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Konrad Adenauer-(b. Cologne, 5 Jan. 1876; d. 19 Apr. 1967) German; Chanellor o!

"ederal #epubl$
o! German% 19&9 ' 6(, h$e! ma%or o! Cologne 1917 ' (( )oge*her +$*h Kohl, Adenauer mu,* ran- a,
*he mo,* ,ue,,!ul German pol$*$$an ,$ne 19&5. .e led *he /e,* German, !rom be$ng *he mo,* ha*ed
and de,p$,ed people o! 0urope $n 19&5, *o be$ng among,* *he mo,* repe*ed and ,ue,,!ul b% *he la*e
1951,. 2o one ould ha3e pred$*ed h$, r$,e, or *ha* o! *he !u*ure /e,* German ,*a*e, $n 19&5.
Adenauer +a, *he ,on o! a $3$l ,er3an* and, a!*er gradua*$ng $n la+ and eonom$,, embar-ed on a
legal areer $n *he publ$ ,er3$e. .e *urned la*er *o pol$*$,, 4o$n$ng *he Ca*hol$ Cen*re 5ar*% $n 1916.
0le*ed *o *he Cologne $*% oun$l, he +a, pu* $n harge o! !ood ,uppl$e, a!*er *he ou*brea- o! +ar $n
191&. "rom 1917 *o 19(( he +a, h$e! ma%or o! Cologne, gu$d$ng h$, !ello+ $*$6en, *hrough *he ,ho-
o! de!ea*, 7upa*$on (1918 ' 86), and *hen, a!*er br$e! pro,per$*%, *hrough *he r$,$, %ear, *o 19((. .$,
de*ra*or, la*er la$med *ha* dur$ng *h$, per$od he +a, prepared *o ma-e *oo man% one,,$on, *o *he
"renh and e3en d$,u,, *he ,e**$ng up o! a ,epara*e /e,* German ,*a*e. )he 2a6$, remo3ed Adenauer
!rom o!!$e, pen,$on$ng h$m o!!. .e l$3ed 9u$e*l% un*$l arre,*ed $n a general round up a!*er *he 81 Jul%
19&& bomb plo* aga$n,* .$*ler. .e rema$ned $n pr$,on !or *hree mon*h,.
:n 19&5 *he Amer$an, re$n,*a*ed Adenauer a, ma%or bu* *he ;r$*$,h, +ho replaed *hem, la*er remo3ed
h$m. Al*hough 69 he +a, ele*ed ha$rman o! *he Chr$,*$an <emora*$ =n$on $n *he ;r$*$,h >one $n
19&6. .e had helped *o !ound *h$, par*% +h$h, ba-ed b% *he Ca*hol$ hurh, +a, mean* *o ,uper,ede
*he old Cen*re 5ar*%, and reah ou* be%ond Ca*hol$,. :* +ould omba* *he ?ar@$,m o! *he le!*, bu*
+ould *a-le *he problem, o! *he underpr$3$leged. Adenauer +a, ele*ed ha$rman o! *he 5arl$amen*ar%
Coun$l harged +$*h dra+$ng up a on,*$*u*$on !or a ne+ German republ$. =nl$-e *he A5<B,
Ahumaher, he +a, !a3oured b% *he *hree /e,*ern oup%$ng po+er, a, a on$l$a*or. )he grea*er
demand, made b% *he A5< helped h$m *o +$n one,,$on, !rom *he All$e,. A* 7( he *oo- *he C<= and
*he ;a3ar$an CA= $n*o *he !$r,* !ederal ele*$on $n 19&9. )oge*her C<=CCA= emerged a, *he b$gge,*
par*% +$*h (1 per en*; *he A5< ah$e3ed 89.8 per en*. Adenauer *hen bu$l* up a non,o$al$,* all$ane.
