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_________________________________________________________

DISSERTATION

for the Degree of

DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (Civil Engineering)

at the

POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE OF NYU

by

Omar Elsherif

June 2009

UMI Number: 3373056

Copyright 2009 by

Elsherif, Omar

All rights reserved

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ii

To my family, my wife and my daughters

Iman, Mariam, Reem and Sarah

iii

Acknowledgments

First and Foremost, I want to thank my advisor Dr. Roula Maloof and all the PhD Committee

Members who were composed of Dr. Roger Roess, Dr. Masoud Ghandehari, Dr. Magued

Iskander, Dr. Nikhil Gupta and Dr. Feng_Bao Lin for their support and guidance, and that

includes taking time to read and comment on this thesis.

I also would like to thank Polytechnic students Thomas Moorhoff, Eugene Fuchs and Nguyen Q.

Nguyen who assisted me in the experimental and finite element work and dedicated their time

and effort, their dedication and persistence allowed me to accomplish my goals in attaining good

results.

Finally, I owe special gratitude to my mother and my wife for their continuous love and

unconditional support during the making of this work. I would also like to include my two

daughters Iman and Mariam for their love and the special joy I get when looking at them.

iv

Abstract

LATERAL BUCKLING OF HORIZONTALLY CURVED BEAMS

By

Omar Elsherif

Advisor: Roula Maloof, Ph.D.

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

for the Degree of Doctor of philosophy (Civil Engineering)

December 2008

Curved steel beams are commonly used in the construction of modern bridges, highway ramps

and interchanges, major buildings, ships, and air space structures and as of today there is no

closed-from solution to this class of problems. The mathematical expression of the problem as

shown in literature is very complex and its numerical solution may not be accurate.

This Thesis presents a closed form solution to the problem of the lateral stability against buckling

of horizontally curved beams with or without constant radius of curvature. This theoretical

analysis was performed under the assumption that, the lateral and angular displacements in the

buckling state are very small compared to the initial radius of curvature where the second order

terms can be neglected and the cross-section in the strained state retains its original shape.

Solving the differential equation of equilibrium for this type of elastic stability problem by

common methods was an improbable task. Therefore, it has become necessary to implement a

new method to overcome these difficulties.

v

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments.............................................................................................................. iii

Abstract .............................................................................................................................. iv

Table of Contents ................................................................................................................ v

List of Tables ................................................................................................................... viii

List of Figures ..................................................................................................................... x

Notations ........................................................................................................................... xii

Chapter 1 ............................................................................................................................. 1

Introduction ..................................................................................................................... 1

1.1 Historical Notes ............................................................................................... 4

1.2 Research Merit ................................................................................................. 7

1.3 Objective........................................................................................................ 10

1.4 Approach ....................................................................................................... 11

Chapter 2 ........................................................................................................................... 12

Theory of Elastic Stability ............................................................................................ 12

2.1 The Principle of Minimum Energy ......................................................................... 13

2.2 The Strain Energy ................................................................................................... 13

2.3 The Differential equation of equilibrium ................................................................ 15

2.4 Rayleigh-Ritz Method ............................................................................................. 16

2.5 Galerkins Method .................................................................................................. 19

2.6 Lagrange Multipliers Method ................................................................................. 19

2.7 The Geometric identity Method .............................................................................. 20

2.7.1 Integration Method ..................................................................................... 21

2.7.2 Differentiation Method ............................................................................... 23

2.7.3 Special Case ................................................................................................ 25

Chapter 3 ........................................................................................................................... 27

Lateral Instability of Straight Beams ............................................................................ 27

3.1 Lateral Instability of Straight Beams under Pure Bending ..................................... 27

3.2 Examples ................................................................................................................. 30

vi

3.2.1 Simply Supported Beam Laterally Fixed at Both Ends under Uniform Load

...................................................................................................................... 30

3.2.1A Solution by the geometric identity equation: (Integration method) ........ 32

3.2.1B Solution by the geometric identity equation: (differentiation method) ... 35

3.2.2 Simply Supported Beam Laterally Fixed at Both Ends under Concentrated

Load ............................................................................................................. 37

3.3 lateral Instability of Open Cross Section Straight Beams under Bending .............. 40

3.4 Lateral Instability of Straight Beams under Eccentric Load ................................... 42

3.4.1 Cantilever Beam under Uniform Load ....................................................... 44

Chapter 4 ........................................................................................................................... 47

Lateral Instability of a Circular Arc Beams .................................................................. 47

4.1 Differential equation of equilibrium for Circular Arc Beams ................................ 48

4.2 The energy equation induced from the equation of equilibrium ............................ 55

4.3 Examples ................................................................................................................. 57

4.3.1 Semi-circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Concentrated Load .............. 57

4.3.2 Semi-circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Uniform load ....................... 60

4.3.3 Portion of a Circular Ring Cantilever Beam under Concentrated Load ..... 62

4.3.4 Portion of a Circular Ring Cantilever Beam under Uniform Load ............ 66

4.3.5 Arc of a circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Concentrated Load ......... 69

4.3.6 Arc of a circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Uniform load .................. 74

4.4 Load not applied at the center of the beam ............................................................. 77

4.4.1 Semi-circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Uniform load ....................... 77

4.5 End Moments of Circular Arc Beams Subjected to Concentrated Loads ............... 80

4.6 End Moments of Circular Arc Beams Subjected to Uniformly Distributed Load .. 82

4.7 The Buckling Load when Warping is Considered .................................................. 85

4.7.1 Semi-circle open cross section Beam Fixed at Both Ends under

Concentrated Load ....................................................................................... 86

Chapter 5 ........................................................................................................................... 89

Lateral Instability of Curved Beams with an arbitrarily curvature ............................... 89

5.1 Lateral Instability of Parabolic Beams under concentrated load ............................ 91

5.1.1 Parabolic Beam under Concentrated Load ................................................. 93

vii

5.1.2 Parabolic Beam fixed at both ends under uniform load ............................. 97

Chapter 6 ......................................................................................................................... 100

Experiment and Finite Element Verification .............................................................. 100

6.1 Experiments and Descriptions .............................................................................. 101

6.1.1 Method of Testing .................................................................................... 103

6.1.2 Measurements Errors Cause Factors ........................................................ 104

6.1.3 Experimental Buckling Load .................................................................... 105

6.2 Finite Element Analysis (FEA) ............................................................................. 105

6.2.1 Element ..................................................................................................... 105

6.2.2 Geometry .................................................................................................. 106

6.2.3 Boundary Conditions ................................................................................ 106

6.2.4 Mesh ......................................................................................................... 106

6.2.5 Material properties .................................................................................... 107

6.2.6 Analysis Method ....................................................................................... 107

6.3 Experimental and FEA Results ............................................................................. 110

Chapter 7 ......................................................................................................................... 123

7.1 Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 123

7.3 References: ............................................................................................................ 126

Books: ................................................................................................................ 126

Journals: ............................................................................................................. 126

Technical Reports: ............................................................................................. 128

7.4 Bibliography ............................................................................................................. 129

Appendix A ..................................................................................................................... 131

The Elastica and Post Buckling of Initially Curved Columns .................................... 131

viii

List of Tables

Table 6.1: Aluminum Rectangular Solid Section Properties .......................................... 110

Table 6.2: Summary of Experimental and Theoretical Results ...................................... 110

Table 6.3: Specimen 1; Semi-circle Beam Properties .................................................... 111

Table 6.4: Specimen 1; Load Deformations ................................................................... 111

Table 6.5: Specimen 2; Semi-circle Beam Properties .................................................... 112

Table 6.6: Specimen 2; Load Deformations ................................................................... 112

Table 6.7: Specimen 3; Semi-circle Beam Properties .................................................... 113

Table 6.8: Specimen 3; Load Deformations ................................................................... 113

Table 6.9: Specimen 4; Semi-circle Beam Properties .................................................... 114

Table 6.10: Specimen 4; Load Deformations ................................................................. 114

Table 6.11: Specimen 5; Semi-circle Beam Properties .................................................. 115

Table 6.12: Specimen 5; Load Deformations ................................................................. 115

Table 6. 13: Specimen 6; Semi-circle Beam Properties ................................................. 116

Table 6.14: Specimen 6; Load Deformations ................................................................. 116

Table 6.15: Specimen 7; Semi-circle Beam Properties .................................................. 117

Table 6.16: Specimen 7; Load Deformations ................................................................. 117

Table 6. 17: Specimen 7; Roark Formula Factors .......................................................... 117

Table 6.18: Specimen 8; Semi-circle Beam Properties .................................................. 118

Table 6.19: Specimen 8; Load Deformations ................................................................. 118

Table 6.20: Specimen 8; Roark Formula Factors ........................................................... 118

Table 6.21: Specimen 9; Semi-circle Beam Properties .................................................. 119

Table 6.22: Specimen 9; Load Deformations ................................................................. 119

Table 6.23: Specimen 9; Roark Formula Factors ........................................................... 119

Table 6.24: Specimen 10; Semi-circle Beam Properties ................................................ 120

Table 6. 25: Specimen 10; Load Deformations .............................................................. 120

Table 6.26: Specimen 10; Roark Formula Factors ......................................................... 120

Table 6.27: Specimen 11; Semi-circle Beam Properties ................................................ 121

Table 6.28: Specimen 11; Load Deformations ............................................................... 121

ix

Table 6.29: Specimen 11; Roark Formula Factors ......................................................... 121

Table 6.30: Specimen 12; Semi-circle Beam Properties ................................................ 122

Table 6. 31: Specimen 12; Load Deformations .............................................................. 122

Table 6.32: Specimen 12; Roark Formula Factors ......................................................... 122

Table 7.1: Buckling Load Factor.123

x

List of Figures

Figure 3.1: Lateral Buckling Geometry of Straight Beams .............................................. 27

Figure 3.2: Simply supported beam under uniform load .................................................. 30

Figure 3.3: Deflection shape of buckled beam laterally fixed at both ends ...................... 30

Figure 3.4: Simply supported beam under concentrated load........................................... 37

Figure 3.5: Deflection shape of buckled beam laterally fixed at both ends ...................... 37

Figure 3.6: View and cross section of an I beam .............................................................. 41

Figure 3.7: Cantilever Beam under Uniform Load Applied at Height h .......................... 42

Figure 4.1: Circular Arc Beam in the horizontal plan ...................................................... 47

Figure 4.2: Lateral Buckling Geometry of Horizontally Curved Beams .......................... 48

Figure 4.3: Semi-circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Concentrated Load .................. 57

Figure 4.4: Semi-circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Uniform load ........................... 60

Figure 4.5: Portion of a Circular Ring Cantilever Beam under Concentrated Load ......... 63

Figure 4.6: Portion of a Circular Ring Cantilever Beam under Uniform Load ................ 66

Figure 4.7: Arc of a circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Concentrated Load ............. 69

Figure 4.8: Circular Arc Beam under Uniform load ......................................................... 74

Figure 4.9: Semi-circle Beam under Uniform load .......................................................... 77

Figure 5.1 Curved Parabolic beam under vertical concentrated load ............................... 91

Figure 5.2: Curved Parabolic beam under vertical uniform load ...................................... 97

Figure 6. 1 Depicts Eugene Fuchs clamping the beam to a loading machine. ............... 102

Figure 6. 2 Depicts Polytechnic student Thomas Moorhoff setting up the experiment. 102

Figure 6. 3 Semi-circle beam in the buckling state. ........................................................ 103

Figure 6. 4 Mesh geometry and loading of semi-circle beam ......................................... 108

Figure 6. 5 Mesh geometry and loading of 45 degree circular arc beam ........................ 108

Figure 6. 6 Pre-buckling deflection of semi-circle beam ................................................ 109

Figure 6. 7 Post buckling deflection of semi-circle beam .............................................. 109

xi

Figure 6. 8 Specimen 1, Load vs. angular displacement curve....................................... 111

Figure 6. 9 Specimen 2, Load vs. angular displacement curve....................................... 112

Figure 6. 10 Specimen 3, Load vs. angular displacement curve..................................... 113

Figure 6. 11 Specimen 4, Load vs. angular displacement curve..................................... 114

Figure 6. 12 Specimen 5, Load vs. angular displacement curve..................................... 115

Figure 6. 13 Specimen 6, Load vs. angular displacement curve..................................... 116

Figure 6. 14 Specimen 7, Load vs. angular displacement curve..................................... 117

Figure 6. 15 Specimen 8, Load vs. angular displacement curve..................................... 118

Figure 6. 16 Specimen 9, Load vs. angular displacement curve..................................... 119

Figure 6. 17 Specimen 10, Load vs. angular displacement curve ................................... 120

Figure 6. 18 Specimen 11, Load vs. angular displacement curve ................................... 121

Figure 6. 19 Specimen 12, Load vs. angular displacement curve ................................... 122

Figure 7.1 FEA, different curvature, Load vs. angular displacement curve .................. 125

xii

Notations

Throughout this Theoretical investigation, the Z-axis of the local coordinate system will be taken

in the longitudinal direction, tangent to the curve representing the centroid of the beam, and the

Y-axis will be taken in the vertical direction as usual. The small pre-buckling curvature of the

beam due to bending for both global and local buckling will be neglected.

Throughout this study the following notations will be used:

L Total length of the beam or the plate respectively

t

M Total twisting moment

M The applied bending moment

y

M Bending moment about y axis

N The end restraining moment in the horizontal plane

T The applied twisting moment

m

The fixed end bending moment factor

t

The fixed end twisting moment factor

P The applied vertical load

c

P The theoretical buckling load

e

P The experimental buckling load

V The shearing force at any cross section

W Work done by the applied load

U The strain energy function

The increase in the total energy

The load total potential energy function

LaGrange constrained function

q The vertical surcharge intensity, force per unit length

F The reaction at the support

Poissons ratio

E Modulus of elasticity

G Modulus of rigidity

w

K The warping constant

xiii

C The flexural-torsional rigidity, equal to GJ EI

y

w

C The flexural-warping rigidity, equal to GJ / Ek

w

y x

I , I The moment of inertia about X axis and Y axis respectively

x

S Section modulus about the X axis

J The polar moment of inertia

A The area of the cross section

D The flexural rigidity of plate, per unit length

ds Infinitesimal arc length of the curved beam

f

A The flange cross section area

cr

Critical buckling stress

y

f Yielding stress

v , u The lateral and vertical post-buckling displacements, respectively

x, y The lateral and vertical pre-buckling displacements, respectively

w The buckling displacement normal to the plate

s Arc length

R Initial radius of curvature of circular beams

r Radius of curvature

h Height of the applied load above center of the beam or the radius of the

polar coordinates (chapter 5)

The center angle in polar coordinates (chapter 5)

Pre-buckling angular displacement (chapter 4)

e Eccentricity of the applied load

Angle of twist in the buckling state

Angle of twist per unit length in the buckling state

The tangential angle of the arc at the support

The central angle of a circular arc in radians

Angle of curvature

The first derivative of with respect to s

The second derivative of with respect to s

1

Chapter 1

Introduction

Curved steel beams and girders are commonly used in the construction of modern bridges,

highway ramps and interchanges, major buildings, ships, and air space structures. Horizontally

curved bridges in particular constitute approximately more than a quarter of the existing steel

bridges in the United States. Several papers on the lateral stability of horizontally curved beams

in the elastic range exist in the literature of many engineering journals such as the American

Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), the Journal of Engineering Mechanics and the Journal of

Structure Engineering. Although in most of these papers, the researchers who attempted to

analyze this stability problem done so analytically, a closed form solution has not been presented.

Moreover, despite all the published work already in the structural stability analysis, very little

literature exists regarding the lateral instability of curved beams. It seems that this problem has

not received enough attention. Furthermore most of the structural engineering text books dealing

in this subject do not cover this topic this may be due to the lock of analytical expressions.

BMW Car Dealership, Wayne, New Jersey; Curve Beam Structure under Construction

The present design guides and specifications for such structures are not accurate and very often

difficult to use. In 1960 [29], the Consortium of University Research Teams (CURT) was formed

2

to study the behavior of horizontally curved bridges, where analytical and experimental

researches were performed as part of the CURT project that resulted in the AASHTO (American

Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials) Guide Specifications for Horizontally

Curved Highway Bridges [30]. These specifications were adopted in 1980 and have been used in

the same basic format, henceforth. However, there are large discrepancies in the compressive

strength formulations between compact and non-compact sections. The strength that the

compressive strength equations gives, do not approach the solutions predicted by the straight

girder equations as the curvature approaches zero. In general there are few methods of analysis

found in the literature [28] having been classified into two major categories namely approximate

and refined methods. First, the Approximate Method requires minimal effort, and is adequate for

preliminary analysis and design purposes. The approximate method is mainly used in the analysis

of curved beams and girders by the plane-grid method, the space-frame method and the V-load

method. The refined method, which requires intensive calculations, is applied using the finite-

element method, the finite-strip method, the finite-difference method, the analytical solution to

differential equations and the slope deflection method. Horizontally curved beams are also

classified according to their cross sectional shape, the closed section structural members such as

box or tube beams, which are able to resist significant torsion, and the open sections such as I

beams or plate girders, which have very little torsional stiffness. Curved I-girder beams are the

most commonly used for the construction of horizontally curved bridges.

The analysis and design of these curved structural members depend on how well their elastic

instability behavior is understood; hence, the latter (i.e. the behavior) depends on the flexural and

the torsional stiffness of the member. Curved beams and girders loaded in or out of the plane

buckle by deflecting laterally and torsionally out of its plane making these members unstable.

There are four distortion deformations to be analyzed when studying a curved structural member;

when the distortion is due to resistance, the bending moment, the shearing force, the St. Venant

torsion and the warping torsion. In most cases the shear and axial contribution are neglected when

studying the four distortion deformations. Furthermore, when these deformations are observed in

conjunction with the presence of the beam curvature, this phenomenon makes the lateral buckling

stability analysis of these members very complex to analyze due to the presence of the variable

coefficients in the differential equation of equilibrium. Moreover, when studying curved

structures the presence of curvature as well as end restrained conditions forge the occurrence of

different buckling, which greatly complicates the analysis procedures of such members [16].

This signifies that the local buckling stability of even the flanges and web plate has to be

3

investigated. It is evident that the local buckling of the flanges and web will depend on the

magnitude of the curvature [30], but curvature induces both warping of the cross-section and the

transverse displacement of the web. In turn, the warping and their displacement causes a

nonlinear distribution of the stress through the full depth of the web and results in an increase in

normal stress in the flanges. It is also expected in the stability analysis of curved beams that the

actual stresses in these flanges or web do not exceed the limiting or critical stress value (i.e. local

buckling). In order to achieve this objective, it is important to have a simple expression for the

local buckling of the web and the flanges plates, which is also curved in plane. Wagner [36,37]

showed that the torsional stiffness of an open section is equivalent to the torsional stiffness of the

plates from which it was made only if the warping of the cross section is not prevented. This

hypothesis is also true for curved I-beams and plate girder if the assumption used in the beam

theory is still admissible and the assumptions that the beam length and radius of curvature are

very large compared to the cross sectional dimensions. If the warping is prevented by the

presence of vertical web stiffeners, then there will be an increase in the longitudinal stresses and

an increase in the torsional resistance of the beam. As the number of these stiffeners increases, we

expect that the torsional resistance also increase. In the meantime, the values for the flexural

rigidity of these stiffeners, the minimum spacing between these stiffeners and the torsional

buckling stability are not well defined. In addition, the analytical evaluation of the overall finite

deformation or the distortion behavior of the web and flanges leads to a very complicated partial

differential equations of the forth order, in which some assumptions have to be made for an

approximate solution to be developed. It is evident that, in the case of curved beam with closed

cross section, the stability problem is simplified if the section is symmetrical about the major

axis, such as pipes, tubes and rectangular sections. If the beam cross section is not symmetrical,

then for both open and closed section, the problem becomes more complicated since the shear

center, and the centroid of the cross section do not coincides [17,18]. Therefore, it is imperative

that we conduct a review of the existing work and investigate the equations that represent the

effects of curvature on the global and local stability of these curved beams or girders. In like

manner, it is also important to perform more theoretical studies to provide sufficient information,

which enables us to understand the stability behavior of these structural members, and to develop

simplified analytical methods to analyze these members.

It is the objective of this research to present a closed form solution to the elastic stability

problems of curved beams and simplify the design analysis of these structural members.

4

1.1 Historical Notes

Theory of elastic stability is an extension to the theory of elasticity and both are a wide open

subject which attracted many scientists. Galileo Galilei (February 15, 1564January 8, 1642) was

the first to investigate beam failure with one end built into a wall, where he concluded that the

beam tends to turn about an axis perpendicular to its length, and in the plane of the wall. This

problem which includes the determination of this axis is known as Galileos problem. Robert

Hooke (1678) published his famous law of proportionality of stress and strain which bears his

name, and formed the bases of the theory of elasticity. Edme Mariotte (1680) remarked that the

resistance of a beam to flexure arises from the extension and contraction of its parts, some of its

longitudinal filaments being extended, and others contacted. His theory led him to assign the

position of the axis required in the solution of Galileos problem, at one-half the height of the

section above the base. The period that followed in retrospect to Hookes Law, by the

mathematicians who were interested in investigating this science, to chiefly focus on the solution

and extension of Galileos problem, the related theories of the vibrations of bars and plates, and

the stability of columns. The first investigation in the theory of elastic stability is that of the

elastica, by James Bernoulli (1705), in which the resistance of elastic rod to bending was shown

to be due to the contraction and extension of its longitudinal filaments and the bending resisting

couple is proportional to the curvature of the rod when bent. Later, Leonard Euler in his

treatment to the problem of the elastica or elastic curves and the vibration of thin rod arrived to

the same conclusion. Subsequently, Danial Bernoulli (1742) suggested to Euler that, the

differential equation of the elastica could be found by making the integral of the square of the

curvature taken along the rod, a minimum. By this, Euler was able to obtain the first differential

equation of the elastic curve. Further investigations led him to his famous column formula which

was the birth of the elastic stability theory [15].

In 1776, Columbus used Hookes Law to consider the flexural theory of beams, and he was

unable to obtain the true position of the neutral axis. Columbus was also the first to consider the

resistance of thin fibers to torsion, which Saint-Venant later used to study the theory of torsion.

Furthermore, the most important work of the period is the physical discussion of Elasticity, by

Thomas Young (June 13, 1773 May 10, 1829). Young was a naturalist, who besides defining a

modulus of elasticity was the first to consider shear as an elastic strain. Young also did not

introduce a distinct modulus of rigidity to express resistance to shear in his work. Later, Navier

(1821) formulated the general equation of equilibrium elasticity and investigated the vibration of

elastic bodies. By 1822, Cauchy had discovered most of the elements of the theory of elasticity,

5

where he introduced the notations of stress and strain at a point, and formulated their

mathematical relation. The work of Cauchy was followed by the work of Poisson as by then the

theory of elasticity was well established. The most important result of this theory was its

application to the theory of bending and twisting of beams.

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (March 12, 1824 October 17, 1887) developed his kinematical theory

for bending of the rods and established the potential energy expression of bent plates and

introduced the solution to the elastica problem in the form of elliptical integral, cerca 1859. Later

Poincare (1885) laid the foundation of the general theory of elastic stability and was the first to

discuss the bifurcation buckling and snapping phenomenon, which attracted considerable

attention in the previous century. More technical treatments of the structural stability and

buckling behavior of structures followed. In brief, A. G. Greenhill (1838) obtained a formula to

obtain the value of the torque produces buckling of shafts: Saint-Venant (1843) developed the

theory of small deflection of naturally curved bars; Bresse (1866) obtained the value of the

critical load for a circular ring under uniformly distributed load; Lord Rayleigh (1881) in his

development to the theory of in extensional deformations of shells; J. Boussinesq (1888) studied

the buckling of compressed rings and curved bars; G. H. Bryan (1891) established the equation

that presents the strain energy in bending of plates under lateral load; F. Engesser (1898) was the

first to discuss the inelastic buckling of bars and bending beyond the elastic limit; L. Prandtl

(1899) in his dissertation considered the buckling of beams with narrow rectangular cross-

sections; J. Michell (1900) developed the exact theory of bending of plate, where the effect of the

shearing stress is considered; E. Hurlbrink (1910) obtained a solution to the buckling problem of

a uniformly compressed circular arch with hinged end supports.

Hurlbrink was also first to investigate the lateral buckling of compressed helical springs; A

Koroboff (1911) obtained the value of the buckling load of a beam under concentrated load

applied at mid-span and the point of application above or below the centroidal axis; R. Lorenz

(1911) investigated the buckling of a cylindrical shell under the action of uniform external lateral

pressure; R. Lorenz investigated the buckling of a cylindrical shell under the action of uniform

external lateral pressure; R. Southwell (1914) published work on the general theory of elastic

stability; G. H. Beyan (1915) investigated the buckling of circular plates and he is considered as

the first investigator who worked in this field; R. Zoelly (1915) in his dissertation studied the

buckling of spherical shells; E. L. Nicolai (1918) obtained a solution to the buckling problem of a

uniformly compressed circular arch with fixed end supports; H. Westergaard (1922) in his work

6

on buckling of elastic structures; R. Von Mises (1923) developed the theory of buckling of built-

up columns; B. Galerkin (1924) developed a method of calculating the buckling loads similar to

Rayleigh-Ritz method; A. Love (1927) developed a general theory for the bending of thin shells;

K. Federhofer (1930) investigated to the buckling of beams under variable distributed uniform

load; F. Bleich (1932) studied the application of the stability theory to the design of web made of

plate girders; C. F. Kollbrunner (1935) in his dissertation investigated the buckling of compressed

angles beyond the yield point; S. Timoshenko (1936) in his book titled Theory of Elastic

Stability, he popularized the field of elastic stability; R. Kappus (1937) developed the system of

equations for the Flexure-torsional buckling of the walled columns, K. Marguerre (1937) worked

on the effective width of the plate in compression, H. Wagner (1938) worked on the torsion and

buckling problems of open sections; E. Lunquist (1939) worked on the critical stress of buckled

plates; E. E. Lundquist (1939) worked on the buckling of uniformly compressed plates; A.

Kromm (1939) investigated the limit of stability of curved flat strip under shear and axial

stresses; V. Z Velasov (1940) worked on thin-walled elastic bars; C. B. Biezeno (1945) worked

on buckling of a ring under general system of loads; E. Reissner (1945) published a paper on the

buckling of plates under lateral load; J. Prescott (1946) published a book called Applied

Elasticity, B. Budiansky (1946) worked on the Lagrangian multiplier method in elastic-stability

analysis; A. van der Neut (1947) investigated the critical compressive force for the general case

of buckling of shells; F. R. Shanley (1947) developed the tangent modulus theory; W. Prager

(1947) developed The General Variational Principle of the Theory of Structural Stability; M.

Stein (1951) worked on buckling of plates with longitudinal stiffeners; F. Bleich (1952) published

a book titled Buckling Strength of Metal Structures, C. Wang (1953) in his book Applied

Elasticity, N. Hoff (1956) in his work on the bending and buckling of sandwich plates; L. H.

