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VOLUME I: Fundamentals & Ingredients

FOURTH EDITION

Baking Science & Technology

Volume I: Fundamentals & Ingredients E.J. Pyler and L.A. Gorton Fourth Edition

BAKING
Science & Technology

E.J. PYLER
AND L.A. GORTON
SOSLAND PUBLISHING COMPANY

ii

Copyright 2008 by Sosland Publishing Company. All rights reserved.


Library of Congress Control Number: 2008934285
ISBN 978-0-9820239-0-7 Baking Science and Technology, Volume 1
ISBN 978-0-9820239-2-1 Baking Science and Technology, 2 Volume Set

No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any


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Telephone: (+1) 816 756 1000
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its gratitude for permissions it has received. Sosland Publishing Co. will be
pleased, in subsequent editions, to correct any inadvertent errors or omissions
that may be pointed out.

Baking Science & Technology

Foreword
Baking Science & Technology, 3rd edition stayed in print for nearly
20 years, but as the industry approached the 2007 International Baking Industry
Exposition, it became clear that a new edition was needed. Much had happened,
especially on the nutrition side as well as with process automation, and the industry
now encompassed many new aspects not covered in the text. The 4th edition was
announced at that international trade show, and this book is the first of two volumes
comprising the new version.
Baking Science & Technology, was first published in 1952, then again
in 1972 and 1988. That this book stood the test of time and continues to be used
as a textbook by the industrys leading baking schools and as a daily reference
for thousands of bakers worldwide is testament to its original writers insight and
writing ability.
For the 4th edition, Sosland Publishing approached Laurie Gorton,
executive editor of Baking & Snack. She has nearly 35 years experience covering
the technical, scientific and business aspects of the grain-based foods industry.
The grain-based foods industry and baking in particular face as many, if
not more, challenges than 20 years ago. Todays issues involve nutritional content,
food safety and the demands of the health-and-wellness shopper. But every era
brings its own concerns to the table, quite literally.
We intend Baking Science & Technology to move into the future through
this new edition and, later, digital formats. As developments occur, the book will be
updated using emerging electronic technologies. We encourage readers to comment
on this edition and its contents and to recommend topics and changes for future
inclusion.
Mark Sabo
President, Sosland Publishing Co.
August 2008

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Baking Science & Technology

Table of Contents
Foreword ................................................................................................................ ii
Chapter 1: Basic Food Science ........................................................................... 1
Carbohydrates ........................................................................................................ 2
Sources of carbohydrates used in baking ...................................................... 2
Carbohydrate synthesis ................................................................................... 2
Simple vs. complex......................................................................................... 3
Physical and chemical differentiation............................................................. 4
Monosaccharides ............................................................................................ 4
Sugar: Disaccharides and trisaccharides......................................................... 5
Starch .............................................................................................................. 7
Dextrins ........................................................................................................ 11
Gelatinization of starches ............................................................................. 12
Retrogradation of starch ............................................................................... 14
Acrylamide formation .................................................................................. 15
Glycemic index vs. glycemic response......................................................... 16
Pentosans ............................................................................................................ 17
Sources of pentosans in baking .................................................................... 17
Structure ....................................................................................................... 18
Physical and chemical differentiation........................................................... 18
Functions and effects during baking ............................................................. 18
Fiber ..................................................................................................................... 20
Sources of fiber ............................................................................................. 21
Definition of dietary fiber ............................................................................. 21
Structure ....................................................................................................... 26
Properties of fiber in food ............................................................................. 27
Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics ............................................................ 27
Proteins and enzymes .......................................................................................... 28
Proteins ......................................................................................................... 29
Sources of proteins ....................................................................................... 30
Amino acids .................................................................................................. 31
Classification of proteins .............................................................................. 34
Structure of proteins ..................................................................................... 39
Properties of proteins .................................................................................... 41
Proteins of wheat .......................................................................................... 43
Enzymes ....................................................................................................... 47
Sources of enzymes ...................................................................................... 47
Classification and nomenclature of enzymes ............................................... 49
Lock-and-key, induced fit of enzymes .......................................................... 51

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Properties of enzymes...................................................................................
Lipids ...................................................................................................................
Source of lipids .............................................................................................
Nomenclature ...............................................................................................
Chemical composition ..................................................................................
Fatty acids .....................................................................................................
Fatty acid naming protocols .........................................................................
Saturated vs. unsaturated ..............................................................................
Cis vs. trans ..................................................................................................
Short- and medium-chain fatty acids ............................................................
Mono-, di- and triglycerides .........................................................................
Sterols and stanols ........................................................................................
Other lipids ...................................................................................................
Physical aspects ............................................................................................
Liquid, plastic and solid forms .....................................................................
Melting point ................................................................................................
Crystallinity ..................................................................................................
Hydrogenation and interesterification ..........................................................
Oxidation ......................................................................................................
Autoxidation mechanism ..............................................................................
Antioxidants .................................................................................................
Hydrolysis and polymerization.....................................................................
Physical chemistry ...............................................................................................
Acid-base reactions ......................................................................................
Electrolytes ...................................................................................................
Titration ........................................................................................................
Active acidity ................................................................................................
The pH concept.............................................................................................
Buffers ..........................................................................................................
pH determination ..........................................................................................
Role of pH in baking ....................................................................................
Buffering action of proteins ..........................................................................
pH in chemically leavened product ..............................................................
Oxidation and reduction ...............................................................................
The redox potential .......................................................................................
Estimation of redox potential .......................................................................
Role of oxidation in baking ..........................................................................
Role of pentosans .........................................................................................
Role of thiols and disulfides .........................................................................
Role of flour lipids ........................................................................................
Dough physics: colloids and rheology .................................................................
States of matter .............................................................................................

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Baking Science & Technology

Molecular forces ........................................................................................... 88


Colloidal systems.......................................................................................... 89
Emulsions ..................................................................................................... 90
Foams............................................................................................................ 92
Colloidal character of dough ........................................................................ 92
Colloidal aspects of flour particles ............................................................... 93
Starch ............................................................................................................ 94
Dextrins ........................................................................................................ 96
Pentosans ...................................................................................................... 96
Water solubles............................................................................................... 97
Flour proteins................................................................................................ 97
Role of polar flour lipids............................................................................... 98
Chemical bonds ............................................................................................ 99
Water in dough.............................................................................................. 99
Adsorption vs. absorption ........................................................................... 100
Cell structure in dough ............................................................................... 101
Dough rheology .......................................................................................... 103
Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients .......................................................................
Part A: Major Ingredients ..............................................................................
Wheat flour ........................................................................................................
Structure of the wheat kernel ......................................................................
Components of wheat flour ........................................................................
Flour treatment ...........................................................................................
Flour quality ...............................................................................................
Flour absorption..........................................................................................
Flour storage ...............................................................................................
Flour milling ......................................................................................................
Flour types ..................................................................................................
Pastry, cake and cookie flour ......................................................................
Germ and bran as flour components and ingredients ................................
Whole-grain flour .......................................................................................
Non-wheat flours ...............................................................................................
Rye ..............................................................................................................
Soy flour .....................................................................................................
Masa (nixtamalized corn flour) ..........................................................................
Sweeteners .........................................................................................................
Sucrose .......................................................................................................
Corn syrups and dextrose ...........................................................................
Honey..........................................................................................................
Malt and malt syrups ..................................................................................
Lactose ........................................................................................................

