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Session 2A6

Microstrip and Printed Antennas, Phase Array


Antennas 1
Planar Antenna with a Grounded Inverted L-shaped Strip for WUSB Application
Wen-Shan Chen, Bau-Yi Lee, Ching-Hung Chen, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
A Novel Printed Antenna for PDA Phone
Wen-Shan Chen, Bau-Yi Lee, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
The Ambiguity Problem of a LCMV-based Space-time Cascade 2D Array
Ho-Hsuan Chang, Tsung-Cheng Wu, Shih-Chiang Lin, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
A Franklin Array Antenna for Wireless Charging Applications
Shih-Hsiung Chang, Wen-Jiao Liao, Kuo-Wei Peng, Chih-Yao Hsieh, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
A Miniatured WLAN/Wi-MAX Chip Antenna for Mobile Phone Applications
Long-Kun Li, Wen-Jiao Liao, Shao-En Hsu, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
A Beam Switching Planar Yagi-patch Array for Automotive Applications
Shao-En Hsu, Wen-Jiao Liao, Wei-Han Lee, Shih-Hsiung Chang, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Dual-band Dual-polarized Hybrid Antenna Array
Li-Na Zhang, Shun-Shi Zhong, Xianling Liang, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
An Outdoor Bistatic Scattering Assessment Using Array Antennas
Chih-Yao Hsieh, Wen-Jiao Liao, Long-Kun Li, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Microstrip Antenna Subarray for Circularly-polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar
Merna Baharuddin, Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo, Hiroaki Kuze, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Design of a Printed Antenna Array for Cost-eective ATE to Reduce the Radiated EMI Yield Loss
Cheng-Nan Hu, Hsuang-Chung Ko, Deng-Yao Chang, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Wang-shaped Patch Antenna with a Simple Feed Network
Chi H. Wong, Kwok L. Chung, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
197
198 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Xian, China, March 2226, 2010
Planar Antenna with a Grounded Inverted L-shaped Strip for
WUSB Application
Wen-Shan Chen, Bau-Yi Lee, and Ching-Hung Chen
Southern Taiwan University, Taiwan
Abstract To increase the transmitted speed of Pen Driver, Wireless-USB (WUSB) uses the
rst group spectrum (3.14.85 GHz) of 802.15.3a standard to process huge amount of data. This
paper presents a printed antenna fabricated on a printed circuit board (PCB) with a small size of
10 29 0.8 mm
3
. The proposed antenna consists of a rectangular radiation patch (L
1
W
1
) and
ground plane that has a rectangle (L
3
W) plate and an inverted L-shaped strip. Without adding
the inverted L-shaped strip, the proposed antenna has only one resonated mode at 5 GHz that
operates frequency band from 4.2 to 5.41 GHz. This frequency band can not cover the wireless-
USB (WUSB) operation band. After the inverted L-shape strip was added, three resonated
modes located at 3.23, 4.06 and 5.22 GHz were produced. The low operated band is resonated
by the inverted L-shape strip; the intermediate operated band is resonated by the rectangular
radiation patch and the inverted L-shape strip; the high operated band is resonated by the
rectangular radiation patch. The combination of these operated bands provides an impedance
bandwidth of 3.07 to 5.86 GHz, which covers the WUSB operation band. The eects of the
antenna with dierent ground length are also investigated. The antenna covers wide bandwidth
and keeps the impedance bandwidth for dierent ground length. In addition, the proposed
antenna has advantages of simple structure, wide bandwidth, low cost, low prole, and good
radiation characteristics. Simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna design are
described, and experimental results of a constructed prototype are presented and discussed.
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Xian, China, March 2226, 2010 199
A Novel Printed Antenna for PDA Phone
Wen-Shan Chen and Bau-Yi Lee
Southern Taiwan University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Abstract Multi-band antenna has become the mainstream for modern wireless communica-
tion system because the wireless products carry two or more functions. PIFA and multi-layers
antennas have been used in multi-band applications for more than a decade; however, these an-
tennas need extra height to place in the circuit board. Planar monopole antenna having the
advantages of low prole, low cost and ease to fabricate becomes a promising candidate in multi-
frequency operation. Owning to the portable and compact of wireless products, the physical
size of antenna has to t into the system architecture. Folded or meandered monopole, which
can easily reduce the antenna size, plays an important role in compact antennas. Insucient
bandwidth is always come with these folded types of antennas, especially at lower frequency
bands. Using parasitic element, which can couple or excite extra path, is a useful method to in-
crease the required bandwidth. This paper presents a dual mode method to fulll the bandwidth
requirement.
