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# Fall 2007

## Point Data Analysis:

Geometric Measures

Naijun Zhou
Department of Geography
University of Maryland
September 19, 2007

Lecture outline

## 1. Properties of spatial distributions

2. Distance between a pair of points
3. Central tendency of point distributions
4. Spatial dispersion of point distributions
5. Direction of point distributions
6. Raster data

## 1.1 Geometric properties

• For a single geospatial object: area, shape
• For a set of geospatial objects: center, distance,
direction, landscape indicators.

## Geog473, Fall 2007

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -1-
1.2 First-order spatial variation
• Observations vary from place to place due to changes in
the underlying properties of the local “environment”.
• Example: more crimes may occur in places of higher
population density.

## 1.3 Second-order spatial variation

• The existence of an observation is due to interactions
with other observations.
• Example: crimes tend to be clustered.

## 2.1 Euclidean distance

The Euclidean distance between two points at locations
(x1, y1) and (x2, y2) in Euclidean Cartesian space:
Y
(x2, y2)

(x1, y1)
X

de = ( x1 − x2 ) 2 + ( y1 − y2 ) 2

## 2.2 Manhattan distance

The Manhattan distance is the shortest walking/driving
distance in a city laid out in square blocks, like Manhattan.
(x2, y2)

(x1, y1)

dm =| x1 − x2 | + | y1 − y2 |

## Geog473, Fall 2007

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -2-
2.3 Distance along a path
(x2, y2)
Y
(xb, yb)

(xa, ya)
(x1, y1)
X
n
dp = ∑ d i di is the Euclidean distance of segment i.
i =1

## Let (xi, yi), i=1, 2, …, N, be the coordinates of N points

in the study area.

## • The average x-coordinate and average y-coordinate for

all points in the study area.
• The mean center of the points is ( X , Y )
N N
xi y
X =∑ ,Y = ∑ i
i =1 N i =1 N
• Mean center can be used to
9indicate the average location
9track changes of a point distribution
9compare point distributions

## Geog473, Fall 2007

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -3-
3.2 Median center (center of minimum distance)

## • The median center (Xe, Ye) is a location that has the

shortest total distance to all points.
• The median center is usually a new location instead of
one of the N points.
• X e , Ye minimizes

N
i =1
( xi − X e ) 2 + ( yi − Ye ) 2
• Median center can be used to
9find the most accessible location: e.g., find a new
factory location that minimizes the sum of transport
costs (e.g., for raw materials or markets).
9track changes of a point distribution
9compare point distributions

## • A central feature (Xc, Yc) is the point at which the total

distance to all other points is the shortest.
• (Xc, Yc) is one of the N points that has the minimum value of
N

∑ i =1
( xi − X C ) 2 + ( yi − YC ) 2

## • Central feature can be used to

9find the most accessible location: find a location that
minimizes the sum of transport costs.
9track changes of a point distribution
9compare point distributions

N N
Xh = N ,Y = N
1 h 1

i =1 xi
∑i =1 yi

## Geog473, Fall 2007

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -4-
3.5 Using weights in computing centers
• A weight indicates how important a geospatial object is.
• The centers are biased toward locations with high
weights.

A 1 1 10
B 3 3 20
C 4 2 5

mean center is:

∑ ∑
N N
wi xi wi yi
Xw = i =1
Yw = i =1

∑ ∑
N N
i =1
wi i =1
wi

## • Weighted median center

If the weight of a point (xi, yi) is wi, the weighted
median center is (Xwe, Ywe) that minimizes:

N
i =1
wi ( xi − X we ) 2 + ( yi − Ywe ) 2

## Geog473, Fall 2007

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -5-
4. Spatial dispersion of point distributions

around a center.

## 4.1 Standard deviation of the x and y coordinates

Standard deviation measures the spatial variations in x
and y coordinates.
N
( xi − X ) 2
Sx = ∑
i =1 N −1
N
( yi − Y ) 2
Sy = ∑
i =1 N −1
X , Y is the mean center of the points

## 4.2 Standard distance deviation

• Standard distance (deviation) indicates the average
distance to the mean center.

∑ ( xi − X ) 2 + ∑i =1 ( yi − Y ) 2
N N

SD = i =1
N −2

## Geog473, Fall 2007

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -6-
SD
2*SD 3*SD
Mean center

## • One SD covers more than 60% of the points.

• Two SD covers more than 95% of the points.
• Three SD covers more than 99% of the points.

## • Standard deviational ellipse

9 Spatial distributions may be
directional.
9 3 components describing a
standard deviational ellipse:
1) the angle of clockwise North
rotation (θ) from north
Y
2) the standard deviation along θ
x axis (Sx)
3) the standard deviation along Sy Sx
y axis (Sy) X

## 1) calculate the coordinates of the mean center, ( X , Y ),

which is the center of the ellipse.
2) For each point, (xi ,yi), transform its coordinate by:
xi' = xi − X
yi' = yi − Y
After this transformation, all points center at the
ellipse center.