Donnell (1956) worked on the instability of eccentrically compressed cylindrical shells; Bijlaard

(1958) developed the theory of split rigidity, which was further studied by others such as Velasov

(1961) in his work on the buckling of thin walled elastic members; Trahair (1965) published a

paper titled Stability of I-beams with Elastic End Restraints; J. Zahn (1985) published a paper

entitled Lateral Stability of Beams with Elastic End Restraints; C. Yoo and J. Davison (1996)

worked on the buckling of out of plane curved beams and girders; M. Kim and M. Suh (2000)

worked on the spatial stability of thin-walled curved beams, and more other great authors, which

have contributed to the field of elastic stability of structures.

7

1.2 Research Merit

Curved steel beams and girders are commonly used in the construction of modern bridges,

highway ramps and interchanges, major buildings, ships, and air space structures.

In the present, there is no closed-form solution to these classes of problems and the mathematical

expressions pertaining to this class of problems is complex to solve [23]. Attempting to solve the

equations numerically, which it is actually the case, evolves a significant amount of efforts and is

a lengthy process which is prone to calculation errors, and in general a closed form solution is

impossible.

In order to circumvent this lengthy process when performing structural analysis and stability of

curved steel beams and girders engineers use structural analysis programs. The methods of

analysis utilized in all of these programs are based on the finite element analysis method and

since this method is only valid for obtaining the stress and strain at a point, then it cannot be used

in the analysis of the elastic stability of this class of structural members or in the analysis of post

buckling problems of curved or even straight beams.

Furthermore, when analyzing a structure by using a software program, engineers have to perform

data input. Engineers input section properties which are unknown and which have to be assumed.

Furthermore, to obtain a valid assumption you need a direct simplified method.

One can therefore say that the preliminary design stage, it is advantageous to have simplified

formulas, which can be used to choose the beam section properties rather than going through the

trial and error method when utilizing a finite elements programs to obtain the right section.

Another reason why a simplified formula is to our advantage is due to the effect of the

imperfection on the value of the critical load and on the stability of the assumed straight beams

which is not known normally. Not to mention that the stability analysis of slightly curved beams

due to the imperfection has not been yet done.

According to the paper written by Linzell, Hall and White [29], it was concluded that most of the

formulas presented in the AASHTO Guide Specifications for Horizontally Curved Highway

Bridges are based on data from experimental tests and finite element parametric studies, not from

analytical studies.

8

The existing methods of analysis that are currently being used do not use proven accurate

formulas that give the exact results expected, rather they give only an approximate estimation for

the maximum moment capacity of the curved beam. Based on the theory of local buckling,

AASHTO and National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) provide standards

and specifications for the design provisions of curved girders [47,48]. As an example, the third

edition 2004 of the AASHTO-LRFD Design Specifications including the 2005 Interim gives the

following summarized guidelines for the design of Horizontally Curved Steel I Girders.

Article 2.5.2.6.3 sets the maximum span-to-depth ratio L/D to 25, where the specified minimum

yield stress is not greater than 50 ksi.

Article 6.10.2.1 sets the maximum web depth to thickness ratio D/t

w

to 150.

Article 6.10.2.2 recommends a minimum flange thickness of 1.1 times the web thickness and

minimum flange width of

12

2

f

f

t

b

AASHTO Eq. (6.10.2.2-1)

6

D

b

f

AASHTO Eq. (6.10.2.2-2)

Article C6.10.3.4 recommends for a maximum vertical moment M and a radius of curvature R a

theoretical lateral moment of

NRD

ML

M

lat

2

2

= AASHTO Eq. (C4.6.1.2.4b-1)

Where, L represents the beam length or the unbraced length of the top flange and N is a

numerical value depends on the cross section properties and the lateral bracing of the beam.

Article 6.10.1.6 sets the following condition for beam stability

yc

bu

b b

p b

F

f

R C

L . L or L 2 1 AASHTO Eq. (6.10.1.6-2)

Where, f

bu

is top flange stress due to lateral moment, F

yc

is the maximum yield strength, C

p

factor

depends on the end moments as in the case of straight beams, R

p

is the web load-shedding factor

and given by Article 6.10.1.10.2 and L

b

is the unbraced length given by

9

yc

t p

F

E

r L AASHTO Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-4)

Where, E is youngs modulus and

+

=

fc fc

w c

fc

t

t b

t D

b

r

3

1 12

AASHTO Eq. (6.10.8.2.3-9)

The lateral bending stress in the top flange is determined by

tf

lat

l

S

M

f =

1

Where, S

tf

is the elastic section modulus about the major-axis of the section of the flange under

consideration and the above computed stress must satisfy the following two conditions:

yc h f l bu

F R f f = + AASHTO Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-1)

nc f l bu

F f f = +

3

1

AASHTO Eq. (6.10.3.2.1-2)

Where the stresses in the left hand side of the above two equations are the major-axis bending and

flange lateral bending respectively. These Equations are derived by considering the isolated

flanges of an I-girder subjected to combined major-axis bending and lateral bending given by

1

1

1

85 0

l

f l

cr

bu

l

f

F

f

.

f

Where

2

2

=

t

b

b b

cr

r

L

E R C

F

AASHTO Eq. (6.10.1.6-4)

The above,

f

and R

h

are factors given respectively by Articles 6.5.4.2 and Article 6.10.1.10.1 and

F

nc

, which is the nominal flexural resistance of the compression flange, is taken as the smaller of

the local buckling resistance Article 6.10.8.2.2 and the lateral torsional buckling resistance Article

6.10.8.2.3 calculated as

yc h b

pf rf

pf f

yc h

yr

nc

F R R

F R

F

F

=

1 1 AASHTO Eq. (6.10.8.2.2-2)

10

yc h b yc h b

p r

p b

yc h

yr

b nc

F R R F R R

L L

L L

F R

F

C F

Where

fc

fc

f

t

b

2

= AASHTO Eq. (6.10.8.2.2-3)

yc

pf

F

E

.38 0 = AASHTO Eq. (6.10.8.2.2-4)

The web slenderness according to Article 6.10.6.2.3 must satisfy the condition

yc w

c

F

E

.

t

D

7 5

2

AASHTO Eq. (6.10.6.2.3-1)

In the preceding provision when multiplying equation AASHTO (6.10.3.2.1-2) by the section

modulus of the beam about its major axis we obtain

nc x f l x bu x

F S f S f S = +

3

1

Putting

y nc f

F F = and rearrange, this gives the moment capacity or the critical moment

expressed as

x

l

y bu x p

S

f

F f S M

= =

3

This equation represents an approximate estimation for the buckling load or the critical load of

out-of-plane curved beams and girders given by AASHTO.

Furthermore, since all codes originate from analytic studies and are supported by experimental

studies, it is evident that more analytic studies are needed so as to support experimental studies.

1.3 Objective

The objective of this thesis is to present a closed form solutions to the problems of the lateral

stability against buckling of horizontally curved beams. This theoretical analysis will be

performed under the assumption that the lateral and angular displacements in the buckling state

are very small compared to the initial radius of curvature, where the second order terms can be

neglected and the cross-section in the strained state retains its original shape. These different

11

states are common assumptions in the theory of elastic stability. The study will provide a new

theoretical analysis to stability against buckling of horizontally curved beams and a solution to

many stability problems; where there is believe that a closed form solution may never exist.

1.4 Approach

It is noticed in most of the elastic stability problems that, the expression representing the

deflection curve of a structural member is a trigonometric function or functions, and that this

function(s) can be used as an agent to implement a new method to deal with the solution of the

elastic instability problems of most of the elastic members when subjected to end restraint

conditions. The same can be applied in the solution of the lateral instability problems of out-plan

curved elastic beams.

In chapter two this new method and which is known as the Geometric Identity Method is

explained mathematically. In chapter three the validity of the geometric identity method is tested

(or verified); whereas in the following chapters the geometric identity method is used as a method

of solution to the stability problem on hand.

12

Chapter 2

Theory of Elastic Stability

In what follows, we will discuss the concept of elastic stability and the classical analysis methods

used in solving this class of problems. It is well known that when a structure or one of its

members is compressed or bent, it may become unstable and buckle at some particular load. This

phenomenon involving the compression or bending of structural members are important factor in

the design of steel structures particularly when it is required to reduce the structural weight or

when thin-walled metal structure members are used. Furthermore, when we perform the stability

analysis of these structure members, we assume that the member is subjected to a single

conservative load, which increases in magnitude slowly with time, and we analyze the static

equilibrium under the different loading condition. This theoretical analysis enables us to predict

the stability or instability state of a structure. The success in performing this statical analysis

depends on our ability to define the equilibrium baths, and to identify the equilibrium state at

which the initial stability of this structure member is lost.

The equilibrium state or the stability state is the initial stable equilibrium bath [45], where under

some loading condition; the stability of the structural member may be lost if it yields to a local

maximum value equivalent to that of the load, and where further increase in the load at this point

will cause a dynamic snap of the member. If the equilibrium bath does not yield to a local

maximum, then the stability of the structure will be lost at the point of bifurcation (Poincare

1885), at which the path will intersect a second equilibrium bath and the member is said to buckle

at this point. In general, when an elastic structure becomes unstable it loses its stability by either

buckling or snapping, and the state of the structure is said to be at equilibrium. If in an adjacent

state the total potential energy cannot convert into kinetic energy provided that the system is

conservative, in other words the total energy is constant.

The elastic stability analysis can be classified as linear or non-linear. The linear analysis is

primarily concerned with the critical equilibrium states, and is not concerned with the exact

configuration details of this equilibrium bath. The non-linear analysis is concerned with the

configurations details of the equilibrium bath in the vicinity of a critical equilibrium state.

In most of structural design, we deal more with the linear analysis when we study the elastic

stability of the structure or its members. We also define the stability of a structure as a measure of

13

its tendency to persist in some state under the influence of the external load. On the other hand,

the instability of structure is defined as a measure of its tendency to abandon the initial state of

equilibrium due to the change in the internal deformations, and change of the structure

configuration.

When analyzing the stability of an elastic system theoretically there are mainly two approaches to

follow: the equilibrium approach and the energy approach from which other methods of analysis

are derived.

2.1 The Principle of Minimum Energy

This principle is known also as the minimum of the total potential [1,2,3,4a]. It states that if the

work done by the external loads drops, the change in the strain energy vanishes for every virtual

displacement. In other words, if for every virtual displacement the increase in the strain energy

equal to the increase in the potential energy of the external loads, then the elastic system is in

equilibrium. According to this principle, if the total energy of the structure , which is the sum

of the strain energy U and the potential energy of the external loads W is minimum, then for an

equilibrium position, the first variation must vanish ( o = ) for each variation of the

displacements. It follows that, if the total potential has a minimum or stationary value, then the

elastic body is in equilibrium. If the elastic body is in equilibrium then the total potential is a

minimum.

2.2 The Strain Energy

In the elastic stability against buckling where shear deformation is commonly neglected [5], if at

any point along the length the beam is the angle between the local Z axis of the local

coordinates in the strained state and the local Z axis in the unstrained state and is the angle of

twist at this point, then the increase in the strain energy in a total length L caused by the lateral

buckling of straight beams corresponding to the change from the initial configuration to the

deformed shape, this is expressed by

ds

ds

d T

ds

ds

d

M

U

L L

y

=

0 0 2 2

(2.1)

Where

ds

d

EI M M

y y

= = (2.2)

Now the twisting moment if warping of the cross section is prevented is expressed by

14

3

3

ds

d

EK

ds

d

GJ T

w

= (2.3)

Then by equations (2.2) and (2.3) equation (2.1) becomes

ds

ds

d

ds

d

EK

ds

d

GJ ds

ds

d

EI

U

L

w

L

y

=

0

3

3

0

2

2

1

2

(2.4)

Rearranging equation 2.4, we get

ds

ds

d

ds

d EK

ds

ds

d GJ

ds

ds

d

EI

U

L

w

L L

y

=

0

3

3

0

2

0

2

2 2 2

(2.5)

Now the last term in the right hand side of the above expression (i.e. Eq. 2.5) can be written as

ds

ds

d

ds

d EK

L

w

0

3

3

2

=

L

w

ds

d

d

ds

d EK

0

2

2

2

(2.6)

Integrating of the above expression (i.e. Eq. 2.6) we get

ds

ds

d

ds

d EK

L

w

0

3

3

2 ds

d

d

ds

d

2

EK

ds

d

ds

d

2

EK

L

0

2

2

w

L

0

2

2

w

=

(2.7)

Since the first term in the right hand side of the above expression must vanish at the boundaries

then Eq. 2.7 becomes

ds

ds

d

ds

d EK

L

w

0

3

3

2 ds

d

d

ds

d EK

L

w

=

0

2

2

2

ds

ds

d EK

L

w

=

0

2

2

2

2

(2.8)

Substituting of equation (2.8) into equation (2.5) gives

ds

ds

d EK

ds

ds

d GJ

ds

ds

d

EI

U

L

w

L L

y

=

0

2

2

2

0

2

0

2

2 2 2

(2.9)

And by equation (2.2) equation (2.9) becomes

ds

ds

d EK

ds

ds

d GJ

ds

EI

M

U

L

w

L L

y

=

0

2

2

2

0

2

0

2 2

2 2 2

(2.10)

Equation 2.10 is the final expression of the increase in the strain energy due to buckling. The first

term is the right hand side of the above expression is the increase in the flexural strain energy due

to lateral bending of the beam. The second term is the increase in the strain energy corresponding

to St-Venant theory of a uniform torsion. The third term is the increase in the strain energy due to

the warping rigidity of the beam cross section.

It is to be noticed that, since the buckling load is based on the small deflection theory, whereas

15

2

2

ds

u d

ds

d

=

(2.11)

The next quantity to be calculated is the increase in the potential of the applied load or the work

done by the external load due to lateral buckling in the strained state, which corresponds to the

strain energy of bending and twisting of the beam. This is expressed as

=

d M W

y

ds

ds

d

M d M

L

= =

0

(2.12)

And by equation (2.2) equation (2.12) becomes

ds

EI

M

W

L

y

0

2 2

(2.13)

Now, according to the conservation of energy law, the balance between the external and the

internal energy requires that U W = and accordingly equating of equation (2.10) and (2.13) yield

ds

d

d

EK

ds

d

GJ ds

EI

M

w

L L

y

2

2

2

2

0 0

2 2

(2.14)

If warping is not prevented equation (2.14) is reduced to

ds

ds

d

GJ ds

EI

M

L L

y

2

0 0

2 2

(2.15)

In determining the value of the buckling load using the above expressions, it is necessary to

assume an expression for the angular displacement which satisfies the boundary conditions.

Furthermore, in most of the problems of the elastic stability against buckling, the angles and

can be expressed by the form of the trigonometric series.

2.3 The Differential equation of equilibrium

It is well known from calculus of variations that, if we have a continuous function such that

( ) ( ) = = , , f W U (2.16)

Where ( ) , , are the variables, this means that is a function of , and . Now, if by

means of equation (2.10), the function U is said to represent represents the increase in the strain

energy, and by equation (2.13) the function W is said to represent the increase in the potential

energy of the load, then is the function representing the increase in the total energy at any

cross section in the buckling state. For to be minimum, it is necessary that

0 ds

ds

d

ds

d

2

2

L

0

=

(2.17)

16

This condition implies that

0

2

2

=

+

ds

d

ds

d

(2.18)

And upon substituting of equations (2.10) and (2.13) into equation (2.16) we get

y

EI

M

d

d EK

ds

d GJ

2 2 2

2 2

2

2

2

2

= (2.19)

Differentiation of equation (2.19) as required by the condition in equation (2.18) gives

y

EI

M

2

= (2.20)

ds

d

2

2

ds

d

GJ

= (2.21)

2

2

ds

d

4

4

ds

d

EK

w

= (2.22)

Now upon substituting of the above expressions (i.e. Eq. 2.22) into equation (2.18) we obtain

0

2

2

2

4

4

=

y

w

EI

M

ds

d

GJ

ds

d

EK (2.23)

This is the well known differential equation of equilibrium. Again, if warping is not considered,

this equation is reduced to

0

2

2

2

= +

y

EI

M

ds

d

GJ (2.24)

If there is a solution to the last two equations exist, then an exact value for the critical load could

be obtained in most of the cases, an exact solution is not possible, and therefore other methods are

used such to obtain a solution such as, making use of Bessels function or assuming an expression

for the angular displacement in the form of the infinite series or the trigonometric series.

2.4 Rayleigh-Ritz Method

This method is one of the approximate methods, and which is an improved technique to the

original Rayleigh method [4]. These two methods are based on the energy approach. In the

original Rayleigh method the deflection curve shape is assumed with one undetermined

coefficient, and in the Rayleigh-Ritz method the deflection curve shape is assumed as a set of

functions with more than one coefficient.

In general, the Rayleigh-Ritz method consists of the following steps:

17

1- The deflection curve of the buckled beam is expressed as a series or as a sum of an

infinite set of functions having undetermined coefficients.

2- The energy of the applied load is computed for an assumed deflection and then

minimized with respect to these coefficients.

3- From the above minimization, a set of linear equations using these coefficients is

obtained, and the determinate of the coefficients in these sets of equations must vanish,

from which the equation for the buckling load or buckling stress is developed.

The Rayleigh-Ritz method is an approximate mathematical formation, but it may be considered as

an exact one if we choose an infinite number of terms in the series or set of function. The

mathematical formulation of this method and its application to the lateral instability and buckling

of beams is as follow:

Suppose that we have a simply supported beam subjected to a vertical concentrated load acting at

the middle of a span and we are required to calculate the maximum load which the beam can

carry. The first step is to assume a deflection curve which represents the angular displacement

by remembering that this assumed function does not have to satisfy the boundary conditions. For

simplicity let us assume one that satisfy the boundary conditions which in this case may take the

form

L

s n

sin b

n

n

n

=

=1

nx sin b

n

n

n

=

=

1

(2.25)

Where

L

s

x

= And ds

L

dx

= (2.26)

Obviously vanishes at L s and s = = 0 or at = = x and x 0

Since the beam is simply supported, then the warping of the cross section is not prevented. Also,

since the load is symmetrical then one half of the beam length is considered, and by equation

(2.15) the total potential is represented by

ds

ds

d

GJ ds

EI

M

ds

L L

y

L

= =

2

2

0

2

0

2 2

2

0

2 (2.27)

Or in term of the variable x

dx

L

ds

d

GJ dx

L

EI

M

dx

L

y

=

2

2

0

2

0

2 2

2

0

2 (2.28)

18

The moment at any section along the beam is expressed by

s

P

M

2

=

If we divide equation (2.28) by GJ and

L

, and substituting of equations (2.25) into equation

(2.28) we obtain

dx nx cos nb

L

dx nx sin b x

L

C

P

LGJ

n

n

n

n

n

n

2

1

2

0

2

1

2

2

2

2

0

2

4

(2.29)

Upon integrating the last term in the right hand side of the above expression, we get

2 2

1

2

3

2

1

2 2

0

2

2 2

4 4

n

n

n

n

n

n

b n

L

ds nx sin b x

C

L P

LGJ

= =

(2.30)

In the above expression the total potential is expressed by the n unknown coefficients

n

b , and the

minimization requirement for this potential is to have a stationary value from which the partial

derivatives with respect to each coefficient vanish. For simplicity, let us choose only the first two

terms in the series of equations. Accordingly, for the first coefficient, we will have

( ) 0

2

2 2

4

1

2

3

2

2

1

2

0

2

2

2 2

1

=

b

L

dx x sin x sin b x sin b x

C

L P

b LGJ

(2.31)

And for the second coefficient we have

( ) 0

2

2 2 2

4

2

2

3

1

2

2

2

0

2

2

2 2

2

=

b

L

dx x sin x sin b x sin b x

C

L P

b LGJ

(2.32)

Simplifying equation (2.31) gives

( )

1

4

5

2

2

1

2

0

2 2

2

2 2 b

L

C

dx x sin x sin b x sin b x P

= +

(2.33)

Also, simplifying of equation (2.32) gives

( )

2

4

5

1

2

2

2

0

2 2

8

2 2 2 b

L

C

dx x sin x sin b x sin b x P

= +

(2.34)

Now rearranging equation (2.33) we get

( )

1

2 2 2

0

2

4

5

2

0

2 2

2

2

2

2 b dx x sin x P

L

C

dx x sin x sin x P b

=

(2.35)

Rearranging of equation (2.34) gives

19

( )

2

2 2 2

0

2

4

5

2

0

2 2

1

2 2

8

2 b dx x sin x P

L

C

dx x sin x sin x P b

=

(2.36)

If we multiply equation (2.35) by equation (2.36) and eliminate the coefficients we obtain

( ) =

2

2

0

2 2

2 dx x sin x sin x P

dx x sin x P

L

C

2 2 2

0

2

2

3

2

2

dx x sin x P

L

C

2 2

8

2 2 2

0

2

2

3

(2.37)

Now the buckling load is obtained by solving equation 2.37, where upon integrating the above

expressiona quadratic equation is developed and through the use of method of trial and error or

Newton method the smallest root we get the buckling. It is clear that the Rayleigh-Ritz method is

actually approximate, and by choosing more terms of the series given by (2.25), we approach the

exact value.

2.5 Galerkins Method

This method is also an approximate method as in the Rayleigh-Ritz method [44]. In the

Galerkins method we assume an expression to the deflection curve, and when substitute this

expression into the differential equation of equilibrium, we obtain an error. Since the assumed

deflection curve is not the exact deflection curve, the technique is to make this error as small as

possible.

2.6 Lagrange Multipliers Method

This method is used to calculate the upper and lower limits of the critical load [46], where in

some cases the exact solution to the elastic stability problem cannot be obtained, and we know

that the exact solution is the solution of the differential equation of equilibrium. In this method,

we follow the same steps as in Rayleigh-Ritz method, with one restriction applied at the first step.

The whole function representing the assumed deflection must satisfy the boundary conditions.

The mathematical expression for this method is described as follow:

If we have a single degree of freedom system, and we were to minimize a function of n variables

( )

n

b .. ,......... b , b

2 1

, where the b to

n

b variables are dependent and bound together with the

constrained function ( ) 0

2 1

=

n

b .. ,......... b , b , then the LaGrange multiplier method is to

20

minimize the function , where the quantity is the undetermined Lagrangian multiplier

and the condition for the minimization is expressed by:

0 =

i i

b b

Where ) n .., ,......... , , , i ( 4 3 2 1 =

If we have two degree of freedom system, then there will be a two constrain conditions given by

( ) 0

2 1 1

=

n

b .. ,......... b , b and ( ) 0

2 1 2

=

n

b .. ,......... b , b and we will need two multipliers, so the

function to be minimized becomes

2 2 1 1

V and the condition for the minimization will

be given by:

0

b b b

i

2

2

i

1

1

i

=

And by solving the above equation and substituting the result into the constraint equation, an

expression for the critical load is obtained. As the number of terms in the assumed series

representing the deflection curve increases the lower limit and the upper limit, of the load

approaches each other, an exact solution to the problem may be obtained.

The function represents the total potential or the total energy, and the function represent

the equation of the undetermined coefficients of the assumed deflection function. From the

minimization equations these coefficients can be determined, and an expression for the critical

load is obtained.

2.7 The Geometric identity Method

The Geometric Method is considered as a powerful technique to solve the boundary value

problems involved in the elastic stability theory equations of equilibrium. In this method, the

differential equation of equilibrium is transformed to a non-dimension differential equation and it

is called the non-dimension equation of equilibrium. The solution to this new expression of this

boundary value problem is based on finding a geometric identity equation which must satisfy the

given boundary conditions. Upon equating the appropriate terms in both equations, one

expression for the dependent variable is obtained. Then upon differentiation of the new

expression representing the dependent variable or interrogation of its second derivatives, we

obtain new terms. When substituting these terms in the original equation of equilibrium, the final

solution to the problem is obtained.

As mentioned above, this method is used in two different ways either by interrogating one of the

terms which is the second derivatives or by differentiation of the other term which is the

21

dependant variable. The choice between the two methods comes from the fact that the boundary

conditions must be satisfied, the integration method are concern the actual deflection curve,

where the differentiation method, concern the second derivatives.

2.7.1 Integration Method

If the integration method is used, then when integrating, we must as usual, compute the values of

the constants of integration based on the given boundary conditions. In this case, we obtain a

new expression for the dependent variable, and by adding both expressions we obtain the final

solution to the differential equation. In other words, the first expression is the particular solution

and the second expression is the complimentary solution.

The mathematical expression is described as follow:

Suppose we have a differential equation of the form

q py y = + (2.38)

Where p and q are functions of the variable x , y is understood to be the second derivatives of

y with respect the variable x and of course y is the first derivative of y with respect x , then

the non- dimension equation of equilibrium is obtained upon dividing the above equation by its

right hand side

1

1

= + y

q

p

y

q

(2.39)

Then if we have a geometric identity equation of the form

1

2 1

= + F F (2.40)

Where

1

F and

2

F satisfies the given boundary conditions, and if we have

2

F y

q

p

= (2.41)

Then we must have

1

1

F y

q

= (2.42)

Therefore, equations (2.41) and (2.42) lead to

2

F

p

q

y = (2.43)

And

1

qF y = (2.44)

22

If the integration method is to be used in equation (2.44) we get

B Ax dx qF y + + =

1

(2.45)

Where A and B in the integral are the constants of integration. Upon adding the two expressions

representing the dependent variable y in (2.43) and (2.45), we get

B Ax dx qF F

p

q

y + + + =

1 2

(2.46)

This is the final solution to the boundary value problem.

In particular, for elastic stability problems where the dependent variable y must vanishes as in

the cases of buckling of columns and the lateral instability of beams, equation (2.46) gives

B Ax dx qF F

p

q

+ + + =

1 2

0 (2.47)

Where upon arranging we obtain

( ) B Ax dx qF F

p

q

+ + =

1 2

(2.48)

And by inspection

2

F must be 1 or 0. If

2

F is 0, we have no solution since y already vanish at

the boundary with or without buckling. The condition of stability requires vanishing of y at any

point along the member. Consequently y vanishes at the point of maximum load or maximum

load potential or maximum stationary strain energy which is the point at which y is maximum.

By equation (2.43) the point at which

2

F is 1, therefore equation (2.48) becomes

( ) B Ax dx qF

p

q

+ + =

1

(2.49)

Where the values of all parameters in the above expression corresponds to the values at the point

where the function

2

F is a maximum, in other words at 1

2

= F and 0

1

= F

As an example, suppose we have the equation (2.38) with the boundary conditions

0 = y at 0 = x (2.50a)

0 = y at

2

L

x = (2.50b)

Then it is obvious that the following relations satisfies the above conditions

kx cos F

2

1

= and kx sin F

2

2

= (2.51)

Then by (2.43) and (2.44) we obtain

23

kx sin y

q

p

2

= (2.52)

ks cos y

q

2

1

= (2.53)

The above two expressions are equivalent to

kx sin

p

q

y

2

= (2.54)

ks cos q y

2

= (2.55)

Now upon integrating of the above expression we get

B Ax dx ks cos q y + + =

2

(2.56)

Then adding the two expressions given by equations (2.54) and (2.56), we get

kx sin

p

q

y

2

= B Ax dx ks cos q + + +

2

(2.57)

The value of the buckling load is obtained from the condition

kx

p

q

2

sin 0 = B Ax dx ks q + + +

2

cos (2.58)

Where at the point

2

= kx , we obtain

=

p

q

B Ax dx ks cos q + +

2

(2.59)

From which the final expression of the buckling load is obtained.