.e per,uaded "<5 leader .eu,, *o ba- h$m a, Chanellor $n re*urn !or *he C<=CCA= 3o*$ng !or
.eu,, a, 5re,$den*. Adenauer ,raped $n a, Chanellor b% one 3o*e. /hen $n 1951 *he All$e, re3$,ed
*he 7upa*$on reg$me *o allo+ *he "ederal #epubl$ *o ondu* !ore$gn rela*$on, Adenauer beame
"ore$gn ?$n$,*er a, +ell a, Chanellor.
Adenauer o!!ered *he /e,*ern All$e, a German de!ene on*r$bu*$on, ,e* up *he Coal and A*eel
Commun$*%, a9u$e,ed $n *he Aaar be$ng ,epara*ed !rom German%, made re,*$*u*$on *o *he Je+,, and
muh more, ?an% German, d$d no* !$nd all o! *h$, a**ra*$3e. #earmamen* $n par*$ular +a, no*
popular. .o+e3er, eonom$ problem, +ere a* *he !ore!ron* o! peopleB, *hough*,. /hen a,-ed abou* *he
mo,* $mpor*an* problem !a$ng /e,* German% $n 1951, &5 per en* ,a$d eonom$ problem, bu* onl%
18 per en* men*$oned reun$!$a*$on. ;% 1955 onl% 88 +ere onerned +$*h eonom$,, (& +$*h
reun$!$a*$on. :n 1951 (5 per en* o! *ho,e 9ue,*$oned named ;$,mar- a, *he per,on +ho had done
mo,* !or German%, .$*ler ,ored 11 per en*. ;% 1956 ;$,mar- had !allen *o 87 per en*, .$*ler *o 8
per en*, bu* Adenauer +a, men*$oned b% 8& per en*. ;% 1967 Adenauer ,ored 61 per en*.
:n 1955 *he "ederal #epubl$ rega$ned $*, ,o3ere$gn*% and had $*, o+n armed !ore,. :* +a, reogn$6ed
b% almo,* all *he /e,*ern and )h$rd /orld ,*a*e, and e3en b% *he Ao3$e* =n$on. Commun$,* 0a,*
German% +a, *o*all% $,ola*ed. 7n 1 Januar% 1957 *he Aaar beame par* o! *he "ederal #epubl$.
Adanauer +a, a ,*rong ad3oa*e o! German o-opera*$on +$*h o*her /e,* 0uropean ,*a*e, and +a, a
!ounder member $n ?arh 1957 o! *he 0uropean 0onom$ Commun$*%. /e,* German% +a, one aga$n
a re,pe*ed par*ner abroad and a* home *he eonom% +a, boom$ng. ?oreo3er, 3ar$ou, po*en*$all%
*rouble,ome group,, l$-e *he m$ll$on, o! German, e@pelled !rom *he Dlo,* *err$*or$e,D or *ho,e +ho !led
!rom *he G<#, +ere g$3en rela*$3el% generou, help and Adenauer *urned a bl$nd e%e *o !ormer 2a6$, $n
*he publ$ ,er3$e. )he C<=CCA= reaped $*, ele*oral re+ard. :n 195( $* ga$ned &5.8 per en* o! *he
3o*e, *he A5< onl% 88.8 per en*. :n 1957, a!*er an ele*$on ampa$gn bu$l* around Adenauer, *he ,logan
D2o e@per$men*,ED, and one or *+o d$r*% *r$-,, $* +on 51.8 per en*, *he A5< (1.8 per en*, and *he
"<5 7.7. )h$, $, *he onl% *$me $n German h$,*or% $n demora*$ ele*$on, *ha* one par*% ha, ah$e3ed
more *han 51 per en* o! *he 3o*e.
Ju,* be!ore *he 1961 ele*$on, $n Augu,*, *he Commun$,*, u* o!! 0a,* ;erl$n and ,*ar*ed *o ere* *he
$n!amou, /all. Adenauer and *he /e,* appeared *o be po+erle,,. )h$, +ea-ened AdenauerB, *he,$, *ha*
$! *he /e,* +ere ,*rong enough $* ould roll ba- Commun$,m. A* *he 17 Aep*ember ele*$on *he
C<=CCA= peren*age 3o*e !ell *o &5.(, *he A5<, led b% ;rand*, ro,e *o (6.8, and *he "<5 *o 18.8. )he
ru,h$ng o! *he 0a,* German r$,$ng $n June 195( had helped *he C<=CCA= $n *he ele*$on o! *ha* %ear,
*he ,uppre,,$on o! *he .ungar$an re3olu*$on $n 1956 helped *hem $n 1957. =ne@pe*edl%, *h$, *$me
publ$ op$n$on had gone *he o*her +a%.
