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1
ARCHAEOLOGICAL
DISCOVERIES
2
llll tiIl
K ROlTFS
vim
Eastern
Turkestan-a
remote region
in Central Asia,
north of
Tibet
and
as
far from
the
Mediterranean
as
from
the
China Sea-might
seem
the
least likely
place
for
a
thriving,
sophisticated culture.
Yet here, in
the
desert
of
the
Tarim Basin,
once
flourished large
oasis
towns,
lush
with
greenery,
that
were
vital
links
on
the
great
Silk Routes
that
connected
China
to
Rome.
The
paintings and sculpture produced
in
these
cosmopolitan centers
for
over
a
thousand
years,
beginning
around
the
first
century A. D., are
tangible
evi-
dence
of
the
movement of civilizations and represent one of
the
most
fascin-
ating,
though
relatively unknown, accomplishments
in
the
history
of man.
Only
at
the
end of
the
last
century
did
a
few intrepid
explorers and
archaeologists recover physical evidence of
this
almost
forgotten
culture,
known
only
from
ancient
texts
and
from
rumors
brought back by
travelers
in Central Asia.
Deep in
the
sands of
the
Taklamakan desert
expedition
teams
found
buried
cities and
towns,
once watered
by
mountain
streams and elaborate
irrigation
systems.
Thousands
of manuscripts, preserved
by
the and climate,
gave minute
details
of
busy
commercial
life
or garrison
duties from
as early
as
the
third
century A. D.
As
many as seventeen
languages in
twenty-four
scripts
testified
to the
mingling of peoples at
these
oasis centers.
Mountains
surround
the
Taklamakan desert
on
three
sides, and,
in
secluded
gorges,
hundreds
of
Buddhist
temples
and monasteries were
found,
with
room after
room
hollowed into
the
rock and
decorated
with extraordinary wall
paintings
and sculpture.
The
men who
braved danger
and
discomfort
to excavate these sites
have become legendary in
the
annals of
Asian
archaeology.
Among
them
were
Albert
Grnwedel
and
Albert
von
Le
Coq, leaders
of
four
expeditions
conducted
by
the
Ethnological Museum
in
Berlin
between
1902
and
1914.
They
worked primarily at sites
in
the
Turfan
oasis and at
Kucha, finding
manuscripts, clay and wood sculpture,
frescoes,
and paintings on cloth
that
today
constitute
the
great collection of
Central Asian
art at
the
Museum
fr
Indische Kunst
at
Dahlem in West Berlin.
The
oasis
towns
of
the
Tarim Basin
became indispensable links in
an
extraordinary avenue of
trade
across
China, Central Asia, Persia,
and
Mesopotamia.
Two
powerful empires,
Rome
and
China, lay
at either end of
the
route, creating markets
for
every
kind
of product.
The
term
"Silk
Roads,
"
coined
by
a nineteenth-century scholar,
is
a
bit
misleading:
east-
bound
caravans
transported
valuable metals, wool and
linen
textiles,
ivory,
coral, amber, asbestos, and glass; caravans
heading
west
from China bore
furs,
ceramics,
iron, lacquer,
cinnamon
bark,
and
objects made of
bronze,
as well
as
the
Chinese
silk so coveted
in Rome.
Traffic
was
firmly
established
by
the
second
half
of
the
first
century
H. c. and reached a peak
during
the
T'ang dynasty (A.
D.
618-906),
an
extraordinary era of peace and prosperity
for China. The
capital,
Ch'ang-an
(present-day
Sian),
point of
departure for
travelers
on
the
Silk Route,
was
the
largest,
most cosmopolitan
city on earth, with a population approaching
two
million and
the
city walls
enclosing some eleven square miles.
The
Silk
Routes
passed
through
Kansu
province and crossed
the
Gobi
3
Desert
to the
oasis of
Tun-huang. (See
map,
inside back
cover.