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Sorghum and maple syrups.........................................................................


Role in breadmaking...................................................................................
Role in cakemaking ....................................................................................
Role in cookies and crackers ......................................................................
Shortenings ........................................................................................................
Sources and composition ............................................................................
Physical characteristics ...............................................................................
Shortening processing ................................................................................
Categories ...................................................................................................
Bakery applications ....................................................................................
Frying fats ...................................................................................................
Recent issues involving bakery shortenings ...............................................
Water ..................................................................................................................
Chemical nature of water............................................................................
Sources of water .........................................................................................
pH variability ..............................................................................................
Mineral constituents ...................................................................................
Water treatment...........................................................................................
Waters functions in dough and batter ........................................................
Ice as an ingredient .....................................................................................

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Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients


Part B: Minor ingredients ...............................................................................
Leavening...........................................................................................................
Yeast ...........................................................................................................
Bacteria .......................................................................................................
Chemical leavening ....................................................................................
Air and steam ..............................................................................................
Dairy ..................................................................................................................
Milks composition .....................................................................................
Commercial forms of milk .........................................................................
Cheese.........................................................................................................
Whey products ............................................................................................
Storage stability ..........................................................................................
Nonfat dry milks functionality ..................................................................
Practical aspects of milk products in baking ..............................................
Eggs ...................................................................................................................
Structure of eggs .........................................................................................
Processing of eggs ......................................................................................
Commercial forms of eggs .........................................................................
Functions in baking ....................................................................................
Recent developments ..................................................................................

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Baking Science & Technology

Starch .................................................................................................................
Wheat starch ...............................................................................................
Supplementary starches ..............................................................................
Properties and functions .............................................................................
Starchs role in bread baking ......................................................................
Cake, cookie, cracker and other applications .............................................
Recent developments ..................................................................................
Fiber ...................................................................................................................
Composition ...............................................................................................
Fiber ingredients and their processing ........................................................
Bakery applications ....................................................................................
Bulking agents ............................................................................................
Prebiotics and probiotics ............................................................................

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Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients


Part C: Micro ingredients ...............................................................................
Oxidation, reduction, yeast foods and buffers ...................................................
Oxidation and reduction .............................................................................
Reducing agents..........................................................................................
Yeast foods and buffers...............................................................................
Enzymes .............................................................................................................
Amylase in dough .......................................................................................
Cereal proteinases .......................................................................................
Malt.............................................................................................................
Exogenous enzymes ...................................................................................
Gluten ................................................................................................................
Nature of gluten ..........................................................................................
Gliadin ........................................................................................................
Glutenin ......................................................................................................
Glutenin-gliadin ratios ................................................................................
Glutenin interactions during mixing ...........................................................
Sulfhydryl and disulfide groups..................................................................
Protein-lipid interaction ..............................................................................
Vital wheat gluten .......................................................................................
Proteins ..............................................................................................................
Concentrates and isolates ...........................................................................
Allergens .....................................................................................................
Salt ....................................................................................................................
Salt sources and processing ........................................................................
Sea salt .......................................................................................................
Forms and grades ........................................................................................
Specific applications ...................................................................................

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Salt functionality ........................................................................................


Improvers ...........................................................................................................
Emulsifiers and surfactants .........................................................................
Compounds .................................................................................................
Functionality of improvers .........................................................................
Antioxidants and antimicrobials ........................................................................
Antioxidant ingredients ..............................................................................
Antimicrobial ingredients ...........................................................................
Spoilage organisms .....................................................................................
Gums (hydrocolloids) ........................................................................................
Sources .......................................................................................................
How they work ...........................................................................................
Functions in baking ....................................................................................
Enrichment and fortification ..............................................................................
Mandatory vs. voluntary .............................................................................
Contemporary issues ..................................................................................
Technical considerations.............................................................................
Storage and handling ..................................................................................
Beyond vitamins and minerals ...................................................................

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Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients


Part D: Characterizing Ingredients ...............................................................
Fruits ..................................................................................................................
Fresh, canned and frozen fruits ..................................................................
Dried and dehydrated fruits ........................................................................
Glac and candied fruit ...............................................................................
Nuts ....................................................................................................................
True nuts .....................................................................................................
Seed nuts .....................................................................................................
Flavors................................................................................................................
Natural, artificial and mixtures ...................................................................
Flavor components......................................................................................
Extract processing ......................................................................................
Vanilla .........................................................................................................
Storing flavor extracts .................................................................................
Spices .................................................................................................................
Sources .......................................................................................................
Processing ...................................................................................................
Colors .................................................................................................................
Color additives vs. colorants.......................................................................
Certifiable vs. exempt .................................................................................
Dyes and lakes ............................................................................................

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Baking Science & Technology

Caramel color .............................................................................................


Spice blends ................................................................................................
Reactive colors............................................................................................
Cocoa and chocolate ..........................................................................................
Chocolate ....................................................................................................
Cocoa powders ...........................................................................................
Confectionery coatings ...............................................................................
Bloom .........................................................................................................
Fabricated particulates .......................................................................................

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Chapter 2: Bakery Ingredients


Part E: Ingredient Systems .............................................................................
Ingredient components.......................................................................................
Ingredient handling ............................................................................................
Processing ..........................................................................................................
Mixing equipment ......................................................................................
Blending methods .......................................................................................
Packaging ...........................................................................................................

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Chapter 3: Crops and their processing ..........................................................