)o rema$n $n o!!$e Adenauer needed "<5 ,uppor*. .e ,e* a da*e !or h$, re*$remen*. Fe* he ,*$ll hoped *o
ma$n*a$n h$, $n!luene *hrough ele*$on a, *he ne@* 5re,$den* o! *he "ederal #epubl$. .e !ound l$**le
,uppor* among h$, olleague, !or *h$, and agreed *o re*$re $n 196(.
)he ;erl$n r$,$, au,ed !r$*$on be*+een Adenauer and 5re,$den* Kenned%, Adenauer !el* *he =A
adm$n$,*ra*$on +a, +ea-en$ng $*, ,*and and ,ee-$ng an under,*and$ng +$*h *he Ao3$e*, a* *he o,* o! *he
German,. Adenauer +a, a ,*rong ad3oa*e o! German o-opera*$on +$*h o*her /e,* 0uropean ,*a*e,,
and German% +a, a !ounder member o! *he 0C. Adenauer *urned *here!ore *o de GaulleB, "rane and
h$, la,* grea* ah$e3emen* +a, *he ,$gn$ng o! *he "rano-German "r$end,h$p )rea*% (Januar% 196(). :*
beame *he orner,*one o! rela*$on, be*+een *he *+o ,*a*e, and +a, *he ulm$na*$on o! AdenauerB,
e!!or*, a* "rano-German reon$l$a*$on. .$, pro-"renh pol$% au,ed a r$!* be*+een h$m and h$,
,ue,,or 0rhard, +ho pre!erred a grea*er balane be*+een "rane, *he =AA, and ;r$*a$n.
Chr$,*$an <emora%-Chr$,*$an demora% ha, been a ,ue,,!ul po,*-+ar pol$*$al mo3emen* $n
/e,*ern 0urope and, *o a le,,er e@*en*, Ga*$n Amer$a. :*, ,o$olog$al and $deolog$al or$g$n,,
ho+e3er, l$e $n *he mob$l$6a*$on o! Ca*hol$, $n re,pon,e *o *he emergene o! l$beral ap$*al$,m $n *he
n$ne*een*h en*ur%. )he e@pl$$* hallenge *o *he po,$*$on o! *he Churh launhed b% *he "renh
#e3olu*$on !ored Ca*hol$, *o aep* demora*$ pol$*$al !orm, and de!end Ca*hol$ $n*ere,*, *hrough
*he promo*$on o! Ca*hol$ ,eondar% a,,o$a*$on, (par*$ularl% Ca*hol$ un$on, and ,hool,).
)rad$*$onal $n,*$*u*$on, en*ral *o Chr$,*$an pra*$eH$n par*$ular, *he !am$l% and a harmon$ou, ,o$al
orderH+ere on,$dered *o be !a$ng a dual a**a-I !$r,*, !rom *he orro,$3e e!!e*, o! $ndu,*r$al$6a*$on
and la$,,e6-!a$re l$beral$,m, and ,eondl%, !rom $nrea,$ng ,*a*e regula*$on o! ,o$al l$!e. "rom *he
1851, on+ard,, Ja*$an-,pon,ored KCa*hol$ A*$on Group,L ampa$gned *o l$m$* *he po+er o! *he
emerg$ng :*al$an ,*a*e, and ,$6eable pol$*$al Ca*hol$ group, emerged $n *he German-,pea-$ng area, o!
0urope.