2.7.2 Differentiation Method

If the differentiation method is used, then upon equating the non-dimensional equation of

equilibrium with the geometrical identity equation, an expression for the second derivatives of the

dependent variable is obtained. Upon differentiating the dependent variable, a new expression for

the second derivative is obtained, after equating the two expressions representing the second

derivatives, a new equilibrium equation is obtained, and the solution to this new equilibrium

equation is the required solution.

The mathematical expression is described as follow:

If the differential equation under consideration is in the form

q py y = + (2.38)

24

Then if we have a geometric identity equation of the form

1

2 1

= + F F (2.40)

Upon following the same procedures as in the integration method we get

2

F

p

q

y = (2.43)

And

1

qF y = (2.44)

Now when equation (2.43) is differentiated once with respect to x we get

2 2

F

p

q

F

p

q

y

= (2.60)

If we differentiate again we get

2 2 2

2 F

p

q

F

p

q

F

p

q

y

= (2.61)

Upon equating the two expressions in (2.44) and (2.61), we obtain

2 2 2 1

2 F

p

q

F

p

q

F

p

q

qF

= (2.62)

This is the solution to the problem. As we mentioned before, in the case of elastic stability

problems y must vanish at the point of maximum potential or maximum stationary strain energy.

Since by equation (2.43) y is a function of

2

F , then the first term in the right hand side also

vanishes, and since

2

F is maximum, then its first derivative must also vanish, therefore the

second term in the above equation also vanishes, this gives

2 1

F

p

q

qF

=

2 1

1

F

p

F

= (2.63)

The solution to the above equation is the final solution to the problem. As an example, if the

differential equation under consideration is in the form

q py y = + (2.38)

Then dividing the above equation by the function q, we get

1 y

q

p

y

q

1

= + (2.39)

If the boundary conditions are such that

25

0 = y at 0 = x (2.50a)

0 = y at

2

L

x = (2.50b)

Then we may choose an identity equation in the form

1

2 2

= + kx sin kx cos (2.64)

Where

L

n

k

= , then by (2.39) and (2.64) we get

kx sin y

q

p

2

= (2.65)

Accordingly,

kx sin kx sin

p

q

y

2 2

= = (2.66a)

kx cos q y

2

= (2.66b)

Differentiate (2.66a) twice we obtain

( ) kx sin kx cos k kx cos kx sin k kx sin y

2 2 2 2

2 4 + + = (2.67)

Now equating the two expressions in (2.66b) and (2.67) we obtain

( ) kx sin kx cos k kx cos kx sin k kx sin kx cos q

2 2 2 2 2

2 4 + + = (2.68)

This is the new equation of equilibrium. By definition it should be valid at any point along the

curve. Therefore, it should be valid at the point where

or kx 0 = (2.69)

Accordingly Equation (2.68) gives

2

2k q = (2.70)

And by (2.66a) we obtain

2

2k

p

q

q = (2.71)

Therefore we must have at this point (otherwise no equilibrium)

2

2k p = (2.72)

This is the solution to the problem, from which the buckling load is obtained.

2.7.3 Special Case

Suppose we have another differential equation of the form

0 = + py y (2.73)

26

This case is similar to that of a column subjected to a vertical uniform load along its length. Then

upon dividing thru by the function p we get

0

1

= + y y

p

(2.74)

Now if the boundary conditions are the same as in (2.50a) and (2.50b), and if the integration

method is used, we may choose the identity equation

0 = + kx sin q kx sin q (2.75)

Where q is a constant its value has no meaning and upon equating the left hand sides of equations

(2.74) and (2.75) we get

kx sin q y = (2.76)

kx sin p q y = (2.77)

Integrating the above expression gives

B Ax dx kx sin p q y + + =

(2.78)

Again A and B are the arbitrarily constants of integration. This case differs from the previous

case, where the former does not have a particular function. Accordingly the stability condition

requires equating the two expression given by (2.76) and (2.78), and we obtain

B Ax dx kx sin p q kx sin q + + =

(2.79)

Eliminating the constant q from the above expression we get

B Ax dx kx sin p kx sin + + =

(2.80)

This is the new equation of equilibrium. Again since the above equation is true for any value of

x , then we may choose a value other than the boundary values such as

2

L

x = which is the point

of maximum and in this case we obtain

[ ] B

AL

dx kx sin p

L

x

+ + =

=

2

1

2

(2.81)

This gives the value of the buckling load of columns or simply supported beams in general with

hinged end under any symmetrical loading condition.

The geometric identity method paragraph (2.7) will be used in the next few chapters, in chapter

three as a verification of its validity in solving some of the known stability problems, where their

solutions were based on the integration by series method, and secondly as a powerful tool in

solving the lateral instability problems of out of plans curved beams.

27

Chapter 3

Lateral Instability of Straight Beams

The problem of the lateral stability of straight deep beams under pure bending has already been

treated analytically by Prandtl and Michell in 1899. Both researchers investigated this problem

and arrived to same conclusion. In general this subject is very well presented in the literature by

the symbol S. Timoshenko [8], F. Bleich [13], and J. Prescott [11], and of course many other

authors use the same symbol. In this chapter, we would like review the bases of the theory and the

mathematical expression for the differential equations of equilibrium.

3.1 Lateral Instability of Straight Beams under Pure Bending

It is well known that when a symmetrical straight deep beam with narrow cross section is bent

about its strong axis, it becomes unstable and may buckle laterally under certain critical load.

M

sin

Z

X

M

c

o

s

L

Y

X

u

v

Figure 3.1: Lateral Buckling Geometry of Straight Beams

If it is assumed that in the strained state the cross section is not prevented from warping and the

longitudinal extension of the beam is neglected, then the general expression for the critical load at

which the beam becomes unstable and lateral buckling may occur is expressed by

GJ EI

L

k qL or pL or M

y

=

2

(3.1)

Where M is the critical moment for the case of beam under constant bending moment, p is the

critical load for the case of beam subjected to concentrated load, q is the surcharge intensity for

28

the case of beam under uniform load along the entire length, and k is a coefficient depends on the

loading and end restraint conditions. The above expressions is obtained upon solving the

differential equation of equilibrium in the buckling or strained state these equations are

2

2

x x

ds

v d

EI cos cos M M = = (3.2)

2

2

y y

ds

u d

EI sin cos M M = = (3.3)

( )

ds

d

GJ u u V cos cos M

ds

du

0

= (3.4)

Where, the second term in the left hand side of the above expression is the twisting moment due

to shear force in the strained state. Since and are small angles, the above equations is

reduced to

2

2

ds

v d

EI M

x

= (3.5)

2

2

ds

u d

EI M

y

= (3.6)

( )

ds

d

GJ u u V M

ds

du

=

0

(3.7)

Differentiating the last equation gives

( )

ds

d

GJ

ds

dV

u u

ds

du

V

ds

dM

ds

du

M

ds

u d

= +

2

0

2

2

(3.8)

Since the last term in the left hand side of the above expression is a quantity of a small order, then

it can be neglected and equation (3.8) becomes

2

2

2

2

ds

d

GJ M

ds

u d

= (3.9)

By Substituting of equation (3.6) into equation (3.9) and Rearranging we obtain

0

GJ EI

M

ds

d

y

2

2

2

= +

(3.10)

The above equation is the well known differential equation of equilibrium, from which an

expression for the critical load is obtained. This expression is valid only if there is no fixed end

moment at the supports caused by lateral buckling. In other words, if there is no restraining

moment about the vertical axis due to lateral buckling. If this is not the case, then there will be an

end restrained moment N which is constant and equation (3.6) becomes

29

2

2

ds

u d

EI N M

y

= (3.11)

And by means of equation (3.11) equation (3.9) becomes

( )

ds

d

GJ MN M

EI

y

=

2

2

1

(3.12)

Rearranging we obtain

GJ EI

MN

GJ EI

M

ds

d

y y

= +

2

2

2

(3.13)

The restraining moment can be evaluated from integrating equation (3.11) once. Also, assuming

an expression for the angular displacement which satisfies the boundary conditions, this

integration can be performed, and the value of the restrained moment N is then obtained. This

procedures is expressed by

ds

du

d EI ds M ds N

y

L L L

=

2

0

2

0

2

0

(3.14)

In the above expression we have assumed that the load is symmetrical about the middle section.

The moment N under this above mentioned condition is expressed by

2

0

2

0

1

L

y

L

ds

du

EI ds M

L

N

=

(3.15)

Since the boundary conditions are

0 =

ds

du

At 0 = s

2

L

s = and L s = (3.16)

The restraining moment N is calculated from

=

ds M

L

N

L

2

0

1

(3.17)

In calculating the value of the critical load, the energy equation is used, where the total work done

on the beam in the strained state is expressed by

ds

ds

d

M W

L

0

ds

ds

u d

M

L

=

2

2

0

ds

ds

d

GJ

L

=

2

2

0

(3.18)

Where equation (3.9) has been used and upon multiply of equation (3.13) by GJ

2

1

we obtain

0

2 2 2

2 2

2

2

= +

y y

EI

MN

EI

M

ds

d GJ

(3.19)

30

In integration form

ds M

EI

N

ds

EI

M

ds

ds

d GJ

L

y y

L L

=

0

2 2

0

2

2

0

2 2 2

(3.20)

Then from the equality between half of the integrand in the right hand side of equation (3.18) and

the first term in the left hand side of equation (3.20), we see that the later represents the equality

between the increase in the strain energy and the work done by the external load in the buckling

state. Accordingly we obtain

=

ds

ds

d

L

2

2

0

ds M

GJ EI

N

ds

GJ EI

M

L

y y

L

0

2 2

0

(3.21)

Upon assuming a suitable expression representing the deflection curve and integrating, the value

of the critical is then obtained.

3.2 Examples

In what follows, we will solve two examples for which the solution is already known. But, since

their differential equation of equilibrium as given by equation (3.13) is similar to that one for

curved beams, then it is in our interest to attempt to obtain the solution by using our new method

as verification of its validity, and as an exercise.

3.2.1 Simply Supported Beam Laterally Fixed at Both Ends under Uniform Load

Let us take a beam which is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of intensity q

Z

Y

q

Figure 3.2: Simply supported beam under uniform load

Z

X

Figure 3.3: Deflection shape of buckled beam laterally fixed at both ends

31

In this case, the bending moment at any point along the beam length is given by

2

2 2

s

q

s

qL

M = (3.22)

The boundary conditions for the lateral displacements are shown in (3.16). The boundary

conditions for the angular displacement in this case are

0 = At 0 = s and l s = (3.23a)

0 =

ds

d

At

2

L

s = (3.23b)

0 =

ds

du

at 0 = s L s = (3.23c)

From these boundary conditions if the strain energy method is used, then the deflection curve

representing the angular displacement may take the form

L

s

sin b

=

2

(3.24)

Substitution of equations (3.22) and (3.24) into equation (3.17) gives

ds

L

s

sin s

q

s

qL

L

b

N

L

=

2 2

0 2 2

(3.25)

ds

L

s

sin s

qL

L

b

L

=

2

0 2

ds

L

s

sin s

q

L

b

L

2 2

0 2

(3.26)

And we obtain

2

054332 0 qL b . N = (3.27)

Now the energy equation (3.21) may be written as

=

ds

ds

d

L

2

2

0

ds M

C

N

ds M

C

L L

0

2 2

0

1

(3.28)

Substitution of equations (3.22) and (3.24) into equation (3.28) and differentiate as required gives

ds

L

s qs

s

qL

bC

N

ds

L

s qs

s

qL

C

ds

L

s

L

s

L

L

L L

2

2

0

4

2

2

0

2

2

2

0

4

4

sin

2 2

sin

2 2

1

sin sin 2 1

4

(3.29)

Upon integrating of the above expression, we obtain an approximate value for critical load. The

exact value of this load is obtained by solving the differential equation of equilibrium by the

integration in series method. It is given in some references by

32

2

2 51

L

C .

qL = (3.30)

3.2.1A Solution by the geometric identity equation: (Integration method)

The differential equation of equilibrium (3.13) can be written in simple form as

C

MN

C

M

ds

d

2

2

2

= +

(3.31)

The non-dimension equation of equilibrium is expressed by

1

N

M

ds

d

MN

C

2

2

= +

(3.32)

According to the given boundary conditions, the geometric identity equation may take the form

1 ks sin ks cos

2 2

= + (3.33)

Where in this case

L

k

=

Now, equating respectively the left hand sides of both equations (3.32) and (3.33), we get

kx sin

N

M

2

= (3.34)

ks cos

ds

d

NM

C

2

2

2

=

(3.35)

Equation (3.34) gives

kx sin

M

N

2

= (3.36)

Equation (3.35) gives

ks cos

C

NM

ds

d

2

2

2

=

(3.37)

Integrating the above expression, we obtain

A ds ks cos s

2

q

s

2

qL

C

N

ds

d

2 2

+

(3.38)

Where A is the arbitrarily constants of integration, and this integration gives

A

k 4

ks 2 cos s

ks 2 sin

k 8

1

k 4

s

6

s

C 2

qN

k 8

ks 2 cos

k 4

ks 2 sin s

4

s

C 2

qLN

ds

d

2 3

2 3

2

2

+

+ + =

(3.39)

The left hand side vanishes at mid span, where

2

L

s = this gives

33

A

8

L

48

L

C 2

qN

8

L

16

L

C 2

qLN

0

2

3 3

2

2 2

+

=

(3.40)

This also gives

24 2

3

L

C

qN

A = (3.41)

Accordingly equation (3.39) becomes

24 2

4

2

2

8

1

4 6 2

8

2

4

2

4 2

3

2 3

2 3

2

2

L

C

qN

k

ks cos s

ks sin

k

k

s s

C

qN

k

ks cos

k

ks sin s s

C

qLN

ds

d

+ + =

(3.42)

Integrating of the above expression gives

B s

L

C

qN

k

ks s

k

ks

k

ks

k

ks s

k

ks

k

ks s s

C

qN

k

ks

k

ks s

k

ks s

C

qLN

+

+

+

+ + +

+ =

24 2

8

2 sin

16

2 cos

16

2 cos

8

2 cos

16

2 cos

8

2 sin

24

2

16

2 sin

8

2 cos

16

2 sin

12 2

3

3 4

4 2

2

4 3

4

3 2 3

3

(3.43)

Simplify

B

sL

C

qN

k

ks s

k

ks

k

ks s s

C

qN

k

ks s

k

ks s

C

qLN

+

+ +

+ =

24 2 8

2 cos

16

2 cos 3

4

2 sin

24 2

8

2 cos

8

2 sin

12 2

3

2

2

4 3

4

2 3

3

(3.44)

Where B is the arbitrarily constants of integration, and will be determined from the boundary

conditions

0 = at 0 = s

This condition gives

=

4

4

16

3

2

L

C

qN

B (3.44)

And equation (3.44) becomes

34

4

4 3

2

2

4 3

4

2 3

3

16

3

2 24 2 8

2 cos

16

2 cos 3

4

2 sin

24 2

8

2 cos

8

2 sin

12 2

L

C

qN sL

C

qN

k

ks s

k

ks

k

ks s s

C

qN

k

ks s

k

ks s

C

qLN

+

+ +

+ =

(3.46)

Accordingly, upon adding the two expressions given by equations (3.36) and (3.46) we obtain the

final expression for the angular displacement, which is

4

4 3

2

2

4 3

4

2 3

3

2

16

3

2 24 2 8

2 cos

16

2 cos 3

4

2 sin

24 2

8

2 cos

8

2 sin

12 2

sin

L

C

qN sL

C

qN

k

ks s

k

ks

k

ks s s

C

qN

k

ks s

k

ks s

C

qLN

ks

M

N

+

+ +

+ + =

(3.47)

Multiply through by

qN

C 2

we get

4

4 3

2

2

4 3

4

2 3

3

2

16

3

24 8

2 cos

16

2 cos 3

4

2 sin

24

8

2 cos

8

2 sin

12

sin

2 2

L sL

k

ks s

k

ks

k

ks s s

k

ks s

k

ks s

L ks

qM

C

qN

C

+

+ +

+ + =

(3.48)

The condition of stability requires the vanishing of the angular displacements , this gives

4

4 3

2

2

4 3

4

2 3

3

2

16

3

24 8

2 cos

16

2 cos 3

4

2 sin

24

8

2 cos

8

2 sin

12

sin

2

0

L sL

k

ks s

k

ks

k

ks s s

k

ks s

k

ks s

L ks

qM

C

+

+ +

+ + =

(3.49)

The above expression is valid at any section along the beam length. Since the maximum moment

is at mid span, where at this point, we have

2

L

s = and

8

2

qL

M = (3.50)

Accordingly, equation (3.50) becomes

4

4 4

2

4

4

4 4

2

3 3

2 2

16

3

48 32 16

3

384 16 96

16

0

L L L L L L L

L

L q

C

+

+ + = (3.51)

Rearranging

+ =

8 . 76

1

8

3

32

1 16

4 2

4

2 2

L

L q

C

(3.52)

This give

35

65 166

16

4

2 2

.

L

L q

C

= (3.53)

The buckling load is given by

2 2

6 51

6 51

L

GJ EI .

L

C .

qL

y

= = (3.54)

3.2.1B Solution by the geometric identity equation: (differentiation method)

If the differentiation method is used, then we need to find a function which represents the second

derivatives of deflection curve. The function should satisfies all the boundary conditions of

(3.23a) and (3.23c) since the bending moment function in (3.22) is continuous with its first and

second derivatives along the beam length, then the deflection curve function must be also

continuous with its first and second derivatives. We have to bear on mind that, in the integration

method, we concern ourselves with the deflection curve only but in the differentiation method we

concern the second derivatives which must satisfy the given boundary conditions. The non-

dimension equation of equilibrium is expressed by

1

N

M

ds

d

MN

C

2

2

= +

(3.32)

According to the given boundary conditions (3.23a), the geometric identity equation may take the

form

1 ks sin ks cos

2 2

= + (3.33)

Then from the equality of the two equations (3.32 and 3.33) above that

ks sin

ds

d

MN

C

2

2

2

=

(3.55a)

ks cos

N

M

2

= (3.55b)

But the last expression does not satisfy the boundary condition in (3.23c), where by means of

equation (3.9) we have

2

2

2

2

ds

d

GJ M

ds

u d

= (3.9)

Then we must have

0

2

2

0

2

2

0

=

= =

ds

d

M

GJ

ds

u d

ds

du

L L

(3.56)

This can be accomplished if we choose

36

0 2

0

2

2

0

= =

ks cos

ds

d

M

GJ

L L

(3.57)

Multiply thru by

GJ

C

0 2

0

2

2

0

= =

ks cos

ds

d

MN

C

L L

(3.58)

Then we have

ks cos

ds

d

MN

C

2

2

2

=

(3.59)

Accordingly our identity equation is

( ) 1 2 1 2 = + ks cos ks cos (3.60)

This expression satisfies the boundary conditions in (3.23a), (3.23b) and (3.23c), upon

substituting this into the equation of equilibrium (3.32), we obtain

( ) ks cos

M

N

2 1 = (3.61)

ks cos

C

NM

ds

d

2

2

2

=

(3.62)

Then upon differentiating of equation (3.61) with respect to s we get

( ) ( ) ks sin k

M

N

ks cos

M

M N

2 2 2 1

2

+

= (3.63)

Differentiate again, we get

( ) ( ) ( ) ks cos k

M

N

ks sin k

M

M N

ks cos

M

M N

M

M N

2 4 2 2

2

2 1

2

2

2 2 3

2

+

= (3.64)

Equating of the above expression with the second derivatives in equation (3.62), we get

( ) ( ) ( ) ks cos k

M

N

ks sin k

M

M N

ks cos

M

M N

M

M N

ks cos

C

MN

2 4 2 4

2

2 1

2

2

2

2 2 3

2

+

= (3.65)

This is the new equation of equilibrium. Since the condition of stability requires vanishing of

angular displacement which must vanish at the boundary, then at 0 = s we get

( )

2

4k

M

N

C

MN

= (3.66)

This gives

2

4

k

M C

M

= (3.67)

37

This equation is valid at any point, and at the point of maximum positive moment, where

2

L

s = we have

8

2

qL

M = (3.68)

Then upon substituting of the above values into (3.66) we obtain

2

2

2

2

32

8

L qL

C

qL

= (3.69)

Whence, the value of the buckling load is

2

3 50

L

C .

qL = (3.70)

This is approximately two (2) percent less than the value previously obtained.

3.2.2 Simply Supported Beam Laterally Fixed at Both Ends under Concentrated Load

The beam is subjected to a vertical concentrated load P acting at middle of span.

Z

Y

P

Figure 3.4: Simply supported beam under concentrated load

Z

X

Figure 3.5: Deflection shape of buckled beam laterally fixed at both ends

Since the moment along the beam cannot be expressed by a single expression, then half of the

beam will be considered. The bending moment at any section in this case is expressed by

s

P

M

2

= (3.71)

If we apply the boundary conditions as in the previous case, then for only one half of the beam

length we have

38

0 = at 0 = s (3.72a)

0 =

ds

d

at

2

L

s = (3.72b)

0 =

ds

du

at 0 = s

2

L

s = (3.72c)

As in the previous example, the differential equation of equilibrium is

C

MN

C

M

ds

d

= +

2

2

2

(3.73)

The non dimension equation of equilibrium is expressed by

1

N

M

ds

d

MN

C

2

2

= +

(3.74)

Since the solution to the problem on hand is based on 3 boundary conditions, and the bending

moment cannot be represented by one continuous expression for the entire beam, then to satisfy

the boundary condition in (3.72c) as in the previous problem we must have

2

2

2

2

ds

d

GJ M

ds

u d

= (3.9)

This leads to

0

2

2

2

0

2

2

2

0

=

= =

ds

d

M

GJ

ds

u d

ds

du

L L

(3.75)

Then we may choose the expression

ks cos

ds

d

M

GJ

L L

2

2

0

2

2

2

0

=

(3.76)

Where again

L

k

= and this leads to the expression

ks cos

ds

d

M

GJ

2

2

2

=

(3.77)

Then

ks cos

GJ

M

ds

d

2

2

2

=

(3.78)

Upon substituting this expression into equation of equilibrium (3.74) we obtain

1 2 = +

N

M

ks cos

GJ

M

MN

C

(3.79)

Rearranging

39

= ks cos

NGJ

C

M

N

2 1 (3.80)

This give

= ks cos

C

NGJ

GJM

C

2 (3.81)

Differentiate the above expression with respect to s gives

( ) ks sin k

GJM

C

ks cos

C

NGJ

GJM

M C

2 2 2

2

+

= (3.82)

Differentiate again with respect to s

( ) ( ) ks cos k

GJM

C

ks sin k

GJM

M C

ks cos

C

NGJ

GJM

M C

GJM

M C

2 4 2 2

2

2

2

2

2 2 3

2

+

= (3.83)

Upon Equating of the above equation with equation (3.78) we obtain

( ) ( ) ks cos k

GJM

C

ks sin k

GJM

M C

ks cos

C

NGJ

GJM

M C

GJM

M C

ks cos

GJ

M

2 4 2 2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 3

2

+

=

(3.84)

This can be written as

( ) ( ) ks cos k

GJM

C

ks sin k

GJM

M C

ks cos

C

NGJ

GJM

C

M

M

M

M

ks cos

GJ

M

2 4 2 2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 3

2

+

=

(3.85)

Now, the first term in the right hand side is a function of the angular displacement , accordingly

the above expression may also be written as

( ) ( ) ks cos k

GJM

C

ks sin k

GJM

M C

M

M

M

M

ks cos

GJ

M

2 4 2 2

2 1 2

2

2

2 2

2

+

= (3.86)

Since the condition of stability requires vanishing of , accordingly the above equation is

reduced to the stability equation

( ) ( ) ks cos k

GJM

C

ks sin k

GJM

M C

ks cos

GJ

M

2 4 2 2

2

2

2

2

+

= (3.87)

This is the final expression for the equation of stability and the unstrained point with maximum

moment is the middle point, where at this point

2

L

s = and

4

PL

M = (3.88)

40

And

1 2 = ks cos 0 2 = ks sin (3.89)

Then (3.87) becomes

( )

2

4k

GJM

C

GJ

M

= (3.90)

Then upon substituting of the above values into (3.90) we obtain

( ) ( )

2

4

4

1

4

k

PL

C PL

= (3.91)

Therefore

=

2

2

2

2

4 16

L L

C

P

(3.92)

Whence, the value of the buckling load is then given by

2

13 . 25

L

C

P = (3.93)

In this case as shown by other references, the value of the critical load using the method of

integration by series has to be

2

9 25

L

GJ EI .

P

y

= (3.94)

In obtaining the above value four functions were involved. These functions must satisfy a

constrained equation, where for different value of the load the values of these functions is

calculated and substituted in this constrained equation. By the trial and error method, the value of

the critical load is obtained.

As mentioned earlier in this section, we are interested in showing the validity of our method to

solve the differential equation of equilibrium.

3.3 lateral Instability of Open Cross Section Straight Beams under Bending

In the preceding discussion, we have assumed that the beam is prismatic or the beam cross

section is not prevented from warping. Open cross section beams by definition refer to the

structural elements with small thickness walls; therefore the element may undergo a local

buckling and the cross-section of the beam exhibits significant out-of-plane warping in response

to twisting of the cross section.

41

Figure 3.6: View and cross section of an I beam

In the linear instability analysis of these beams, the warping rigidity must be considered in

computing the critical load which the beam can carry, the equations of equilibrium must be

modified, and the term correspond to the warping rigidity should be added. Accordingly, in pure

elastic torsion of a uniform beam, if the shortening effect of the beam due to torsion is neglected

and the beam cross section is symmetrical about its shear center, the shear force due to lateral

bending is given by

3

3

ds

u d

EI

ds

M d

ds

dM

V

y

y

y

= = =

(3.95)

Where equation (3.6) has been used, and u in this equation is expressed as

=

2

h

u (3.96)

Since the shear force at each flange is one half of the value of the total shear force above;

accordingly, the total twisting moment produced by these forces is expressed as

3

3

2 2

ds

u d h

EI

h

V

y y

= (3.97)

By equation (3.95), the above expression takes the form

3

3

3

3 2

4 2

ds

d

EK

ds

d h

EI

h

V

w y y

= = (3.98)

Accordingly, equation (3.7) becomes

( )

3

3

0

ds

d

EK

ds

d

GJ u u V M

ds

du

w

= (3.99)

Upon differentiation and eliminate quantity of small order, we obtain

4

4 2

2

2

ds

d

EK

ds

d

GJ M

ds

u d

w

= (3.100)

By following the same procedures used in obtaining equation (3.10), this equation takes the form

42

0

2

2

2

4

4

=

GJ EI

M

ds

d

ds

d

GJ

EK

y

w

(3.101)

In a simple form, equation 3.101 cab be written as

0

2

2

2

4

4

=

C

M

ds

d

ds

d

C

w

(3.102)

Equation 3.102 is the differential equation of equilibrium this equation is valid or it is valid if

warping is not allowed and the final expression for the critical load given by the solution will

contain two terms one for the pure elastic torsion and the other term for the warping of the cross

section of the beam.

