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International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)

Volume 1, Issue 6, June 21!" I##$ 2%!& ' !&(%



)) * + 21!, IJAFRC All Ri,hts Reserved ---"i.afrc"or,
Improvin, Capacit/ and 0oad 1istri2ution of a $ode 3sin,
Circular #ailin, Routin, In 4ireless $et-or5"
Ms. Roshni S. Golhar, Prof. Ravindra. D. Kale (Asst. Prof.)
Department of computer science and engineering, G. . Raisoni !nstitute of "ngineering and #echnolog$
for %omen &agpur, !ndia.
'
roshni.golhar(gmail.com,
)
ravi.ucoe(rediffmail.com

A 6 # 7 R A C 7
Routin, in -ireless net-or5s has 2een heavil/ studied in the last decade" In mo2ile ad'hoc
net-or5 (8A$97s) can route travelled 2/ a pac5et from the source to the destination usuall/
consists of multiple hops -here intermediate nodes act as rela/s" 7he pac5ets usuall/ follo- the
shortest path 2et-een source and destination in routin, protocols to achieve smallest travelled
distance" :o-ever, this leads to the uneven distri2ution of traffic load in a net-or5" 7he -ireless
nodes in the center of the net-or5 -ill have heavier traffic" #ince most of the shortest routes ,o
throu,h them" 7here are man/ al,orithms availa2le in the load 2alancin, and improvin, capacit/
techni;ue" In this paper, descri2e a novel routin, al,orithm called Circular #ailin, Routin, (C#R),
-hich -e can distri2ute the traffic more evenl/ in the net-or5" 6ased on our stud/, found to
reduced traffic distri2ution and capacit/ of a node in the -ireless net-or5 compared to an/ other
al,orithm" 7his is 2ecause the/ proposed maps in the net-or5 onto a sphere via a simple
stereo,raphic pro.ection and then the route decision is made 2/ the distance on the sphere
instead of 9uclidean distance in the plane"

Inde< 7erms= capacit/, dela/, po-er control, pac5et redundanc/, mo2ile ad'hoc net-or5s
(8A$97s)

I" I$7R>13C7I>$

#he o*+ective of load *alancing and improving capacit$ of a node in the ,ireless net,or- to avoid uneven
load distri*ution in the random net,or- using s$mmetric paths. %hile using novel routing algorithm
called .SR using A/D0 protocol. A load *alancing routing for large ,ireless net,or-s. 1$ spreading the
traffic across the ,ireless net,or- via the ela*orate design of the routing algorithm, load *alancing
routing averages the energ$ consumption. 2oad *alancing is also useful for reducing congestion hot spots
thus reducing ,ireless collisions. #he .SR transmits over a circular segment in net,or-. #he .SR is
mapping all ,ireless nodes in )D net,or- and 3D sphere via stereographic pro+ection surface is
s$mmetric path *ecause to communicate on the surface and traffic load is uniforml$ distri*uted in
net,or- .Routing algorithm is to find an optimal route for each pair of source and destination in a given
net,or-. !n .SR, ,ireless nodes in a )D net,or- are mapped to a sphere using reversed stereographic
pro+ection and the routing decision is made *ased on the circular distance on the sphere instead of the
"uclidean distance in )D plane. 1$ doing this,, the traffic from one side to another side of the net,or-
area ,ill avoid the center area. #hus, 4hot spots5 are eliminated and the load is *alanced. #he current
routing protocols are used on shortest path algorithm ,here in ,hich the pac-ets travel via shortest path
*et,een a source and destination. "ven for the geographical locali6ed routing protocols, such as greed$
routing, the pac-ets usuall$ follo,s the shortest paths ,hen the net,or- is dense and uniforml$
distri*uted. #a-ing the shortest path can achieve smaller dela$ or traveled distance, ho,ever it can also
lead uneven distri*ution of traffic load in a net,or- communications. the nodes in the center of a
net,or- ma$ have heavier traffic than nodes in the peripher$ since most of the shortest routes go
through them. #hus, nodes in the center ma$ run out of their nodes ver$ 7uic-l$. #his is true in *oth )D
International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)
Volume 1, Issue 6, June 21!" I##$ 2%!& ' !&(%