5ope Geo M:::B, #erum 2o3arum (1891) l$bera*ed Ca*hol$$,m !rom moral oppo,$*$on *o demora%,
and ,*$mula*ed !ur*her pol$*$al mob$l$6a*$on. 0le*oral ,ue,, ame !$r,* *o *he :*al$an K5opular 5ar*%L
under *he leader,h$p o! Gu$g$ A*ur6o $n 1919, +h$le *he German KCen*reL 5ar*% +a, a oal$*$on ma$n,*a%
o! *he /e$mar #epubl$. ;% *h$, *$me, pol$*$al Ca*hol$$,m had de3eloped an amb$guou, ,*ane
*o+ard, *he e@er*$on o! ,*a*e po+erI +h$le ho,*$l$*% *o ,o$al$,m and ommun$,* !orm, o! o+ner,h$p
rema$ned a dom$nan* *heme, *he $n$*$al oppo,$*$on *o ap$*al$,m had b% 191& modera*ed $n*o
reommenda*$on, !or ,o$al $mpro3emen* *hrough ,*rong +el!are leg$,la*$on. )h$, amb$3alene *o+ard,
*he role o! go3ernmen* $, re!le*ed $n *he +or- o! *he !oremo,* *heor$,* o! Chr$,*$an <emora%,
Ja9ue, ?ar$*a$n, +ho,e on*emp* !or ,*rong ,*a*e, $, oupled +$*h ,pe$!$ pro3$,$on, !or ,*a*e
$n*er3en*$on g$3en *he !a$lure o! $ndu,*r$al ap$*al$,m *o ,er3e K*he ommon goodL.
"a,$,m repre,,ed and d$,red$*ed mo,* o! *he,e pol$*$al group,Hmo,* o!!ered +ea- re,$,*ane *o
r$gh*-+$ng e@*rem$,m, ,ome (e.g. *he Au,*r$an Chr$,*$an-Ao$al 5ar*%) ga3e $* ,uppor*. A* +arB, end $n
19&5, ho+e3er, *he ,*ra$n, o! m$ld on,er3a*$,m and ,ep*$$,m *o+ard, a*$3e go3ernmen* held
!orm$dable appeal. 5romo*ed hea3$l% b% *he 3$*or$ou, All$e, a, a bul+ar- aga$n,* ommun$,m, ne+l%
on,*$*u*ed Chr$,*$an <emora*$ par*$e, $n :*al%, German%, "rane, Au,*r$a, ;elg$um, and *he
2e*herland, +on o!!$e, e$*her a, ,$ngle-par*% adm$n$,*ra*$on, or a, $mpor*an* elemen*, o! rul$ng
oal$*$on,. )he popular$*% o! *he,e po,*-+ar par*$e, re,*, more on *he$r $no!!en,$3e en*r$,m *han on an%
d$,*$n*$3e $deolog$al pla*!orm. Con,e9uen*l%, and ,ome+ha* $ron$all% g$3en *he $deolog$al ane,*r%
o! Chr$,*$an <emora%, ele*oral ,uppor* der$3e, !rom a largel% m$ddle-la,, and $n*erdenom$na*$onal
,u,p$$on o! *hrea*, *o *he l$beral ap$*al$,* order (par*$ularl% !rom K*he le!*L). :n *he 1961, and 1971,,
Chr$,*$an <emora% ,u!!ered a rela*$3e dem$,e a, *he *hrea* o! ommun$,m reeded, and ,o$al$,*
opponen*, modera*ed *he$r pla*!orm,. :n Ga*$n Amer$a, ho+e3er, Chr$,*$an <emora*$ par*$e,,
hamp$on$ng demora*$ ,*ab$l$*% *hrough re,*ra$n* o! *rad$*$onall% o3era*$3e ,*a*e,, ah$e3ed br$e!
ele*oral ,ue,, dur$ng *h$, per$od (no*abl% $n Ch$le and Jene6uela, and $n *he 1981, $n 0uador,
Gua*emala, and 0l Aal3ador). <ur$ng *he 1981,, Chr$,*$an <emora% en4o%ed a re,urgene a, par* o!