It is to be noticed that, since the deflection curve shape does not change by considering the

warping rigidity in the solution, the solution of this equation can be simplified and performed in

two steps:

1- Find a solution to this problem for the case where warping is not considered.

2- From the expression obtained for the angular displacement , back substitution of this

expression into the equation of equilibrium (3.86), from which the final expression for

the critical load is then obtained.

3.4 Lateral Instability of Straight Beams under Eccentric Load

Y

X

u

v

h

Figure 3.7: Cantilever Beam under Uniform Load Applied at Height h

In the previous discussion, we have assumed that the loads acting on the beam were applied at the

center of gravity. If the load is applied at a distance from the beam center of gravity, then in

addition to the torsional moment caused by the lateral buckling, there will be a twisting moments

43

caused by the eccentricity. In deriving the differential equation of equilibrium, the additional

external torsion and the corresponding increase in the angular displacement must be considered.

In this case the equations of equilibrium are then expressed by

2

2

ds

v d

EI M

x

= (3.103)

2

2

ds

u d

EI M

y

= (3.104)

s d

d

EK

ds

d

GJ M

w t

3

3

= (3.105)

Differentiating the last equation with respect to s gives

4

4

2

2

ds

d

EK

ds

d

GJ

ds

dM

w

t

= (3.106)

Where the twisting moment in this case is expressed by

( ) u u V

ds

du

M T M

o t

= (3.91)

By differentiation of the above expression, we obtain

( )

ds

dV

u u

ds

du

V

ds

dM

ds

du

M

ds

u d

ds

dT

ds

dM

0

2

2

t

+ = (3.107)

The last term on the right hand side of the above expression will be neglected in accordance with

the concept of the small deflection in buckling problems. Accordingly,

M

ds

u d

ds

dT

ds

dM

2

2

t

= (3.108)

Substituting equations (3.104) into the above equation we get

y

t

EI

M

ds

dT

ds

dM

2

= (3.109)

Upon substation of equation (3.109) into equation (3.106) and Rearranging, we obtain

ds

dT

GJ GJ EI

M

ds

d

ds

d

GJ

EK

y

w

1

2

2

2

4

4

=

(3.110)

If warping is not considered, this equation becomes

ds

dT

GJ GJ EI

M

ds

d

y

1

2

2

2

= +

(3.111)

44

Or in a simple form as

ds

dT

GJ C

M

ds

d 1

2

2

2

= +

(3.112)

The above expression is the differential equation of equilibrium. The solution to this non-linear

differential equation is laborious and based on the integration by series only, where by using our

proposed method we obtain an exact and simple solution to this problems. In the above equation,

the right hand side is the torsional effect, from which the buckling load either increases or

decreases, and the final expression for the buckling load is expressed as

GJ

qhL

k GJ EI

L

k qL or PL or M

y

2

2

' 1 =

(3.113)

Where equation (3.1) has been used, and in the above equation h is the height of load

point of application above the center of gravity. k and ' k are constants depend on the

loading and end restraint conditions.

3.4.1 Cantilever Beam under Uniform Load

A cantilever beam fixed at L s = and free at 0 = s is subjected to a uniformly distributed load of

intensity q at constant height h and distance e from its center of gravity.

In this case, when the beam buckles in addition to the bending moment

2

2

s

q

M = (3.114)

We have an incremental twisting moment about the Z axis due to the eccentricity and the height

of the load and it is given by

( ) h e ds q dT + = (3.115)

This gives

( ) h e q

ds

dT

+ = (3.116)

If warping is not considered, then upon substituting of the above expression into the equation of

equilibrium (3.112), we obtain

( )

h e

GJ

q

C

M

ds

d

+ = +

2

2

2

(3.117)

Rearranging, we obtain

GJ

qe

GJ

qh

C

M

ds

d

=

+ +

2

2

2

(3.118)

45

Then the complementary equation is

0

2

2

2

=

+ +

GJ

qh

C

M

ds

d

(3.119)

The boundary conditions are

0 = at L s = (3.120)

0 =

ds

d

at 0 = s (3.121)

According to these boundary conditions and equation (3.119) we may choose the identity

equation

0 = + ks cos b ks cos b (3.122)

Where

2

= k (3.123)

Now equating respectively the left hand sides of both equations (3.119) and (3.122) we get

ks cos

qhC GJM

GJC

b

+

=

2

1

(3.124)

ks cos

ds

d

b

=

2

2

1

(3.125)

Where the particular integral is omitted since it is a constant. Now let

m

GJ

qh

= (3.126)

Then equation (3.124) becomes

ks cos

mC M

C

b

+

=

2

1

(3.127)

Upon integrating of equation (3.125) we get

A ks sin

k b

+ =

1 1

(3.128)

Where A is the constant of integration, the term A vanish by the condition in (3.121), then we get

ks sin

k b

1 1

= (3.129)

Integrating again gives

B cos

k

b

+ =

2

1 1

(3.130)

46

Where B is the second constant of integration, and it also vanishes by the boundary condition in

(3.120), accordingly the above expression becomes

cos

1 1

2

k b

= (3.131)

Then upon equating the above equation to that of equation (3.127) we get

ks

mC M

C

ks

k

cos cos

1

2 2

+

= (3.132)

This gives

mC C k M =

2 2

(3.133)

Therefore

2

1

k

m

C k M = (3.134)

Then by means of equations (3.133) and (3.126) the above equation gives

GJ

qhL

L

C

M

2

2

4

1

2

= (3.135)

Now according to the principle of minimum or maximum energy the critical moment is at the

point where M is maximum, which is the middle point, since vanishes at the end when the

moment is the maximum, and it is a maximum at the free end when the moment is zero,

accordingly at

8 2

2

qL

M

L

s = = (3.136)

Therefore

GJ

qhL

L

C qL

2

2 2

4

1

2 8

= (3.137)

Whence, the critical load is expressed by

GJ

qhL

L

C

qL

2

2

4 . 0

1

6 . 12

= (3.138)

This is the expression for the critical load, when the load is applied at a height h from the center

of gravity of the beam and it is clear that the eccentricity has no effect in the buckling load, and

by the use of the identity equation method a solution to this complicated elastic stability problems

was easily obtained.

47

Chapter 4

Lateral Instability of a Circular Arc Beams

The advantage of this type of beam geometry is the constant value of the beam radius of

curvature in the unstrained state, where in the non-circular beams as we known the curvature of

the beam varies at each point along the beam length, and the complexity of their analysis comes

from the fact that the end torque is a function of the these variable coefficients. In this chapter

based on Euler- Bernoulli approximation in the beam theory an expression for the differential

equation of equilibrium for the circular arc beams is obtained, and by means of the geometric

identity equation a solution to this equation is also obtained for some of the lateral instability

problems of the out of planes curved beams under different loading and end restrained conditions.

The whole idea behind the method mentioned above in solving any lateral instability problem of

straight or curved beams is that, the actual expression representing the actual deflection curve is a

sum of an linearly independent functions, each function represent one single curve, and since

these functions are independent then one curve can be used as an agent to represent all other

functions and this agent must satisfy the boundary conditions, where upon substituting its value in

the deferential equation of equilibrium an expression for one of the terms in this equation is

obtained, and by differentiating or integrating of this new expression we obtain another new

expression which by the condition of equilibrium it must be equal to the original one, and since

the stability condition requires vanishing of the angular displacement, then by eliminating the

term or terms involving this angle we obtain the expression for the final stability equation, from

which we obtain the expression for critical load.

Z

X

Y

Figure 4.1: Circular Arc Beam in the horizontal plan

48

4.1 Differential equation of equilibrium for Circular Arc Beams

This case is a special case where general case will be discussed in the next chapter. In analyzing

the stability of horizontally curved circular arc beams against buckling, it may be seen that in the

buckling state the pre-buckling vertical deflection produces an angular displacement along with

the post-buckling angular displacement, both twisting angles produces some additional bending

moment about the Z axis in the vertical plane YZ. Since the pre-buckling is independent from the

buckling or post-buckling state, then it is not of our interest to analyze the pre-buckling state.

Y

X

x

y

O

R

R

u

v

Figure 4.2: Lateral Buckling Geometry of Horizontally Curved Beams

To obtain the relation between the radius of curvature and the angular displacements in the pre-

buckling state, we first assume that the beam is subjected to a vertical bending moment sin M

applied at any cross section, where is a fictitious twisting angle between the moment M and

the horizontal X axis, second we assume that the radius of curvature of the bent beam is R when

equal to 2 / then from the elementary bending theory we have

R

EI

M sin M

x

= =

2

(4.1)

It follows that when equal to we have

r

EI

sin M

x

= (4.2)

And from these two expressions we get

49

R sin r =

(4.3a)

This gives the increase in the curvature due to a curvature equivalent to the initial curvature of the

beam and for the buckling state we should also have

R sin r =

(4.3b)

Moreover according to the concept of the small deflection in the elastic stability theory we have

= sin (4.4)

Then equation (4.3b) becomes

R r =

(4.5)

And the increase of curvature in the YZ plane due to the initial curvature is then expressed by

R

sin

r

=

1

(4.6a)

R r

=

1

(4.6b)

Then by equations (4.6a), (4.6b) and (3.5) the total curvature in the local YZ plane for both the

pre-buckling and the buckling states is given by

2

2

1 1

ds

y d

r r

y

+ =

2

2

ds

y d

R

sin

+ =

(4.7a)

2

2

1 1

ds

v d

r r

v

+ =

2

2

ds

v d

R

+ =

(4.7b)

And in the buckling state the total twist per unit length is expressed by

s d

d

GJ

EI

ds

d

w

3

3

= (4.8)

Moreover, to obtain an expression for the increase of the curvature in the local horizontal XZ plan

due to lateral buckling of the beam, we assume that the initial curvature is due to a fictitious

horizontal moment M, and again the relation between the moment and curvature is given by

R

EI

M

y

= (4.9)

If the moment increased by the amount M , then under the assumption that the beam geometry

in the strained state does not change, the radius of curvature decreases by the amount u , which is

the lateral horizontal displacement, accordingly the relation between the total moment and the

corresponding curvature is expressed by

50

u R

EI

M M

y

= + (4.10)

Therefore, the increase in the curvature is obtained by subtracting of (4.9) from (4.10) this gives

= 1

1

1

R

u R

EI

R

EI

u R

EI

M

y y y

(4.11)

And since R u << the above expression is reduced to

2

1 1

R

u

EI

R

u

R

EI

M

y

y

=

+ = (4.12)

Which is equivalent to that obtained from the deformation of circular rings under in-plane loading

and the total curvature is obtained by adding the expression in (4.12) to the expression in (3.6)

and we get

2

2

2

1

ds

u d

R

u

r

u

+ = (4.13)

Then, the new equilibrium equations are expressed as

+ =

2

2

ds

y d

R

sin

EI M

x

(4.14a)

+ =

2

2

ds

v d

R

EI cos M

x

(4.14b)

+ ==

2

2

2

ds

u d

R

u

EI cos M

. y

(4.14c)

s d

d

EI

ds

d

GJ GJ M

w t

3

3

= = (4.14d)

Equation (4.14a) represents the relation between bending moment and deformations just before

buckling. Equation (4.14b) is used to determine the actual value of the bending moment at

buckling state. By these two equations when vanishes we must have

sin

R

EI

cos M M

x

= (4.15a)

This gives

1

1

+

=

A

A

cos where

2

=

x

EI

RM

A (4.15b)

51

Accordingly, for structure beams where deflection is small compared to radius of curvature the

above expressions may be neglected and the equations of equilibrium becomes

+ =

2

2

ds

v d

R

EI M

x

(4.16a)

+ ==

2

2

2

ds

u d

R

u

EI cos M

. y

(4.16b)

s d

d

EI

ds

d

GJ GJ M

w t 3

3

= = (4.16c)

In the above expression the twisting due to pre-buckling deflection has been neglected since in

equation (4.16b) we have considered the actual bending moment in the buckling state.

Ddifferentiation of the expression in (4.16c) with respect to s gives

s d

d

EI

ds

d

GJ

ds

dM

w

t

4

4

2

2

= (4.17)

And the general expression for the twisting moment at any section along the length of the beam

about the Z axis in the XY plane is expressed by

u V

ds

du

M T M

t

+ = (4.18)

Upon differentiation of the above expression, we get

ds

dV

u

ds

du

V

ds

du

ds

dM

ds

u d

M

ds

dT

ds

dM

t

+ + =

2

2

(4.19a)

ds

dT

R

u

ds

M d

u

ds

du

R

T

ds

du

ds

dM

ds

du

ds

dM

ds

u d

M

ds

dT

ds

dM

t

+ + + + =

2

2

2

2

(4.19b)

The third and forth terms in the right hand side of the above expression are equivalent and if we

neglect the torsion shear and by the concept of the small deflection theory in buckling problems

the last three terms which are of a small orders and opposite signs may be neglected. Therefore,

equations (4.180 and (4.19b) may be written as

ds

du

M T M

t

= (4.20)

2

2

ds

u d

M

ds

dT

ds

dM

t

= (4.21)

Equating of equations (4.17) and (4.21) gives

2

2

2

2

ds

d

GJ

ds

u d

M

ds

dT

=

s d

d

EI

w

4

4

(4.22)

52

Substitution of equation (4.16b) into equation (4.22) gives

2

2

2

2

ds

d

GJ

R

Mu

EI

cos M

ds

dT

y

= +

s d

d

EI

w

4

4

(4.23)

Divide through by GJ we get

4

4

2

2

2

2

1

ds

d

GJ

EI

ds

d

GJR

Mu

GJ EI

cos M

ds

dT

GJ

w

y

= + (4.24)

Rearranging

= + +

C

cos M

ds

d

ds

d

GJ

EI

w

2

2

2

4

4

2

GJR

Mu

ds

dT

GJ

1

+ (4.25)

Moreover, if the beam is subjected to a vertical concentrated load acting in the middle, then the

moment at any section along the center line of the beam about the X axis in the vertical principle

plane YZ is given by

sin

2

sin cos

0 0

R

P

T M M = (4.26)

The twisting moment at any section along the beam length about the Z axis is given by

( ) cos 1

2

cos sin

0 0

+ = R

P

T M T (4.27)

Differentiation of the above expression with respect to s gives

ds

d

R

P

ds

d

T

ds

d

M

ds

dT

sin

2

sin cos

0 0

= (4.28)

The above expression can be written as

= sin

2

sin cos

1

0 0

R

P

T M

R ds

dT

(4.29)

Substitution of equation (4.26) into (4.29) gives

R

M

ds

dT

= (4.30)

Now upon substitution of (4.30) into (4.25) we get

= + +

C

M

ds

cos d

ds

d

GJ

EI

w

2

2

2

4

4

2

1

GJR

Mu

R

M

GJ

+ (4.31)

This equation can be written as

= + +

C

cos M

ds

d

ds

d

GJ

EI

w

2

2

2

4

4

+

R

u

R

M

GJ

1

1

(4.32)

Again according to the concept of the small deflection in the elastic stability theory ( ) R u << ,

then this term can be neglected and the above expression is reduced to

53

R

M

GJ C

cos M

ds

d

ds

d

GJ

EI

w

1

2

2

2

4

4

= + +

(4.33)

Or in term of we have

GJ

RM

C

cos M R

d

d

d

d

GJ R

EI

w

= + +

2 2

2

2

4

4

2

(4.34)

The above equation is considered as the general differential equation of equilibrium for the out-

of-plane circular arc beams when warping is prevented. The solution to this equation depends on

the loading and end restraint conditions. It is to be noticed that warping does not change the shape

of the deflection curve, in other words, the shape of the deflection curve is the same of warping is

or is not prevented, accordingly the solution of the above equation can be done in two steps, the

first step is to solve the differential equation without the warping term and obtain an expression

for the angular displacement , the second step is back substitution of this expression into the

original differential equation, and from this the final expression for the buckling load is obtained.

Now, for structural beams 1 cos and we may neglect its term in the above two equations.

It follows that when warping is not considered equation (4.33) is reduced to

= +

C

M

ds

d

2

2

2

R

M

GJ

1

(4.35)

And equation (4.34) is also reduced to

GJ

RM

C

M R

d

d

= +

2 2

2

2

(4.36)

Furthermore, equation (4.35) is similar to equation (3.13) in the previous chapter, accordingly the

beam is considered as laterally fixed, accordingly in the solution to this problem there is an extra

boundary condition must be satisfied, and since the beam is curved, then this condition differ

from that for straight beams, that is

2

0 0

L

s and s at

ds

du

= = = (4.37)

Where is the angle of curvature, this means that, the beam seems to be flat relative to its

original center line, in other words the curvature at the support or at the middle point in the

strained state equal to the initial curvature, and as the case of straight beams in the previous

chapter, we have the following condition to be satisfied

=

ds

ds

u d

ds

dT

M

L

2

2

2

0

1

0

2

2

2

0

=

ds

ds

d

M

GJ

L

(4.38)

Where warping term has been neglected, accordingly we may assume that

54

ks

ds

d

M

GJR

2 cos

2

2

=

(4.39)

Which satisfies the boundary condition in (4.37) and the above expression is equivalent to

2 cos

2

2

GJ

RM

d

d

= (4.40)

Substituting the above expression into equation of equilibrium (4.36) gives

2 cos

GJ

RM

GJ

RM

C

M R

= +

2 2

(4.41)

Rearranging

GJ

RM

GJ

RM

C

M R

= 2 cos

2 2

(4.42)

Therefore

( ) 2 cos 1 =

GJRM

C

(4.43)

This is one of the solution from which the final solution is obtained and it is clear that the above

expression satisfies the boundary conditions, where the boundary conditions in these classes of

problems if the loading is symmetrical are expressed as

L s and s at = = = 0 0 (4.44)

2

0

L

s at

ds

d

= =

(4.45)

If the beam is fixed at both ends, and

L s at = = 0 (4.46)

0 0 = = s at

ds

d

(4.47)

If the beam is fixed at one end and free at the other and the free edge is our coordinates origin.

It is to be noticed that warping does not change the shape of the deflection curve, in other words,

the shape of the deflection curve is the same of warping is or is not prevented, accordingly the

solution of the above equation can be done in two steps, the first step is to solve the differential

equation without the warping term and obtain an expression for the angular displacement , the

second step is back substitution of this expression into the original differential equation and from

this the final expression for the buckling load is obtained.

55

4.2 The energy equation induced from the equation of equilibrium

The solution to the equation of equilibrium (4.35) can be also obtained by choosing another type

of geometric identity equation, where we first divide (4.35) the equation thru by its right hand

side

1

2

2

=

C

GJRM

d

d

RM

GJ

(4.48)

This equation is equivalent to the identity equations

1 sin cos

2 2

= + (4.49)

Where

L

s

= (4.50)

Now suppose that the boundary conditions such that

L s and s at = = = 0 0 (4.51)

2

0

L

s at

ds

d

= =

(4.52)

Then upon equating the left hand sides of equations (4.48) and (4.49), we obtain

2

sin

GJRM

C

= (4.53)

And

2

2

2

cos

GJ

RM

d

d

= (4.54)

The last two expressions can be used to induce the energy equation, where upon multiplying

equation (4.53) by M and squaring we get

( )

2

2

2

2 2

sin

R

EI

EI

M

y

y

= (4.55)

Where the substitution of GJ EI C

y

= has been used and multiplying equation (4.54) by

2

R

GJ

gives

( )

2

2

2

2

cos

R

M

d

d

R

GJ

= (4.56)

Upon Integrating of the above expression we get

( ) A d

R

M

d

d

R

GJ

+ =

2

2

cos (4.57)

Where A is the arbitrarily constant of integration and squaring of the above expression gives

56

( )

2

2

2

2

2

cos

+ =

A d

R

M

GJ

R

d

d

R

GJ

(4.58)

Moreover, when multiplying of equation (4.35) by we get

GJR

M

C

M

ds

d

= +

2

2

2

2

(4.59)

And integrating of the above expression gives

ds

GJR

M

ds

C

M

ds

ds

d

ds

d

L L L

L

= +

0

2

2

0

2

0

0

(4.60)

Since at the boundary either or

ds

d

must vanish then the above expression is reduced to

ds

GJR

M

ds

C

M

ds

ds

d

L L L

= +

0

2

2

0

2

0

(4.61)

Multiply through by

2

GJ

we obtain

ds M

R

ds M

EI

ds

ds

d GJ

L L

y

L

= +

0

2 2

0

2

0

2

1

2

1

2

(4.62)

This is equivalent to

d M

R

d M

EI

d

d

d

R

GJ

L L

y

L

= +

0

2 2

0

2

0

2

2

1

2

1

2

(4.63)

It is clear that the integral in the right hand side of the above expression is of small order, since

the integrand in the left hand side is squared then it is always positive, in the mean time the

integrand in the right hand side change signs according to the sign of bending moment, and when

integrated the negative value eliminate portion of the positive value and the remaining is small

quantity compared to the other two terms in the left hand side, accordingly the above energy

equation becomes

0

2

1

2

2 2

0

2

0

2

= +

d M

EI

d

d

d

R

GJ

L

y

L

(4.64)

Rearranging we get

=

d M

EI

L

y

2 2

0

2

1

d

d

d

R

GJ

L

2

0

2

2

(4.65)

Then upon substituting the two expressions in (4.55) and (4.58) into the above equation we obtain

( ) d

R

EI

y

L

2

2

2

0

sin ( ) d A d

R

M

GJ

R

L

+ =

2

2

2

0

cos (4.66)

57

We are now in a position to solve the instability problems by solving the differential equation of

equilibrium (4.36) where the identity equation method can be used, or by solving the energy

equation above.

4.3 Examples

In what follows a closed form solution to some of the major stability problems of the circular arc

beams, where as mentioned before the method of differentiation and integration by the geometric

identity equation well be used.

4.3.1 Semi-circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Concentrated Load

A semi-circular beam with fixed ends subjected to concentrated load P at mid-span, and acting on

its axis of symmetry, and perpendicular to the plane of curvature and fixed against twisting at

both ends.

P

Z

Y

X

O

R

Figure 4.3: Semi-circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Concentrated Load

The moment at any point along the center line of the beam in the vertical principle plane YZ is

given by

sin

2

sin cos

0 0

R

P

T M M = (4.67)

cos

2

cos sin

0 0

R

P

T M M

d

dM

= = (4.68)

sin

2

sin cos

0 0

2

2

R

P

T M M

d

M d

+ + = = (4.69)

The equation of equilibrium is again given by

M

GJ

R

C

M R

d

d

= +

2 2

2

2

(4.70)

58

The above equation is exact to the expression for straight beams under lateral end restrained, and

since the moments cannot be expressed by a uniform function, then we will only consider half of

the beam length and the boundary conditions in this case are

0 0 = = at (4.71)

2

0

= = at

d

d

(4.72)

Solution:

If the differentiation by the geometric identity method is to be used in the solution of this

problem, then our concern will be with the second derivatives of the actual deflection curve and

from the boundary conditions above and by means of equation (4.38) our identity equation is will

take the form

1 2 1 2 = + ) cos ( cos (4.72)

And we obtain

2 cos

2

2

GJ

RM

d

d

= (4.73)

And

( ) 2 cos 1 =

GJRM

C

(4.74)

Now differentiation of the above equation with respect to gives

( )

2 sin

2

2 cos 1

2

M M

M

GJR

C

d

d

(4.75)

Differentiate again of the above equation we get

( )

( )

2 cos

4

2 sin

4

2 cos 1

2

2 2 3

2

2

2

M M

M

M

M

M

M

GJR

C

d

d

(4.76)

Equating the above expression with that in (4.73) we obtain

( )

( )

= 2

4

2

4

2 1

2

2

2 2 3

2

cos

M

sin

M

M

cos

M

M

M

M

GJR

C

cos

GJ

RM

(4.77)

This is equivalent to

( )

( )

= 2 cos

4

2 sin

4

2 cos 1

2

2 cos

2 2

2

M M

M

GJRM

C

M

M

M

M

GJ

RM

(4.78)

And by means of (4.74) is written as

59

( )

= 2 cos

4

2 sin

4 2

2 cos

2 2

2

M M

M

M

M

M

M

GJ

RM

(4.79)

Now the condition of stability requires vanishing of the angular displacement , and the first

term in the right hand side of the above expression is a function of , then this term must vanish,

accordingly the above equation gives the stability equation

= 2 cos

4

2 sin

4

2 cos

2

M M

M

R

C

RM (4.80)

Rearranging

= 2 cos 4 2 sin

4

2 cos

2

2

M

M

R

C

M (4.81)

Now the left hand side of the above expression is a maximum, when the first term in the right

hand side vanishes, also the strain energy is a maximum at mid-span, accordingly at

=

2

2

0

PR

T M = (4.82)

Where equation (4.67) has been used, and equation (4.81) gives

2

2

4

R

C

M = (4.83)

Therefore

2

2

0

4

2 R

C PR

T =

(4.84)

And we also have

PR T 18 . 0

0

= (4.85)

Then upon substituting of (4.85) into (4.84) we obtain

2

2

R

C 4

2

PR

PR 182 . 0 =

(4.86)

Whence, the value of the critical is expressed by

2

3 . 6

R

C

P = (4.87)

It is to be noticed that, when R is very large and approaches infinity the length of the beam L

approaches the value of R 2 and when substituting this value in the above expression we obtain

4

3 . 6

2

L

C

P =

2

L

C 2 . 25

= (4.88)

60

Which is almost exact as the value previously obtained in chapter three for the case of straight

beam laterally fixed at both ends and is given by equation (3.77)

4.3.2 Semi-circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Uniform load

A semi-circular beam with fixed ends subjected to uniformly distributed load of intensity q along

the length of the span, and acting on its axis of symmetry, and perpendicular to the plane of

curvature.

Z

X

Y

q

R

Figure 4.4: Semi-circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Uniform load

In this case the moment at any cross section along the length of the beam about the X axis in the

vertical principle plane YZ is given by

sin R qds sin R

2

qL

sin T cos M M

0

0 0

+ =

(4.89)

Upon integrating we obtain

( ) cos qR sin R

qL

sin T cos M M + = 1

2

2

0 0

(4.90)

The twisting moment at any section is given by

( ) ( )

cos R qds cos R

qL

cos T sin M T + + =

1 1

2 0

0 0

(4.91)

When integrating gives

( ) ( ) sin qR cos 1 R

2

qL

cos T sin M T

2

0 0

+ + = (4.92)

Differentiation of the above expression with respect to s gives

( )

ds

d

cos qR

ds

d

sin R

qL

ds

d

sin T

ds

d

cos M

ds

dT

+ = 1

2

2

0 0

(4.93)

Also written as

61

( )

R

qR R

qL

T M

ds

dT 1

cos 1 sin

2

sin cos

2

0 0

+ = (4.94)

Then by means of equations (4.90) and (4.94) we obtain

R

M

ds

dT

= (4.95)

This is an exact expression to that in equation (4.30), and since the boundary conditions are the

same as in the previous problem, then the solution is just the same since the equation of

equilibrium is the same.