(By C.E. Walker and J. Li)
Eight principal cereal grains of commerce ........................................................
Barley..........................................................................................................
Corn (maize) ..............................................................................................
The millets ..................................................................................................
Oats .............................................................................................................
Rice .............................................................................................................
Rye ..............................................................................................................
Sorghum (milo)...........................................................................................
Wheat ..........................................................................................................
Minor and pseudocereals and special wheats ....................................................
Amaranth ....................................................................................................
Buckwheat ..................................................................................................
Coix (adley, Jobs tears)..............................................................................
Emmer and spelt .........................................................................................
Kamut .........................................................................................................
Quinoa ........................................................................................................
Teff..............................................................................................................
Triticale .......................................................................................................
Pulses and oilseeds ...........................................................................................
Non-grain oils .............................................................................................
Coconut.......................................................................................................

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Olive ..........................................................................................................
Palm ............................................................................................................
Oilseeds ......................................................................................................
Canola (rape) ..............................................................................................
Flax ............................................................................................................
Peanut .........................................................................................................
Poppy ..........................................................................................................
Safflower .....................................................................................................
Sesame ........................................................................................................
Soy ..............................................................................................................
Sunflower ....................................................................................................
Pulses ..........................................................................................................
Lentil...........................................................................................................
Lupin...........................................................................................................
Crop improvement .............................................................................................

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Chapter 4: Quality Laboratory ......................................................................


(By T. Cogswell)
The bake test ......................................................................................................
Physical dough testing .......................................................................................
AlveoConsistograph ...................................................................................
Extensograph ..............................................................................................
Farinograph.................................................................................................
Mixograph ..................................................................................................
Rheograph...................................................................................................
Dough quality controller systems ...............................................................
Research Extensometer ..............................................................................
Maturograph ...............................................................................................
Oven-Rise Recorder ...................................................................................
Flourometer method ...................................................................................
Dough shock test ........................................................................................
Firmness test ...............................................................................................
Physiochemical tests ..........................................................................................
Near-infrared reflectance analysis ..............................................................
Flour color ..................................................................................................
The slick test ...............................................................................................
Colorimeter instruments .............................................................................
Ash determination ......................................................................................
Moisture measurement methods .................................................................
Direct (or chemical) methods .....................................................................
Indirect (or physical) methods ....................................................................
Flour moisture determination .....................................................................

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Baking Science & Technology

The vacuum oven method ...........................................................................


The air oven method ...................................................................................
The air oven aluminum plate method ........................................................
Protein determinations ................................................................................
Kjeldahl procedure .....................................................................................
Biuret method .............................................................................................
Crude gluten ...............................................................................................
Sedimentation tests .....................................................................................
Acidity determinations ...............................................................................
pH determination ........................................................................................
Total titratable acidity (TTA) ......................................................................
Free fatty acid titrations ..............................................................................
Iodine value ................................................................................................
Enzymatic activity methods ...............................................................................
Diastatic activity of flour ............................................................................
Amylograph method ...................................................................................
Rapid Visco Analyzer method ....................................................................
Falling Number method ..............................................................................
Proteolytic activity ......................................................................................
Determination of sugar ......................................................................................
Gas production methods ....................................................................................
Miscellaneous determinations ...........................................................................
Lipid content ...............................................................................................
Crude fiber ..................................................................................................
Dietary fiber ................................................................................................
Bread scoring .....................................................................................................
External characteristics ...............................................................................
Internal characteristics ................................................................................
Flavor factors ..............................................................................................
Scanning systems........................................................................................
How to set up a bakery laboratory .....................................................................
Testing of raw materials .............................................................................
Flour ...........................................................................................................
Sugar ...........................................................................................................
Shortening, fats and oils .............................................................................
Measurements during processing ...............................................................
Finished product monitoring ......................................................................
Moisture ......................................................................................................
Weight .........................................................................................................
Dimensions .................................................................................................
Salt and fat content .....................................................................................
Suggested laboratory equipment ...............................................................

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Equipment for general use .......................................................................... 654


Equipment for specific tests........................................................................ 655
Chapter 5: Sanitation and Regulations..........................................................
(By R.F. Stier)
Sanitation: A prerequisite to safe food...............................................................
Sanitation, food safety and foodborne illness ....................................................
Elements of a good sanitation program .............................................................
Sanitation as a system .................................................................................
Areas your sanitation programs should address .........................................
Regulating Sanitation.........................................................................................
Sanitation regulations .................................................................................
Regulatory inspection .................................................................................
Preparing for inspection .............................................................................
The inspection ............................................................................................
Developing sanitation systems...........................................................................
Sanitation SOPs ..........................................................................................
Good manufacturing practices ....................................................................
Preventive maintenance ..............................................................................
PM programs ..............................................................................................
Establishing preventive maintenance programs .........................................
Training and education ......................................................................................
Why educate and train? ..............................................................................
Understand your audience ..........................................................................
Educational needs .......................................................................................
The final element ........................................................................................
Assuring water quality and safety......................................................................
Ice ...............................................................................................................
Water quality analysis .................................................................................
Water quality and its effects on process operations ....................................
Cleaning and sanitizing ..............................................................................
Plant water systems ....................................................................................
Condition and cleanliness of food contact surfaces ...........................................
Constraints in cleaning dry processing operations .....................................
How to clean ...............................................................................................
Personal hygiene and employee health ..............................................................
Hand washing .............................................................................................
Disease control ...........................................................................................
Uniforms and garments ..............................................................................
Hair restraints .............................................................................................
Jewelry ........................................................................................................
Personnel facilities......................................................................................

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Baking Science & Technology

Product protection programs..............................................................................


Sanitary design of equipment .....................................................................
Building design and maintenance ...............................................................
Floors ..........................................................................................................
Drains .........................................................................................................
Walls ...........................................................................................................
Ceilings .......................................................................................................
Lighting ......................................................................................................
Doors ..........................................................................................................
Traffic .........................................................................................................
Warehouse design .......................................................................................
Grounds ......................................................................................................
Glass and brittle plastic ..............................................................................
Allergen control ..........................................................................................
Vendor certification ....................................................................................
Receiving and storage .................................................................................
Control in batching and blending ...............................................................
Production control and scheduling .............................................................
Control of rework .......................................................................................
Tracking and traceability ............................................................................
Cleaning ......................................................................................................
Education ....................................................................................................
Chemical handling and control ..........................................................................
MSDS sheets ..............................................................................................
Chemicals ...................................................................................................
Lubricants ...................................................................................................
Pest management ...............................................................................................
Premises for program building ...................................................................
Pest exclusion .............................................................................................
Monitoring ..................................................................................................
Chemicals for pest control ..........................................................................
Documenting the program ..........................................................................
Verification and recordkeeping ..........................................................................
Forms ..........................................................................................................
Proper recordkeeping..................................................................................