) There,
caravans could choose
to
follow
a northern or southern route along
the
edge
of
the
Taklamakan desert. The
northern of
these trails
struck out across
the
desert
to
Hami,
nearly
three
weeks
distant. Then, hugging
the
foothills
of
the
T'ien Shan
range,
it
passed
through
Turfan, Karashar, Kucha, Aksu,
Tumshuk,
and
Kashgar. The
southern route
followed
oases close
to the
Kunlun Mountains
and
then turned
northwest
to
Yarkand, finally
rejoining
the
northern route
at
Kashgar. From Kashgar
the
Silk Route began
a
perilous
ascent, crossing
the
Pamir
range,
known
as
"The Roof
of
the
World, "
and
then
descending into Samarkand, Bokhara,
and
Merv,
and
continuing on
through
Persia
toward
Mediterranean
ports such
as
Antioch
or
Tyre. A
separate
branch
connected
Yarkand
with
present-day
Afghanistan,
and another proceeded
from Yarkand
over
the
treacherous
Karakorum
pass
into India.
Probably
no single merchant
traversed the
entire route; most operated
between
a
few
of
the
commercial centers
that
linked
the
dangerous
mountain and
desert
trails.
The
oasis
towns provided essential
services-
hostels, fresh
animals, provisions, guides, and
the
local
merchants
who
bought
and sold goods or
bartered
with
the
steady
stream of traders.
Some
oasis centers of
the
Tarim Basin
grew
to
be
prosperous,
cosmopolitan cities.
There,
monks, soldiers,
pilgrims, and
official
emissaries
from
distant
lands
stopped
to
rest,
and
ideas
as
well as precious
goods were exchanged.
Philosophies,
religions,
and styles of
art moved
across
Asia
along
the
Silk Route. The
most
influential
and
lasting
of
the
religions was
Buddhism.
Early Buddhism
was
based
on
the
teachings
of a man of
noble
birth,
whose
given name was
Siddhartha
and clan name,
Gautama. According
to
traditional
dating, he lived in
northern
India from 563
to
483
B. C.
Renouncing his
princely
background,
Siddhartha
set out, at
the
age of
twenty-nine, to
find
the
causes of
human
suffering and
to
discover
ways
to
overcome
it. For
many
years
he
studied methods of meditation
and
practiced
extreme
forms
of asceticism-but
to
no avail.
Then,
one
day,
while meditating
beneath
a
sacred
tree,
he
experienced a
profound
insight
into
the
human
condition.
It
was revealed
to
him
that
human
suffering
originates
in
man's attachment
to
life itself
and
his
craving
for
the
illusory
pleasures
of
the
world.
For Siddhartha, life
was not
limited
to
one
birth
and
death,
since, according
to the
ancient
Brahmanical
religion, souls
continually
transmigrate to
higher
or
lower forms
of
life,
depending
on an
individual's karma,
or accumulation of good or
bad
deeds. Siddhartha
realized
that, to
be liberated from
suffering, man must
break free from
this
endless cycle of existence
to
attain
Nirvana
(literally, "extinction"),
or
complete
detachment
from
the
world of
the
senses.
Transfixed by
this
revelation,
Siddhartha
became
the
Buddha (literally, "Enlightened One").
He
spent
the
rest of
his
long life
preaching
throughout
northeast
India,
gathering
followers
and converts
to the
path
that
he
taught
would
lead
to
salvation.
During
the
second and
first
centuries B. C.,
Buddhism
ceased
to
be
an
exclusively monastic
organization, as a new
form
of
the
religion slowly
Opposite: Fig. 3. Head
of a
Bodhisattva
(no.
11). Kizil,
Cave
of
the
Statues,
sixth
century
Fig. 4. Seated Buddha (no. 47).
Tumshuk, fifth
century
4
CENTRAL ASIAN ART
Kucha
developed. Its
proponents called
it Mahayana
("Great
Vehicle"),
dubbing
the traditional
faith Hinayana
("Lesser
Vehicle"). Hinayana
Buddhism
continued
to
follow
the traditional teachings
of
the
Buddha,
which
prescribed
dedication
to
intricate
techniques
of meditation as
the
only path
to
Nirvana.