Solution:

The boundary conditions in this problem are

0 = at 0 = = (4.96)

0 =

d

d

at

2

= (4.97)

As in the previous chapter for the case of straight beam, we choose the right identity equation

( ) 1 2 1 2 = + cos cos (4.98)

And upon equating of the terms in (4.70) and (4.98) we obtain

2

2

2

cos

GJ

RM

d

d

= (4.99)

And

( ) 2 1 cos

GJRM

C

= ( ) 2 1 cos = (4.100)

Now differentiation of the above equation with respect to gives

( ) ( )

2 2 2 1 sin cos

d

d

d

d

+ = (4.101)

Differentiate again of the above equation we get

( ) ( ) ( )

2 4 2 2 2 2 1

2

2

2

2

cos sin

d

d

cos

d

d

d

d

+ + = (4.102)

Equating the above expression with that in (4.99) we obtain

( ) ( ) ( )

2 4 2 2 2 2 1 2

2

2

cos sin

d

d

cos

d

d

cos

GJ

RM

+ + = (4.103)

Now the condition of stability requires vanishing of the angular displacement , which also

vanishes at the boundaries, therefore this condition e gives the stability equation

62

( ) ( ) 4 4

GJRM

C

GJ

RM

= = (4.104)

Where the substitution in (4.101) has been used and we obtain

2

2

4

R

C

M = (4.105)

Where the value of the moment in the above equation is the value at mid-span, where also the

strain energy is a maximum, then substituting the value of the moment M, which is given by

( ) cos qR sin R

qL

sin T cos M M + = 1

2

2

0 0

(4.106)

And at mid-span where

2

= we obtain

2

0

2

qR R

qL

T M + = (4.107a)

Then

[ ]

2

1 5 0 3 0 qR . . M + = (4.107b)

Where the value of the twisting moment above obtained from equation (4.235), therefore

2

27 . 0 qR M = (4.107c)

Upon substituting of the above value into equation (4.105b) we obtain

( )

2

2

2

4

27 0

R

C

qR . = (4.107d)

Whence, the value of the critical is expressed by

2

4 7

R

C .

qR = (4.108)

It is to be noticed also that, when R is very large and approaches infinity the length of the beam L

approaches the value of R 2 and when substituting the value in the above expression we obtain

4

4 7

2

2

L

C . qL

=

2

3 59

L

C .

= (4.109)

This value is close to the value given by equation (3.54) for straight beams.

4.3.3 Portion of a Circular Ring Cantilever Beam under Concentrated Load

A Portion of a circular ring beam fixed at one end and free at the other, subjected to concentrated

load P at the free end, and acting on its axis of symmetry, and perpendicular to the plane of

curvature.

63

Z

X

Y

P

Figure 4.5: Portion of a Circular Ring Cantilever Beam under Concentrated Load

In this problem if we choose or origin to be the free end, then the moment at any point along the

center line of the beam is expressed by

sin PR M = (4.110a)

The twisting moment at any section along the beam length is expressed by

( ) cos PR T = 1 (4.110b)

Differentiation of the above expression with respect to s gives

ds

d

sin PR

ds

dT

= (4.111)

Substitution of equation (4.109) into the above equation gives

R

M

ds

dT

= (4.112)

Then the equation of equilibrium is

M

GJ

R

C

M R

d

d

= +

2 2

2

2

(4.113)

If we take our origin is the free end, the boundary conditions in this problem are

= = at 0 (1.114a)

0 0 = =

at

d

d

(4.114b)

= = at

ds

du

0 (4.114c)

If the differentiation by the geometric identity method is to be used in the solution of this

problem, then from the boundary conditions in the geometric identity equation takes the form

1 cos ) cos 1 ( = + k k (4.115)

64

Where is understood to be the angle of the circular arc in radians, and

2

= k (4.116)

Then upon dividing equation (4.113) by its right hand side we obtain

1

2

2

=

C

GJRM

d

d

RM

GJ

(4.117)

Equating terms in both equations (4.117) and (4.115) gives

k

C

GJRM

cos = (4.118)

And

k

d

d

RM

GJ

cos 1

2

2

= (4.119)

Rearranging we get

( ) k

M GJR

C

cos

1

= (4.120)

And

( )

k

GJ

RM

d

d

cos 1

2

2

= (4.121)

Upon differentiation of equation (4.120) with respect to we get

( )

+ =

k k

M

k M

M GJR

C

d

d

sin 2

1

cos

1

2

(4.122)

Differentiate again

( ) ( )

+ =

k

M

k

k M

M

k

k M

M GJR

C

d

d

cos

2

sin

4

cos

2

2

2

2

3 2

2

(4.123)

Equating the above expression to the one in (4.121) we obtain

( ) k

GJ

RM

cos 1 ( ) ( )

+ = k

M

k

k M

M

k

k M

M GJR

C

cos

2

sin

4

cos

2

2

2

2

3

(4.124)

Now the condition of stability requires vanishing of the angular displacement , then all terms in

the right hand side of the above expression which are a function of must also vanish,

accordingly the above expression yield to the stability equation

( ) k cos

GJ

RM

1 ( )

= k sin M

M

k

GJR

C

2

4

(4.125)

This is equivalent to

65

( ) ( ) k sin

M

M

R

kC

k cos M

=

2

2

4

1 (4.126)

And by equation (4.110a) the above equation becomes

( )

k sin

sin PR

cos PR

R

kC

k cos sin R P

=

2

2 2 2

4

1 (4.127)

Then

( )

3 2

2 2

4

1

sin

cos

k sin

R

kC

k cos R P (4.128)

Therefore at

2

= we get

2

2

4

4

4

1

3

2

2 2

sin

cos

sin

R

kC

cos R P (4.129)

Where (4.116) has been used and

2

energy, where at this location M is a maximum, then by inspection of the term inside the

parenthesis in the above equation we conclude that the critical load is as the case of straight

beams, and then we have

=

2

2

175 15

3

2

2 2

sin

cos

R

C .

R P (4.130)

Therefore

2

1

3

2

2

sin

2

cos

9 . 3

R

C

P (4.131)

It is to be noticed that in the special case when

2

= (4.134)

The value of the critical load in this special case is

2

4 . 4

R

C

P = (4.135)

And since the length of an equivalent straight beam is given by

66

L R When R (4.136)

Then, upon substituting this value into equation (4.135) we obtain the value of the critical load for

an equivalent straight beam, which is given by

2

4 . 4

L

C

P = (4.137)

The actual value of the critical load for a straight cantilever beam with the same length is given

by the well known equation (see reference [11] page 510)

2

01 4

L

C .

P = (4.138)

The value given by equation (4.137) is as expected since the moment at the supported end in the

case of straight beam is greater than that for a quarter of a circle beam.

4.3.4 Portion of a Circular Ring Cantilever Beam under Uniform Load

A Portion of a circular ring beam fixed at one end and free at the other, subjected to uniformly

distributed load of intensity q along the length of the span, and acting on its axis of symmetry,

and perpendicular to the plane of curvature.

sin R qds M =

0

(4.139)

Upon integration gives

( ) cos qR M = 1

2

(4.140)

The twisting moment at any section is given by

( )

cos 1

0

=

R qds T (4.141)

Z

X

Y

q

Figure 4.6: Portion of a Circular Ring Cantilever Beam under Uniform Load

67

When integrating gives

( ) sin

2

= qR T (4.142)

Differentiation of the above expression with respect to s gives

( )

ds

d

cos qR

ds

dT

= 1

2

(4.143)

Then by equations (4.140) and (4.143) we obtain

R

M

ds

dT

= (4.144)

Which is exact as equation (4.36), and the boundary conditions for the problem are the same as in

the previous problem, then the equilibrium identity equation is

1

2

2

=

C

GJRM

d

d

RM

GJ

(4.145)

And the geometric identity equation is

1 cos sin

2 2

= + k k (4.146)

Then

( ) = k cos

M GJR

C

2

1

(4.147)

And

( )

k

GJ

RM

d

d

2

2

2

sin = (4.148)

Differentiation of equation (4.147) with respect to gives

( )

+ =

k k k

M

k M

M GJR

C

d

d

cos sin 2

1

cos

1

2

2

(4.149)

Differentiate again

( ) ( )

( )

+

+

=

k sin

M

k

k cos

M

k

k cos k sin M

M

k

k cos k sin M

M

k

k cos M

M

k cos M

M

GJR

C

d

d

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 2

3

2

2

2 2 2

2 1 2

(4.150)

Equating the above expression to the one in (4.148) we obtain

k

GJ

RM

2

sin

( ) ( )

( )

+

+

=

k sin

M

k

k cos

M

k

k cos k sin M

M

k

k cos k sin M

M

k

k cos M

M

k cos M

M

GJR

C

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2 2

3

2 2 2

2 1 2

(4.151)

68

Now the condition of stability requires vanishing of the angular displacement , then all terms

which are a function of must also vanish, accordingly the above expression yield to the

stability equation

[ ] ks sin k

R

C

k sin M

2 2

2

2 2

2 = (4.152)

This is equivalent to

2

2

2

2

R

C k

M = (4.153)

Upon substituting the expression for the moment as given by (4.140) we obtain

( )

2 4 2

1 cos R q

2

2

2

R

C k

= (4.154)

And the expression for the buckling load is

( )

2 4 2

cos 1 R q

2

2

2

R

C k

= (4.155)

Where again is the angle represents the location of maximum or the minimum strain energy,

where at this location M is maximum, and since cannot be zero since at this location M is

zero and of course cannot be since the is zero, then by inspection of the term inside the

parenthesis in the above equation we conclude that the maximum load is obtained at

2

= and

equation (4.155) becomes

2

4 2

2

cos 1

R q

2 2

2

4

2

R

C

= (4.156a)

Simplify

2

1

2

cos qR C

R

2

= (4.156b)

Therefore the buckling load is given by

2

2

1 2 R cos

C

qR

(4.157)

Then in the special case when

2

= , we obtain

69

2

66 . 11

R

C

qR = (4.158)

And since the length of an equivalent straight beam is given by

L R When R

Then, upon substituting this value into equation (4.158) we obtain the value of the critical load for

an equivalent straight beam, which is given by

2

65 11

L

C .

qL = (4.159)

The actual value of the critical load for a straight cantilever beam with the same length is given

by the well known equation (see reference [11] page 515).

2

85 . 12

L

C

qL = (4.160)

4.3.5 Arc of a circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Concentrated Load

An arc of a circular beam fixed at both ends subjected to concentrated load P at mid-span, and

acting on its axis of symmetry, and perpendicular to the plane of curvature. The central angle of

the arc in this problem is taken as 2 .

P

Z

Y X

R

Figure 4.7: Arc of a circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Concentrated Load

The moment at any point along the center line of the beam in the vertical principle plane YZ is

given by

= sin

2

sin cos

0 0

R

P

T M M (4.161)

And the twisting moment is given by

( ) + = cos 1

2

cos sin

0 0

R

P

T M T (4.162)

70

The equation of equilibrium is again given by

M

GJ

R

C

M R

d

d

= +

2 2

2

2

(4.163)

Where for simplicity it may be written as

NM

C

M R

d

d

= +

2 2

2

2

(4.164)

Since the beam is fixed at both ends, and we will only consider half of the beam length, then the

boundary conditions are

0 0 = = at (4.165a)

= = at

d

d

0 (4.165b)

= = = and at

ds

du

0 0 (4.165c)

Solution:

If the differentiation by the geometric identity method is to be used in the solution of this

problem, then from the boundary conditions above, then as in the case of problem 4.3.1 we may

assume that

k

GJ

RM

d

d

2 cos

2

2

= (4.166)

Upon substituting of the above expression into equation of equilibrium (4.164) we obtain

NM

C

M R

k

GJ

RM

= +

2 2

2 cos (4.167)

This is equivalent to

( ) k

GJRM

C

2 cos 1 = (4.168)

Then upon following the same procedures as in the case of semi-circle beam we obtain an

equation similar to (4.81) and is expressed as

+ = k k k

M

M k

R

C

k M 2 cos 4 2 sin

4

2 cos

2

2

2

(4.169)

Then at mid span when the positive moment is maximum and the above expression gives

2

2

2

4

R

C k

M = (4.170)

Upon substituting the value of M as given by equation (4.161) we obtain

71

sin

2

sin cos

0 0

PR

T M M = (4.171)

Let us put

PR T

t

=

0

and PR M

m

=

0

(4.172)

Accordingly (4.171) becomes

( ) sin . sin cos PR M

t m

5 0 = (4.173)

Therefore equation (4.170) also becomes

( )

R

C k 2

sin PR 5 . 0 sin cos PR

t m

= (4.174)

Where in this problem we must have

2

= k (4.175)

Whence, the value of the critical is expressed by

( )

2

5 0

R

C

sin . sin cos

P

t m

= (4.176)

Now what left in the problem is finding the value of the end bending and twisting moments,

where the strain energy method must be used, and the expression for the strain energy is well

known and is expressed by

Rd

GJ

T

EI

M

U

+ =

2 2

2

2 2

0

(4.177)

And we have

Rd

T

T

GJ

T

T

M

EI

M

T

U

0 0

0

0

2 2

2 (4.178a)

Rd

M

T

GJ

T

M

M

EI

M

M

U

0 0

0

0

2 2

2 (4.178b)

Where the value of the end moment and torque is obtained by using the condition

0

0

=

T

U

(4.179a)

0

0

=

M

U

(4.179b)

Then as required by the above condition partial differentiation of equations (4.161) and (4.162)

gives

72

sin

T

M

=

0

(4.180a)

cos

M

M

=

0

(4.180b)

cos

T

T

=

0

(4.180c)

sin

M

T

=

0

(4.180d)

Then by means of equations (4.177) and (4.178a) equation (4.179a) gives

( ) 0 cos cos 1

2

cos sin

1

sin sin

2

sin cos

1

0 0

0

0 0

0

=

+

+

d

PR

T M

GJ

d

PR

T M

EI

(4.181)

And by means of equations (4.177) and (4.178b) equation (4.179b) gives

( ) 0 sin cos 1

2

cos sin

1

cos sin

2

sin cos

1

0 0

0

0 0

0

=

+

+

d

PR

T M

GJ

d

PR

T M

EI

(4.182)

Upon integrating of the above two equations and solve for the end bending and twisting moments

an expressions for their values. The result of the above two integrals are shown in the end of this

chapter.

The value of these moments can also be obtained by the use of Reference [14] Roark and Young

Formula for Stress and Strain pages 252, 256 and the value of factors

m

and

t

equation (4.172)

respectively are given by

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

5 3 6 2 7 9 2 8 3 4 8 6 9 5 1

5 3 6 2 9 9 2 8 3 6 8 6 9 5 3

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

a a a

m

+ +

+ +

= (4.183)

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

5 3 6 2 7 9 2 8 3 4 8 6 9 5 1

6 1 4 3 9 7 3 9 1 6 9 4 7 6 3

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

a a a

t

+ +

+ +

= (4.184)

Where,

( ) ( ) 2 1 2 1

1

cos sin c + = (4.185a)

( )

( )

2 2 2

2

1

2

sin cos c

+

= (4.185b)

73

( ) ( )

2 2 2

2

1

2 2

3

sin cos sin c

+

= (4.185c)

( )

2

2

1

2 1

4

sin cos c

+ + = (4.185d)

( ) 2 1

5

sin c + = (4.185d)

1 6

c c = (4.185e)

5 7

c c = (4.185f)

( )

( )

2 1 2

2

1

8

cos sin c +

+

= (4.185g)

2 9

c c = (4.185h)

( )

cos sin c

a

+

= 1

2

1

1

(4.185i)

( )

sin cos c

a

+

=

2

1

2

(4.185j)

( )

2 3 a a

c sin c = (4.185k)

( )

2 4

2

1

a a

c sin c

+

=

(4.185l)

sin c

a

2

1

5

+

= (4.185m)

2 6 a a

c c = (4.185n)

5 7 a a

c c = (4.185o)

cos sin c

a

2

1

2

1

8

= (4.185p)

2 9 a a

c c = (4.185q)

( )

cos cos c

a

2 2

2

1

12

+

+

= (4.185u)

12

2

13

2

1

a a

c cos c

=

(4.185s)

( )

cos sin c

a

+

=

2

1

15

(4.185t)

( )

15 16 a a

c sin c = (4.185u)

sin cos c

a

2

1

1

18

+

= (4.185v)

74

12 19 a a

c c = (4.185w)

GJ

EI

x

= (4.185x)

4.3.6 Arc of a circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Uniform load

An arc of a circular beam fixed at both ends subjected to uniformly distributed load of intensity q

along the length of the span, and acting on its axis of symmetry, and perpendicular to the plane of

curvature.

Z

Y

X

q

R

Figure 4.8: Circular Arc Beam under Uniform load

The moment at any cross section along the length of the beam about the X axis in the vertical

principle plane YZ is given by

( ) cos qR sin R

qL

sin T cos M M + = 1

2

2

0 0

(4.186)

The twisting moment at any section is given by

( ) ( ) sin qR cos 1 R

2

qL

cos T sin M T

2

0 0

+ + = (4.187)

The boundary conditions are the same as in the previous problem and is given by

L s and s at = = = 0 0 (4.188a)

2

0

L

s at

d

d

= =

(4.188b)

L s and

L

s s at

ds

du

= = = =

2

0 0 (4.188c)

The non-dimension equilibrium equation is

M

GJ

R

C

M R

d

d

= +

2 2

2

2

(4.70)

And the identity equation which is similar to that for semi-circular beam is given by

75

( ) 1 2 1 2 = + k cos k cos (4.98)

Where

2

= k (4.189)

And upon equating of the terms in (4.70) and (4.98) we obtain

k cos

GJ

RM

d

d

2

2

2

= (4.190)

And

( ) k cos

GJRM

C

2 1 = ( ) k cos 2 1 = (4.191)

Now differentiation of the above equation with respect to gives

( ) ( ) k sin k k cos 2 2 2 1 + = (4.192)

Differentiate again of the above equation we get

( ) ( ) ( ) k cos k k sin k k cos 2 4 2 2 2 2 1

2

+ + = (4.193)

Equating the above expression with that in (4.190) we obtain

( ) ( ) ( ) k cos k k sin k k cos k cos

GJ

RM

2 4 2 2 2 2 1 2

2

+ + = (4.194)

Now the condition of stability requires vanishing of the angular displacement , which vanishes

at the boundary, therefore the above equation gives the stability equation

( )

2

4k

GJR

C

GJ

RM

= (4.195)

Where the expression in (4.191) has been used and we obtain

2

2

2

4

R

C k

M = (4.196)

This is similar to the expression for the semi-circular beam case, then

R

C k

M

2

= =

R

C

(4.197)

Where equitation (4.189b) has been used and upon substituting the value of M as given by

equation (4.186) which correspond to moment at mid-span we obtain

( ) cos 1 sin

2

sin cos

2

0 0

+ = qR R

qL

T M M (4.198a)

Let

2

0

qR k T

t

=

2

0

qR k M

m

= (4.198b)

76

This gives

( ) ( ) cos sin sin k cos k qR M

t m

+ = 1

2

(4.199a)

Therefore equation (4.197) becomes

( ) ( ) cos sin sin k cos k qR

t m

+ 1

2

R

C

= (4.199b)

Hence

( )

2

1 R cos sin sin k cos k

C

qR

t m

+ +

= (4.200)

As in the previous problem, what left in the problem is finding the value of the end bending and

twisting moments, where the strain energy method must be used, and the expression for the strain

energy is well known and is expressed by

Rd

GJ

T

EI

M

U

+ =

2 2

2

2 2

0

(4.177)

And we have

Rd

T

T

GJ

T

T

M

EI

M

T

U

0 0

0

0

2 2

2 (4.178a)

Rd

M

T

GJ

T

M

M

EI

M

M

U

0 0

0

0

2 2

2 (4.178b)

Where the bending and twisting moments are expressed as

( ) + = cos 1 sin

2

sin cos

2

0 0

qR R

qL

T M M (4.186)

( ) ( ) + + = sin cos 1

2

cos sin

2

0 0

qR R

qL

T M T (4.187)

Then by the last two expressions and by means of equation (4.178a) and equation (4.178b) we get

( )

( ) ( ) 0 1

2

1

1

2

1

2

0 0

0

2

0 0

0

=

+ +

+

qL

cos T sin M

GJ

d sin cos qR sin R

qL

sin T cos M

EI

(4.201)

And

( )

( ) ( ) 0 1

2

1

1

2

1

2

0 0

0

2

0 0

0

=

+ +

+

qL

cos T sin M

GJ

d cos cos qR sin R

qL

sin T cos M

EI

(4.202)

77

Upon integrating of the above two equations and solve for the end bending and twisting moments

an expressions for their values. The result of the above two integrals are shown at the end of

Chapter 4.

From Reference [14] Roark and Young Formula for Stress and Strain pages 270 and 272, the

value of factors

m

k and

t

k above are given by

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

5 3 6 2 7 9 2 8 3 4 8 6 9 5 1

5 3 6 2 19 9 2 8 3 16 8 6 9 5 13

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

a a a

m

+ +

+ +

= (4.203)

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

5 3 6 2 7 9 2 8 3 4 8 6 9 5 1

6 1 4 3 19 7 3 9 1 16 9 4 7 6 13

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

a a a

t

+ +

+ +

= (4.204)

Where, the value of the factors are shown in equations (4.185a) to (4.185w)

4.4 Load not applied at the center of the beam

Since in reality the loads are never applied at the center of gravity of beams, then we may

consider the case when the load is applied at a height h above the center of the beam.

Z

X

Y

q

h

Figure 4.9: Semi-circle Beam under Uniform load

applied at a height h above the center of the beam

4.4.1 Semi-circle Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Uniform load

A semi-circular beam with fixed ends subjected to uniformly distributed load of intensity q along

the length of the span, and acting at a constant height h above its center of the beam, and

perpendicular to the plane of curvature figure 4.67.

In this case the moment at any cross section along the length of the beam about the X axis in the

vertical principle plane YZ is given by

78

( ) cos qR sin R

qL

sin T cos M M + = 1

2

2

0 0

(4.205)

The equation of equilibrium is

d

dT

GJ

R

C

M R

d

d

= +

2 2

2

2

(4.206)

Where equation (4.36) has been used, then we have

qh

R

M

ds

dT

+ = (4.207)

Substituting this into (4.206) gives

( )

qhR M

GJ

R

C

M R

d

d

+ = +

2 2

2

2

(4.208)

Then the equation of equilibrium takes the form

GJ

RM

GJ

qhR

C

M R

d

d

=

+ +

2 2 2

2

2

(4.209)

The boundary conditions are

L and at = = = 0 0 (4.210a)

2

0

= = at

d

d

(4.210b)

2

0 0

L

and at

d

du

= = =

(4.210c)

Solution:

Differentiation by the geometric identity method to find the solution to this problem, then from

the boundary conditions above we may choose an identity equation of the form

( ) 1 2 1 2 = + cos cos (4.211)

Where

2

= k , and upon equating terms in both equations (4.209) and (4.211) we get

2

2

2

cos

GJ

RM

d

d

= (4.212)

And

( ) 2 1

2 2 2

cos

EI qhR M R

C

GJ

RM

y

+

= (4.213a)

This may be written as

79

( ) 2 1 cos = (4.213b)

Now differentiation of the above equation with respect to gives

( ) ( ) 2 2 2 1 sin cos + = (4.214)

Differentiate again of the above equation we obtain

( ) ( )

( )

2 4

2 2 2 2 1

cos

sin cos

+

+ =

(4.215)

Equating the above expression with that in (4.212) we obtain

( ) ( ) ( ) 2 4 2 2 2 2 1 2 cos sin cos cos

GJ

RM

+ + = (4.216)

Now the condition of stability requires vanishing of the angular displacement , which vanishes

at the boundary, therefore the above equation gives the stability equation

( ) 4 =

GJ

RM

(4.217)

Then

+

=

y

EI qhR M R

C

GJ

RM

GJ

RM

2 2 2

4

(4.218)

Where the expression in (4.213b) has been used and upon rearranging we obtain

1

4

2 2 2

=

+

y

EI qhR M R

C

(4.219)

This gives

C EI qhR M R

y

4

2 2 2

= + (4.220)

Rearranging and simplify

y

qhEI

R

C

M =

2

2

4

(4.221)

Now at mid-span the positive moment is maximum, than at

=

2

2

27 0 qR . M = (4.222)

Then (4.221) gives

( )

y

EI qhR C qR .