The proposed novel planar antenna has a simple inverted-U shaped in driven part and two low
frequency paths with a tunable slot in ground plane. The inverted-U element and ground plane
are printed on the same side of the substrate. The total length of inverted-U operates a quarter
wavelength of 1200 MHz and the mode is not used in this design. The other two resonant modes
at 1800 and 2400 MHz are also produced by using the inverted-U element. The 1800 MHz and
2400 MHz modes operate frequency bands of DCS (17101880 MHz), PCS (18501990 MHz),
UMTS (19202170 MHz) and WLAN (24002484 MHz). The two low frequency paths operate
two low frequency modes. By adjusting a slot located between the two low frequency paths, the
two low frequency modes are close at 900 MHz to operate GSM (890960 MHz) band. The overall
dimension of proposed antenna is 100 mm (length) 60 mm (width) 0.8 mm (thickness), and it
would be used in multi-network PDA phone.
Figure 1.
200 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Xian, China, March 2226, 2010
The Ambiguity Problem of a LCMV-based Space-time Cascade 2D
Array
Ho-Hsuan Chan, Tsung-Cheng Wu, and Shih-Chiang Lin
Department of Communication Engineering, I-Shou University, Taiwan
Abstract For a wideband beamforming system, the propagating signals are processed and
combined temporally as well as spatially, which thus is a space-time two dimension (2D) array,
to extract the desired information such as the directions of propagation and their frequency
contents. We discussed and compared the performance of three dierent space-time 2D arrays
which are the space-time joint (STJ), the time-space cascade (TSC) and the space-time cascade
(STC) processing conguration, respectively. The linear constraint minimum variance (LCMV)
algorithm is applied to calculate the dynamic weighting functions for these 2D adaptive arrays.
The STJ processor can achieve better resolution, signal separation and interference suppression
capacities than the other two types do, but the joint of space and time processing is subject
to heavy computing load on the evaluation and updating the array weighting functions. On the
other hand, both the STC and TSC processors have the implementation advantage than STJ due
to simplicity and lower computing load. However these two processors will encounter detection
ambiguity problem which the bearing measurements made give ambiguous DOA and frequency
contents under the multibeam constraint conditions. We explained and derived theoretically the
existence of ambiguity problem and provided simulation results to demonstrate our arguments.
There is no much novelty the topics of space-time 2D array and beamforming techniques, but
it seems that there were no much references can be traced regarding the ambiguity problem
presented in this article. We still wonder whether or not the ambiguity problem is not worthy
to mention or there may be other view points on this problem. We sincerely hope that we can
attract more attention or may stimulate possible discussions on this subject.
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Xian, China, March 2226, 2010 201
A Franklin Array Antenna for Wireless Charging Applications
Shih-Hsiung Chang, Wen-Jiao Liao, Kuo-Wei Peng, and Chih-Yao Hsieh
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan
Abstract A Frankin array antenna is proposed in this work to be used the receiving antenna
for wireless charging applications. It is a fascinating idea to use radio wave as the power source.
However, due to the relative long wavelength, the power density of microwave radiation dilutes
as it propagates. According to power budget analysis, at a distance of one meter, if transmitting
and receiving antennas of moderate gains are used, only a few mW is available with one watt
power transmission. In order to enhance the available power level and increase the separation
distance, larger antennas, which intercept more radiated power, can be employed.
The proposed planar Franklin array antenna contains 8 antennas as shown in Fig. 1(a). Each
Franklin array antenna comprises 4 patches connected in series. Antennas are grouped into two
sets and placed perpendicularly on top a metal ground plane. The overall antenna panel size is
52 cm by 52 cm, and the thickness is 6.5 mm. Fig. 1(b) provides the translated fareld radiation
pattern measured in a spherical neareld chamber. The maximum gain is approximately 12 dBi.
Note there are a couple of side-lobes, which are due to the extended patch element spacing.
Wireless charging performance was evaluated by connecting the Franklin array antenna with loads
and the RF rectication circuitry, which is made of RF diodes. Experiment results indicate that
by employing a large antenna aperture, the charging distance can be elongated to a few meters.
A one mF super capacitor can be charged up within tens of seconds. Dierent rectication circuit
connecting fashions were also attempted. By combing the received RF power rst with a power
divider, then performing rectication with a single RF rectication circuit, the charging distance
can be optimally extended. On the other hand, if the RF power from each Franklin array is
rectied rst, then combined as DC sources, the charging distance is limited since certain power
level (0 dBm) is required to turn on RF diodes. However, at a short distance, the latter
connecting fashion provides more power to the load.