Mahayana Buddhism,
on
the
other
hand, became infinitely
more
accessible
to the
masses, offering a compassionate
God, interceding
divinities
called
bodhisattvas,
and a
hope
of salvation
through
good
deeds
and sincere
belief. The Mahayana
sect
believed
the
Buddha
to
be
a
timeless,
cosmic
being,
who
had
appeared
in human form
out of
compassion
for
the
suffering of all
beings,
and who would reappear on earth
at predetermined
intervals.
Bodhisattvas
were
beings
who
had
already
passed
through
many cycles of existence and
had
accumulated enough merit
to
pass
into Nirvana
and
become buddhas
themselves.
In
order
to
help
all
who suffer,
they
delayed
their
final
release
into Nirvana. Individual
bodhisattvas began
to
attract
cultlike
followings. The
two
principal
bodhisattvas
were
Bodhisattva Maitreya,
the
Buddha
of the
Future,
who
would preside over
the
next great world age, and
Bodhisattva
Avalokiteshvara,
the
most compassionate and powerful protector until
the
coming of
Maitreya.
By
the
first
century B
.
C.,
Buddhist
missionaries were
traveling
from
India
toward
China
not only along
the
southern maritime routes,
but
also
along
the
overland
Silk Roads. Along
the
way,
they
introduced
Buddhist
culture and
doctrine
to the
Central Asian
peoples
of the oasis towns.
Within
a
few
centuries
the
main oasis
towns of
the
Tarim
Basin
were
capitals of
Buddhist
states and principalities.
In
A. D.
399
the
Chinese
pilgrim
Fa-hsien described
the
kingdom
of
Khotan, located
on
the
southern
route
through the
Taklamakan: "This
country
is
prosperous
and
happy; its
people
are well-to-do;
they
have
all received
the
faith
and
find
their
amusement
in
religious
music.
The
priests number several
tens
of
thousands.
"
At
some oasis centers,
monasteries and
temples
were
hollowed
out of
the
cliffs
in
secluded river
valleys.
Lavishly
patronized
by local
rulers and
wealthy merchants,
they
became important
Buddhist
centers.
Rock-hewn
sanctuaries
had
originated
in India
as natural
caves.
They
were gradually
expanded
into large
complexes, with rooms
that
ranged
from
stark
individual
cells
to
large halls
of worship, richly
decorated
with
wall
paintings and sculpture.
In
Central
Asia
these
halls
of worship
were usually
square or rectangular with a
barrel
vault or
dome.
The
ethnically
diverse
peoples of
the
Tarim Basin forged
a
distinctive
style of
Buddhist
art
from
numerous artistic
influences
that
arrived
first
from
the
West
and
later from
the
East. The
most
important influence from
the
West
came
from
India,
specifically
Gandhara,
where artisans created
some of
the
earliest
images
of
the
Buddha in
the
first
and second centuries
A.
D.
Located in
an area now straddling northern
Pakistan
and
Afghanistan,
Gandhara had
strong
links
to the
classical
Mediterranean
world.
Alexander
the
Great
and
his
army penetrated
the
region
in
the
fourth
century B. C.,
and
after
Alexander's death Greeks
remained
in
neighboring
Bactria. By
the
first
century A. D.,
Gandhara
was part of
the
vast northern
Indian
empire amassed
Opposite: Fig. 5. Swimmer
(no.
15).
Kizil,
Cave
of the
Seafarers,
about
500
Fig.
6. The Cowherd Nanda
(no.
9). Kizil, Cave
of
the
Statues,
about
500
Fig. 7. Seated Buddha (no. 73).
Shorchuk, Kirin Cave,
seventh-
eighth centuries
Opposite: Fig. 8. Worshiping
Bodhisattva (no.
63). Kumtura,
Temple 12,
eighth-ninth
centuries
by
the
Kushans,
a people of
Scythian
origin,
who
maintained close contact
with
Mediterranean
centers.
As
a result,
Gandharan
sculpture shows strong
influence
of
Hellenistic
and
Roman
art, although
the
iconography is
almost
completely
Buddhist
(nos. 1,2).