*he general r$gh*+ard ,+$ng o! 0uropean ele*ora*e, (+$*h *he par*$al e@ep*$on o! *he ,pe*aular
ollap,e o! *he <C $n :*al% $n 199().
;la$,e 5a,al- (born June 19, 168(, Clermon*-"errand, "raned$ed Aug. 19, 1668, 5ar$,) "renh
ma*hema*$$an, ph%,$$,*, and rel$g$ou, ph$lo,opher. )he ,on o! a ma*hema*$$an, he +a, a h$ld
prod$g%, earn$ng *he en3% o! #en <e,ar*e, +$*h an e,,a% he +ro*e on on$ ,e*$on, $n 16&1. :n *he
16&1, and B51, he made on*r$bu*$on, *o ph%,$, (!ormula*$ng 5a,alB, la+) and ma*hema*$, (+or-$ng
on *he ar$*hme*$ *r$angle, $n3en*$ng a alula*$ng mah$ne, and on*r$bu*$ng *o *he ad3ane o!
d$!!eren*$al alulu,). "or +or- done $n h$, earl% %ear,, he $, regarded a, *he !ounder o! *he modern
*heor% o! probab$l$*%. A* *he ,ame *$me, he beame $nrea,$ngl% $n3ol3ed +$*h Jan,en$,m. Ge,
5ro3$n$ale, +ere a ,er$e, o! le**er, de!end$ng Jan,en$,m and a**a-$ng *he Je,u$*,. .$, grea* +or- o!
Chr$,*$an apologe*$,, Apolog$e de la rel$g$on hr*$enne, +a, ne3er !$n$,hed, bu* he pu* *oge*her mo,* o!
h$, no*e, and !ragmen*, be*+een 1657 and 1658; *he,e +ere publ$,hed po,*humou,l% a, 5en,e, (1671).
.e re*urned *o ,$en*$!$ +or-, on*r$bu*$ng *o *he lemen*, de gom*r$e and publ$,h$ng h$, !$nd$ng, on
%lo$d ur3e,, bu* he ,oon re*urned *o de3o*$onal l$!e and ,pen* h$, la,* %ear, help$ng *he poor.
Jala3 .a3el-b. 5rague, 5 7*. 19(6) C6eh; 5re,$den* o! C6eho,lo3a-$a 1989 ' 9(, 5re,$den* o! *he
C6eh #epubl$ 199( ' 811( .a3el +a, born $n*o a !am$l% o! upper-m$ddle-la,, or$g$n H h$,
grand!a*her had been a +ell--no+n arh$*e*. .e +a, den$ed en*r% $n*o un$3er,$*% beau,e o! h$,
Dbourgeo$,D or$g$n, and a**ended e3en$ng la,,e, a* 5rague )ehn$al =n$3er,$*% +h$le +or-$ng a, a
labora*or% a,,$,*an* and *a@$-dr$3er. .e ,*ar*ed h$, areer a, a +r$*er $n 1961. :n 196( h$, !$r,* pla% +a,
produedI )he Garden 5ar*% +a, a ,a*$re on *he 2o3o*nN reg$me. .a3el gradua*ed !rom *he 5rague
*hea*r$al aadem% $n 1967. .e +or-ed $n 5rague !or *he D)hea*re on *he ;alu,*radeD +h$h !lour$,hed
$n *he %ear, 1967 ' 8. .e +ro*e pla%, !or *h$, *hea*re and +or-ed a, a ,*age-hand. :n 1968, dur$ng *he
D5rague Ap$ngD he beame ha$rman o! *he C6eho,lo3a- /r$*erB, =n$on. 5er!ormane o! h$, +or- +a,
banned $n 1969, bu* he on*$nued *o +r$*e and h$, pla%, +ere popular $n *he /e,*. :n Apr$l 1975 he
+ro*e an 7pen Ge**er *o 5re,$den* .u,O- r$*$$6$ng *he reg$me. .e +a, a !ounder member o! *he
human r$gh*, group Char*er 77 +ho,e programme +a, announed on 1 Januar% 1977. .e +a, gaoled
!rom Januar% *o ?a% 1977 and pu* under hou,e arre,* un*$l 1979, +hen he +a, aga$n $mpr$,oned. .e
+a, relea,ed on ground, o! heal*h $n 198(. :n Januar% 1989 he +a, ,en* ba- *o gaol, de,p$*e an ou*r%
$n *he /e,*, and relea,ed $n ?a% 1989. :n 2o3ember 1989 dur$ng *he DJel3e* #e3olu*$onD he pla%ed a
p$3o*al role $n o-ord$na*$ng *he popular r$,$ng aga$n,* *he Commun$,* reg$me and $n ar*$ula*$ng an
oppo,$*$on programme. 7ne mon*h la*er he +a, ele*ed 5re,$den* b% *he C6eho,lo3a- A,,embl% a!*er
.u,O-B, re,$gna*$on and on!$rmed $n o!!$e b% popular 3o*e $n 1991. .a3el regre**ed *he brea--up o!