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Appendix: Molecular Drawings ..................................................................... 729


Index: Volume I ................................................................................................ 733

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Baking Science & Technology

CHAPTER 1

Basic Food Science


INTRODUCTION
A working knowledge
The basic components of baked foods number in the thousands, even millions.
Plants, animals and mineral sources provide the raw materials for bakings ingredients.
Entities such as bakers yeast and bacteria contribute their lives and by-products to
baked foods, while inert minerals provide nutritive and functional attributes. At their
most basic, the plant and animal compounds are classified as carbohydrates, proteins
and lipids.
An understanding of the basic food science aspects of carbohydrates, proteins and
lipids will help bakers and other practitioners of the bakers art in their work to develop
products and manage the processing of baked foods. The ability to identify such
compounds and recognize their differences goes a long way when solving formulating
and production problems.

of the science
of carbohydrates,
proteins, lipids and
fibers will help
any practitioner
of the bakers art.

BASIC FOOD SCIENCE

1.A. Carbohydrates
1.A.1. Sources
Of all the compounds composing baked foods, carbohydrates predominate by sheer
quantity, typically accounting for 67% of wheat flour. Qualities that consumers associate
with freshness such as keeping quality, crust and crumb texture, along with firmness,
result from the condition of the carbohydrates in the product.
In nature, plants store much of the energy supply for their seeds in the form
of carbohydrates and also warehouse these compounds in their stems and roots.
Carbohydrates make up the bulk of the white, starchy material found in the interior
content of seeds and roots.
Typical sources for the carbohydrates in baked foods include wheat kernels, of course,
but also corn and other cereal grains and legumes, along with sugar cane and sugar
beets. When considering complex carbohydrates and fiber, sources become even more
diverse, including tree exudates, seaweed colloids and fruit pectin as well as root and
stem materials from a wide variety of plants.
Glucose, the simple sugar that forms the basis of all carbohydrates, is fundamentally
important to life. While mammals derive energy from the glucose they consume, plants
put it to additional use. They can transform carbohydrates into lipid substances, and
when making proteins, plants combine the hydrogen, carbon and oxygen from its glucose
stores with the nitrogen, occasionally sulfur and sometimes phosphorus that it gets from
the soil in the form of inorganic salts. The results are complex protein molecules.

Figure 1.01. During the Calvin cycle,


enzyme-mediated reactions split
water to release the oxygen and
reduce the carbon dioxide to create
carbon-carbon covalent bonds and
to accept hydrogen, thus forming
carbohydrates.

1.A.1.a. Carbohydrate synthesis


How do plants make glucose? Through the process of photosynthesis, the chlorophyll
in the green leaves of plants, as well as some algae and bacteria,
absorbs electromagnetic radiation from sunlight. This is transformed
into chemical energy that acts on carbon dioxide (CO2) and water
(H2O), turning it into glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen (O2). The
process can be expressed by the equation:

three molecules

CO2

1C

three molecules
ribulose
5-phosphate

six molecules
5C

3-phosphoglycerate

3C

3 ADP
3 ATP

6 ATP
6 ADP

three molecules
ribulose
5-phosphate

six molecules

5C

1,3-diphosphoglycerate

3C
6 NADPH

2 Pi

6 NADP *
five molecules
glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate

three molecules of
CO2 fixed give a net
yeild of one molecule
of glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate at a net
cost of nine molecules
of ATP and six
molecules of NADPH

6 Pi

six molecules
glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate

3C

one molecule
glyceraldehyde
3-phosphate

3C

OH

CH2O Pi

SUGARS, FATTY ACIDS, AMINO ACIDS

3C

6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy C6H12O6 + 6 O2


The energy component of the process is quite complex and
involves highly specialized cells, or chloroplasts, within plant
leaves. In cyanobacteria and prochlorobacteria, photosynthesis
takes place within the folds of single-celled organisms
membranes.
Known as the Calvin cycle (Figure 1.01) (other names include
Calvin-Benson cycle and Carbon Fixation cycle), it resembles the
Krebs cycle in its use of the electron-transport molecules adenosine
triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
phosphate (NADP+). During the Calvin cycle, enzyme-mediated
reactions split the water to release the oxygen and reduce the
carbon dioxide to create carbon-carbon covalent bonds and to
accept hydrogen, thus forming carbohydrates. These compounds,

Part A: Major Ingredients

CHAPTER 2

Bakery Ingredients
Part A: Major Ingredients
INTRODUCTION
In practice, bakers tend to group ingredients into three categories based on their
level of usage in formulations: major, minor and micro. Major, also termed bulk,
ingredients make up the majority of the formulation. Flour, for example, constitutes
around 55 to 60% (formula weight) or more of breads raw materials. Minor ingredients
typically range from 5 to 10% (formula weight), and micro ingredients are those added
at 5% or less.

High-quality
baked foods
demand use
of high-quality
ingredients.

113

114

BAKERY INGREDIENTS

This classification came about when bakeries started installing automated ingredient
handling systems. Return on investment came rapidly for capital spent on the silos,
scales, sifters and control systems suitable for storing, portioning and dispensing bulk
ingredients. The payout for automating the handling of ingredients used at lower rates
was not as fast, so installation tended to lag. Manual scaling and hand-add delivery
usually characterize the handling of minor and micro ingredients. A good number of
large bakeries do automate their ingredient systems through the micro level, but it is far
more common to find only the bulk materials dispensed through computerized systems.
For this reason, the discussion of bakery ingredients will follow a major, minor,
micro format. Also presented will be coverage of characterizing ingredients, and
ingredient systems such as bases, concentrates and mixes.

2.A.1. Wheat flour


Wheat is the No. 1 cereal in the world in terms of area planted. Corns production
numbers are higher, and more of the planet Earths people eat rice, but wheat remains
the premier food cereal grain. The reasons for this preeminence are many. Wheat is well
adapted to the soil and climatic conditions that prevail in the large temperate regions
across the globe. The wheat plant is high-yielding and relatively easy to cultivate. The
mature grain possesses excellent storage stability and exceptional food value. Its yield of
suitable flour upon milling is relatively high, and there is practically no waste since the
by-products of milling are used as animal feed.