)& * + 21!, IJAFRC All Ri,hts Reserved ---"i.afrc"or,
and 3D net,or-s. #he load *alancing routing average energ$ consumption. !t is also useful for reducing
congestion hot spots that reducing ,ireless collisions. #his algorithm can achieve *etter load *alancing
than shortest path routing. !t is clear that the load of .SR is more evenl$ distri*uted then to provide load
*alancing, higher throughput capacit$ and lo,er dela$.

!n .SR can *e easil$ implemented using an$ position8*ased routing protocols. Man$ routing protocols
,ere proposed for different purposes. 9or e:ample, there are po,er efficient routing for *etter energ$
efficienc$, cluster8*ased routing for *etter scala*ilit$ and geographical routing to reduce the overhead. !n
this paper, ,e are interested in designing a load *alancing routing for large ,ireless net,or-s. 1$
spreading the traffic across the ,ireless net,or- via the ela*orate design of the routing algorithm, load8
*alancing routing averages the energ$ consumption.

%e e:pect circular sailing routing can achieve *etter load *alancing than shortest path routing. #he
detailed routing algorithm is given as follo,s; #he .SR ,ill follo, some parameters are as follo,s; #he
!<P parameter to first maps the net,or- onto a sphere via a simple stereographic pro+ection and then the
route decision is made *$ the distance on the sphere instead of the "uclidean distance in the plane. /<P
parameter to the distance travelled *$ the pac-ets using .SR is no more than a small constant factor of
the minimum shortest path to improving capacit$, pac-et redundanc$ and traffic distri*ution in per node
or multiple nodes using .SR protocols for 3D net,or-s ,here nodes are distri*uted in a 3D space
instead of a )D plane.

#he rest of the paper is organi6ed as follo,s; !n section !!, ,e have related ,or- on the paper is placed. !n
section !!!, the Proposed Methodolog$ of the algorithm is ta-en place. !n section !0, ,e have the
Simulation Result. !n section 0, ,e have .onclusion areas placed. 9inall$, in section 0! ,e have the
references of s$stem.

II" R90A791 4>R?"

2oad *alancing routing for ,ireless net,or-s has *een studied in='>=?>.!t is use to understand the
fundamental net,or- throughput limit and thus serves as an instruction guideline for the net,or-
design, performance of optimi6ation MA&"#s under the (!ndependent of !denticall$ Distri*uted) i.i.d.
mo*ilit$ model, it is possi*le in .ircular Sailing Routing (.SR) *ased on stereographic pro+ection maps an
infinite plane onto a sphere. !n 2oad *alancing is also useful for reducing congestion hot spots thus
reducing ,ireless collisions to *alance the real time traffic in the net,or-. #he load *ased on the
-no,ledge of current load distri*ution (or current remaining energ$ distri*ution), ,hich is not ver$
scala*le for large ,ireless net,or-s .#he *asic idea of circular sailing routing is letting pac-et follo, the
circular shortest paths on the sphere instead of the "uclidean shortest path in )D plane *ecause there is
no hot spot on the sphere ,here most of the circular shortest paths must go through. !n =)> used the
traffic load of the intermediate nodes as the main route selection criteria. !n the routing construction
phase, each intermediate node records its current traffic load in the control pac-et. #he destination uses
this information to select the least loaded route. 9urther sho,ed that under uniform mo*ilit$ model, ,e
can still have the throughput even ,ith a variant of the t,o8hop rela$ scheme, ,here each pac-et is onl$
*roadcasted once *$ its source and all nodes that receive the pac-et ,ill act as its rela$s.