Figure 1: (a) Fabricated Franklin array antenna. (b) Measured radiation pattern.
202 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Xian, China, March 2226, 2010
A Miniatured WLAN/Wi-MAX Chip Antenna for Mobile Phone
Applications
Long-Kun Li, Wen-Jiao Liao, and Shao-En Hsu
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Abstract The wireless communication market has been growing rapidly since the last two
decades. Now, people not make phone calls, but also demand to transmit and receive data
from mobile devices. Therefore, connection capability to wireless local area network (WLAN) or
worldwide interoperability micro-wave access (Wi-MAX) is a must. In recent years, due to the
popularity of mobile devices and the demand of multiple system integration, antenna miniatur-
ization becomes an important research topic. Conventional antenna miniaturization techniques
include using meandered metal strip structure and employing dielectric loading. Meander line
structures maintain the electric length required for resonance while minimize the antenna physical
size. The dielectric loading method uses high dielectric constant materials to slow down the wave
velocity, which in turns reduces the resonance length. The so-called chip antenna combines
above two techniques to further minimize the antenna size.
In this work, compact WLAN/Wi-MAX dual band chip antennas for mobile phones are presented.
Due to dierent band allocations in dierent regions, two chip antenna designs are proposed. One
works for WLAN(2.4 2.48, 5.15 5.35, 5.725 5.85 GHz) and Wi-MAX(3.4 3.7 GHz) bands.
The antenna dimensions, as shown in Fig. 1, are 3 mm 9 mm 1.6 mm. The other covers the
WLAN and Wi-MAX band at 2.5 2.7 GHz. Its dimensions are 3 mm11 mm1.6 mm. Both
chip antenna designs comprise two resonant branches and take advantage of branches second
order resonance to create two near resonant frequencies. Such technique helps to achieve a triple-
band response. One attractive feature of the proposed chip antenna is that no empty space is
needed, which is suitable for mobile devices. An FR4 substrate of 45 mm by 100 mm serves as
the platform to mount the chip antenna.
Simulations and measurements on return loss spectra as well as radiation patterns were performed
and are largely agree. The radiation patterns are omni-directional in general as shown in Fig. 2.
Simulated results indicate the resonance is largely invariant to the changes in test board size, so
the proposed miniatured chip antenna is particularly attractive for mobile devices such as the
PDA, smart phone or notebook.
Figure 1: Proposed WLAN/Wi-MAX
(3.4 3.7 GHz) chip antenna.
Figure 2: 3-D radiation pattern (2.4 GHz) of the pro-
posed chip antenna.
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Xian, China, March 2226, 2010 203
A Beam Switching Planar Yagi-patch Array for Automotive
Applications
Shao-En Hsu, Wen-Jiao Liao, Wei-Han Lee, and Shih-Hsiung Chang
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
Abstract Interference and multi-path fading in urban and indoor environment are important
issues for wireless communications. In this work, a Yagi patch antenna of four directive beams
is proposed to counteract multi-path interference. The beam switching antenna, as shown in
Figure 1, comes with the Yagi patch antenna, a one-to-four RF switch and the control circuit.
The Yagi patch antenna comprises four driven patch elements, which are connected via a one-
to-four RF switch and ve parasitically-coupled director patch elements. By selecting a specic
through path of the RF switch, RF power is fed to one of the driven patch elements. Since
directive radiating elements are used, the beam switching antenna can utilize spatial diversity to
extend connection distance and prevent interference.
Figure 2 shows the conguration of the beam switching planar Yagi-patch array. The antenna is
designed to operate around GSM 1800/1900 MHz for cellular phone uses. The size and the height
of the fabricated prototype antenna are 293 mm 293 mm 3 mm, respectively. Measurement
results indicate the antennas gain is approximately 9.478 dBi with a 3 dB beamwidth of 68
degrees. Detailed design parameters as well as performance features such as operational frequency,
gain, isolation, 3 dB beamwidth, front-to-back ratio and squint angle are reported in this paper.
Because of the planar structure, this antenna can be employed for automotive environment. For
instance, the planar antenna conguration can be mounted on top of a vehicle for with a low
prole. The switching directive beam enables the moving vehicle to track a specic base station
and extends the communication distance. Such a planar beam switching antenna can be used for
mobile devices to ensure connection quality via spatial diversity.