Table 2.A.01. US Wheat Classes and Principal Uses


Class
Hard red winter (HRW)

Soft red winter (SRW)

Hard red spring (HRS)

Hard white

Soft white

Durum

(Atwell 2001)

General characteristics
High protein,
strong gluten,
high water absorption
Low protein,
weak gluten,
low water absorption
Very high protein,
strong gluten,
high water absorption
High protein,
Strong gluten,
high water absorption,
bran lacks pigments
Low protein,
weak gluten,
low water absorption,
bran lacks pigments
High protein,
strong gluten,
high water absorption

Principal uses
Bread and related products

Cakes, cookies, pastries, pie crusts, crackers, biscuits

Bread, bagels, pretzels and related products

Bread and related products

Noodles, crackers, wafers and other


products in which specs are undesirable

Pasta

Part B: Minor Ingredients

271

CHAPTER 2

Bakery Ingredients
Part B: Minor Ingredients

Ranging from 5 to
10% on a formula
weight basis, minor
ingredients encompass

Although minor ingredients typically range from 5 to 10% (or sometimes less) on a
formula weight basis, they can make or break product success. Within this category, we
nd leavening systems microbial cultures of yeast and/or bacteria, chemical leavening,
air and steam. Other ingredients used at this level include dairy products and eggs, added
starches and ber enhancement ingredients.

leavening systems,
dairy, eggs, starch,
fiber and other
components.

Bakers yeast shows budding scars.


(Min-Dak Yeast)

272

BAKERY INGREDIENTS

2.B.1. Leavening
Leavening lightens doughs, enhancing the volume, texture, eating quality and often
the avor of baked foods. The word leaven can be tracked through Middle Englishs
levain to the Latin levare, meaning to raise. The function of leavening agents is
to aerate the dough or batter and make it light and porous. When baked, the porosity
translates into the crumb of the nished product. Leavening, thus, also tenderizes the
crumb and contributes to the esthetic enjoyment of the nal product by giving it uniform
cell structure, bright crumb color, soft texture and enhanced palatability.
The process of leavening involves creating and enlarging the gas cells in dough or
batter, cells that expand under the in uence of time and heat to increase the overall
size of the dough piece before its starch-and-protein matrix gelatinizes and sets. Mixing
incorporates air into the dough mass, thus nucleating the bubbles essential to every style
of leavening. Batters cannot create their own cells, only mixing does. Without the bubble
nuclii, any gas generated by biological or chemical means would merely dissolve in the
free water of the dough. The tiny air bubbles formed during mixing collect the gaseous
products of leavening. The more the nucleation sites, the ner the texture of the nished
product. While such air bubbles are enough to leaven angel food cakes, nearly every
other formulation requires additional leavening gases. The ingredients that contribute
leavening effects often provide other functional properties and add to, or detract from,
the products nal texture, avor and appearance.
Leavens such as bakers yeast, barm or a portion of fermenting sponge consist of living
microbes that generate carbon dioxide, ethanol and other volatile organic compounds
that ll and in ate the air cells created by mixing. Another category of ingredients
leavens by chemical action. This
process combines alkaline baking
soda with an acid material such
Table 2.B.01. Leavening Action of Yeast and Baking Powder
as buttermilk or leavening acids
Yeast
Baking powder*
Leavener based on flour
2.5%
6.0%
to generate carbon dioxide, which
Leavener based on dough weight
1.47%
3.42%
aerates and expands the batters
CO2 evolved per g leavener
volume before the heat of the oven
0.5 g**
0.15g***
CO2 evolved per 100 g dough
0.735 g**
0.513 g***
sets its structure.
CO2 evolved per 100 g dough
350 ml**
214 ml***
Not all leaveners are alike in their
gassing power, as noted in Table
* A double-acting baking powder containing 30% NaHCO3
2.B.01. While chemical leavening
** CO2 evolution per hour
*** Total CO2 evolution
releases its gas relatively quickly,
(Reed and Nagodawithana 1991)
there is no further leavening action
as with yeast. But yeast may not be
ef cient in all baked foods.
2.B.1.a. Yeast
Biological processes interact with physical and chemical reactions during baking in
a highly complex fashion. Of these, fermentation is the most fundamental, in uencing
avor, texture and organoleptic qualities of the nished product, as well as its leavening
performance. Most bakery fermentation processes are initiated and sustained by the life
forces of a unicellular plant, a fungus actually: the microscopically small yeast. A number
of bene cial lactic and acetic acid bacteria also contribute their lives and by-products to
the fermentation of baked foods.

Part C: Micro Ingredients

391

CHAPTER 2

Bakery Ingredients

Used at less than

Part C: Micro Ingredients

5%, down to parts


per million, micro
ingredients play vital
roles in finished product

When formulation quantities and weighments enter the realm of parts per million
(ppm), you know you have reached the micro-ingredient category. Typically used at 5%
or less and usually at 0.1% or less, these materials can be difficult to measure accurately
and so are often combined with other ingredients in packets or as ingredient systems
such as bases and concentrates. Some oxidation and fortification ingredients, which are
important to achieving proper baking activity and nutritional quality, are added at the
flour mill, using specialized equipment that streams the ingredient at a controlled rate
directly into the flour.
With all micro ingredients, accuracy is essential. Consider the example of fortification

quality and shelf life.

Folic acid, shown recrystallized in this


photomicrograph taken under polarized
light, became a mandatory enrichment
in 1998.
(Molecular Expressions: Michael W.
Davidson, Florida State University)

392

BAKERY INGREDIENTS

Table 2.C.01. Encapsulation Examples


Encapsulated ingredient
Sodium bicarbonate

Bakery application
Frozen and refrigerated
doughs; batters
Frozen and refrigerated doughs;
batters
Soft pretzels
Tortillas

Leavening phosphates
Salt
Fumaric acid

Vitamins and minerals


Hydrocolloids
Cinnamon
Highly aromatic seasonings (onion, garlic)

Fortified bakery products


Muffins
Yeast-raised doughs
Frozen and refrigerated
doughs; batters

Sodium aluminum phosphate

Frozen and refrigerated


doughs; batters

Natural flavors and colors


Enzyme

General use
General use

Reason
Prevent premature release
Prevent premature release
Prevent premature dissolution
Prevent premature carbon dioxide
release; prevent formation of
translucent spots
Prevent off-flavors and loss of viability
Prevent sticky doughs during mixing
Prevent inhibition of yeast
Prevent softening of dough during
processing; mask strong odors
during storage
Prevent premature release;
prevent graying of dough during
storage
Prevent fading
Prevent dusting and exposure of
allergens to workers during scaling
and addition