!n =@> .SR surface is s$mmetric path ,ill follo, *ecause to communicate nodes on the surface and traffic
load is uniforml$ distri*uted in net,or-. Since the surface of the sphere is s$mmetric, if nodes onl$
communicate on the surface and traffic demand is uniforml$ distri*uted in the net,or-, there ,ill *e no
cro,ded center effect on the spherical surface. esta*lished the e:act capacit$ of cell partitioned MA&"#s
International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)
Volume 1, Issue 6, June 21!" I##$ 2%!& ' !&(%

)@ * + 21!, IJAFRC All Ri,hts Reserved ---"i.afrc"or,
under *oth the i.i.d. mo*ilit$ model and the more general mar-ovian mo*ilit$ models, ,here it ,as
assumed that the transmission po,er (and thus transmission range) of each node is fi:ed and the
interference among simultaneous lin- transmissions can *e avoided *$ using orthogonal channels in
ad+acent cells.

!n ='A> a stereographic pro+ection can map an infinite plane onto a sphere and vice versa. #he mapping
method used *$ .SR, ,hich is a stereographic pro+ection. 9or a ,ireless net,or-. later e:tended the
a*ove ,or- to MA&"#s ,here the group8*ased scheduling is adopted to schedule simultaneous lin-
transmissions. #he simple load *alancing approach ,as proposed in ,hich allo,s each node to drop
RR"B or give up pac-et for,arding depending on its o,n traffic load. !f the traffic load is high, node ma$
deli*eratel$ give up pac-et for,arding to save its o,n energ$. #o e:plored the e:act capacit$ for the
MA&"#s *ased on a specific t,o8hop rela$ routing algorithm ,ith limited pac-et redundanc$, i.e., a
limited num*er of copies can *e dispatched for each pac-et, and further e:tended capacit$ anal$sis to the
scenario ,here each transmitter is allo,ed to conduct multiple rounds of pro*ing for identif$ing a
possi*le receiver. .losed8form models have also *een developed for achieva*le throughput anal$sis in a
directional antenna8*ased MA&"#s.

!n =A> =?> throughput capacit$ under a general setting of node transmission range remains un-no,n *$
no,. ,e stud$ multi8path routing ,as also used for load *alancing the e:act per node throughput
capacit$ of a MA&"# ,here the transmission po,er of each node can *e fle:i*l$ controlled such that the
transmission range can *e adapted to a specific value. o,ever, ,e sho,ed unless using a ver$ large
num*er of paths the load distri*ution is almost the same as multi path routing. All of the a*ove methods
are different from our proposed method. Cnli-e them, ,e assume that each node does not -no, the
current load information, and our approach focus on *alance the load for the ,hole net,or- under all8to8
all traffic scenario using a novel geometric techni7ue. !n $$tiDa and 0irtamo =)> studied ho, to avoid
the cro,ded center pro*lem *$ anal$6ing the load distri*ution of different routing methods in a dense
net,or-. #he$ not onl$ provided a general frame,or- to anal$6e the load distri*ution of a given set of
paths and traffic demands, *ut also proposed a randomi6ed choice *et,een shortest path and routing on
inner<outer radii to level the load ere, ,e assume that individual node does not -no, the current load
and each node ma$ ,ant to tal- ,ith all other nodes. %e then address ho, to design load *alancing
routing for all8to8all communication scenario in a net,or-. Most of routing protocols are *ased on
shortest path algorithm ,here the pac-ets are travelled via the shortest path *et,een a source and a
destination. "ven for the geographical locali6ed routing protocols, such as greed$ routing, the pac-ets
usuall$ follo, the shortest paths ,hen the net,or- is dense and uniforml$ distri*uted. !n this paper, ,e
proposed in algorithm ,hich ,ill provide traffic load is uniforml$ distri*uted ,ith high capacit$ of a
node in net,or-. So that, multi8hop ,ireless net,or- is proposed *$ us. considered a dense ,ireless
multi8hop net,or- at the limit ,hen the num*er of nodes is e:tremel$ large. #herefore, a t$pical routing
path in such a net,or- consists of a large num*er of hops "ven the$ can optimall$ handle ar*itrar$ traffic
distri*ution (other than all8to8all unit traffic here), .SR sends pac-ets over spherical shortest paths on
the surface of the sphere, ,hich are *ig circles of the sphere. Since stereographic pro+ection preserves
circles, all paths of .SR are also on circles in the )D plane. !n other ,ords, either .SR needs to transmit
pac-ets via nodes outside the net,or- (the unit dis-) or .SR ,ill choose longer paths ,ithin the unit
dis-. !n =''> for t,o nodes ,hose pro+ections are on the e7uator, there are infinite num*er of spherical
shortest paths on the surface of the sphere also studied ho, to avoid the cro,ded center pro*lem *$
anal$6ing the load pro*a*ilit$ in a dense net,or- proposed a randomi6ed choice *et,een shortest path
and routing on inner<outer radii to level the loads in the net,or-. ,e proposed in algorithms ,hich ,ill
provide traffic load is uniforml$ distri*uted ,ith high capacit$ of a nodes in net,or-. So that, multi8hop
,ireless net,or- is proposed *$ us.
International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)
Volume 1, Issue 6, June 21!" I##$ 2%!& ' !&(%