Monks
and pilgrims
transported this
art
eastward
in
the
form
of
portable shrines, and probably
pictures,
decorated
with compositions
that
became
standard
in
the
repertory
of
Buddhist
art
(no. 4). Sasanian
art
from
Iran
also occasionally contributed motifs
(nos. 19,73). Beginning
around
A. D.
500
a painting style
developed
at
Kucha,
an
important
center on
the
northern
route,
that
shows stylistic
influence from both Indian
and
Sasanian
sources,
hence
its designation, "first Indo-Iranian
style.
"
The
superb wall paintings
discovered in
caves at
Kizil,
near
Kucha,
are a supreme
achievement of
Central Asian
art.
Hundreds
of
temples
cut
into
the
steep
cliffs above a river valley were
discovered
by
the third
German
expedition:
"Everywhere
we
found fresh,
untouched
temples,
full
of
the
most
interesting
and artistically perfect
paintings, all of early
date, "
wrote
Albert
von
Le
Coq. Some
of
these
frescoes
were carefully
removed
and
taken to
Berlin.
Most
of
the
paintings show events
from
the
life
of
the
Buddha.
Pictures
of
the
preaching
Buddha
were especially common
in Central Asia,
and
The Cowherd Nanda (no. 9, figs. 2,6)
is
a
fragment from
such
a scene.
At
the
upper right-hand corner parts of
the
Buddha's
arm and
knee
are
visible.
Nanda's
two
cows rest
behind
him,
while
he listens
to
a sermon
with reverent attention,
leaning
on
his
gnarled stick.
Unfortunately, he has
inadvertently
pinned a
brown frog beneath
the
stick!
The frog-so
the
legend
goes-would
have hopped
away
had it
not meant
disturbing
Nanda's
concentration.
The frog
will
be
rewarded
by being
reborn as a god, and
Nanda
will enter
the
Buddhist
order.
The figure
of
the
cowherd
is
sensitively modeled, and
the
outlines
contribute
to
an
impression
of round,
full form.
Another
painting
from
the
same cave,
Seated Vajrapani (no. 10,
fig. 11),
shows an
important
attendant of
the
Buddha
seated
on a wicker
stool
fanning his
master.
Vajrapani is
painted
in
the
same
fully
modeled
style, a style
found
also
in Indian
art of
the
sixth century.
Vajrapani's
almond-shaped eyes and narrow mustache
appear again on a painted clay
Head
of a
Bodhisattva, from
the
same
Kizil
cave
(no. 11, fig. 3). Such life-
size
figures
usually occurred
in
groups, often
associated with paintings.
The
well-known
Swimmers (no. 15,
fig. 5), from
another early
Kizil
cave, shows
the
same verve and realistic
detail
as
The Cowherd Nanda.
Both
the
Head
of
Mahakashyapa (no.
20, fig. 1)
and
the
painting of
King Ajatashatru: His Wife
and
His Minister
Varshakara (? ) (no.
24,
fig. 10)
were painted somewhat
later,
probably
in
the
early seventh century.
The
style
is less
three-dimensional,
the
colors
brighter
and more
decorative.
Mahakashyapa,
one of
the
Buddha's
most
important disciples,
was absent
when
the
Buddha died, but
rushed
back
to
supervise
the
cremation.
King
Ajatashatru
was so
devoted
to
the Buddha that
Mahakashyapa feared he
might
kill himself
when
he heard
the
Buddha
was
dead. He
therefore
gave
the
king's
minister elaborate
instructions
on
how
to
break
the
news,
including
orders
to
prepare seven
jars
of
butter
and
one of sandalwood
powder
in
which
to
dip
the
fainting
monarch.
A
small wooden
Seated Buddha (no. 47, fig. 4), found
at
Tumshuk
near
Kucha,
stands only about six
inches high, but
appears monumental.
His
hands
rest quietly on
his lap in
a position
that
signifies meditation.
Such
geometrically pleasing sculpture was made
in India during
the
Gupta
dynasty,
contemporary with
this
figure
of
the
fifth
century A. D.