2

2

2

4 27 0 = (4.223)

Whence, the value of the critical is expressed by

GJ

qhR

R

C .

qR

4

1

4 7

2

2

= (4.224)

80

4.5 End Moments of Circular Arc Beams Subjected to Concentrated Loads

The Solution to the problem of circular beam fixed at both ends subjected to concentrated load by

means of equations (4.181) and (4.182)

Equation (4.181) is expressed as

( ) 0 1

2

1

2

1

0 0

0

0 0

0

=

+

+

d cos cos

PR

cos T sin M

GJ

d sin sin

PR

sin T cos M

EI

(4.2.25)

Rearranging and simplify we obtain

( ) 0

2

1

2

1

2 2

0 0

0

0

2

0

2

0

=

+

+

d cos cos

PR

cos T cos sin M

GJ

d cos sin M sin T sin

PR

EI

(4.226)

Integrating

0

2 4

2

2 2 2

1

2 4

2

2 2

1

0

2 0

2 0

0

=

+ +

+

sin

PR sin

T

PR

sin

M

GJ

sin

M sin

T

PR

EI

(4.227)

Let

=

GJ

EI

(4.228)

Rearranging and simplify

( ) + =

+ sin

2

sin 1

2 4

2 sin

2 4

2 sin

2 2

2 0

0

PR M

T

PR

(4.229)

Multiply through by 4 we obtain

( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) + = + +

2

2

0 0

PR M T

PR

` (4.230)

The above equation may be written as

( )

( ) ( ) + +

+

=

+

2 sin 2 2 sin 2

sin 2 sin 1 2

2

2

0

0

PR M

T

PR

` (4.231)

Moreover, equation (4.182) is expressed as

81

( ) 0 sin cos 1

2

cos sin

1

cos sin

2

sin cos

1

0 0

0

0 0

0

=

+

+

d

PR

T M

GJ

d

PR

T M

EI

(4.232)

Rearranging and simplify we obtain

0 sin

2

cos sin

2

sin

1

cos cos sin

2

1

0

2

0

0

2

0 0

0

=

+ +

+

d

PR

T

PR

M

GJ

d M T

PR

EI

(4.233)

Integrating

( ) 0 1 cos

2 2

sin

2 4

2 sin

2

1

4

2 sin

2 2

sin

2

1

2

0 0

0

2

0

=

+ +

+

PR

T

P

M

GJ

M T

PR

EI

(4.234)

Rearranging and simplify

( ) ( ) 1 cos

2 4

2 sin

2 4

2 sin

2 2

sin

1

2

0

2

0

+

+

PR

M T

PR

(4.235)

Multiply through by 4

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] ( ) 1 cos 2 2 sin 2 2 sin 2 sin 1 2

2

0

2

0

+ + =

+ PR M T

PR

(4.236)

Rearranging we obtain

( ) ( ) [ ] ( )

( )

+ + +

=

+

2

0

0

sin 1 2

1 cos 2 2 sin 2 2 sin 2

2

PR M

T

PR

(4.237)

Equating equations (4.231) and (4.237) gives

( )

( ) ( ) + +

+

2 sin 2 2 sin 2

sin 2 sin 1 2

2

0

PR M

( ) ( ) [ ] ( )

( )

+ + +

=

2

0

sin 1 2

1 cos 2 2 sin 2 2 sin 2 PR M

(4.238)

Let

( ) =

2

1

sin 1 2 b (4.239a)

( ) ( ) + + = 2 sin 2 2 sin 2

2

b (4.239b)

( ) ( ) + + = 2 sin 2 2 sin 2

3

b (4.239c)

( ) 1 cos 2

4

= b (4.239d)

= sin 2

5

b (4.239e)

82

Accordingly equation (4.238) becomes

1

4 2 0

3

5 1 0

b

PRb b M

b

PRb b M +

=

+

(4.240)

Rearranging

4 3 3 2 0 5 1

2

1 0

b PRb b b M b PRb b M + = + (4.241)

Then

( ) ( )

5 1 4 3 3 2

2

1 0

b b b b PR b b b M = (4.242)

Therefore

( )

( )

PR PR

b b b

b b b b

M

m

=

=

3 2

2

1

5 1 4 3

0

(4.243)

Hence

( )

( )

3 2

2

1

5 1 4 3

b b b

b b b b

m

= (4.244)

Substitution of equation (4.243) into (4.231) gives

3

5 1

0

2 b

PR b PR b

T

PR

m

+

=

+ ` (4.245)

Rearranging

2

3

5 1

0

PR

b

PR b PR b

T

m

+

= ` (4.246)

Then

PR PR

b

b b

T

t

m

=

+

=

2

1

3

5 1

0

` (4.247)

Hence

+

=

2

1

3

5 1

b

b b

m

t

` (4.248)

4.6 End Moments of Circular Arc Beams Subjected to Uniformly Distributed Load

The Solution to the problem of circular arc beam fixed at both ends subjected to uniformly

distributed load by means of equations (4.201) and (4.202)

Equation (4.201) is expressed as

83

( )

( ) ( ) 0 cos sin cos 1

2

cos sin

1

sin cos 1 sin

2

sin cos

1

2

0 0

0

2

0 0

0

=

+ +

+

d qR R

qL

T M

GJ

d qR R

qL

T M

EI

(4.249)

Rearranging and simplify we obtain

( )

( ) 0

2 2

1

2

1

2

0

2

0

0

2

0

2

0

0

=

+ +

+

+

qL

cos R

qL

T

GJ

d sin cos sin qR sin cos M sin R

qL

T

EI

(4.250)

Integrating

0

2

1

2

2 4

2

2 2

1

1

2 2 4

2

2 2

1

2

2

2

0

0

2

2

2

0 0

=

+ +

+

+

+

sin

cos sin qR

sin

M

sin R

qL sin qLR

T

GJ

cos

sin

qR

sin

M

sin qLR

T

EI

(4.251)

Rearranging and simplify

( ) ( )

+

+

+

2

sin

1 cos

2

sin

1 cos

2

sin

1

4

2 sin

2 4

2 sin

2

2 2

2

2

0

2

0

qR

M qR T

(4.252)

Where the expression for the beam length has been used, and upon multiplying through by 4 we

obtain

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] ( )

( ) ( ) [ ]

2 2 2

2

0

2

0

2 4 4 2 4 4

1 2 2 2 2 2

sin cos sin cos qR

sin M sin sin qR T

+

+ = + + +

(4.253)

Rearranging

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]

( ) ( )

2 2 2 2

2 4 4 2 4 4 1 2

2 2 2 2

0 2

0

sin sin

sin cos sin cos qR sin M

qR T

+ +

+ +

= + (4.254)

Moreover, equation (4.202) is expressed as

( )

( ) ( ) 0 1

2

1

1

2

1

2

0 0

0

2

0 0

0

=

+ +

+

qL

cos T sin M

GJ

d cos cos qR sin R

qL

sin T cos M

EI

(4.255)

Rearranging and simplify we obtain

84

( )

( ) 0

2 2

1

2

1

2 2 2

0 0

0

2 2 2

0 0

0

=

+ +

+

+

+ +

qL

cos sin R

qL

T

GJ

d cos cos qR cos M cos sin R

qL

T

EI

(4.256)

Integrating

( )

0

4

2

2

4

2

2

1

2 2 2

4

2

2 4

2

2 2 2

2

0

2

0

2

0

2

0

=

+ +

+

+ +

+

+

+ +

+ +

sin

sin cos qR

sin

M cos R

qL sin qLR

T

sin

sin qR

sin

M

sin qLR

T

(4.257)

Multiply through by and Rearranging

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]

( ) ( )

2 2 4 4 2 2 4

2 2 2 2 1 2

2 2 2

0

2 2

0

sin sin qR qR sin sin qR

sin sin M sin qR T

+ + +

+ + + = +

(4.258)

Simplify

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]

( ) ( )

4 2 2 4 2 2 4

2 2 2 2 1 2

2 2

0

2 2

0

qR sin sin sin sin qR

sin sin M sin qR T

+ +

+ + + = +

(4.259)

Then

( )

( ) ( ) [ ] ( )( )

( )

2

2 2

0

2

0

1 2

4 2 2 4 1 2 2 2 2

sin

qR sin sin qR sin sin M

qR T

+ + + +

= +

(4.260)

And we have from equation (4.254)

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ]

( ) ( )

2 2 2 2

2 4 4 2 4 4 1 2

2 2 2 2

0

2

0

sin sin

sin cos sin cos qR sin M

qR T

+ +

+ +

= +

(4.261)

Let

( ) =

2

1

sin 1 2 b (4.262a)

( ) ( ) + + = 2 sin 2 2 sin 2

2

b (4.262b)

( ) ( ) + + = 2 sin 2 2 sin 2

3

b (4.262c)

( )( ) + = 2 2 4 1

6

sin sin b (4.262d)

( ) + =

2

7

sin 2 4 cos 4 b (4.262e)

( ) =

2

8

sin 2 4 cos 4 b (4.262f)

85

= 4

9

b (4.262g)

Accordingly, (4.260) and (4.261) becomes

( )

1

9

2

6

2

2 0 2

0

b

b qR b qR b M

qR T

= + (4.263)

( )

3

8

2

7

2

1 0 2

0

b

b qR b qR b M

qR T

= + (4.264)

Equating the above equations

1

9

2

6

2

2 0

b

b qR b qR b M

3

8

2

7

2

1 0

b

b qR b qR b M

= (4.265)

Rearranging we obtain

m

k qR

b b b

b b b b b b b

qR M

2

3 2

2

1

9 3 6 3 8 1

2

1 2

0

=

+

= (4.266)

Hence

3 2

2

1

9 3 6 3 8 1

2

1

b b b

b b b b b b b

k

m

+

= (4.267)

Subsuming of the above equation into (4.263) gives

=

2

1

9

2

6

2

2

2

0

qR

b

b qR b qR b k qR

T

m

(4.268)

Simplify

t

m

k qR

b

b b b k

qR T

2

1

9 6 2 2

0

=

= (4.269)

Hence

=

1

9 6 2

b

b b b k

k

m

t

(4.270)

4.7 The Buckling Load when Warping is Considered

If the beam section is an open section, then warping must be considered, the general expression of

the differential equation of equilibrium in this case is give by equations (4.33) and (4.34)

R

M

GJ C

M

ds

d

ds

d

GJ

EI

w

1

2

2

2

4

4

= + +

(4.33)

Or in terms of we have

86

GJ

RM

C

M R

d

d

d

d

GJ R

EI

w

= + +

2 2

2

2

4

4

2

(4.34)

The solution to the problem can be found in two steps. First, we solve the problem without the

warping effect. Second, we substitute the expression of the deflection curve into one of the two

above equations. This will be illustrated in the following examples.

4.7.1 Semi-circle open cross section Beam Fixed at Both Ends under Concentrated Load

A semi-circular open cross section beam with fixed ends subjected to concentrated load P at mid-

span, and acting on its axis of symmetry and perpendicular to the plane of curvature and fixed

against twisting at both ends. In this problem the boundary conditions are similar to example

(4.3.1).

The moment at any point along the center line of the beam in the vertical principle plane YZ is

given by

sin

2

sin cos

0 0

R

P

T M M = (4.67)

Solution:

Since warping does not change the deflection curve shape, then the identity equation

1 2 1 2 = + ) cos ( cos (4.72)

Is valid if warping is or is not considered, therefore we get

2

2

2

4

4

2

cos

GJ

RM

d

d

d

d

GJ R

EI

w

= + (4.271)

Or in a simple form as

2

2

cos

GJ

RM

GJ R

EI

w

= + (4.272)

And

( ) 2 cos 1 =

GJRM

C

(4.273)

Let

( ) 2 1 cos = (4.274)

Differentiate twice with respect to we obtain

( ) 2 4 2 4 2 1 cos sin cos + + = (4.275)

Differentiate again twice with respect to we obtain

87

( )

2 16 2 4 2 16

2 4 2 4 2 4 2 1

cos cos sin

sin cos sin cos

+

+ + + =

(4.276)

This gives

( ) 2 16 2 16 2 8 2 8 2 1 cos sin cos sin cos + + = (4.277)

Substitute (4.275), (4.277) into (4.272) we obtain

( ) [ ]

( )

cos

GJ

RM

cos sin cos

cos sin cos sin cos

GJ R

EI

w

= + +

+ + +

2 4 2 4 2 1

2 16 2 16 2 8 2 8 2 1

2

(4.278)

This equation is valid at any point along the beam length and the condition of stability requires

vanishing of the angular displacement, which vanishes at the boundary, therefore at the boundary

we have

[ ]

GJ

RM

GJ R

EI

w

= + 4 16 8

2

(4.279)

And by means of (4.273) and (2.274) we have

GJRM

C

= (4.280)

Then

=

3

2

2

M

M M M

GJR

C

(4.281)

Where at the point of maximum moment we have

=

3

M

M M

GJR

C

= =

GJRM

C

(4.282)

Therefore equation (4.279) becomes

GJ

RM

GJ R

EI

w

= + 4 8

2

(4.283)

Rearranging

+ =

GJ R

EI

GJ

RM

w

2

2

1 4 (4.284)

And by (4.280) this gives

+ =

GJ R

EI

GJRM

C

GJ

RM

w

2

2

1

4

(4.285)

Then

88

+ =

GJ R

EI

R

C

M

w

2 4

2

2

1

4

(4.286)

And we obtain

2

1

2 2

2

1

2

+ =

GJ R

EI

R

C

M

w

(4.287)

Whence, the value of the critical is expressed by

2

1

2 2

2

1

3 6

+ =

GJ R

EI

R

C .

P

w

(4.288)

It is to be noticed that, when R is very large and approaches infinity the length of the beam L

approaches the value of R 2 and when substituting this value in the above expression we obtain

2

1

2 2

8

1

2 25

+ =

GJ L

EI

L

C .

P

w

(4.289)

This value is almost exact to the value for the case of straight beam laterally fixed at both ends.

89

Chapter 5

Lateral Instability of Curved Beams with an arbitrarily curvature

Since in this type of structural member the curvature of the beam varies at each point along the

beam length, then the complexity of their analysis comes from the fact that the right hand side of

the differential equation of equilibrium will contains two functions, and each function is

differentiated or integrated along the process of the solution. For simplicity some assumptions

may be used and based on Euler- Bernoulli approximation in the beam theory an expression for

the differential equation of equilibrium for some of the non-circular beams is obtained, and by

means of the geometric identity equation a solution to this equation is obtained for different

loading conditions.

As mentioned in Chapter 4, when analyzing horizontally curved beams, it may be seen that the

post-buckling twisting angle produces some additional bending moments in the vertical plane YZ,

and the relation between radius of curvature and this angular displacement is expressed as

r r

v

= sin (5.1)

Where r is the variable initial radius of curvature and in polar coordinates is given by

d

ds

r = (5.2)

And since is a small angle then equation (5.1) becomes

r r

v

=

1

(5.3)

And the total twist per unit length is then expressed by

= =

ds

d

(5.4)

Furthermore, the increase of the curvature in the horizontal XZ plane due to buckling moment is

equivalent to that obtained from the deformation of rings under in-plane loading and is given by

2

2

2

1

ds

u d

r

u

r

u

+ = (5.5)

Now by adding the increase in the curvature due to the initial curvature to the equations of

equilibrium of straight beams results in the new equations of equilibrium given by

+ =

2

2

ds

v d

r

EI M

x

(5.6)

90

+ =

2

2

2

.

ds

u d

r

u

EI M

y

(5.7)

ds

d

GJ M

t

= (5.8)

And differentiation of the above equation with respect to s gives

2

2

ds

d

GJ

ds

dM

t

= (5.9)

Additionally, the general expression for the twisting moment at any section along the length of

the beam in the XY plane is given by

( ) u u V

ds

du

M T M

o t

+ = (5.10)

Upon differentiation of the above expression, we obtain

( )

ds

dV

u u

ds

du

V

ds

du

ds

dM

ds

u d

M

ds

dT

ds

dM

t

+ =

0

2

2

(5.11)

According to the concept of small deflection in buckling problems, which requires that the last

term in the above expressions (5.10) and (5.11) are of small order and may be neglected,

accordingly we will have

ds

du

M T M

t

= (5.12)

And

M

ds

u d

ds

dT

ds

dM

t

2

2

= (5.13)

Equating of equation (5.9) and equation (5.13) gives

2

2

2

2

ds

d

GJ

ds

u d

M

ds

dT

= (5.14)

Substitution equation (5.7) into equation the above equation gives

2

2

2

2

ds

d

GJ

r

Mu

EI

M

ds

dT

y

= + (5.15)

Where upon dividing thru by And by GJ and Rearranging we obtain

2

2

2

2

1

GJr

Mu

ds

dT

GJ C

M

ds

d

+ = +

(5.16)

91

And since r u << , the last term may be neglected and we obtain

ds

dT

GJ C

M

ds

d 1

2

2

2

= +

(5.17)

This equation is written in polar coordinates as

ds

dT

GJ

r

C

M r

d

d

2 2 2

2

2

= +

(5.18)

This is an exact expression to equation (4.32) in Chapter 4 but the problem with the former is its

variable radius of curvature.

5.1 Lateral Instability of Parabolic Beams under concentrated load

Z

X

Y

P

z0

x

r

0

Figure 5.1 Curved Parabolic beam under vertical concentrated load

If the parabolic beam under consideration is subjected to a vertical concentrated load acting in the

middle, and the polar angle of the polar coordinates is measured counter-clockwise, then the

moment at any section along any curved beam length in the vertical principle plane YZ is

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + + = cos cos z h

P

sin sin z

P

sin T cos M M

0 0 0 0

2 2

(5.19a)

This is equivalent to

( ) ( ) ( ) + + = cos h

P

cos z

P

sin T cos M M

2 2

0 0 0

(5.19b)

Where and is the angle the tangent makes with the horizontal axis,

0

z is the maximum

ordinate and r is the polar radius of curvature. The twisting moment at any section is given by

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) + + + = sin cos z h

P

cos sin z

P

cos T sin M T

0 0 0 0

2 2

(5.20a)

Rearranging we obtain

92

( ) ( ) ( ) + + + = sin h

P

sin z

P

cos T sin M T

2 2

0 0 0

(5.20b)

Differentiation of the above equation with respect to s gives

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

ds

dh

sin

ds

d

cos h

P

cos h

P

cos z

P

sin T cos M

ds

d

ds

dT

+ + +

+ + + =

2

2 2

0 0 0

(5.21)

We have

( ) + = cos

ds

dh

r ds

d

ds

d 1

=

h ds

d 1

=

= hd rd (5.22)

Therefore equation (5.21) becomes

( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] + + + + = cos sin cos

P

r

M

ds

dT

2

(5.23)

Where equation (5.19) has been used, and upon substituting of the above expression into the

differential equation (5.17) we obtain

( ) [ ] ( )

+ + + + = +

cos sin

P

r

M

GJ C

M

ds

d

1

2

1

2

2

2

(5.24)

And by equation (5.22)

( ) [ ] ( )

+ + + +

= +

cos sin

P

d

d

h

M

GJ C

M

ds

d

1

2

1

2

2

2

(5.24)

Or in a simple form as

= +

GJ

rM

C

M

ds

d

2

2

2

(5.26)

Where

( ) ( ) ( ) + + + = cos sin

M

Pr

1

2

1 (5.27)

Equation (5.26) is the general form of the equation of equilibrium for any out of plan curved

beam with variable curvature under concentrated vertical load, and the final solution of this

problem depends on the expression of the moment and its curvature.

The first problem we will analyze in this chapter is the stability of the parabolic beams under

symmetrical loading, then later on the chapter other type of beam geometry will be analyzed.

93

5.1.1 Parabolic Beam under Concentrated Load

A parabolic beam with fixed ends subjected to concentrated load P at mid-span, and acting on its

axis of symmetry, and perpendicular to the plane of curvature.

The equation of this parabola is assumed to be

2

bz a x = (5.28)

Where b and a positive numbers and the coordinates of the equation in polar coordinates are

x sin h = (5.29a)

z cos h = (5.29b)

z

x

tan = (5.30)

2 2 2

z x h + = (5.31)

And the maximum ordinate is given by

b

a

x bx a = =

0

2

0 and a z =

0

(5.32)

The boundary conditions in the problem as the same as that for circular beams and expressed as

L s and s at = = = 0 0 (5.33)

2

0

L

s at

ds

d

= =

(5.34)

2

0 0

L

s and s at

ds

du

= = = (5.35)

Solution:

As in the case of semi-circle beam in chapter three, for all the boundary conditions to be satisfied,

we must satisfy the condition

0

2

2

2

0

=

ds

ds

d

M

GJ

L

(5.36)

Where by means of equation (5.30) the above condition becomes

ds

ds

d

M

GJ

L

2

2

2

0

(5.37)

Where warping term has been neglected, and by (5.22) the above equation can be written as

0

2

2

0

=

d

d

d

rM

GJ

(5.38)

To satisfy the above equation we may have

94

=

k cos

d

d

rM

GJ

2

2

where

= k (5.39)

Accordingly, we may choose the identity equation

( ) 1 1 = + k cos k cos (5.40)

And upon equating of (5.40) and (5.26)

( )

= k cos

GJrM

C

1 (5.41)

k cos

GJ

rM

d

d

2

2

(5.42)

Now equation (5.41) can be written in the simple form

( ) = k cos 1 (5.43)

Where

GJrM

C

= (5.44)

Upon differentiating of this expression in (5.43) with respect to we obtain

( ) + = k sin k k cos 1 (5.45)

Differentiate again we get

( ) + + = k cos k k sin k k cos

2

2 1 (5.46)

Now equating the second derivatives in the above equation with equation (5.42), we obtain

( ) + + =

GJ

rM

2

2 1 (5.47)

Now the condition of stability requires vanishing of the angle , accordingly the first term in the

right hand side of the above equation must vanish since it is a function of and the above

equation becomes

+ =

GJ

rM

2

2 (5.48)

This is the stability equation and it is valid at any section along the beam length and the

maximum positive moment is at the middle, where at

= we have 0 = k sin

2

= 0 = R r = (5.47)

Then equation (5.27) leads to

95

( ) ( ) 1 0

2

1

2

1 =

+ + = cos sin

M

Pr

(5.48)

And the expression in (5.44) becomes

GJRM

C

= (5.49)

Therefore, at mid-span equation (5.47) gives

= k cos k

GJRM

C

k cos

GJ

RM

2

2

k

GJRM

C

GJ

RM

= (5.50)

And we obtain

2

2 2

=

C

M R

(5.51)

Hence, the expression for the critical load is

R

C

M

= (5.52)

The final step in our solution is to determine the radius of curvature and the value of the moment

at the middle point. The moment can be determined by using one of the structural engineering

software such as STAAD, SAP200, GTSTRUDAL etc., we can also do this mathematically

where the strain energy method has to be used as shown in the previous chapter and it is also

possible to approximate the value of the positive moment, where by means of equation (5.19) the

maximum moment at mid span is given by

+ = cos x

P

z

P

sin T cos M M

0 0 0 0

2 2

(5.53)

Let

2

0

0

Pz

T

t

= and

2

0

0

Px

M

m

= (5.54)

Accordingly equation (5.53) becomes

( ) ( ) 1

2

1

2

0 0

+ + = sin

Pz

cos

Px

M

t m

(5.55)

Then equation (5.49) can be written as

( ) ( )

R

C

sin

Pz

cos

Px

M

t m

= + + = 1

2

1

2

0 0

(5.56)

Therefore, the buckling load is then expressed by

( ) ( ) ( )

2

0 0

1 1

2

R

C

sin z cos x R

P

t m

+ +

= (4.57)

96

The end moment factors

t

and

m

can be determined following same procedures as in the case

of circular arc beams, where the strain energy method must be used, and the expression for the

strain energy is well known and is expressed by

+ =

Rd

GJ

T

EI

M

U

2 2

2

2 2

0

(4.58)

And we have

= =

Rd

T

T

GJ

T

T

M

EI

M

T

U

0 0

0

0

2 2

2 0 (4.59a)

= =

Rd

M

T

GJ

T

M

M

EI

M

M

U

0 0

0

0

2 2

2 0 (4.59b)

The last step is determine the value of the radius of curvature at mid-span, where at this point we

have

0 = z

0

x x = (4.60)

The expression for the curvature of a curve is given by the will known formula

( )

2 3

2

1

1

/

x

x

r

+

= Where

2

2

dx

z d

x = (4.61)

And by the given expression in (5.28) we have

bz x 2 = b x 2 = (5.62)

Then by (4.61) the curvature at any point is

( )

2 3

2 2

4 1

2 1

/

z b

b

r

+

= (5.63)

It follows that at the middle point or mid-span we have

b

R

2

1

=

b

R

2

1

= (5.64)

Accordingly, by (5.52) the final expression of the buckling load is

=

C b

M

2

(5.65)

Or by (5.57) we obtain

( ) ( ) ( )

2

0 0

1 1

2

R

C

sin z cos x

b

P

t m

+ +

= (4.66)

97

5.1.2 Parabolic Beam fixed at both ends under uniform load

A parabolic beam with fixed ends subjected to a uniformly distributed load of intensity q along

the length of the span, and acting on its axis of symmetry, and perpendicular to the plane of

curvature. The equation of this parabola is assumed to be

2

bz a x = (5.67)

The boundary conditions in the problem as the same as that in the previous problem and

expressed as

L s and s at = = = 0 0 (5.68a)

2

0

L

s at

ds

d

= =

(5.68b)

2

0 0

L

s and L s or s at

ds

du

= = = = (5.68c)

Z

X

Y

q

z

0

x

r

0

Figure 5.2: Curved Parabolic beam under vertical uniform load

Solution:

The moment at any section along any curved beam length in the vertical principle plane YZ is

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) cos h z qds cos sin h x qds sin

cos h

qL

cos z

qL

sin T cos M M

+

+ + =

0 0

0 0 0

2 2

(5.69)

The twisting moment is given by

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

cos h z qds sin sin h x qds cos

sin h

qL

sin z

qL

cos T sin M T

+ + + =

0 0

0 0 0

2 2

(5.70)

Differentiate the above equation with respect to s we obtain

98

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

ds

dh

sin

qL

ds

d

cos h

qL

sin cos h z q cos sin h x q

cos h z qds cos sin h x qds sin

cos h

qL

cos z

qL

sin T cos M

ds

d

ds

dT

+ + +

+

+ + + +

=

2 2

2 2

0

0 0 0

(5.71)

Then by equations (5.22) and (5.69) the above expression becomes

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( ) cos sin

qL

cos

qL

sin cos h z q cos sin h x q

r

M

ds

dT

+ + + +

+ + =

2 2

(5.72)

Or in a simple form as

=

r

M

ds

dT

(5.73)

Where

( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

+ + + +

+

=

cos sin

qL

cos

qL

sin cos h z q cos sin h x q

M

r

2 2

1 (5.74)

Then the differential equation of equilibrium (5.18) will take the form

= +

GJ

rM

C

M r

d

d

2 2

2

2

(5.74)

Let us choose the geometric identity equation

( ) 1 1 = + k cos k cos (5.75)

Where

= k (5.76)

And upon equating the appropriate terms in (5.74) and (5.76) we should have

( ) k cos

GJMr

C

= 1 (5.77)

And

k cos

GJ

rM

d

d

=

2

2

(5.78)

Equations (5.77) may be written as

( ) k cos = 1 (5.79)

Where

99

=

GJMr

C

(5.80)

Differentiation of the equation (5.79) twice with respect to gives

( ) k cos k k sin k k cos

2

2 1 + + = (5.81)

Equating the second derivatives given by the above equation and equation (5.70) gives

( ) k cos k k sin k k cos k cos

GJ

rM

2

2 1 + + = (5.82)

Now the condition of stability requires vanishing of the angle , accordingly the first term in the

right hand side of the above equation must vanish since it is a function of and the above

equation becomes

+ =

GJ

rM

2

2 (5.48)

This is the stability equation and it is valid at any section along the beam length and the

maximum positive moment is at the middle, where at

= we have 0 = k sin 0 = R r = 1 = (5.47)

This give

2

k

GJ

rM

= (5.84)

Therefore, by (5.80) we obtain

2

2

2

R

C k

M = (5.86)

Hence the expression for the buckling load is represented by the maximum positive moment

C b

R

C

R

C k

M

2

= = = (5.87)

It will take extensive work to determine the expression of this moment, aforementioned in the

previous problem, it is easier if we use any of the structural engineering programs to calculate this

moment and compare it with the corresponding value in the right hand side.

100

Chapter 6

Experiment and Finite Element Verification

Herein, an experimental study of the lateral buckling of out-of-plane curved beams is reported.

The purpose of these tests is to determine the value of the buckling load and find the deviation

from the theoretical buckling load. It is to be noticed, buckling occurs when the initial radius of

curvature of the beam is larger than a certain value. In other words, for each cross section and

loading condition there is a certain radius of curvature at which their exist a balance or equality

between the buckling load and the yielding load, this equality can be described as follow:

The buckling load for a semi-circle beam under concentrated load acting at the mid-point of its

span and is given by equation (4.87) in Chapter 4.

2

3 6

R

GJ EI .

P

y

= (6.1)

If the stress due to twisting moment is neglected, then yielding load is approximately computed

from

x x

y

S

PR y

I

M

f

2 2

= = (6.2)

Where, the moment M in the above expression is the maximum bending moment, which is the

fixed end moment, then equation (6.2) leads to

R

f S

P

y x

2

= (6.3)

Upon equating (6.1) and (6.3) we obtain

2

3 6

R

GJ EI .

y

R

f S

y x

2

= (6.4)

Therefore, the minimum radius is then given by

y x

y

y

f S

GJ EI .