& * + 21!, IJAFRC All Ri,hts Reserved ---"i.afrc"or,

III" AR>A>#91 897:>1>0>BC

.ircular Sailing Routing Algorithm.is *een proposed to ,ireless net,or- in ,hich ,e have 9irst ta-e user
input nodes from the net,or- then arrange all the nodes in circular fashion. #hen to create transfer
agents(#.A.) of a node ,ith range (R) .#o move that transfer agents(#.A.) in net,or- then the$ ,ill ta-e a
decision if range(R) E#.A. then deliver data to the node create in ne, #.A. unless move #.A. in the
net,or-. %hen the data is delivered to net,or- then stop other,ise move to #.A. in net,or-. &o, again
chec- range of data and data deliver to the node create in ne, #.A. other,ise move to #.A. in ,ireless
net,or-. #he actual flo, of the s$stem model in ,hich first ta-e input of all nodes in input traffic *loc-
then create nodes and transfer to the agent creation *loc- ,ith the help of transfer agents (#.A), then
chec- range of agents and for,ard nodes to router. ,hile routing pac-et from source to destination in
,hich an$ node ,ill drop in that case transfer agent(#.A) ,ill reroute that node again and for,ard to the
pac-et deliver$ *loc- and finall$ send it to the output traffic of destination node in the net,or- . .SR can
*e easil$ implemented *ased on either shortest path routing or greed$ routing. #he onl$ modification is a
simple mapping calculation of the position information and the computational overhead is negligi*le.
#here are no changes to the communication protocol and no an$ additional communication overhead.
#o esta*lished the e:act capacit$ of cell partitioned MA&"#s under *oth the i.i.d. mo*ilit$ model and the
more general mar-ovian mo*ilit$ models, ,here it ,as assumed that the transmission po,er (and thus
transmission range) of each node is fi:ed and the interference among simultaneous lin- transmissions
can *e avoided *$ using orthogonal channels in ad+acent cells. !t is use to understand the fundamental
net,or- throughput limit and thus serves as an instruction guideline for the net,or- design,
performance of optimi6ation MA&"#s under the (!ndependent and !denticall$ Distri*uted) i.i.d. mo*ilit$
model, it is possi*le in .ircular Sailing Routing (.SR) *ased on stereographic pro+ection maps an infinite
plane onto a sphere.