## Geog473, Fall 2007

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -7-
N N N N N

∑x '2
− ∑ yi' + (∑ xi' − ∑ yi' ) 2 + 4(∑ xi yi ) 2
2 2 2 ' '
i
tan θ = i =1 i =1 i =1
N
i =1 i =1

2∑ xi' yi'
i =1

Y x (x,y) x
tan θ =
y y
θ
X

## θ takes a value between [-90, 90]

If θ is positive, clockwise rotate θ from north
If θ is negative, clockwise rotation (360+θ) from north

## 4) Calculate the standard deviations along x-axis and y-axis

∑ ( x cosθ − y sin θ )
'
i
'
i
2

Sx = 2× i =1
N −2

∑ ( x sin θ − y cosθ )
'
i
'
i
2

Sy = 2× i =1
N −2

## The longer axis (deviation) is called major axis (a),

the shorter axis (deviation) is called minor axis (b),
the eccentricity e is:

a 2 − b2
e=
a
As e approaches 0, the ellipse becomes a circle.
As e approaches 1, the ellipse flattens to a line.

## Geog473, Fall 2007

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -8-
• Exercise: calculate the standard deviational ellipse of
three locations (1,1), (3,3), (4,2)

3 3, 3
Y

2 4, 2

1 1, 1

0
0 1 2 3 4 5
X

N =3
1+ 3 + 4 8
X= = = 2.67
3 3
1+ 3 + 2 6
Y= = =2
3 3
4

3 3, 3

2 2.67, 2 4, 2

1 1, 1

0
0 1 2 3 4 5

## x1' = x1 − X = 1 − 2.67 = −1.67

y1' = y1 − Y = 1 − 2 = −1

## x2' = x2 − X = 3 − 2.67 = 0.33

y2' = y2 − Y = 3 − 2 = 1

## x3' = x31 − X = 4 − 2.67 = 1.33

y4' = y4 − Y = 2 − 2 = 0

## Geog473, Fall 2007

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -9-
Step 3: calculate the angle θ
N N N N N

∑x '2
− ∑ yi' + (∑ xi' − ∑ yi' ) 2 + 4(∑ xi yi ) 2
2 2 2 ' '
i

tan θ = i =1 i =1 i =1
N
i =1 i =1

2∑ xi' yi'
i =1
N N

∑x −∑ y
i =1
'2
i
i =1
'2
i = [(−1.67) 2 + 0.332 + 1.332 ] − [(−1) 2 + 12 + 0 2 ] = 2.67
N

## ∑ xi' yi' = (−1.67) * (−1) + 0.33 *1 + 1.33 * 0 = 2

i =1

2.67 + 2.67 2 + 4 * 2 2
tan θ = = 1.87
2*2
cosθ = 0.47, sinθ = 0.88

3 3, 3 Y
θ =61.9º
2 2.67, 2 4, 2

1 1, 1

X
0
0 1 2 3 4 5

## Step 4: calculate Sx and Sy

N N

∑ ( x cos θ − y sin θ )
'
i
'
i
2
∑ ( x sin θ − y cos θ )
'
i
'
i
2

Sx = 2 × i =1
Sy = 2× i =1

N −2 N −2

## [(−1.67) *0.47− (−1) *0.88)]2 +[0.33*0.47−1*0.88]2 +[1.33*0.47− 0*0.88]2

Sx = 2×
3− 2
0.0091+ 0.5255+ 0.3908
= 2* =1.36
1

## [(−1.67)*0.88− (−1) *0.47)]2 +[0.33*0.88−1*0.47]2 +[1.33*0.88− 0*0.47]2

Sy = 2×
3− 2
0.9992+ 0.0323+1.3698
= 2* = 2.19
1

## Geog473, Fall 2007

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -10-
4

Y
9
3 3, 3 2.1
θ =61.9º
2 2.67, 2 4, 2

1.3
6
1 1, 1

X
0
0 1 2 3 4 5

## Because Sx = 1.36 and Sy = 2.19, we have

a=2.19, b=1.36, then,

a2 − b2 2.19 2 − 1.36 2
e= = = 0.78
a 2.19

## The ellipse tends to be flat.

6. Raster data
• Geospatial objects can be represented as raster or
vector data.

## Geog473, Fall 2007

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -11-
• Raster as a data model:
9 Reality: a continuous field
9 Conceptual model: values at anywhere in the field
9 Logical model: an array of pixels covering the field
and each pixel has a value
9 Physical model:
 A 2-dimensional array of pixels (row, column)
 A file header describing the number of rows and
columns, size of each pixel, and coordinate of
corner of the array, etc.

## • Raster data can represent continuous subjects, e.g.,

distance to public schools.

Legend (meter)

## Geog473, Fall 2007

Naijun Zhou, Department of Geography, UMD -12-