Antenna 3
Antenna 1
RF
Switch
Antenna 2
Antenna 4
Figure 1: One-to-four beam switching antenna sys-
tem.
Figure 2: A beam switching planar Yagi-patch array.
204 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Xian, China, March 2226, 2010
Dual-band Dual-polarized Hybrid Antenna Array
L. N. Zhang
1
, S. S. Zhong
1
, and X. L. Liang
2
1
School of Communication and Information Engineering, Shanghai University, China
2
Department of Electronic Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Abstract Recently, the dual-band and dual polarized antenna array have been studied for
satellite and wireless communication applications, particularly for the synthetic aperture radar
(SAR) application [1, 2]. The microstrip antenna (MA) and the dielectric resonator antenna
(DRA) as two classes of array elements have been investigated and extensively used in the last
decades. The microstrip antenna has good performance in lower frequency, but in higher fre-
quency, its radiation eciency deteriorates apparently, for example, it decreases by 15% as the
frequency rises from C band to X band. Compared to the MA, the radiation eciency of the DRA
is as high as 95% even for frequencies up to 10 GHz, due to the absence of inherent conductor
losses [3].
In this paper, we propose a novel hybrid antenna array with the combination of MA and DRA
elements for the dual-band dual-polarized SAR application. Owing to higher eciency of the
DRA, the DRA is used as the higher frequency radiation element in X band. In order to obtain
the dual polarization and to reduce the cross-polarization level, horizontal polarization of the
DRA elements is fed in the center of the DR and the vertical polarization fed by means of the
180

out of phase feed technique. For lower frequency of S band, the traditional microstrip dipole
antenna is adopted as the element, where two separate orthogonal microstrip dipoles are used
to provide the horizontal and vertical polarization, respectively. The spacing of the elements is
about 0.7
0
at 9.6 GHz and about 0.7
0
at 3.2 GHz. As a test model, the 2 1 elements and
2 6 elements are simulated and analyzed.
Array simulation results shows that the impedance bandwidths of return loss less than 10 dB
are 6.6% (3.083.29 GHz) for S band and 11.5% (8.9210.01 GHz) for X band, respectively. The
cross-polarization levels of the antenna array are 40 dB for X band and 27 dB for S band in
both planes respectively. The antenna array has advantages such as small size, simples structures,
low cost, high eciency, perfect polarization purity and easy to expand into a large array. Thus
it is promising candidate for the SAR application.
REFERENCES
1. Pozar, D. M. and S. D. Targonski, A shared-aperture dual-band dual-polarized microstrip
array, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 49, No. 2, 150157, 2001.
2. Zhong, S. S., Z. Sun, and X. R. Tang, Progress in dual-band dual-polarization shared-
apertures SAR antennas, Frontiers of Electrical and Electronic Engineering in China, Vol. 4,
No. 3, 323329, 2009.
3. Lai, Q., G. Almpanis, C. Funmeaux, H. Benedickter, and R. Vahldieck, Comparison of the
radiation eciency for the dielectric resonator antenna and the microstrip antenna at Ka
band, IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 56, No. 11, 35893592, 2008.
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Xian, China, March 2226, 2010 205
An Outdoor Bistatic Scattering Assessment Using Array Antennas
Chih-Yao Hsieh, Wen-Jiao Liao, and Long-Kun Li
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology
43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan
Abstract Passive coherent detection (PCL), which is also known as passive radar, is of in-
creasing interest lately. In a passive radar system, the transmitting and receiving antennas are
not located at the same position. Therefore, it detects targets bistatic scattering instead of
monostatic scattering in conventional radars. In this work, we designed an experiment which
evaluates the bistatic radar cross section from targets in the UHF band. The preliminary mea-
surement conguration is shown in Fig. 1, which includes two directive antennas connected to
a network analyzer. One is a four dipole array of approximately 10 dBi gain, while the other
is a Yagi antenna of 7 dBi gain. Both antennas are aimed toward the target. Since the output
power from the NA is relatively weak and the bistatic RCS from the target may be small in
certain angles, the transmitted power is cranked up to 50 dBm using RF components including
power ampliers, attenuators, circulators and terminations. In order to evaluate targets bistatic
scattering correctly, interference from nearby clutters need to be minimized. Hence, the testing
range is set up on a buildings roof top to avoid reections from other buildings.