#he implementation of research methodolog$ has *een done through &S). #he ta*le ! *elo, sho,s the
input parameter.
7a2le I. Input Aarameter
#r" $o Aarameters 1escription
' Routing Parameter A/D0
) &odes 3F
3 Agents Sin- and CDP
G 1ounded Region @FFH@FF

#a*le ' a*ove sho,s the comparison of results *et,een the proposed method and the .SR algorithm
*ased on time elapsed and energ$ consumption. !t can *e seen that the proposed s$stem not onl$
re7uires less time *ut also in most cases has the *etter load *alancing of nodes in net,or-.

#he proposed mechanism of .SR algorithm of improving capacit$ and load distri*ution of a node for
,ireless net,or-s. !t is divided into si: modules in order to facilitate its anal$sis. Module !, ,ill onl$ form
nodes and connections in random ,ireless net,or- in )D pro+ection ,ith distance has to *e calculated.
Module !!, it ,ould ta-e data from nodes and store it in its memor$. Module !!! e:plains to transfer
multiple nodes from source to destination nodes ,ith help of range should *e chec-ed in net,or-.
Module !0, to chec- movement of the nodes and to rerouting ,ill *e designed. Module 0, to delivered the
pac-ets from source to destination nodes ,ill *e developed. Module 0! it is re7uired for testing the
proper ,or-ing of .SR Algorithm.

International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)
Volume 1, Issue 6, June 21!" I##$ 2%!& ' !&(%

&1 * + 21!, IJAFRC All Ri,hts Reserved ---"i.afrc"or,
#he modus operandi of these modules is e:plained in detail as follo,s;

#tep1= &et,or- formation module, !n this module to form nodes and connections in random ,ireless
net,or-.
#tep2= Data Gathering module, !n this module, to ta-e nodes from the net,or- and store it in memor$.
#tep%= #ransfer Agent module, !n this module, to transfer multiple nodes from source to destination
nodes ,ith help of range should *e chec-ed in net,or-.
#tep!= Agent Range Movement .hec- module, !n this module, to chec- movement of the nodes and to
rerouting that nodes ,ill *e designed.
#tep(= Pac-et Deliver$ module, !n this module, to delivered the pac-ets from source to destination nodes
,ill *e developed.
#tep6= Result Module, !n this module, to displa$ output ,hile using .SR algorithm.

.SR sends pac-ets over spherical shortest paths on the surface of the sphere, ,hich are *ig circles of the
sphere. Since stereographic pro+ection preserves circles, all paths of .SR are also on circles in the )D
plane. !n other ,ords, either .SR needs to transmit pac-ets via nodes outside the net,or- (the unit dis-)
or .SR ,ill choose longer paths ,ithin the unit dis-. ,e proposed in algorithms ,hich ,ill provide traffic
load is uniforml$ distri*uted ,ith high capacit$ of a nodes in net,or-. So that, multi8hop ,ireless
net,or- is proposed *$ us. =''>.



Fi,ure 1" Flo- chart for Circular #ailin, Routin, Al,orithm


International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)
Volume 1, Issue 6, June 21!" I##$ 2%!& ' !&(%

&2 * + 21!, IJAFRC All Ri,hts Reserved ---"i.afrc"or,
IV" #I830A7I>$ R9#307

.SR sends pac-ets over spherical shortest paths on the surface of the sphere, ,hich are *ig circles of the
sphere. Since stereographic pro+ection preserves circles, all paths of .SR are also on circles in the )D
plane. !n other ,ords, either .SR needs to transmit pac-ets via nodes outside the net,or- (the unit dis-)
or .SR ,ill choose longer paths ,ithin the unit dis-.,e proposed in algorithms ,hich ,ill provide traffic
load is uniforml$ distri*uted ,ith high capacit$ of a nodes in net,or-. So that, multi8hop ,ireless
net,or- is proposed *$ us. =''>.