(Rask 2003, Rask and Tongue 2006)

ingredients. Calcium and folic acid illustrate the physical conundrum of dosing. The US
Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for calcium is 1,000 mg, but for folic acid, it is
0.4 mg. A slight miscue in dosing will not affect calcium, but it can really throw off the
delivery of folic acid.
In a certain sense, micro ingredients represent the baking industrys equivalent to
applied nanotechnology. The definition of nanotechnology pegs it as the applied science
and technology of controlling matter at the atomic and molecular physical level and
employs chemistry, engineering, physics and microfabrication techniques. It involves
scales of 100 nanometers or less. (A nanometer is one-billionth of a meter, or 10-9 m.
In comparison, a micron, or micrometer, is one-millionth of a meter, or 10-6 m. Thus,
100 nm equals 1 mcm, or 1 .) Although bakers do not measure ingredients to parts per
billion (ppb), the concept is being studied.
Food nanotechnology is attracting increasing attention among formulators (Tarver
2006), and the Institute of Food Technology issued a Scientific Summary on the topic
(Weiss et al. 2006). The authors noted that foods carbohydrate, protein and fat molecules
interact through nano-scale participation of their sugar, amino acid and fatty acid
components. They suggested the future may see use of nanotechnology for biosensors
and functional improvements such as association colloids, nano-emulsions, biopolymers
and controlled-release delivery systems.
Controlled release is the whole point of micro-encapsulation, a method of
managing ingredient functionality. Encapsulation is the general term covering
the enrobing of one material in another at the microscopic scale, and microencapsulation describes an even finer degree. Ingredient suppliers can count the

Part D: Characterizing Ingredients

CHAPTER 2

Bakery Ingredients
Part D: Characterizing Ingredients
Baked foods appeal to consumers in far more ways than as simple remedies for hunger.
The influences leading a person to select one food over another involve the senses of
taste, smell, sight and touch. Even an auditory crunch sends signals to the part of the
brain that controls appetite.
Some foods we eat to assuage hunger, but others we consume to satisfy a craving
for specific taste sensations. In this more or less discretionary consumption, food
selection usually ranges beyond staple products and follows more freely the dictates
of hedonism.
Characterizing ingredients provide numerous attractive attributes. The appeal of many
baked foods is enhanced by this class of ingredients. Prominent among the group of
discretionary foods are items such as sweet goods, cakes, cookies, confections and pies.
Because the appeal of many of these foods is to a large measure determined by their

Nuts, like all


characterizing
ingredients, add eye
appeal and flavor to
baked foods.

499

500

BAKERY INGREDIENTS

highly flavored ingredients, the nature and selection of these ingredients play a significant
role in determining the level of the acceptability of these foods. In other words: fruits,
nuts, spices, flavors, colors, cocoa, chocolate and other such ingredients add value to
baked foods.

2.D.1. Fruits
Fruits are the jewels in the bakers crown. Their bright colors
and pleasing flavors make them natural partners for the more subtle
taste of grain-based ingredients. Bakers can avail themselves of an
encyclopedias worth of fruits in fresh, frozen and processed forms.
While this discussion looks at several of the most economically
important fruits used by bakers, lately several new fruits have found
a home in the bakery formulary, including acai, banana, guava, mango
and pomegranate (Berry 2006). They are worth exploring for their
emerging appeal to consumers.
Growers federations, boards and councils manage marketing
and promotion of many fruit and nut crops grown in the US. These
groups generally provide a wealth of information and application
resources concerning their crops. They often sponsor research into crop
improvement as well as consumer preferences, and some offer grants
to support academic-level research about the dietary, nutritional and
physiological effects and benefits of consuming these crops as food.
The most recent edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans,
released in 2005, recommends that adults eat 2 cups of fruits and
2 cups of vegetables every day. Bakery foods can contribute to this.

Figure 2.D.01. Native to North America,


blueberries from the highbush variety are
large in size and sweet-tart in flavor.
(US Highbush Blueberry Council)

2.D.1.a. Fresh, canned and frozen fruits


The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) sets quality grades for
fresh, canned and frozen fruits. Handling of fresh fruits is critical to the
quality of finished baked goods. Care must be taken to avoid bruising,
which opens the flesh to spoilage microorganisms.
Apples are the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus
domestica and a member of the rose family Rosaceae. It is one of the
most widely cultivated tree fruits, and in the US, the largest producer is
Washington State. Roughly 55% of the apple crop enters the retail fresh
market. Bins of apples destined for processors such as bakers are kept in cold storage or
controlled atmosphere rooms until needed. An atmospheric content low in oxygen (1%)
and carbon dioxide (1.5%) drastically retards the apples natural respiration and ripening
processes (Deuel 1986). The most popular varieties for bakery use include Granny Smith
and Jonathan.
Blueberries are commercially harvested from highbush varieties (Vaccinium
corymbosum and V. ashei) and wild lowbush varieties (V. angustifolium). The plant
is native to North America and grows throughout the northern US and Canada but is
now also cultivated in Australia, New Zealand and some South American countries. It is
related to the bilberry of Europe. About 60% of the commercial blueberry crop comes

Part E: Ingredient Systems

557

CHAPTER 2

Bakery Ingredients
Part E: Ingredient Systems

The inefficiencies
of hand-weighing
ingredients, some in
quantities measured

Using and managing ingredients ef ciently presents constant challenges to bakers.


Some formulas like classic French bread are simple, requiring only four ingredients
( our, water, yeast and salt), while others like cake doughnuts are quite complex, with
12 to 15 ingredients and sometimes as many as 25 (Smith 1991). Additionally, production schedules often include products such as multi-grain bread that are made in
relatively low volume yet need ingredients unique to that formula.
Both wholesale and retail bakeries, then, are faced with two sources of inef ciency:

in milligrams, prompts
bakers to use bases,
concentrates and
mixes.

558

BAKERY INGREDIENTS

Figure 2.E.01. Biofermented flavor


systems, another style of ingredient
system or concentrate, come in liquid
form such as this sourdough system.
(Puratos)

the necessity for weighing out a large number of ingredients for a product and warehousing and handling many ingredients in relatively small quantities. To overcome
these inef ciencies, bakers turn to the ingredient systems known as complete mixes,
half-and-half mixes, bases, concentrates and pre-mixes.
A complete mix contains everything needed to make a product except water, yeast and
sometimes liquid eggs. This is handy in retail shops, where the product may require a
special type of our not readily available to the baker. Many wholesale bakers also use
complete mixes for certain products, especially cake doughnuts and Danish pastry.
Half-and-half products are mixes that contain all the additive ingredients required
plus part of the formulas our, usually a specialty our such as rye, rice, oat, corn
or whole-wheat. The baker supplies the rest of the our from the bakerys own bulk
our stores.
Bases incorporate all formula ingredients except those readily available in bulk to
the baker usually bread or cake our, sugar, yeast and water. Bases are offered in
liquid (Figure 2.E.01), paste, plastic (Figure 2.E.02) or powdered form. For example,
a roll base may look like shortening, while a sourdough base is often liquid.
Concentrates resemble bases but contain fewer ingredients. The active ingredients
are blended onto a base ( our, soy, dry milk solids, etc.) for a dry concentrate or
creamed into a shortening or oil carrier creating a paste or plastic material. Usage is
generally low: 1 to 5 lb per 100 lb of our.
Pre-mixes, which contain blends of oxidants, yeast foods, enzymes, enrichment vitamins and minerals and/or additive ingredients, nd wide acceptance. Formulation
accuracy improves tremendously because the addition of such micro ingredients is no
longer a matter of many weighments but the addition of a single packet or pouch to

