc ot thc nativc world and most dur-
ably maintain nostalgia tor i t. Thc nativc world is, abovc al l , thc matcrnal
world, thc world ot primordi al tastcs and basic toods, ot thc archctypal
rclation to thc archctypal cul tural good, in which plcasurc-giving is an
intcgra part ot plcasurc and ot thc sclcctivc disposition towards plcasurc
which is acqui rcd through plcasurc.
ht!c thc atm as tO tdcntt Iy grcIcrcnccs tn IOOd, thc scarch IOr thc mOst
ccOnOmt ca! and `synthcttc` gucsttOns cd mc tO gucsttOn thc rcsgOndcnts On
thc mca!s thcy scrvcd On sgccta! OccastOns, an t ntcrcsttn_ t ndtcatOr OI thc
mOdc OI scIgrcscntattOn adOgtcd tn `shOtn_ OU` a !tIc-sty!c [ tn htch Iur
nt turc asO g!ays a gart ) . lOr a cOmg!ctc undcrstandtn_ OI chOtccs tn thts
arca, a garttcuary cOmgcx sct OI IactOrs has tO Oc OOrnc tn mt nd. thc styc
OI mca! that gcOg!c !tkc tO OUcr ts nO dOuOt a vcry _OOd tndtcatOr OI thc
tma_c thcy tsh tO _tvc Or avOtd _tvtn_ tO Othcrs and, as such, tt ts thc sys
tcmattc cxgrcsstOn OI a systcm OI IactOrs t nc!udtn_, tn addt ttOn tO thc tndt
catOrs OI thc gOst ttOn Occugtcd tn thc ccOnOmt c and cutura! htcrarchtcs,
ccOnOmtc tra|cctOry, sOcta! tra| cctOry and cu!tura! tra|cctOry.
Jhts Octn_ sO, tt ts nOt surgrtstn_ that thc cUccts arc mOst vtstO!c t n thc
gctt tc OOur_cOtstc. Jhc mcmOcrs OI thc cstaO!tshcd gctt tc OOur_cOtstc mOrc
OItcn scrvc thctr Irtcnds `g!cntt Iu! and _OOd` , ` stmg!c Out c!!-grcscntcd`
mcas than thc nc pctt tc bour_cOtstc, who prc!cr tO scrvc 'ort_tna` mcas
Or `gOt !uck` . Dut Onc a!sO hnds strOn_ dt Ucrcnccs !tnkcd tO tra|cctOry. Jhus
nc gctt t OOur_cOts OI mtdd!c Or Orktn_-c!ass Ort_tn mOrc O!tcn Ohcr
`g!cnttIu and _OOd` mca!s, htch ts Nttf thc casc t th thOsc O! uggcr-cass
Ort_t n, hO, Oy cOntrast, arc vcry t nc!t ncd tO thc `Ort_t na! and cxOttc` . n
thc cstaOtshcd gctt tc OOur_cOtstc, thc grOgcnst ty tO Ohcr `gcntt!u and
_OOd` mca!s ts as strOn_ amOn_ thOsc tn dcc!tnc as amOn_ thOsc hO arc
ugard!y mObt!c and Ort_tnatc IrOm thc Orktn_ c!asscs. Jhc IOrmcr ncvcr
say thcy Ohcr `gOt !uck` Or `Ort_t na! and cxOttc` mca!s, hcrcas thc !attcr
sOmctt mcs dO [ thOu_h nOt, OI cOursc, as OItcn as thc nc gctt t OOur_cOts ) .
I t is n o accidcnt that cvcn thc purcst plcasurcs, thosc most purihcd ot
any tracc ot corporcal i ty such as thc ' uniguc, purc notc` of thc I/t/r/uJ,
which al rcady rcscrvcd thcm tor thc ' tcw` ) , contain an clcmcnt which, as
in thc 'crudcst` plcasurcs ot thc tastcs ot tood, thc archctypc ot al| tastc,
rctcrs dircctly back to thc oldcst and dccpcst cxpcricnccs, thosc which dc-
tcrminc and ovcrdctcrminc thc primi tivc oppositions-bi ttcr/swcct, ha
vourtul/insipid, hot/col d, coarsc/dcl icatc, austcrc/brightwhich arc as
80 / . Scrta/ Crtttqur c]t/r uamm! c] 1a:/r
csscnti al to gastronomic commcntary as to thc rcnncd apprcciations ol
acsthctcs. To dincrcnt dcgrccs, dcpcnding on thc art, thc gcnrc and thc
stylc, art i s ncvcr cnti rcly thc rJa mmta/r, thc di scoursc i ntcndcd only to
bc rcad, dccodcd, i ntcqrctcd, whi ch thc intcl lcctualist vicw makcs ol i t.