Another,
larger
statue of
the
Seated Buddha (no. 73, fig. 7)
probably
occupied a niche
in
a cave
temple
near
Shorchuk,
to the
east of
Kucha.
This
work was made
in
the
seventh or eighth
century,
but
echoes of
Gandharan
art can still
be
seen
in
the
Buddha's
wavy
hair
and
finely
pleated
drapery,
and
the two
medallions painted on
the
base
recall
motifs
from
Sasanian Persia.
By
the
beginning
of
the
eighth century
China
was
enjoying
a golden
age
under
the
T'ang dynasty,
and
Chinese
influence
pervaded
the
Tarim
Basin. After
this
period artistic
ideas in Central Asia
came primarily
from
the
East. The Kumtura
caves near
Kucha
were
decorated during
the
eighth
and ninth centuries, and a
Worshiping
Bodhisattva (no. 63, fig. 8),
with
its
full face
and relaxed, graceful
drapery
and scarves,
might almost
be
mistaken
for
a
T'ang Chinese
work.
Turfan
Turfan
was a great oasis center on
the
edge of
the
Gobi Desert,
east of
the
Tarim Basin. To its
north
is
the
snow-capped
Bogdo-ola, higher
than
any
peak
in Europe,
and
it
was melting snow, carried
along
deep
underground
channels,
that
enabled
fertile
towns to
flourish like
green
islands in
the
sand.
Melons
and
fresh
grapes were even
grown
here for
the
imperial
court
at
Ch'ang-an. In his
report on
the
first German
expedition at
Turfan,
Grnwedel described his
astonishment at
the
size of
the
ancient
metropolis
of
Khocho: "This is
without
doubt
a
forgotten Asian
city
of extraordinary
interest. The
size
of
it
alone
is
remarkable:
the
inner, holy
city, consisting
only of
temples
and
palaces, measures
7,400 feet
at
the
widest point of
the
still extant walls.
Hundreds
of
terraced temples
and grandiose vaulted
edifices cover an extensive
area of
land,
where
the
present-day
inhabitants
lay
their
irrigation
canals.
"
The Turfan
oasis
had
long been
within
the
Chinese
sphere of
influence, but in
the
ninth century
it became
the
center of
Uighur
rule.
The
Uighurs
spoke
a
Turkic language.
From
A. D.
745
to
840
they
ruled
the
vastness of
present-day
Mongolia
from
their
capital on
the
Orkhon
River.
The T'ang
emperors
maintained
friendly
relations with
these
powerful
northern neighbors.
After
the
Uighurs helped
the
emperor
to
suppress
civil
rebellion
in
the
760s,
they
imposed
an unbalanced
trade
arrangement as
the
price
for
their
alliance.
Every
year
the
Uighurs brought
to
China
thousands
of
horses, for
which
they
received an exorbitant
forty
to
fifty
pieces of silk
each.
Year
after year
this
forced
exchange enriched
the
Uighur
empire and
strained
the
Chinese
economy.
The height
of
Uighur
power came
in
the
beginning
of
the
ninth century, when, after a victory over
the
Tibetans,
they
gained possession
of
important
regions
in
the
Tarim Basin
area,
including
Kucha
and
Turfan. When
the
Uighur
empire
fell
to the
Turkish Kirghiz in
840,
a number of
tribes
moved
south and settled
in
the
Turfan
oasis,
making
Khocho
a new center
of power,
which
it
remained until
the
Opposite: Fig. 9. Detail
of
Demon
with a
Lamp
(no.
82).
Bezeklik, Temple 9,
ninth
century
Fig. 10. King Ajatashatru:
His
Wife
and
His Minister
Varshakara (') (no.
24). Kizil,
Maya Care/(Site 111),
600-50
Fig. 11. Detail
of
Seated
Vajrapani (no. 10). Kizil, Cave
of
the
Statues,
about
500
5
MANICHAEISM AND
NESTORIAN
CHRISTIANITY
rte..
..
+(l'
thirteenth
century.