The bistatic RCS of a scattering target is not only determined by the target geometry, but also
a complicated function of incident angle, reection angle, frequency, and the targets surface
property. As a result, several sets of experiments were proposed to assess the targets RCS
characteristics and the measurement validness as well. Parameters studied include targets shape,
orientation, distance to antenna, and antenna polarization. For example, Fig. 2 is the scattering
spectra of co-pol and cross-pol antenna setups. The target is a cardboard box wrapped in
aluminum foil and is located 8 meters away from the transmitting and receiving antennas. The
dierence is around 20 dB indicating the planar surfaces of the target provides little cross-pol
reection. Note because the size of the target is close to the wavelength, the scattering spectra
exhibit some interference patterns. The bistatic RCS are calculated according to the radar
equation. Although the RCS value varies under dierent testing scenarios, the targets electrical
sizes, in general, are three to ten times larger than their physical sizes. Also, the RCS of a box
target is much larger than the one of a spherical target.
According to the measurement results, the variation in bistatic RCS complies with physical
expectation. As to the future work, the target should be elevated to reduce interference from
background clutters.
Figure 1: Testing range setup.
Figure 2: Scattering spectra of co-pol and cross-pol
antennas.
206 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Xian, China, March 2226, 2010
Microstrip Antenna Subarray for Circularly-polarized Synthetic
Aperture Radar
Merna Baharuddin, Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo, and Hiroaki Kuze
Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University
1-33, Yayoi, Inage, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
Abstract The design of a circularly-polarized microstrip antenna subarray intended for use in
circularly-polarized synthetic aperture radar (CP-SAR) systems operated in L-Band (1.27 GHz)
is presented. The CP-SAR sensor is a new sensor for Earth observation applications, with the
advantage of sensitive measurements on Earth object characteristics, providing greater amount
of information than conventional linear-polarization systems. Microstrip antenna has the advan-
tages of lightweight, low prole, and low volume, as well as the relatively low fabrication cost. In
spite of its narrow bandwidth and low gain, microstrip antenna is a suitable choice for airborne
SARs. The subarray is the essential component that will compose the full array CP-SAR antenna.
The full antenna, in turn, will be implemented on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) CP-SAR,
currently under development in the Microwave Remote Sensing Laboratory, Chiba University.
The array antenna requirements are (i) broad-band input impedance, (ii) sucient Axial Ratio
bandwidth, (iii) a cosecant-squared beam pattern in the elevation plane (E-plane), (iv) a pencil
beam in the azimuth plane (H-plane), (v) relatively good gain and (vi) low cross polarization
levels. There are a number of technical challenges in achieving such specications required for
the CP-SAR sensor. The subarray is comprised of CP microstrip elements, and every element is
a dual-polarized, Right Handed Circular Polarization (RHCP) and Left Handed Circular Polar-
ization (LHCP), microstrip antenna. The microstrip element is an elliptical patch antenna which
is radiating circularly-polarized wave. A single proximity-coupling method is applied for feeding
the antenna element. The subarray design will involve the right spacing between elements in
order to minimize the mutual coupling and to achieve the required pattern. A well-matched feed-
ing system is also indispensable for the implementation of the dual-polarized circularly-polarized
subarray system.
Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Xian, China, March 2226, 2010 207
Design of a Printed Antenna Array for Cost-eective ATE to
Reduce the Radiated EMI Yield Loss
Cheng-Nan Hu
1
, Hsuang-Chung Ko
2
, and Deng-Yao Chang
2
1
CRC, Oriental Institute of Technology
No. 58, Sec. 2, Sihchuan Rd, Ban-Ciao City, Taipei County, Taiwan, R.O.C.
2
King Yuan Electronics Co. Ltd.
No. 58, Sec. 2, Sihchuan Rd, Ban-Ciao City, Taipei County, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Abstract RF semiconductor devices are changing to match the needs of increasingly inno-
vative wireless standards. In turn, device functionality and integration drive core parametric,
conguration, and usage trends for RF ATE (Auto-Test-Equipment) and signal bandwidths and
carrier frequencies supporting greater data throughput rates are increasing steadily [13]. Usually,
RFIC manufacturers conduct the Go No-Go test procedure (Fig. 1(a)) to perform the quali-
cation test. However, this approach has to suer the yields loss caused by radiated EMI noises
existing in the testing environment.
To improve the radiated EMI yield loss, design of a multi-band, dual-polarized printed antenna
array is proposed to be implemented onto the load board of the ATE (Auto-Test-Equipment) as
the EMI sensor (Fig. 1(c)) to monitor the existing interference signals such that the correlation
between the test data and background noise can be analyzed in order to identify the root causes
of yield loss. When the radiated EMI is detected at production line, a re-testing procedure is
trigged by ATE test program (Fig. 1(b)) to reduce the radiated EMI yield loss.