Thi s product ot an ' art` i n Ourkhci m` s scnsc, i . c. , 'a purc practicc without
thcory` , and somcti mcs ol a si mplc mi mcsis, a sort ol symboli c gymnas-
tics, always contains also somcthing i ncnablc, not through cxccss, as thc
cclcbrants would havc it, but by dctault, somcthing which communi-
catcs, as it wcrc, lrom body to body, li kc thc rhythm ol music or thc Ha-
vour ot colours, that is, tal l i ng short ol words and conccpts. Art is also a
'bodily thing` , and music, thc most ' purc` and ' spiritual` ot thc arts, is
pcrhaps simply thc most corporcal . Linkcd to uatJ a'dmr which arc also
statcs ot thc body or, as thcy wcrc oncc callcd, humours, i t ravishcs, car-
rics away, movcs. I t is pi tchcd not so much bcyond words as bclow thcm,
i n gcsturcs and movcmcnts ol thc body, rhythms-which Piagct somc-
whcrc says charactcrizc thc tunctions locatcd, l ikc cvcrythi ng which gov-
crns tastc, at thc articulation ot thc organic and thc mcntalui ckcning
and slowing, crcsccndo and dccrcsccndo, tcnsion and rclaxation. This is
no doubt why, oncc i t lcavcs thc rcal m ol purc tcchniquc, musical criti -
cism scarccly spcaks othcr than i n ad| cctivcs and cxclamations. As mys-
tics spcak ol divinc lovc in thc languagc ot human lovc, so thc lcast
i nadcquatc cvocations ot musical plcasurc arc thosc which can rcplicatc
thc pcculiar torms ol an cxpcricncc as dccply rootcd in thc body and in
primi ti vc bodily cxpcricnccs as thc tastcs ol lood.
| NHiR| 1LD CA| 1A! AND ACQ(| kLD CA| 1AL Thus, thc dincrcnccs
which thc rclationship to cducational capi tal lcavcs uncxplai ncd, and
which mainly appcar i n thc rclationship with social origi n, may bc duc to
di ncrcnccs in thc modc ol acqui si tion ot thc cu| tural capi tal now pos-
scsscd. But thcy may also bc duc to di ncrcnccs in thc dcgrcc to which
this capi tal is rccognizcd and guarantccd by acadcmic qualincations. a
ccrtain proportion ot thc capi tal actually owncd may not havc rcccivcd
acadcmic sanction, whcn it has bccn di rcctly inhcri tcd and cvcn whcn i t
has bccn acqui rcd i n school . Bccausc ol thc long hystcrcsis ol thc modc
ot acquisition, thc samc cducational qual incations may guarantcc qui tc
di ncrcnt rclations to cul turc-but dccrcasingly so, as onc riscs in thc
cducational hicrarchy and as morc valuc comcs to bc sct on ways ot using
knowlcdgc and lcss on mcrcly knowing. It thc samc vol umc ot cduca-
tional capi tal [ guarantccd cul tural capi tal ) may corrcspond to dincrcnt
volumcs ot socially prohtablc cultural capi tal, this is hrst bccausc al-
though thc cducational systcm, by i ts monopoly ot ccrtincation, govcrns
thc convcrsion ot i nhcri tcd cul tural capi tal i nto cducational capi tal , i t
docs not havc a monopoly on t hc production ot cultural capi tal. I t givcs
i ts sanction to i nhcri tcd capi tal to a grcatcr or lcss cxtcnt i . c. , thcrc is an
uncqual convcrsion ot inhcri tcd cul tural capi tal ) bccausc, at di ncrcnt
1bt .r/1!0trn 0[Cul!urt c
mCmCnIS lnC, lI IhC SlmC mCmCnI, lI CIUCtCnI !CVC!S lnC I n CIUCtCnI
SCcICtS, WhlI II dCmlnCS IS mCtC Ct CSS ICCnIIcl IC WhlI IhC `InhCtIICtS
tIn_ II, lnC CcluSC II lcknCW!CC_CS mCtC Ct !CSS Vl!uC In CIhCt lCtmS Cl
CmCCICC clQIIl! lnC CIhCt CISQCSIIICnS [ Such lS CCcIIIy ICWltCS IhC In-
SIIIuIICn IISC l) .