Euclidean distance= [(X2-X1) ^2+ (Y2-Y1) ^2] (')

#he "uclidean distance formula is sho,n in e7uation ('). !n this formula I and J are the source and
destination of the nodes. &um*er of nodes is the varia*le ,hich ,ill *e calculated according to the
distance *et,een source and destination. !t chec-s ho, to transmit the data ,ith optimal retransmission
using .SR Algorithm. !t finds closest path from the source node and it ,ill chec- this till the destination
node. Accordingl$ &et,or- 9ormation module is *een formed.



Fi,ure 2" Initial $ode 1iscover/

#he 9ig.) sho,s that .onfigure the nodes in the net,or- and then to set up the node positions for
creating GF nodes and transmitting pac-et ,ith help of ,ireless channel. ere, set the *ottle nec- value
for transmission data and used as routing protocol. #he implementation of research methodolog$ is *een
done through &S). #he ta*le ! *elo, sho,s the input parameter. #he ,ireless sensor net,or- has *een
deplo$ed 3F sensor nodes. A/D0 routing is used as a routing protocol. %ith the help of these input data
from &am file is *een created. !n the &am file, one node is selected as a source node and another node is
selected as a destination node. 9urther distance of the nodes has *een calculated to generate optimal
path. After that it calculates "uclidean distance formulae. #he formula ,hich is used to calculate distance
*et,een the t,o nodes in net,or- is as follo,s.

#he a*ove is the code for creating method sending a pac-et and receiving a pac-et from source node to
destination node ,ith the help of transfer agent(#.A) ,hich sho,s shortest path in nam output file. 9ig )
sho,s that path ,hich is the most li-el$ shortest path. Data Gathering Module sho,s the optimal path in
mesh topolog$. According to the optimal path output parameter is *een evaluated.
International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)
Volume 1, Issue 6, June 21!" I##$ 2%!& ' !&(%

&% * + 21!, IJAFRC All Ri,hts Reserved ---"i.afrc"or,


Fi,ure %"1ela/ Braph

%e therefore conclude that our proposed (.SR) algorithm using &S) simulator. 9ig 3, sho,s dela$ graph
for the proposed algorithm. !n 9igure G :8a:is gives dela$ of the net,or- ,ith respective time and $8a:is
depicts the load *alancing for ,ireless net,or-s to avoid the uneven load distri*ution caused *$ shortest
path routing or greed$ routing. #he results prove that traffic across a virtual )D net,or- ,hich is
mapped from the net,or-, .SR can reduce hot spots in the net,or-s and increase the energ$ lifetime of
the net,or-. #he results sho, that proposed algorithm of .SR can *e easil$ implemented using an$
e:isting position8*ased routing protocols ,ithout an$ ma+or changes or additional overhead. .SR can
achieve the *est load *alancing in a large scale dense multi hop net,or-.

V" C>$C03#I>$

%e therefore conclude that our proposed (.SR) algorithm for ,ireless net,or-s to avoid the uneven load
distri*ution caused *$ shortest path routing or greed$ routing. 1$ spreading the traffic across a )D
net,or- ,hich is mapped from the net,or-, .SR can reduce hot spots in the net,or-s and increase the
energ$ lifetime of the net,or-. .SR can *e easil$ implemented using an$ e:isting position8*ased routing
protocols ,ithout an$ ma+or changes or additional overhead. .SR can achieve the *est load *alancing in a
large scale dense multi hop net,or-. !t is prove that .SR is more evenl$ distri*uted then to provide load
*alancing, higher throughput capacit$ and lo,er dela$.

VI" R9F9R9$C9#

='> Kia+ia 2iu,Iiaohong ,Kiang, iro-i &ishi$ama,5 #hroughput .apacit$ of MA&"#s ,ith Po,er
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school of information sciences, #oho-u Cniversit$, )F'3, technical report *logspot.com)F').
International Journal of Advance Foundation and Research in Computer (IJAFRC)
Volume 1, Issue 6, June 21!" I##$ 2%!& ' !&(%

&! * + 21!, IJAFRC All Ri,hts Reserved ---"i.afrc"or,
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