R R

2

3 6

= = (6.5)

This equation gives the radius of curvature at which the buckling load is equivalent to the

yielding load, for semi-circle beams, accordingly and in general when

y

R R > Stability control (6.6a)

101

y

R R < Yielding control (6.6b)

Therefore, in performing our experiments the radius of curvatures of the tested beams were

chosen in accordance with the expression in (6.6a), also the following relationships will be used:

The section modulus about the strong axis X is given by

6

2

hb

S

x

= (6.7)

The moment of inertia about the week axis Y is given by

12

3

bh

I I

y

= = (6.8)

The Polar Moment of Inertia is given by

=

b

h

.

bh

J 63 0 1

3

3

(6.9)

The Yielding Radius of Curvature is given by

y x

y

y

f S

GJ EI .

R

2

3 6

= (6.10)

The Torsion-Bending Factor C is given by EIGJ C = (6.11)

The Theoretical buckling load for semi-circle beams is

2

3 6

R

C .

P

c

= (6.12)

The Theoretical buckling load for circular arc beams is equation (4.176) in Chapter 4

( )

2

5 0

R

C

sin . sin cos

P

t m

c

= (6.13)

The fixed end bending moment factor is

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

5 3 6 2 7 9 2 8 3 4 8 6 9 5 1

5 3 6 2 9 9 2 8 3 6 8 6 9 5 3

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

a a a

m

+ +

+ +

= (6.14a)

The fixed end twisting moment factor is

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( ) ( )

5 3 6 2 7 9 2 8 3 4 8 6 9 5 1

6 1 4 3 9 7 3 9 1 6 9 4 7 6 3

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

c c c c c c c c c c c c c c c

a a a

t

+ +

+ +

= (6.14b)

Where the expression for the c factors in the above two equation are shown on page 72 of Chapter

4. These factors are taken from reference [14] Roark and Young Formulas for Stress and Strain.

6.1 Experiments and Descriptions

The experiments were performed at the Structural Mechanic Lab at Polytechnic University. The

specimens were a solid rectangular cross section shape of small cross section sizes from 1/8x1

to 1/8x3 and consisting of high strength aluminum alloy 6061 as shown in the accompanying

table 6.1. The specimens were carefully bent around the week axis to give it the desired initial

radius of curvature. The fixed end conditions of the beams were obtained by using of steel shim

plates and mechanical clamps as shown in the following images.

102

Figure 6. 1 Depicts Eugene Fuchs clamping the beam to a loading machine.

Figure 6. 2 Depicts Polytechnic student Thomas Moorhoff setting up the experiment.

103

Figure 6. 3 Semi-circle beam in the buckling state.

6.1.1 Method of Testing

Two methods of testing were used in the experiments:

1. In the first method the specimens were subjected to a vertical load applied at the middle

through by testing machine, and the value of the load and the corresponding vertical

deflection were measured by the machines computer.

2. In the second method the vertical load was applied manually and the corresponding

vertical deflection was measured manually. The total horizontal displacement is obtained

by measuring the difference between the original height of the middle point before and

after load application.

In both methods the horizontal displacement was measured by the aide of leaser pin attached to

the beam using glue and pointed downward to a graphic paper. As the beam deflects the middle

section rotates and the point of intersection between the light beam and the graphic paper moves

horizontally. The horizontal distance between the point of intersection and the original point

(point of zero load) is then measured and the angle of rotation is measured from its tangent which

is the ratio between the horizontal displacement x and the actual height y of the middle section.

104

When performing the experiment using a testing machine, we ran into a few problems and as

described below.

1. The applied load is transferred to the beam by the loading machines 3 diameter

cylinder, then as the load increases the friction force between cylinder and beam

increases which prevents the beam from moving laterally.

2. Since the load is applied at the top not at the neutral axis of the beam cross section, when

the beam rotates an additional twisting moment is created which increases the stress and

the possibility of local buckling of the beam before reaching the expected global buckling

load.

The first problem was solved by connecting a small wheel to the tested beam at the

middle section or mid-span section. This technique eliminated only the friction part of the

problem but does not eliminate the additional torque, which increased due to the increase

in the eccentricity of the applied load. We found that the additional torque is proportional

to the wheel size. This was one of the main reasons for us to choose the second method of

testing.

6.1.2 Measurements Errors Cause Factors

1. The friction between the loading machine and the testing beam which increases the angle

of rotation and reduces the lateral displacements.

2. The load is not applied at the neutral axis of the beam when using a loading machine.

3. The load is applied with an incremental value of 5 or 10 pounds, therefore it is not

possible to precisely predict the actual value of the buckling load if it is not multiple of 5.

4. Due to the limiting recourse it was not possible to measure the horizontal displacement of

the beam, this displacement must be subtracted from the horizontal distance x in the

following tables.

5. The height of the middle point at each load was measured manually using regular

measuring tape, and due to the rotation and the horizontal displacement the value cannot

be 100% accurate.

6. The tensile modulus of elasticity of aluminum is 2% less than its compressive modulus.

105

6.1.3 Experimental Buckling Load

It has been proven experimentally that the load-rotation curve has three different configurations:

1. Linear, which is the pre-buckling shape.

2. Nonlinear, which is the buckling shape.

3. Linear, which is the post-buckling shape.

The value of the experimental buckling load can be defined as the value of the load at the point of

intersection between the pre-buckling linear portion and the non-linear portion of the curve. See

figures 6.1 to 6.12

6.2 Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

Element which has been used in these analysis is 3D quadratic finite strain Beam189 which is

suitable for analyzing slender to moderately thick beams. Beam189 can work with any beam

cross-sections and can be used for flexural, lateral and torsional loading. The element consists of

3 nodes and each node has 6 DOF (3 translations and 3 rotations).

The semi-circle or the circular arc beam model is created with predefined radius and angle in the

x-z plane. The 2 ends of the beam are set claimed conditions (zero translation and rotation in all

directions). The force is applied at the middle of the beam in y-direction. The mesh size is

generated by divided the curve into two hundred (200) segments which correspond to two

hundred (200) beam elements.

Non-linear buckling analysis is used in the FEA in which, load is increased by steps until it

reaches the predefined value. Load step is calculated automatically by the program using

Newton-Raphson method. The convergence condition is that each step runs for maximum two

thousand (2000) iterations. The solution is set to run in one hundred (100) steps.

Now, since the non-linear FEA models do not give a value for the buckling load. In contrast, we

are able to obtain the deflection curve with respect to the load applied. The critical load can be

determined approximately by the instance when the curve is no longer linear. Therefore, the

rotation at the middle of the beam are tracked for each load step, the curves are then plotted

versus force applied load to compare with experimental data as shown in the following charts.

6.2.1 Element

The element used in the analysis is 3D quadratic finite strain Beam189. Beam189 is quadratic

beam element, constituted by 3 nodes, 2 ends and one mid-side node, interpolated in between by

a quadratic polynomial. By using 2

nd

order beam element, the element is well-suited to model the

106

curved structure like the present beam. Each node has 6 degree of freedoms (DOF), 3 translations

and 3 rotations in the x, y and z directions. This element is suitable for analyzing slender to

moderate thick beam structure.

Beam189 elements are based on Timoshenko beam theory, which takes into account the shear

deformation effect. The assumption is that the transverse shear strain is constant through the cross

section; that is, cross-section remains plane and undistorted after deformation. Beam189 can work

with any beam cross-sections and can be used for flexural, lateral and torsional loading. In

additions, this element is appropriate for linear, large rotation and/or large strain nonlinear

structure. In present buckling analysis, this element is used in large strain deformation.

6.2.2 Geometry

A semi-circle or an arc is created with predefined radius and angle in the x-z plane to the negative

z-axis. Since the beam is slender, a curve line is used to model the beam. Thus, the beam

elements are one-dimensional line elements in space. The element shape in the present case,

rectangular and constant along the beam, are provided separately. Photo 6.4 and Photo 6.5 show

the elements with their shape and boundary conditions in the actual geometry problem for semi-

circle and arc beam, respectively.

For a semi-circle beam, a half circle is generated in x-z plane, with the center at the origin and

predefined radius. However, more calculation is required to create an arc beam. The arc is created

by three key points, two at the ends and one at the middle of the arc. The two end key points is

located at (R sin) while the mid one location is (R - R cos), in which R and are the radius

and angle (in inch and radian) of the arc beam. These parameters are calculated in experiments

and ready to use in the finite analysis.

6.2.3 Boundary Conditions

For all cases in the analysis, boundary conditions are set claimed conditions at the 2 ends of the

beam, in plane z=0. Claimed conditions define as zero translation and rotation in all x, y and z

directions. The lateral force is applied in term of nodal concentrated force, at the middle of the

beam, toward the negative direction of y-axis. To initial the buckling, a small force (of order 10

-5

the vertical applied force) is implemented in z-direction at the same middle node.

6.2.4 Mesh

The mesh size is generated by dividing the curve into 200 segments which correspond to 200

beam elements. Several simulations are run to check the convergent mesh size. It has been shown

107

that 200 segment model is representing well the model. 401 nodes are generated with such mesh

size used in the analysis.

6.2.5 Material properties

Finite element model is used the same material properties with those in experiment. Only elastic

properties are concerned in the model. Material properties used in the analysis are determined for

aluminum, listed in US unit:

Young Modulus = 10

7

psi

Shear modulus = 10

7

/2.6 psi

Poisson ratio = 0.35 (aluminum)

6.2.6 Analysis Method

Linear buckling methods predict less accurate critical buckling load compared to non-linear

methods. Additionally, in non-linear buckling, load-deflection curves are attainable and allowed

to calculate to a large value of applied load. Therefore non-linear buckling is used in present

model to model the buckling of a curved beam. Buckling value is determined whether the load-

deflection relationship is no longer linear.

A non-linear buckling analysis is a static analysis with large deflection, extended to a point where

the structure reaches its maximum load. The basic approach in a non-linear buckling analysis is to

constantly increment the applied loads until the solution begin to diverge. When automatic time

stepping is used, the program automatically seeks out the buckling load. If the solution does not

converge at a given load by using automatic time stepping, the program bisects the load step

increment and attempts a new solution at a smaller load. The program converges to the limiting

load as the process of bisection continues to the point at which the minimum time step increment

is achieved. The minimum step increment is determined by dividing the limiting load to the

number of sub-step, selected as 100 for all the models. Newton-Raphson method is used to obtain

the load-deflection curve in each step of loading. The convergence condition is set such that each

step runs for maximum 2000 iterations, which is quite enough for convergence in all

configurations. The deflection and rotation of the middle section of the beam are tracked for each

load step. The curves are then plotted versus force applied to compare with experimental data.

Figure 6.6 and Figure 6.7 show the y-deflection of all nodes in the beam in the case of experiment

5 at 38 lbs (pre-buckling) and 86 lbs loading (post-buckling) respectively.

108

Figure 6. 4 Mesh geometry and loading of semi-circle beam

Figure 6. 5 Mesh geometry and loading of 45 degree circular arc beam

109

Figure 6. 6 Pre-buckling deflection of semi-circle beam

Figure 6. 7 Post buckling deflection of semi-circle beam

110

6.3 Experimental and FEA Results

Table 6.1: Aluminum Rectangular Solid Section Properties

Section b h f

y

E I

y

J G S

x

R

y

1/8" x 1" 1 0.125 20000 10000000 0.00016 0.00060 3846154 0.021 14.6

1/8" x 1.5" 1.5 0.125 20000 10000000 0.00024 0.00093 3846154 0.047 9.9

1/8" x 2" 2 0.125 20000 10000000 0.00033 0.00125 3846154 0.083 7.5

1/8" x 2.5" 2.5 0.125 20000 10000000 0.00041 0.00158 3846154 0.130 6.0

1/8" x 3" 3 0.125 20000 10000000 0.00049 0.00190 3846154 0.188 5.0

Table 6.2: Summary of Experimental and Theoretical Results

Experiment Section

(deg)

R C

Yeilding

Load P

y

Theoretical

Load P

c

Experiment

al Load P

e

P

c

/P

e

1 1/8x3x74 90.0 23.6 5976.4 318.3 67.8 69 0.98

2 1/8x1.5x75 90.0 23.9 2947.6 78.5 32.5 30 1.08

3 1/8x2x76 90.0 24.2 3957.3 137.8 43.0 40 1.08

4 1/8x2x60 90.0 19.1 3957.3 174.5 68.3 64 1.07

5 1/8x2x64 90.0 20.4 3957.3 163.6 67.0 69 0.97

6 1/8x2x72 90.0 22.9 3957.3 145.4 47.4 44 1.08

7 1/8x2x72 45.0 45.8 3957.3 295.0 49.8 50 1.00

8 1/8x2x74 36.4 58.3 3957.3 288.5 47.2 48 0.98

9 1/8x2x76 45.0 48.4 3957.3 279.5 44.7 44 1.01

10 1/8x2x72 24.0 86.0 3957.3 300.3 49.5 50 0.99

11 1/8x3x70 45.0 44.6 5976.4 681.6 79.8 76 1.05

12 1/8x2x67 45.0 42.7 3957.3 317.1 57.5 60 0.96

Where all units throughout are in inches and pounds, and

b (inch) beam width

h (inch) beam height

f

y

(lb/ft^2) yielding stress

E (lb/ft^2) modulus of elasticity

I

y

(inch^4) moment of inertia about the week axis

J (inch^4) section torsion factor

G (lb/ft^2) modulus of rigidity

S

x

(inch^3) section modulus about the strong axis

R

y

(inch) minimum radius of curvature

C (lb*ft^2) Flexural-Torsion Rigidity, equal to GJ EI

y

c

P ,

e

P (lbs) theoretical and experimental buckling load respectively

111

Experiment 1:

Table 6.3: Specimen 1; Semi-circle Beam Properties

L b h E I

y

G J C

74.0 3.0 0.125 1.E+07 0.0005 3846154 0.0019 5976.36

(deg)

(rad)

R

m

t

Theoretical

Load P

c

Experimental

Load P

e

P

c

/P

e

90.0 1.6 23.6 0.500 -0.182 67.8 69.0 0.98

Table 6.4: Specimen 1; Load Deformations

P 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 110.00 130.00

y 21.00 19.00 18.00 16.75 15.75 14.90 14.00 12.50 10.75

v 0.00 2.00 3.00 4.25 5.25 6.10 7.00 8.50 10.25

x 0.00 1.50 3.00 4.80 5.30 6.80 8.30 12.70 21.00

tan 0.00 0.08 0.17 0.29 0.34 0.46 0.59 1.02 1.95

0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

140.00

160.00

180.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50

L

o

a

d

(

P

)

,

l

b

s

Tan (x/y)

LoadvsRotation

TheorrticalLoad

FEA

Figure 6. 8 Specimen 1, Load vs. angular displacement curve

Experimental Load

112

Experiment 2:

Table 6.5: Specimen 2; Semi-circle Beam Properties

L b h E I

y

G J C

75.0 1.5 0.125 10000000 0.0002 3846154 0.0009 2947.63

(deg)

(rad)

R

m

t

Theoretical

Load P

c

Experimenta

l Load P

e

P

c

/P

e

90.0 1.6 23.9 0.500 -0.182 32.5 30.0 1.08

Table 6.6: Specimen 2; Load Deformations

P 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00

y 31.75 31.00 30.00 29.00 27.50 26.00 23.00 15.00

v 0.00 0.75 1.75 2.75 4.25 5.75 8.75 16.75

x 0.00 2.75 5.30 8.50 10.50 13.80 20.00 25.00

tan 0.00 0.09 0.18 0.29 0.38 0.53 0.87 1.67

0.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

50.00

60.00

70.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00

L

o

a

d

(

P

)

,

l

b

s

Tan (x/y)

LoadvsRotation

TheorrticalLoad

FEA

Figure 6. 9 Specimen 2, Load vs. angular displacement curve

Experimental Load

113

Experiment 3:

Table 6.7: Specimen 3; Semi-circle Beam Properties

L b h E I

y

G J C

76.0 2.0 0.125 10000000 0.0003 3846154 0.0013 3957.30

(deg)

(rad)

R

m

t

Theoretical

Load P

c

Experimenta

l Load P

e

P

c

/P

e

90.0 1.6 24.2 0.500 -0.182 43.0 40.0 1.08

Table 6.8: Specimen 3; Load Deformations

P 0.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 36.00 38.00 41.00 43.00 46.00 49.00 50.00 52.00

y 19.50 18.60 18.26 17.70 17.27 16.87 16.56 16.11 15.76 15.25 14.60 14.17

v 0.00 0.90 1.24 1.80 2.23 2.63 2.94 3.39 3.74 4.25 4.90 5.33

x 0.00 2.30 2.90 3.40 4.20 4.40 4.70 4.90 5.40 6.20 6.60 8.00

tan 0.00 0.12 0.16 0.19 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.30 0.34 0.41 0.45 0.56

0.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

50.00

60.00

70.00

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60

L

o

a

d

(

P

)

,

l

b

s

Tan (x/y)

LoadvsRotation

TheorrticalLoad

FEA

Figure 6. 10 Specimen 3, Load vs. angular displacement curve

Experimental Load

114

Experiment 4:

Table 6.9: Specimen 4; Semi-circle Beam Properties

L b h E I

y

G J C

60.0 2.0 0.125 10000000 0.0003 3846154 0.0013 3957.30

(deg.)

(rad)

R

m

t

Theoretical

Load P

c

Experimenta

l Load P

e

P

c

/P

e

90.0 1.6 19.1 0.500 -0.182 68.3 63.0 1.08

Table 6.10: Specimen 4; Load Deformations

P 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 90.00

y 29.75 29.25 28.75 28.50 28.00 27.50 26.75 26.25 25.75 25.50 24.25 22.35 19.25

v 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.25 1.75 2.25 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.25 5.50 7.40 10.50

x 0 1.25 2.60 3.85 5.25 6.85 8.30 9.25 10.20 11.40 12.90 15.90 20.10

tan 0.00 0.04 0.09 0.14 0.19 0.25 0.31 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.53 0.71 1.04

0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

140.00

160.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00

L

o

a

d

(

P

)

,

l

b

s

Tan (x/y)

LoadvsRotation

TheorrticalLoad

FEA

Figure 6. 11 Specimen 4, Load vs. angular displacement curve

Experimental Load

115

Experiment 5:

Table 6.11: Specimen 5; Semi-circle Beam Properties

L b h E I

y

G J C

64.0 2.0 0.125 10000000 0.0003 3846154 0.0013 3957.30

(deg.)

(rad)

R

m

t

Theoretical

Load P

c

Experimenta

l Load P

e

P

c

/P

e

90.0 1.6 20.4 0.500 -0.182 67.0 63.0 1.06

Table 6.12: Specimen 5; Load Deformations

P 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 95.00 100.00 105.00

y 31.60 31.20 30.80 30.00 29.50 28.80 27.70 26.50 24.5 21.00

v 0.00 0.30 0.70 1.50 2.00 2.70 3.80 5.00 7.00 10.50

x 0 2.20 4.80 7.90 9.90 13.20 16.80 18.90 20.10 23.00

tan 0.00 0.07 0.16 0.26 0.34 0.46 0.61 0.71 0.82 1.10

0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

140.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50

L

o

a

d

(

P

)

,

l

b

s

Tan (x/y)

LoadvsRotation

TheorrticalLoad

FEA

Figure 6. 12 Specimen 5, Load vs. angular displacement curve

Experimental Load

116

Experiment 6:

Table 6. 13: Specimen 6; Semi-circle Beam Properties

L b h E I

y

G J C

72.0 2.0 0.125 10000000 0.0003 3846154 0.0013 3957.30

(deg.)

(rad)

R

m

t

Theoretical

Load P

c

Experimenta

l Load P

e

P

c

/P

e

90.0 1.6 22.9 0.500 -0.182 47.4 44.0 1.08

Table 6.14: Specimen 6; Load Deformations

P 0.00 20.00 40.00 46.00 50.00 53.00 55.00 56.00 57.00 58.00 59.00

y 18.50 17.58 15.78 15.06 14.65 14.30 13.98 13.70 13.28 12.98 11.70

v 0.00 0.92 2.72 3.44 3.85 4.20 4.52 4.80 5.22 5.52 6.80

x 0 1.90 3.60 4.10 4.60 5.10 5.60 5.90 6.60 7.70 8.90

tan 0.00 0.11 0.23 0.27 0.31 0.36 0.40 0.43 0.50 0.59 0.76

0.00

10.00

20.00

30.00

40.00

50.00

60.00

70.00

80.00

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80

L

o

a

d

(

P

)

,

l

b

s

Tan (x/y)

LoadvsRotation

TheorrticalLoad

FEA

Figure 6. 13 Specimen 6, Load vs. angular displacement curve

Experimental Load

117

Experiment 7:

Table 6.15: Specimen 7; Semi-circle Beam Properties

L b h E I

y

G J C

72.0 2.0 0.125 10000000 0.0003 3846154 0.0013 3957.30

(deg.)

(rad)

R

m

t

Theoretical

Load P

c

Experimenta

l Load P

e

P

c

/P

e

45.0 0.8 45.8 0.246 -0.039 49.8 55.0 0.90

Table 6.16: Specimen 7; Load Deformations

P 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00

y 30.50 30.25 30.00 29.75 29.50 29.25 29.00 28.75 28.40 28.25 27.50 26.75 25.75

v 0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.10 2.25 3.00 3.75 4.75

x 0 0.60 1.30 2.10 3.00 3.90 4.40 5.10 6.10 7.20 8.10 9.70 12.30

tan 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.07 0.10 0.13 0.15 0.18 0.21 0.25 0.29 0.36 0.48

0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80

L

o

a

d

(

P

)

,

l

b

s

Tan (x/y)

LoadvsRotation

TheorrticalLoad

FEA

Figure 6. 14 Specimen 7, Load vs. angular displacement curve

Table 6. 17: Specimen 7; Roark Formula Factors

c

2

c

3

c

4

c

5

c

6

c

7

c

8

c

9

-87.1 -11.8 -86.1 -136.8 -36.4 -136.8 -86.2 -87.1

c

a1

c

a2

c

a3

c

a4

c

a5

c

a6

c

a7

c

a8

c

a9

c

a12

c

a13

c

a15

c

a16

c

a18

c

a19

-2.4 -13.2 -0.3 -12.5 -48.4 -2.4 -48.4 -109.3 -13.2 -2.6 0.0 -13.2 -0.3 -48.1 -2.6

Experimental Load

118

Experiment 8:

Table 6.18: Specimen 8; Semi-circle Beam Properties

L b h E I

y

G J C

74.0 2.0 0.125 10000000 0.0003 3846154 0.0013 3957.30

(deg.)

(rad)

R

m

t

Theoretical

Load P

c

Experimenta

l Load P

e

P

c

/P

e

36.4 0.6 58.3 0.198 -0.025 47.2 50.0 0.94

Table 6.19: Specimen 8; Load Deformations

P 0.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 64.00 67.00 70.00 72.00 75.00 80.00

y 19.50 19.30 19.12 18.85 18.45 17.72 17.42 17.08 16.60 16.21 15.22 13.75

v 0.00 0.20 0.38 0.65 1.05 1.78 2.08 2.42 2.90 3.29 4.28 5.75

x 0.00 0.90 1.30 1.70 2.20 3.10 4.10 4.70 5.60 6.00 7.00 9.00

tan 0.00 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.12 0.17 0.24 0.28 0.34 0.37 0.46 0.65

0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80

L

o

a

d

(

P

)

,

l

b

s

Tan (x/y)

LoadvsRotation

TheorrticalLoad

FEA

Figure 6. 15 Specimen 8, Load vs. angular displacement curve

Table 6.20: Specimen 8; Roark Formula Factors

c

1

c

2

c

3

c

4

c

5

c

6

c

7

c

8

c

9

-16.3 -50.5 -4.1 -49.5 -105.7 -16.3 -105.7 -115.0 -50.5

c

a1

c

a2

c

a3

c

a4

c

a5

c

a6

c

a7

c

a8

c

a9

c

a12

c

a13

c

a15

c

a16

c

a18

c

a19

-1.0 -7.1 -0.1 -6.6 -32.8 -1.0 -32.8 -95.6 -7.1 -1.2 0.0 -7.1 -0.1 -32.6 -1.2

Experimental Load

119

Experiment 9:

Table 6.21: Specimen 9; Semi-circle Beam Properties

L b h E I

y

G J C

76.0 2.0 0.125 10000000 0.0003 3846154 0.0013 3957.30

(deg.)

(rad)

R

m

t

Theoretical

Load P

c

Experimenta

l Load P

e

P

c

/P

e

45.0 0.8 48.4 0.246 -0.039 44.7 44.0 1.01

Table 6.22: Specimen 9; Load Deformations

P 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00

y 30.50 30.00 29.75 29.25 29.00 28.75 28.25 26.50 25.9 24.00 22.00

v 0.00 0.50 0.75 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.25 4.00 4.60 6.50 8.50

x 0 0.70 1.20 1.90 2.80 4.10 6.60 9.70 15.30 22.00 33.00

tan 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.10 0.14 0.23 0.37 0.59 0.92 1.50

0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00

L

o

a

d

(

P

)

,

l

b

s

Tan (x/y)

LoadvsRotation

TheorrticalLoad

FEA

Figure 6. 16 Specimen 9, Load vs. angular displacement curve

Table 6.23: Specimen 9; Roark Formula Factors

c

1

c

2

c

3

c

4

c

5

c

6

c

7

c

8

c

9

-36.4 -87.1 -11.8 -86.1 -136.8 -36.4 -136.8 -86.2 -87.1

c

a1

c

a2

c

a3

c

a4

c

a5

c

a6

c

a7

c

a8

c

a9

c

a12

c

a13

c

a15

c

a16

c

a18

c

a19

-2.4 -13.2 -0.3 -12.5 -48.4 -2.4 -48.4 -109.3 -13.2 -2.6 0.0 -13.2 -0.3 -48.1 -2.6

Experimental Load

120

Experiment 10:

Table 6.24: Specimen 10; Semi-circle Beam Properties

L b h E I

y

G J C

72.0 2.0 0.125 10000000 0.0003 3846154 0.0013 3957.30

(deg.)

(rad)

R

m

t

Theoretical

Load P

c

Experimenta

l Load P

e

P

c

/P

e

24.0 0.4 86.0 0.129 -0.010 49.5 50.0 0.99

Table 6. 25: Specimen 10; Load Deformations

P 0.00 15.00 19.00 28.00 33.00 38.00 40.00 50.00 55.00 57.00 60.00 65.00

y 18.50 17.80 17.58 16.93 16.50 16.06 15.84 14.83 14.23 13.33 12.30 10.50

v 0.00 0.70 0.92 1.57 2.00 2.44 2.66 3.67 4.27 5.17 6.20 8.00

x 0.00 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.50 2.50 3.70 6.00 12.00

tan 0.00 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.10 0.18 0.28 0.49 1.14

0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50

L

o

a

d

(

P

)

,

l

b

s

Tan (x/y)

LoadvsRotation

TheorrticalLoad

FEA

Figure 6. 17 Specimen 10, Load vs. angular displacement curve

Table 6.26: Specimen 10; Roark Formula Factors

c

1

c

2

c

3

c

4

c

5

c

6

c

7

c

8

c

9

-3.1 -15.9 -0.5 -15.2 -54.2 -3.1 -54.2 -112.8 -15.9

c

a1

c

a2

c

a3

c

a4

c

a5

c

a6

c

a7

c

a8

c

a9

c

a12

c

a13

c

a15

c

a16

c

a18

c

a19

-0.1 -2.1 0.0 -1.7 -14.8 -0.1 -14.8 -68.3 -2.1 -0.2 0.0 -2.1 0.0 -14.7 -0.2

Experimental Load

121

Experiment 11:

Table 6.27: Specimen 11; Semi-circle Beam Properties

L b h E I

y

G J C

70.0 3.0 0.125 10000000 0.0005 3846154 0.0019 5976.36

(deg.)