JhC QOCOt OI ttOn_ COuc1t!On1 c1Q!t1 WhO h1VC 1O ! nhCt! tCO ttOn_
cu tut1 c1Q! t1 , 1nO O Cn|Oy 1 Ou1 t! tC tO cu tut1 nOU! ! ty, thC CI
1ut1ncC OI C_! t!m1tC mCmUCth!Q 1nO thC C1C _!VCn Uy I1m! !1t!ty [ QO! nt
D ! n h_utC 1tC OQQOCO, htt, tO thOC WhO 1ck UOth COuc1t!On1 c1Q!t1
1nO ! nhCt!tCO cu tut1 c1Q!t1 A) [ 1nO tO 1 thOC WhO 1tC ! tu1tCO OWCt
OOWn thC 1x! tCQtCCnt! n_ QCtICct tCcOnVCt!On OI cu tut1 c1Q! t1 ! ntO COu
c1t!On1 c1Q! t1 ) . Dut thCy 1tC 1O OQQOCO, On thC OnC h1nO, tO thOC
WhO, W!th CQu! V1Cnt ! nhCt! tCO cu tut1 c1Q! t1, h1VC OUt1! nCO OWCt COuc1
t!On1 c1Q!t1 C Ot C) [ Ot WhO h1VC 1n ! nhCt! tCO cu tut1 c1Q!t1 _tC1tCt
th1n thC!t COuc1t!On1 c1Q! t1. _. , C tC 1t!VC tO D, Ot tC1t!VC tO I)
1nd WhO 1tC c OCt t O thCm, CQCc!1y 1 tC_1tO `_CnCt1 cu tutC , th1n thC
hOOCt OI !OCnt!c1 Qu1 ! hc1t!On, 1nO, On thC OthCt h1nO, tO thOC WhO
h1VC ! m! 1t COuc1t!On1 c1Q! t1 Uut WhO t1ttCO Oh W!th C cu tut1 c1Q!t1
I Ot ) 1nO WhOC tC 1t!On tO cu tutC, Wh!ch thCy OWC mOtC tO thC
chOO 1nO C tO thC I1m! y, ! C I1m! ! 1t 1nd mOtC chO1t!c. [ JhCC
CcOnO1ty OQQO!t!On Occut 1t CVCty CVC OI thC 1x! . )
tr_urc p hC rC at| Onh|
[
bCtwCCn | nhCr| tCd cu tura ca
[
| ta and
Cducat| Ona ca
[
| tal .
inhcritcd
cultural
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COUtatlOna taplta|
oZ , Z Scua/ Crtttqu: c]t/: ua:m:nt c] Tat:
Lnc cOud cOnstruct a sImIar dIa_ram !O: cach Iyc O! caIIa [ ccO
nOmtc, cutura and sOcIal ) Osscsscd InIItaly and aI Ihc tImc O! Obsctva
ttOD, and thcn dcUnc thc sct O! Osstbc cascs !Or thc rcattOnshI bctccn
t nt tta caQt ta ( dcUncd as rc_ards vO umc and cOmOsItIOn) and cvcntua
caQt ta , chatactcrtzcd tn thc samc ay. [ Jhcrc Ou d Oc, !Or cxamQc, tndt
vtduas dcctntn_ tn a tyQcs O! cat ta , Or dcc tnIn_ tn Ony Onc and rtstn_
tn Othct>rccOnvcrstOn-ctc) ! Onc sumcIcnty rcUncd thc anaysIs O! thc
sQcctcs OI caQt ta ( dtvtdtn_ cu tura cat ta , !Or cxamc, IntO subsQccIcs
such as t tcraty, sctcnttUc and c_a-ccOnOmIc catta ) Or Ihc anaysts O! thc
cvc, tt Oud Oc QOsstbc tO Und a thc cascs cmtrIcay Obsctvcd, tn a
thctr cOmQcxtty Out asO tn thcIr guasI-InUnItc mu tIIctty.