Uncovered
at
Bezeklik,
a great temple complex near
Khocho,
were
portraits of ninth-century
Uighurian Princes (no. 108, front
cover) and
Uighurian
Princesses (no. 109, fig. 12). The
three
princes,
dressed in
splendid
red robes and
high
tiaras,
stride
forward
on a carpet.
On
a
long
white cartouche
beside him
the
leader's
name
is
preserved:
"The Tutuq
Bugra [from
the
house
of]
Sali. " Local
rulers and wealthy merchants who
supported
the
Buddhist
monasteries
often
had
themselves
portrayed
in
prominent
locations,
such
as on entrance walls and passages, or even on
the
pedestals of statues.
A Demon
with a
Lamp (no. 82,
fig. 9) from
the
same temple
at
Bezeklik
radiates extraordinary vitality, characteristic
of
all
the
work
found
in
these
ninth- and
tenth-century temples.
Buddhism
was not
the
only religion carried
eastward along
the
Silk Routes.
At Khocho,
the
German
excavators
found
rare
evidence
of
the Manichaean
and
the
Nestorian Christian faiths.
Manichaeism,
a religion of strict asceticism,
held
that
the
principles of
good and evil, as expressed
by light
and
darkness,
are commingled
in
the
world
and
in
man.
Man
must seek
to
render
the
evil principle
harmless
through abstinence.
Mani,
the
founder
of
this
religion, was
born in
southern
Babylonia in
about
A. D.
216-17
and was crucified
in 276
at
the
instigation
of
Persian
priests
at
the
Sasanian
court.
Many
followers fled
eastward and
eventually reached
China,
where
they
founded
small
Manichaean
communities.
In 762,
the
Uighur
ruler encountered
Manichaean
priests
in
China. A
number
of priests returned with
him to
his
capital, and soon
Manichaeism became
the
official religion of
the
Uighur
empire.
These
priests were
Sogdians, Iranian
people
from
the
region around
Samarkand.
They
gained considerable power at
the
Uighurian
court, and
the
Uighurs
adopted
two
new
forms
of writing
based
on
the
Sogdian
alphabet,
one
reserved
for Manichaean
sacred
texts
and
the
other
for Uighurian
usage.
Original
writings of
the
Manichaeans
have been found
only
in
Egypt
and
the
Turfan
oasis.
Among
the
seven examples
in
the
exhibition of
these
unique sacred
texts
are
a
hymnbook
sewn
in European
fashion (no. 112)
and manuscript pages with richly
colored
illustrations
that
show
such
rare
subjects as
the
Feast
of
Bema,
which
commemorated
the
crucifixion
of
Mani (no.
114).
The German
expedition also
discovered
the
remains of a
Nestorian
Christian
temple
at
Khocho,
and a contemplative
figure
(no.
95)
was part of
its faded frescoes. The
Nestorians
took their
name
from Nestorius,
patriarch
of
Constantinople,
who was
deposed
as a
heretic by
the
Council
of
Ephesus
in
the
year
431. The
sect was recognized
in
the
Persian
empire, and
its
members
brought Christianity
to
China by
the
seventh century.
Fig. 13. Uighurian Prince
(no. 136). Khocho,
ninth century
Opposite: Fig. 12. Uighurian
Princess (no. 109).
Bezeklik,
Temple 9,
ninth century
Above: Fig.
14. Detail
of
Angry
Arhat (no. 129). Foothills
near
Turfan,
eighth-
ninth centuries
6
TEMPLE BA\\ERS
IV
,
"
.
l1r/
:
9('
Among
the
extraordinary
finds
made
by
the
German
excavators are
Buddhist
paintings on cloth, which were preserved
from disintegration by
the
and climate.
The finest
example
in
the
Berlin
collections
is
a nearly
intact banner
with
the
portrait of a stately
Uighurian Prince (no. 136, fig.
13). These
cloth
banners
were apparently produced on a
large
scale
in
monastery workshops and
designed
with empty cartouches
to
be filled in
with
the
appropriate
dedication
when someone purchased
the
banner
as a
votive offering.