Table 2.E.01. Mixes and Bases for Bread: A Comparison


Ingredient

Figure 2.E.02. Bases are often blended


with other materials to form a plastic or
paste-like material, shipped in cubes.
(Caravan Ingredients)

Flour (spring)
Flour (winter)
Sugar
Salt
Nonfat dry milk solids
Mineral yeast food
Shortening
Emulsifier
Calcium propionate
Vital wheat gluten
Whey
Potato flour
Soy flour
Blend weight

Scratch
(lb)
70.00
30.00
8.00
2.00
3.00
0.50
4.00
0.25
0.25

118.00

Mix
(lb)
73.00
27.00
5.00
2.00

0.35
4.00
0.50
0.15
1.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
118.00

Base (1:1)
(lb)
41.00

5.00
2.00

0.35
4.00
0.50
0.15
1.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
59.00

Base (2:1)
(lb)
21.00

5.00
2.00

0.35
4.00
0.50
0.15
1.00
2.00
2.00
1.00
39.00

Yeast
Water
Flour
Total dough weight

3.00
65.00

186.00

3.00
65.00

186.00

3.00
65.00
59.00
186.00

3.00
65.00
79.0
186.00

(Smith 1991)

Baking Science & Technology

567

CHAPTER 3

Crops and Their Processing


By C.E. (Chuck) Walker, Ph.D., and Jian (Jane) Li, MS
Department of Grain Science & Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS
66506-2201. Phone (785) 532-6161; e-mail chuckw@ksu.edu and jli7676@ksu.edu.
Published as contribution No. 08-272-B by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station.

INTRODUCTION
In addition to the ubiquitous wheat ours, bakers use many other grains and seeds in
their baked foods. They add them not only for ingredient functionality but also for avor,
texture, appearance and a healthy image. Strictly speaking, a grain means the seed
of the botanical family Gramineae (now renamed Poaceae), usually called the grasses
(Morrison and Wrigley 2004). These are the principal cereal grains. In practice, there are
several other plant seeds with similar properties that are used by bakers and considered
by them as grains also and sometimes referred to as pseudocereals. And nally, there

A thorough
understanding of the
grains suitable for
baked foods is critical
for formulation and
nutrient claims.

Bakers work with many cereal grains:


(from left) oats, wheat, millet, barley,
quinoa, rye and corn.
(Getty Images, Christel Rosenfeld)

568

CROPS AND THEIR PROCESSING

are seeds that do not resemble the cereal grains but that are added to provide unique
characteristics (Table 3.01). In addition to incorporating these other grains and seeds
into the main dough or batter, they are frequently used as toppings and llings.
This chapter provides a listing of the grains and seeds most commonly used by bakers.
For simplicity, we will use the term grain for all items discussed. They are listed in
alphabetical order, and each in turn is discussed, providing information on the basic grain
Table 3.01. Principal Cereal Grains and Oilseeds of World Importance
Worldwide grain production (2006-07 July/June crop year)
Grain

Worldwide
rank
Corn (maize) 1
Wheat
2
Rice
3
Barley
4
Sorghum
5
Oats
6
Rye
7

Production
Top producing
(mmt*)
country and share
704.28
US 37.9%
593.19
EU** 21.0%
418.24
China 30.6%
137.35
EU 40.9%
56.99
Nigeria 18.4%
23.11
EU 33.4%
12.38
EU 52.8%

Next five leading producing countries


China, EU**, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico
China, India, US, Russian Federation, Canada
India, Indonesia, Bangeladesh, Vietnam, Thailand
Russian Federation, Ukraine, Canada, Turkey, Australia
India, US, Mexico, Sudan, Ethiopia
Russian Federation, Canada, US, Australia, Ukraine
Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Canada, Turkey

US share
37.9%
8.3%
1.5%
2.8%
12.3%
5.9%
1.5%

Oilseeds (2006-07 crop year)


Soybeans
1
237.27
Rapeseed
2
46.80
Cottonseed
3
45.82
Palm oil
4
37.02
Peanut
5
32.41
Sunflowerseed 6
30.15

36.6%
27.0%
30.4%
44.8%
45.3%
22.4%

Brazil, Argentina, China, India, Paraguay


36.6%
Canada, Germany, India, France, UK1.30%
India, US, Pakistan, Brazil, Uzbekistan
14.6%
Malaysia, Thailand, Nigeria, Colombia, Papua New Guinea ***
India, US, Nigeria, Indonesia, Burma
4.8%
Ukraine, Argentina, France, India, Hungary
3.2%

Palm kernel
Copra

43.3%
41.6%

Malaysia, Nigeria, Thailand, Colombia, Papua New Guinea ***


Indonesia, India, Vietnam, Mexico, Papua New Guinea
***

7
8

US
China
China
Indonesia
China
Russian
Federation
10.27 Indonesia
5.28 Philippines

* million metric tonnes


** EU: Austria, Belgium/Luxembourg, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany,
Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, The Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom
*** No domestic production of these crops in the US
Table 3.01. While corn leads the worlds
crops in production, wheat comes in a
close second, and soybeans lead among
oilseeds.
(USDA 2008a, USDA 2008b)

properties, where and how it is produced, and how and why it is used by bakers. References
are provided to lead the reader to more detailed discussions on each of the grains.
It has been suggested that the habit of nomadic peoples to gather seeds from wild
grasses led to the establishment of permanent settlements, agriculture and civilization
(Ziehr 1987). At any rate, cereal grains today provide a major portion of our calorie
needs, either directly or through feeding them to animals. There are eight cereal grains
that are usually listed as widely used for food and feed. They are, in order of world-wide
production: corn (maize), wheat, rice, barley, sorghum, oats, rye and the millets.
The naked kernels, or caryopses of the cereal grains with the hull removed, have many similar
characteristics in their structure and composition (Figure 3.01). The lengths (diameters) for the
various species will vary from about 1 mm to about 10 mm and their individual seed weights from
about 1 mg to about 350 mg. Their structures and compositions all share many characteristics.