JO Oc cnttrcy rt_OrOus, Onc Oud havc tO aO !Or structura chan_cs,
such as thc dcval uattOn O! nOmtnal guaIUcatIOns hIch Occurs tn crtOds
( as tn rcccnt ycars) hcn thc cducattOna systcm Is uscd mOrc tnIcnsIvcy.
( JhIs dcvauattOn has bccn symbOIzcd by acIn_ Ihc Inc IndIcatIn_ Ihc
tca cgutvacnts O! guatUcattOns OcO thc OtscctOr hIch marks thc cgutva
cnts OI thc nOmtna va uc O! guaIUcattOns. ) Lnc Oud asO havc tO makc
a Oancc !Or thc dtscrcQancy bctccn thc numbcr O! ycars O! study and thc
guatUcattOn ObtaIncd [ hIch bccOmcs mOrc rObabc as IntIIa cat ta rtscs
and schOOtn_ OccOmcs mOrc tdcstcad-sO that It nO aUccts cvcn thc
Orktn_ casscs hOsc chtdrcn O!Icn cavc sccOndary schOOl IthOut any
guatUcattOn) . t Oul d thcn Oc sccn that, tO cxaIn ccrtaIn ractIccs adc
guatcy [ tn Qarttcuar, autOdIdacIIcIsm) Onc has IO cOnsIdcr nOt Ony thc
guatUcattOn and thc numbct O! ycars O! schOOIn_ but asO thc rcatIOnsht
bctccn thc tO ( htch may _cncratc sc Iassurancc Or cmOatrassmcnt, ar
rO_ancc Or rcscntmcnt ctc) . Lnc mI_ht asO cOnsIdcr thc rcattOnshI bc
tccn a_c at thc cDd OI schOO tn_ and thc c_t tt matc a_c IOr a guaIhcattOn,
such as thc /a. /a..a/aunat ) at ! Or thc a_c tmt ts |Or thc .cnours [ cn
ttancc cxamtnatIOns !Or thc

ranms oo/es ) Lnc O! thc mcdIattOns thrOu_h


htch cu tura caIta Is trans!Ormcd tntO cducaIIOnal caIta Is sccd O!
tO_tcss thtOu_h thc systcm.
Thc discrcpancy bctwccn cducational capt ta and thc cultural capi tal
actually posscsscd, which is thc sourcc ot di ncrcnccs bctwccn holdcrs ot
idcnti cal cducational capi tal, can also rcsult trom thc tact that thc samc
cducational qual ihcation may corrcspond to schooling ot vcry uncqual
duration [ i . c. , thcrc is uncqual convcrsion ot scholastically acqui rcd cul-
tural capi tal ) . Thc di rcct or i ndircct cnccts ot onc or scvcral ycars ot
study may in tact not bc sanctioncd by thc award ot a diploma-as is thc
casc with all thosc who drop out i n thc two ycars lcading to thc bacca-
laurat or, at a highcr lcvcl, thosc who havc spcnt onc or two ycars at
uni vcrsi ty without obtai ning a qualincation. But in addi tion, bccausc thc
trcqucncy ot this di scrcpancy has riscn with thc chanccs ot acccss ot thc
dincrcnt classcs to sccondary and highcr cducation, agcnts bclonging to
di ncrcnt gcncrations as idcnti hcd by agc-groups) arc l i kcly to havc dc-
votcd a vcry dincrcnt numbcr ot ycars ot study wi th all thc rclatcd ct-
tccts, i ncludi ng grcatcr non-ccrtihcd compctcncc, ot coursc, but also thc
Tbe rist.raq 0/ cu/ture / 83
acguisition ot a dincrcnt rclation to cul turc-'studcntihcation` cncct
ctc. ) in cducational insti tutions dincring grcatly in thci r tcachcrs, thcir
tcaching mcthods, thcir social rccruitmcnt ctc. in ordcr to obtain an
idcntical gual i hcation. It tol l ows trom this that thc di ncrcnccs conncctcd
with social tra|cctory and thc vol umc ot i nhcri tcd cul tural capital arc
rci ntorccd by di ncrcnccs, mainly visiblc among mcmbcrs ot thc pcti tc
bourgcoisic who arc thcmsclvcs born i nto thc pctitc bourgcoisic or
drawn trom thc working classcs and particularly rcprcscntcd in thc cs-
tabl ishcd pctitc bourgcoisic) , which rchcct changcs in thc statc ot thc rc-
lations bctwccn thc cducational systcm and thc cl ass structurc. To thcsc
dincrcnt mds 0/ meratin corrcspond dincrcnt rclations to thc cduca-
tional systcm which arc cxprcsscd in di ncrcnt stratcgics ot cul tural in
vcstmcnt not guarantccd by thc cducational institution i . c. , autodi-
dacticism) .