(rad)

R

m

t

Theoretical

Load P

c

Experimenta

l Load P

e

P

c

/P

e

45.0 0.8 44.6 0.247 -0.040 79.8 72.0 1.11

Table 6.28: Specimen 11; Load Deformations

P 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 85.00 90.00 95.00 100.00

y 31.75 31.55 31.30 31.15 31.00 30.60 30.00 29.70 29.30 29 28.50 28.25 27.80

v 0.00 0.20 0.45 0.60 0.75 1.15 1.75 2.05 2.45 2.75 3.25 3.50 3.95

x 0.00 0.60 1.10 1.60 2.10 2.70 3.30 3.90 4.70 5.60 6.30 7.20 8.10

tan 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.13 0.16 0.19 0.22 0.25 0.29

0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

140.00

0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80

L

o

a

d

(

P

)

,

l

b

s

Tan (x/y)

LoadvsRotation

TheorrticalLoad

FEA

Figure 6. 18 Specimen 11, Load vs. angular displacement curve

Table 6.29: Specimen 11; Roark Formula Factors

c

1

c

2

c

3

c

4

c

5

c

6

c

7

c

8

c

9

-81.7 -192.7 -26.7 -191.7 -302.7 -81.7 -302.7 -191.8 -192.7

c

a1

c

a2

c

a3

c

a4

c

a5

c

a6

c

a7

c

a8

c

a9

c

a12

c

a13

c

a15

c

a16

c

a18

c

a19

-5.6 -29.2 -0.9 -28.5 -107.0 -5.6 -107.0 -242.6 -29.2 -5.9 -0.1 -29.2 -0.9 -106.7 -5.9

Experimental Load

122

Experiment 12:

Table 6.30: Specimen 12; Semi-circle Beam Properties

L b h E I

y

G J C

67.0 2.0 0.125 10000000 0.0003 3846154 0.0013 3957.30

(deg.)

(rad)

R

m

t

Theoretical

Load P

c

Experimenta

l Load P

e

P

c

/P

e

45.0 0.8 42.7 0.246 -0.039 57.5 60.0 0.96

Table 6. 31: Specimen 12; Load Deformations

P 0.00 10.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 90.00 100.00 105.00 110.00 115.00

y 30.50 30.25 30.00 29.50 29.00 28.25 28.00 27.75 27.5 27.25 26.5

v 0.00 0.25 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 4.00

x 0 0.40 0.80 2.10 3.70 6.70 8.90 12.10 14.70 17.10 22.50

tan 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.07 0.13 0.24 0.32 0.44 0.53 0.63 0.85

0.00

20.00

40.00

60.00

80.00

100.00

120.00

140.00

0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50

L

o

a

d

(

P

)

,

l

b

s

Tan (x/y)

LoadvsRotation

TheorrticalLoad

FEA

Figure 6. 19 Specimen 12, Load vs. angular displacement curve

Table 6.32: Specimen 12; Roark Formula Factors

c

1

c

2

c

3

c

4

c

5

c

6

c

7

c

8

c

9

-36.4 -87.1 -11.8 -86.1 -136.8 -36.4 -136.8 -86.2 -87.1

c

a1

c

a2

c

a3

c

a4

c

a5

c

a6

c

a7

c

a8

c

a9

c

a12

c

a13

c

a15

c

a16

c

a18

c

a19

-2.4 -13.2 -0.3 -12.5 -48.4 -2.4 -48.4 -109.3 -13.2 -2.6 0.0 -13.2 -0.3 -48.1 -2.6

Experimental Load

123

Chapter 7

7.1 Conclusion

A close form solution to the lateral instability problem of horizontally curved beams is presented.

An exact solution to the lateral instability problem of curved beams with both ends fixed and

others with one end free is provided. It is clear that the identity equation differentiation method

gives an exact solution to these types of boundary value problems in a form as an Eigen function

and the buckling load is obtained by solving for the Eigen value which is our bending moment.

In Chapter 4, solutions are given for the semi-circular and arc of a circle beams, where in some

cases, the beam is subjected to concentrated load P at mid-span and acting on its axis of

symmetry and perpendicular to the plane of curvature, and in the other cases the beam is

subjected to a vertical uniformly distributed load of intensity q along the length of the span, and

acting on its axis of symmetry, and perpendicular to the plane of curvature. In Chapter 5 we have

dealt with the general cases when the curvature varies along the beam length as in the case of

parabolic beams, this class of problems requires more research.

It is evident that:

When the radius of curvature approaches infinity or in other words becomes very large

the value of the critical load approaches straight beams values. This can be seen in

chapter 4 equations (4.88), (4.109), (4.137), (4.159) and (4.289).

The post-buckling response curve of the FEA (finite element analysis) differs from that

of the experimental curve. The reason why is beyond the scope of this research.

The experimental results are compatible with the analytical solutions and the equation

presented in this analytical solution for circular arc beams equation (4.176) which is

expressed as

( )

2

5 0

R

C

sin . sin cos

P

t m

= (7.1)

If it is written in the form

( )

C

L L

C

sin . sin cos

P

t m

2 2

4 4

5 0

=

= (7.2)

We notice that, the value of the parameter (the buckling load factor) which corresponds to each

value of the angle , varies slightly as shown in the following table:

124

Table 7.1: Buckling Load Factor

(deg.) 90 80 70 60 50 45 30 20 10 5

-4.93 -5.00 -5.07 -5.13 -5.17 -5.19 -5.19 -5.10 -4.76 -4.33

Hence, beam length as in the case of straight beams is the dominant factor in determining the

buckling load of curved beams.

We may use the following formula to determine the value of the buckling load for any out of

plane curved beam under concentrated load:

2

c

L

C 20

P

=

(7.3)

This can be easily verified by inspection of table 6.2 shown below, where the value of the

buckling loads of specimens 6, 7 and 10 have shown slight variations. The experimental buckling

loads have been shown to be within the range of 44 to 50 pounds and the theoretical buckling

loads within the range of 47 to 50 pounds.

Table 6.2: Summary of Experimental and Theoretical Results

Experiment Section

(deg)

R C

Yeilding

Load P

y

Theoretical

Load P

c

Experiment

al Load P

e

P

c

/P

e

1 1/8x3x74 90.0 23.6 5976.4 318.3 67.8 69 0.98

2 1/8x1.5x75 90.0 23.9 2947.6 78.5 32.5 30 1.08

3 1/8x2x76 90.0 24.2 3957.3 137.8 43.0 40 1.08

4 1/8x2x60 90.0 19.1 3957.3 174.5 68.3 64 1.07

5 1/8x2x64 90.0 20.4 3957.3 163.6 67.0 69 0.97

6 1/8x2x72 90.0 22.9 3957.3 145.4 47.4 44 1.08

7 1/8x2x72 45.0 45.8 3957.3 295.0 49.8 50 1.00

8 1/8x2x74 36.4 58.3 3957.3 288.5 47.2 48 0.98

9 1/8x2x76 45.0 48.4 3957.3 279.5 44.7 44 1.01

10 1/8x2x72 24.0 86.0 3957.3 300.3 49.5 50 0.99

11 1/8x3x70 45.0 44.6 5976.4 681.6 79.8 76 1.05

12 1/8x2x67 45.0 42.7 3957.3 317.1 57.5 60 0.96

To confirm the above results a FEA (finite element analysis) was performed, in this analysis we

have choose a 72 inches long aluminum beam with 1/8 inch x 2 inch cross section.

We analyzed this beam under different radius of curvature (different polar angles; 20, 30, 40, 50,

60, 70, 80, and 90 degree). The results of this analysis are shown in the chart below.

125

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

L

o

a

d

(

l

b

)

Tan

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

Figure 7.1 FEA, Specimen 6, different curvature, Load vs. angular displacement curve

It is shown in this chart and in chapter 6 that, FEA gives post-buckling response curve different

than that of the experimental results. In addition the buckling load is not well defined by FEA.

Therefore, if we define the point of intersection between the pre-buckling and the post-buckling

linear portions of the curve as the upper bound or upper limit of the FEA buckling loads, then

Figure 7.1 can be utilized as a comparison between these loads. Accordingly, in this figure the

estimated value of the buckling load for each case is greater than 75 pounds and less than 95

pounds. This variation is compatible with the experimental results.

126

7.3 References:

Books:

[1] Bazant, Zdenek P, and Cedolin, Luigi (2003). Stability of Structures, Dover Publications.

[2] Alexander Chajes (1974). Principles of Structural Stability Theory, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

[3] W. Chen and E. Lui (1987). Structural Stability Theory and implementation, Elsevier

Publishing .

[4] N. Hoff (1956). The Analysis of Structures, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[5] H. Langhaar (1962), Energy Methods in Applied Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

[6] Timoshenko S. and J. Goodier (1970). Theory of Elasticity, McGraw-Hill Co.

[7] Timoshenko S. (1936). Theory of Elastic Stability, McGraw-Hill Co.

[8] Timoshenko S. and Gere M. (1961). Theory of Elastic Stability, McGraw-Hill Co.

[9] Timoshenko S. (1955). Strength of Materials, part I, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc.

[10] Timoshenko S. (1956). Strength of Materials, part II, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc.

[11] Prescott, John (1946). Applied Elasticity, Dover Publications.

[12] Chi-Teh Wang (1953). Applied Elasticity, McGraw-Hill Co.

[13] Friedrich Bleich (1952). Buckling Strength of Metal Structures, McGraw-Hill Co.

[14] Roark and Young. Fifth Edition. Formula for Stress and Strain, McGraw-Hill Co.

[15] A. Love (1944). A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, Dover

Publications.

Journals:

[16] Young J. Kang and Chai H. Yoo. Thin-Walled Curved Beams. I: Formulation of

Nonlinear Equations, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 120, No. 10, October,

1994.

[17] Moon-Young Kim, Byoung-Cheol Min and Myung-Won Suh, Spatial Stability of

Nonsymmetric Thin-Walled Curved Beams. I: Analytic Approach, Journal of

Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 126, No. 5, May, 2000.

[18] Moon-Young Kim, Byoung-Cheol Min and Myung-Won Suh. Spatial Stability of

Nonsymmetric Thin-Walled Curved Beams. II Numerical Approach Journal of

Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 126, No. 5, May, 2000.

127

[19] A. Andrade and D. Camotim. LateralTorsional Buckling of Singly Symmetric Tapered

Beams: Theory and Applications, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 131, No. 6,

June 1, 2005.

[20] Y. Pi, and N Trahair. Nonlinear Elastic Behaviour of I Beams Curved in Plane, Journal

of Structural Engineering, Vol. 123, No. 9, September, 1997.

[21] Ronaid Y. S. Pak and Eric J. Stauffer. Nonlinear Finite DeformationAnalysis of Beams

and Columns, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 120, No. 10, October, 1994.

[22] Young J. Kang and Chai H. YOO. Thin-Walled Curved Beams. II: Analytical Solutions

for Buckling of Arches Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 120, No. 10, October,

1994.

[23] C. Yoo, Y. Kang and J. Davidson. Buckling Analysis of Curved Beams by Finite

Element Discretization, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, vol. 122, No. 8 August

1996.

[24] Y. Goto, X. Li and T. Kasugai. Buckling Analysis of Elastic Rods under Torsional

Moment, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, vol. 122, No. 9 September, 1996.

[25] E. Tufekci and O. Y. Dogruer. Exact Solution of Out-of-Plane Problems of an Arch with

Varying Curvature and Cross Section, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 132, No.

6, June, 2006.

[26] Yong-Lin Pi, Mark A. Bradford and Nicholas S. Trahair. Inelastic Analysis and

Behavior of Steel I-Beams Curved in Plan, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 126,

No. 7, July, 2000.

[27] B. Phungpaingam, S. Chucheepsakul, and C. M. Wang, Post-buckling of Beam

Subjected to Intermediate Follower Force Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 132,

No. 1, January 2006.

[28] A. Zureick and R. Naqib, Horizontally Curved Steel I-Girders State-of-The-Art Analysis

Methods, Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 1, February 1999.

[29] D. Linzell, D. Hall, and D. White, Historical Perspective on Horizontally Curved I

Girder Bridge, Design in the United States, Journal of Bridge Engineering, Vol. 9, No.

3, June 2004.

[30] J. Davidson and C. Yoo, Local Buckling of Curved I-Girder Flanges, Journal of

Structural Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 122, No. 8, August 1996.

128

[31] R. Plaut and A. Guran, Buckling of Plates with Stiffening Elastically Restrained Edges,

Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 120, No. 2, February 1994.

[32] M. Kim, K. Chang and G. Lee Elastic and Inelastic Buckling Analysis of Then-Walled

Tapered Members, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 123, No. 7, July 1997.

[33] Alexander Chajes, Stability Behavior Illustrated by Simple Model Journal of the

Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 95, No. st6, June 1968.

Technical Reports:

[34] George Trayer and H. March. Elastic Instability of Members Having Section Common

in Aircraft Construction, NACA, TN 382, October 1930.

[35] George Trayer and H. March. The Torsion of Members Having Sections Common in

Aircraft Construction, NACA, TN 334, October 1930.

[36] H. Wagner and W. Pretschner, Torsion and Buckling of Open Sections, NACA, TM

784, 1934.

[37] H. Wagner, Torsion and Buckling of Open Sections, NACA, TM 807, 1934.

[38] W. Hoff, Commutative Examination of Bending Strength of Girders Originally Curved

and Subjected to Longitudinal Compression, NACA, TN 151, April 1922.

[39] Eugene Lundquist and Walter Burke, General Equations for the Stress Analysis of

Rings, NACA, TN 509, August 1934.

[40] Bernaed Budiansky and Pai Hu, The Lagrangian Multiplier Method Of Finding Upper

and Lower Limits to Critical Stresses of Clamped Plates, NACA, TN 848, May 1946.

[41] Y. Fung and A. Kaplan, Buckling of Low Arches or Curved Beams of Small

Curvature, NACA, TN2840, November 1952.

[42] Bernaed Budiansky, Manuel Stein and Arther Gilbert, Buckling of A Long Square Tube

in Torsion, NACA, TN 1751, September 1948.

[43] L. Donnell, Stability of Thin-Walled Tubes under Torsion, NACA, TN 479, May 1933.

[44] J. Thompson, Eigen value Branching Configurations and the Rayleigh-Ritz procedure,

NACA TR 8, June 1963.

[45] J. Thompson, Basic Concepts of Elastic Stability, NACA TR 6, February 1963.

[46] B. Budiansky, P. Hu and R. Connor, Notes on the Lagrangian Multiplier Method in

Elastic Stability Analysis, NACA, TN 1558, May 1948.

129

[47] National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), Improved Design

Specifications for Horizontally Curved Steel Girder Highway Bridges, reports number

NCHRP 12-38, June 1999.

[48] National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), LRFD Specifications for

Horizontally Curved Steel Girder Highway Bridges, reports number NCHRP 12-52,

October 2005

7.4 Bibliography

[1] A. R. Forsyth (1951). Sixth Edition. A Treatise on Differential Equations, MacMillan and

Co., Limited.

[2] Bartholomew Price (1856). A Treatise on Infinitesimal Calculus, Oxford at the

University Press.

[3] George Boole (1859). Fifth Edition. A Treatise on Differential Equations, Chelsea

Publishing Co.

[4] S. Britvec (1973). The Stability of Elastic Systems, Pergamon Press Inc.

[5] A. Ugural and S. Fenster (1987). Advanced Strength and Applied Elasticity, Elsevier

Publishing.

[6] I. Sokolnikoff (1956). Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, McGraw-Hill Co.

[7] Elbridge Stowell, Critical Compressive Stress for Curved Sheet Supported Along All

Edges and Elastically Restrained Against Rotation Along the Unloaded Edges NACA,

RB 3107, September 1943.

[8] N. Hoff, Bending and Buckling of Rectangular Sandwich Plates, NACA, TN 2225,

May 1949.

[9] E. Reissner and M. Stein, Torsion and Transverse Bending of Cantilever Plates,

NACA, TN 2369, March 1951.

[10] P. Hu, E. Lundquist and S. Batdorf, Effect of Small Deviations from Flatness on

Effective width and Buckling of Plates in Compression, NACA, TN 1124, September

1946.

[11] N. Hoff, P. Libby and B. Klein, Calculation of the Bending Moment in Fuselage

Frames, NACA, TN 998, April, 1946.

[12] A. H. Sheikh. New Concept to Include Shear Deformation in a Curved Beam Element,

Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 128, No. 3, March, 2002.

130

[13] J. Daro Aristizbal-Ochoa, Large Deflection Stability of Slender Beam-Columns with

Semirigid Connections: Elastica Approach, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol.

130, No. 3, March 2004.

[14] S. Chucheepsakul, S. Buncharoen and C. Wang, Elastica of Simple Variable-Arc-

Length Beam Subjected to End Moment Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 121,

No. 7, July 1995.

[15] Somchai Chucheepsakul, Suraphan Buncharoen, and Tseng Huang Elastica of Simple

Variable-Arc-Length Beam Subjected to End Moment Journal of Engineering.

Mechanics, Vol. 121, No. 7, July 1995.

[16] Raymond H. Plaut, David A. Dillard, and Lawrence N. Virgin, "Post-buckling of Elastic

Columns with Second-Mode Imperfection Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 132,

No. 8, August 2006.

[17] Wibisono Hartono, Discussion: Elastica of Simple Variable-Arc-Length Beam

Subjected to End Moment Journal of Engineering Mechanics, January 1997.

[18] John J. Zahn, Lateral Stability of Beams with Elastic End restraints, Journal of

Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 111, No. 4, April, 1985.

[19] John J. Zahn,Loss of Torsional Stiffness Caused by Beam Loading, Journal of

Structural Engineering, Vol. 110, No. 1, January 1984.

[20] A. Kounadis and G. Ioannidis Lateral Post-buckling Analysis of Beam Column,

Journal of Engineering Mechanics, Vol. 120, No. 4, April, 1994.

131

Appendix A

The Elastica and Post Buckling of Initially Curved Columns

Although the elastica phenomenon has been known for more than two centuries and the exact

solution has been obtained by Kirchhoff in 1859, interest on this topic still remains. NASA in

building Space station uses a large light weight truss structure members. At the design stage in

some Offshore Structures and Deep Ocean mining the total strut length cannot be specified due to

the large deflection. Buckled elastic column in some cases can be used as a compression spring,

since after buckling the column will continue to support its buckling load, while over a

considerable deflection range the slope of its load-shorting curve may satisfy some test

requirements. In this paper an approximate method is presented to analyze this class of large

deflection problems, of course this is an old structural stability problems, and the most common

solutions to this class of problems is the elliptical integral, where tables are utilized to obtain the

numerical values for the critical loads and the corresponding deflection parameters.

P

+

0

y

y

P

Y

X

Figure A.1: Imperfect Elastic Strut Under Axial Comprission

Let us consider an initially curved in extensional elastic slender column, hinged at both ends and

free to slide on one end with constant EI , and is subjected to an axial compressive force P . Let

y denote the deformed shape or deflection and

0

y is the initial imperfection of the column, taking

the coordinate axes as shown figure A.1, then the exact differential equation of equilibrium is

( )

o

y y P

s d

d

EI + =

(A.1)

Where s denotes the arc length of the deflection curve measured from one end, and is angle

between the tangent to the curve and the horizontal x axis.

Let the initial imperfection be expressed by the half-sine

132

L

s

y

o

sin = (A.2)

And we have the relation

s d

d

d

d

s d

y d

s d

d

s d

y d

sin

2

2

= = (A.3)

The above expression gives

2

2

sec

s d

y d

s d

d

= (B.4)

Substituting equation (A.4) into equation (A.1) and rearranging

( ) 0 cos

2

2

2

= + +

o

y y k

s d

y d

(A.5)

Where, the following expressions have been used

EI

P

k =

2

And sin =

s d

y d

The variable coefficient cos in equation (A.5) makes the problem very difficult and we can

overcome this difficulty by small substitution, since the domain of the angle is [ ] , , then

it is possible with a high degree of accuracy to assume the value 2 / as the mean domain value,

i.e. (see below for proof of this approximation)

2 2

0

=

+

= (A.6)

The relation for the mean value of cos will be given by

2

cos

2

cos cos

= == (A.7)

Then the second term in the left hand side of equation (A.5) can be written as

( ) ( )ds y y ds y y

o

L L

+ +

0

0

0

2

cos cos

(A.8)

From the above discussion, equation (A.5) becomes

( ) 0

2

cos

2

2

2

= + +

o

y y k

s d

y d

(A.9)

Equation (A.9) is the new differential equation of equilibrium in the linear form, with a constant

coefficient, and the solution is well known. Substitution of equation (A.2) in to equation (A.9)

gives

133

L

s

k y k

s d

y d

sin

2

cos

2

cos

2 2

2

2

= + (A.10)

The general solution to equation (A.10) is given by

L

s

C s B s A y

sin cos sin + + = (A.11a)

Where

2

cos

2 2

k = and

1

1

2 2

2

=

L

C

(A.11b)

And the arbitrary constants in equation (A.11) are evaluated from the boundary conditions, and

the final solution is

L

s

L

y

sin

1

2 2

2

= (A.12)

From equation (A.12) we obtain

e

P

L

EI

P

2

sec

2

sec

2

2

= = (A.13)

Where P is the post buckling load,

0

P is the well known Euler Load multiplied by the load

magnification factor. The maximum deflection is simply obtained as follow:

Multiplying equation (A.1) thru by dy gives

( )dy y y k dy

ds

d

o

+ =

2

(A.14)

Rearranging we get

( )dy y y k d

o

+ =

2

sin (A.15)

Integration of the above expression gives

( ) C y y

2

k

cos

2

o

2

2

+ + =

(A.16)

Where C is an arbitrary constant, applying the boundary condition we obtain

( )

2 2

2

2

cos cos

o

y y

k

+ = (A.17)

Rearranging we obtain

( )

2

2

2

cos cos

2

o

y

k

y = (A.18)

The deflection at any point in the curve is

134

( )

2

2

cos cos

2

o

y

k

y = (A.19)

The deflection at mid-height is given by

( )

2

2

m

cos 1

k

2

y =

(A.20)

The total deflection at mid-height is

+ =

m

y y

(A.21)

( )

+ =

2

2

cos 1

2

k

y (A.22)

In term of Eulers load

( )

+ =

2 e

cos 1 2

P

P L

y

(A.23)

Substituting equation (B.13) in equation (B.23) gives

( )

+ =

2

cos 1

2

cos 2

1

L

y

(A.24)

In the case where there is no initial imperfection we have

( )

cos 1

2

cos 2

1

L

y

=

(A.25)

The coordinate

ds cos ds

ds

dx

dx x

= = =

(A.26)

Substituting equation (A.17) in to equation (A.26) we get

( ) ds cos y y

2

k

x

2

o

2

2

+ + =

(A.27)

Let us assume that the deflection curve can be represented by the simple half-sine curve

L

s

sin y y

=

(A.28)

Substitution of equations (B.2) and (B.28) into equation (B.27) gives

( ) ds

L

s

sin y

2

k

cos x

2 2 2

2

+ + =

(A.29)

Upon integration we obtain

135

( )

2

L

y

2

k

L cos x

2 2

2

+ + =

(A.30)

Rearranging and simplifying

( )

2 2

2

2

2

2

y

L

L EI 4

p

cos

L

x

+ + =

(A.31)

Then we will have

+ =

2 2

2

e

L L

y

4 P

p

cos

L

x

(A.32)

In the case where there is no initial imperfection curve the relation takes the reduced form

2

2

e

L

y

4 P

p

cos

L

x

+ =

(A.33)

Equations (A.13), (A.23) and (A.32) can be used to evaluate the post buckling behavior of the

elastica. The following tables give comparison with data obtained by elliptical integral method as

shown in reference 5 for an elastic bar with no initial imperfection.

Table A.1 Post buckling Load data for the buckled column

20 40 60 80 100 120 140

e

P P

1.015 1.064 1.154 1.305 1.555 2.000 2.924

Ref. 5 1.015 1.063 1.152 1.293 1.518 1.884 2.541

Table A.2 Post buckling deflection data

20 40 60 80 100 120 140

L y

0.109 0.211 0.296 0.358 0.391 0.390 0.350

Ref. 5 0.11 0.211 0.296 0.359 0.396 0.402 0.375

Table A.3 Post buckling x coordinates data

20 40 60 80 100 120 140

L x

0.969 0.883 0.749 0.586 0.413 0.25 0.11

Ref. 5 0.970 0.881 0.741 0.560 0.349 0.123 -0.1

136

Proof of equation (A.9)

Equation (A.5) can be written as

( ) 0 cos

2

= + + ds y y k

s d

dy

d

o

(A.1.1)

Upon integration we get

( ) 0 cos

0

2

= + +

ds y y k

s d

dy

o

L

(A.1.2)

Which is equivalent to

( ) 0

0

2

= + +

dx y y k

s d

dy

o

L

(A.1.3)

Where the expression cos =

s d

x d

have been used, and it is clear from equation (A.1.3) that

( ) f dx y y

o

L

= +

0

(A.1.4)

Where, f is the area bounded by the deflection curve, then by definition f is a continuous

function defined over the interval [ ] , and can be expressed by the sum of small

infinitesimal areas, i.e.

( )dx y y f

o

L

0

+ =

i

n

1 i

i i i

n

1 i

i

s y cos x y

= =

= (A.1.5)

Let us choose the area

i i

s y such that

i i 2 2 1 1

s y s y s y = = = (A.1.6)

From equations (A.1.5) and (A.1.6) we should have

= =

=

n

i

i i i i

n

i

i i

s y s y

1 1

cos cos (A.1.7)

The last term in the right hand side of equation (A.1.7) can be written as

cos n cos n cos

n

1 i

i

= =

=

(A.1.8)

Where and cos is the mean values, then we have

=

=

n

1 i

i

n

(A.1.9)

137

Since n is an arbitrary number, then equation (A.1.9) is true for any value of n, let n be equal to

2, then = =

2 1

0 and

And we should have

2 2

0

=

+

= (A.1.10)

Then by equations (A.1.9), (A.1.8), and (A.1.5), we obtain

i

n i

i

i i i

s y

n

s y n f =

=

=1

cos

2

cos

(A.1.11)

And we obtain

( )ds y y f

o

+

2

cos

(A.1.12)

The proof is complete at this point

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