Baking Science & Technology

613

CHAPTER 4

Quality Laboratory

Bakery laboratories

Introduced and updated by Theresa S. Cogswell


BakerCogs, Inc., Olathe, KS 66062. Phone (816) 820-5364;
e-mail bakercogs@sbcglobal.net.

well as instrumentation,

require good staffing as


supplies and good

INTRODUCTION

documentation to
accomplish their tasks.

From specifying the our, to mixing the dough and through nishing the loaf of bread
or any other baked product, it is wise to use objective data to validate consistency and
quality to assist production and product development. Maintaining adequate control
over composition and functional properties of the ingredients used in the process is an
important requisite for producing any type of baked food.

Members of the Interstate Bakeries


R&D team evaluate a new formula.
(Baking & Snack, Matthews
Communications)

614

Quality Laboratory

Change is inevitable. Analytical procedures and methods can detect, monitor and
track small changes, unseen by the human eye, over time. Maintaining a history of
these changes can help make sure you are receiving the quality you are paying for from
your ingredient suppliers. But this data can also assist in an investigation to validate a
complaint or document a decline in product quality.
Typically, our is the main ingredient on the ingredient legend of any baked food. This
key ingredient deserves more attention than simply documenting limits or ranges on an
ingredient speci cation to be recorded in a database or stored in le drawer. Flours from
different wheat blends, mills and geographic origins can uctuate considerably in their
content of protein, ash, moisture, absorption, mix time and functionality. It is essential
for the baker to be aware of any changes that may occur in these characteristics before
using the our in production. In the automated bakery today, knowing the consistency of
our functionality before the mixing process is essential. If the mix time and absorption
of each lot of our is not optimized, then the resulting product will not achieve the
consistent high-quality product consumers deserve.
Evaluating and approving test methods pertaining to our and other ingredients
used by the baking and other cereal-based industries has historically been taken on by
AACC International (previously American Association of Cereal Chemists) and AOAC
International (previously Association of Of cial Analytical Chemists). Both organizations
publish their approved methods in volumes titled, respectively, Approved Methods of
the AACC, whose 10th edition appeared in 2000 and was updated as of September
2004, and Of cial Methods of Analysis (AOAC Methods), whose 18th edition was
published in 2004-05.
This chapter will attempt to survey the more pertinent tests relating to our and dough
evaluation as they appear in these volumes. Methods that are gaining acceptance in
cereal and baking laboratories will also be described brie y even though they may not
have gained of cial status.
All laboratory work requires precision, especially when handling such a naturally
variable ingredient as our. Timing and technique must be impeccable and reproducible.
For this to happen, however, temperature and humidity conditions within the laboratory
and its storage areas must be consistent. Whether lab tests support production or product
development, reproducibility is critical, and that precision cannot occur when the labs
ambient conditions vary day-to-day. Climate control is essential.
Remember a short pencil beats a long memory any day. Maintain records of your test
results. Data and facts will provide the information needed to run a successful grainbased food company.

4.A. The bake test


By far, the most useful test in the bakers repertoire is to actually bake with the material
being examined, especially our. Various physical and physiochemical our testing
methods will report useful information, but ultimately, the bake test yields the most
reliable index to the ours potential performance in production. Although the bake
test takes place under standardized and controlled laboratory conditions, its results
must still be interpreted according to the variables that normally enter into largescale commercial production.

Baking Science & Technology

661

CHAPTER 5

Bakery Sanitation
and Regulations
By Richard F. Stier
Consulting Food Scientist
Phone (707) 935-2829; e-mail Rickstier4@aol.com.

A complete
understanding of

INTRODUCTION

sanitation its

There are some people who equate sanitation with a bakery looking, smelling and
feeling clean. Sanitation is more than that. It is a state of mind and a means of ensuring
the products that come out of each and every bakery, whether breads, cookies, cakes,
meat pies, pizzas or any one of the myriad of specialty products, are safe, wholesome and
t for human consumption. Commitment to good sanitation starts with management and
ows down through the plant hierarchy. Management must provide the tools, nancial
support and leadership to establish and sustain such commitment. Sanitation is an integral
part of the whole quality system, which consists of every operation needed to ensure the

program, procedures,
systems and tools is
required to maintain a
safe and secure bakery
operation.

662

BAKERY SANITATION AND REGULATIONS

manufacture of safe and high quality baked foods.

5.A. Sanitation: a prerequisite to safe food


The US seafood and juice HACCP (Hazard Analysis, Critical Control Point) regulations
state that a HACCP plan should include certain Prerequisite Programs (FDA 1995, 2001).
These programs may be grouped into six basic categories. These are:
Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP)
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs)
Training
Preventive Maintenance
Product Identi cation and Coding
Recall Programs
The HACCP concept was developed in 1959 (although it was not called so at the
time) to help establish the potential risk of salmonella in foods and to control that risk.
This work was conducted by the US Army Laboratories in Natick, MA, and the National
Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) in collaboration with the Pillsbury Co., who
was a major supplier to the space program. These pioneers realized that existing inspection
systems based on nished product testing did not provide the necessary degree of safety.
They would need to conduct too much nished product testing to provide that assurance,
so the decision was made to develop a system in which safety was built into the process. At
that time, there were only three HACCP principles. HACCP has grown through the years
to seven principles. It is, as noted above, mandated for certain industries and has become a
standard for the whole food industry. It is not yet mandated for the baking industry, but for
all intents and purposes it is. Most buyers require that companies from whom they purchase
foods or ingredients have a functioning HACCP system.
Even though this chapter is entitled Bakery Sanitation, mentioning the two
regulations is germane since they formalized the concept of prerequisite programs.
When preparing the regulation, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearly
stated that HACCP is not a stand alone program. This position is not limited to
FDA alone.
The US Department of Agriculture (USDA), which regulates meat and poultry
processing, also mandates the adoption of prerequisite programs as part of ensuring food
safety. Since there are many bakery items that contain meats, these companies fall under
the jurisdiction of USDA. Regulatory agencies and food safety professionals the
world over also have taken this stance. HACCP with its prerequisite programs are
mandated in the European Union and in many other parts of the world. Finally,
prerequisite programs are an integral part of the Codex Food Hygiene guidance
document and of the ISO 22000 standard.
Codex Alimentarius Recommended International Code of Practice: General Principles
of Food Hygiene not only includes HACCP guidelines but emphasizes the importance
of prerequisite programs (UN/FAO 1997). Codex documents are not standards, however.
They are guidance documents for international harmonization.
After several years of work, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
issued its ISO 22000 document (ISO 2005). This document is entitled Food safety
management systems Requirements for any organization in the food chain. The