In this study, theoretical analysis of a specied PHS transceiver IC based on the Monte-Carlo
procedure validates the proposed cost-eective ATE design approach. Experimental results of a
printed antenna array design conrm the performance of EMI sensor. System validation of the
specied device that occurred with a suspected EMI low yield in the production line indicates
that the proposed approach can reduce yield loss from 34% to 13%, or by 21% which is very
consistence with the numerical results of 21.3% using Monte-Carlo approach.
208 Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Abstracts, Xian, China, March 2226, 2010
Wang-shaped Patch Antenna with a Simple Feed Network
Chi H. Wong and Kwok L. Chung
Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Hung Hom, Hong Kong, China
Abstract Microstrip patch antennas have attracted much attention of antenna researchers
because of its low cost, low prole and easy fabrication, but narrow bandwidth is a major dis-
advantage that limits the applications of microstrip antennas. Methods to enhance impedance
(or return-loss) bandwidth including the addition of U-slot [1], the E-shaped patch [2, 3], and
the meandering-probe with stacked patch [4]. The U-slot patch and E-shaped patch designs are
capable of > 30% return-loss (10-dB) bandwidth but suer from high cross-polarization (x-pol )
of greater than 15 dB in one plane [13]. The Meandering probe fed stacked patch enhances
the impedance bandwidth up to 37% (SWR < 1.5) and the x-pol down to 20 dB. However, it
requires an additional patch and a complex probe fabrication [4]. Recently, a Wang-shaped patch
fed by a dual L-probe with an enhanced return loss bandwidth of 42% has been reported [5].
Two mirrored E-shaped patches are combined to form a single patch. This combination makes
the topological shape of the patch to resemble a Chinese character,

(pronounced Wang), hence


this novel patch is denoted as Wang-shaped patch antenna. Wang-shaped patch has a symmetric
geometry in both the principal planes whereas the E-shaped patch has current ows in opposite
directions of E-eld. The latter causes the asymmetric radiation patterns and the high x-pol
level in H-plane. Wang-shaped patch comes to solve such problems by balancing current ows
in opposite directions. An external phase shifter was used in the proof-of-concept version [5]. By
exciting two identical L-probes with anti-phase currents in equal magnitudes, the cancellation of
leakage radiation from the vertical probes and hence the suppression of cross-polarization have
been achieved.
In this paper, a simple feed network is designed to replace the external phase shifter for a Wang-
shaped patch. This antenna is aimed to be operated in a frequency range of 1.66 GHz to 2.43 GHz
for covering the major standards in mobile communications. A dual L-probe feed is proposed
in the current design. The feed network is applied to excite the probes with equal magnitude
currents in 180 deg out of phase, as the similar function of an external phase shifter. A 1.52-mm
thick Rogers RO3003 dielectric substrate (
r
= 3.0, tan = 0.0013) is used to facilitate the
feed network. The dual L-probe fed Wang-shaped patch antenna features a 10-dB return-loss
bandwidth of 37.7%, whilst the cross-polarization levels are suppressed below 20 dB within the
bandwidth range of 1.78 GHz and 2.31 GHz. The broadside gain is simulated as high as 6.5 dBi
at the mid-band frequency. The detailed antenna geometry and the measurement results will be
presented and discussed in the conference.
REFERENCES
1. Luk, K. M., Y. X. Guo, K. F. Lee, and Y. L. Chow, L-probe proximity fed U-slot patch
antenna, Electronic Letters, Vol. 34, 18061807, Sep. 1998.
2. Yang, F., X. X. Zhang, X. Ye, and Y. Rahmat-Samii, Wide-band E-shaped patch antennas
for wireless communications, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 49, 10941100, Jul. 2001.
3. Wong, K. L. and W. H. Hsu, A board-band rectangular patch antenna with a pair of wide
slits, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., Vol. 49, 13451347, Sep. 2001.
4. Lai, H. W. and K. M. Luk, Wideband stacked patches antenna fed by a meandering probe,
Electronic Letters, Vol. 41, Mar. 2005.
5. Fung, H. Y. and K. L. Chung, A Wang-shape suspended patch antenna, Proceedings of the
11th Australian Symposium on Antennas, 18, Sydney, Australia, Feb. 1819, 2009.