One fragment
of painted cloth
found
near
Turfan
shows an
Angry
Arhat (no. 129, fig. 14). This holy
man, who
has
severed all worldly
connections, seems
to
be
warding off evil spirits with all
his
might.
Painted
on silk with a supple
brush,
the
forms
and expression
far
exceed
in
subtlety
those
we
find in frescoes.
Another
silk
fragment dating from
the
ninth or
tenth
century shows a
Bodhisattva (no. 150,
fig. 15).
This
painting closely
resembles
Chinese
art of
the
T'ang dynasty.
In
A. D.
845,
Buddhism
was
outlawed
in China,
and statues and paintings
in
temples
and monasteries
were virtually all
destroyed. The
paintings on
fabric
produced
in
the
Turfan
oasis and nearby
Tun-Huang
escaped
this
devastation
and provide an
invaluable
glimpse of
this
great
lost
art.
Buddhism
met with violent persecution
in China during
the
ninth century,
and
in India it
gradually
disappeared by
the
year
1000. The distinctive
Central Asian Buddhist
culture also slowly came
to
an end as
the
Uighurians fell
under
the
sway of
Islam in
the tenth
century.
Muslims
damaged
or
destroyed
statues and paintings and
left
temples to
crumble
in
the
sand.
Commercial
activity along
the
Silk Routes began
to
decline
at
the
end
of
the
T'ang dynasty. The
routes were
finally
abandoned when
China
deliberately isolated herself from
the
West during
the
Ming dynasty
(1368-1644).
The
oasis
towns
always
depended
on
carefully
tended irrigation
systems, and, as
these
were neglected,
the
desert
slowly reclaimed
the
land.
As
the glaciers
that
fed
the
mountain streams gradually
dwindled
away,
water
became less
plentiful
in
the
Tarim Basin,
and slowly
the
area
fell into
decline. Only
the
best-watered
oases survived
as remote
Islamic
towns,
and
the
area eventually
became
part of
Chinese
territory.
The
great
Central
Asian
Buddhist
civilization
lay buried beneath
the
drifting
sands
for
almost
a
thousand
years, until
its
rediscovery at
the
end of
the
last
century.
1of7.
i
/vNyh
I cr0
1 "worthy"; describe Buddhist
1
who
achieved
the
highest.
su
/
1"
1
; 11
Buddhism,
already worthy
of
becoming
a
Buddha,
1
delays into
order
Nirvana in
others to
attain salvation.
AVALA)KITESKYARA
important
and popular
bodhisattva;
the
1/
of
Infinite
1M 1
bodhisattva,
who waits to
become
Buddha
of
th
world age.
mI
.I'
of
the
1
sometimes, synonymouswith
"non-
believer" in Buddhist
theology.
'1
k,
"Enlightened One"; being
who
has
attained
Nirvana.
The
historical Budd
of
the
world referred age
is
usually
to
as
SEMYAMUNI,
literally,
"the
sage
11
tribe
of
Sbakya. " Founded Buddhism
and
lived India
111
483
B. c.,
1
to
1" 1i
.
`IM
of,
the
.1
Buddha.
1_
Buddhist
Divinities
CAMONMIVAS of sky
and
air;
musicians
gods.
1`
moralizing and
didactic.
concerning
the
previous
.
incarnations
of
the
Buddha.
1
divinity
11
of
the
Y'
quarters
of
the
universe.
Together
MMAKASHYAPA
1'.
the
most
f1
disciple
of
the
Buddha.
One".
enemy
of
the
Buddha
Y
Wader
of
a
horde
of
demons.
NLVOU
Ritual
', 11
gestures various activities
Buddha
"
bodhisattva;
sotnetimes
I
an event
in
the
life \ Buddha.
IPANNIRVANA
Cornpift,
or
bud, Nirvana;
specifically the
Great
Decease
of
Shakyamuni.
i11
I\ 1i "1
VAJRMAM
Literally,
11
e
thunderbolt
personal guardian
Buddha.
m
u
I
e ,
. f