ln thc abscncc ot morc prccisc indicators ot thc ovcrall stylc ot cultural
consumption c. g. , thc opposition bctwccn thc satirical wcck|ics Lr Canard
nthain and Char/tr Hr/J, or, in thc arca ot popular scicncc, bctwccn 5n-
otr rt |tr and Pthc/cgtr ) , onc can study thc i ntormation thc survcy pro
vidcs on tavouritc singcrs. lt might bc thought that thc tact that, at all
lcvcls ot cducational capi tal, thc youngcst rcspondcnts choosc thc singcrs ot
thc youngcr gcncration Franoisc Hardy or ohnny Ha|lyday) morc ottcn
than thc oldcr rcspondcnts, who morc ottcn choosc oldcr singcrs Gutary
or Mariano) , is adcguatcly cxplaincd by thc datcs ot thc singcrs' hrst appcar-
ancc in thc hcld o| cultural production. In |act, among baccalaurat-ho|dcrs,
thc youngcst morc ottcn choosc ]acqucs Louai who was born i n I920 and
pcrtormcd at thc Vicux Co|ombicr in I 965 ) , ]acqucs Brcl ( who was born
in I 929, madc his Paris dcbut in I 95 at thc Jhtrc dcs Jrois Baudcts and
pcr|ormcd at thc Paris Clympia i n I98 and I96I ) or cvcn Lco Fcrr (born
I 9I 6, dcgrccs in Arts and Po| i tical Scicncc, dcbut in Paris cabarcts I946) ,
whcrcas thc oldcr oncs morc o|tcn choosc Fdi th Piat ( born I 9I , dicd
I965, dcbut at thc ABC in I 957 ) , Luis Mariano born I 920, hrst succcss at
Casino Montparnassc, I 94 ) , Gi|bcrt Bcaud ( born I 927, hrst bccamc
known in right-bank cabarcts and thcn at Clympia, consccratcd in I 94,
thc ' Bcaud ycar' ) or cvcn Pctula Clark born I 955, top ot thc bill at
Clympia I 960, votcd ' most likcab|c and popular star' in I 965 ) . I t can bc
sccn that to makc scnsc ot thcsc rclationships onc has to takc into account
not onl y thc singcrs' agcs or thc datcs whcn thcy madc thci r brcakthroughs
or cvcn thc placcs whcrc thcy wcrc pcrmrming at thc timc o| thc survcy,
but also-and cspccially-thc dcgrcc ot amnity bctwccn thc stylc o| thcir
songs, morc 'intcllcctua|' in onc casc, closcr to pcti t-bourgcois tastc tor
|ight opcra and rca|ist song i n thc othcr, and thc cultura| disposi tions ot
two cducationa| gcncrations produccd by two vcry diHcrcnt statcs o| thc
school systcm.
Jhcrc arc similar diHcrcnccs bctwccn cducational gcncrations within thc
' tcchnician' traction ot thc class. Jhc youngcr diHcr |rom thc oldcr not so
much in thcir ovcrall compctcncc as in thc cxtcnt and ' |rccdom' o| thcir in-