C6eho,lo3a-$a $n 1998 bu* bel$e3ed *ha* *here +a, no +a% *o pre3en* $*. :n Januar% 199( he +a,
ele*ed 5re,$den* o! *he C6eh #epubl$.
Copern$u,-(born "eb. 19, 1&7(, )oru, 5ol.d$ed ?a% 8&, 15&(, "rauenburg, 0a,* 5ru,,$a) 5ol$,h
a,*ronomer. .e +a, edua*ed a* Kra-+, ;ologna, and 5adua, +here he ma,*ered all *he -no+ledge o!
*he da% $n ma*hema*$,, a,*ronom%, med$$ne, and *heolog%. 0le*ed a anon o! *he a*hedral o!
"rauenburg $n 1&97, he *oo- ad3an*age o! h$, !$nan$al ,eur$*% *o beg$n h$, a,*ronom$al ob,er3a*$on,.
.$, publ$a*$on $n 15&( o! A$@ ;oo-, Conern$ng *he #e3olu*$on, o! *he .ea3enl% 7rb, mar-ed a
landmar- o! /e,*ern *hough* ( Copern$an ,%,*em). Copern$u, had !$r,* one$3ed o! h$, re3olu*$onar%
model deade, earl$er bu* dela%ed publ$a*$on beau,e, +h$le $* e@pla$ned *he re*rograde mo*$on o! *he
plane*, (and re,ol3ed *he$r order), $* ra$,ed ne+ problem, *ha* had *o be e@pla$ned, re9u$red 3er$!$a*$on
o! old ob,er3a*$on,, and had *o be pre,en*ed $n a +a% *ha* +ould no* pro3o-e *he rel$g$ou, au*hor$*$e,.
)he boo- d$d no* ,ee pr$n* un*$l he +a, on h$, dea*hbed. ;% a**r$bu*$ng *o 0ar*h a da$l% ro*a*$on around
$*, o+n a@$, and a %earl% re3olu*$on around a ,*a*$onar% Aun, he de3eloped an $dea *ha* had !ar-reah$ng
$mpl$a*$on, !or *he r$,e o! modern ,$ene. .e a,,er*ed, $n on*ra,* *o 5la*on$ $n,*rumen*al$,m, *ha*
a,*ronom% mu,* de,r$be *he real, ph%,$al ,%,*em o! *he +orld. 7nl% +$*h Johanne, Kepler +a,
Copern$u,B, model !ull% *ran,!ormed $n*o a ne+ ph$lo,oph% abou* *he !undamen*al ,*ru*ure o! *he
un$3er,e.
<o,*oe3,-%-born 2o3. 11, 1881, ?o,o+, #u,,$ad$ed "eb. 9, 1881, A*. 5e*er,burg) #u,,$an no3el$,*.
<o,*o%e3,-% ga3e up an eng$neer$ng areer earl% $n order *o +r$*e. :n 18&9 he +a, arre,*ed !or
belong$ng *o a rad$al d$,u,,$on group; ,en*ened *o be ,ho*, he +a, repr$e3ed a* *he la,* momen* and
,pen* !our %ear, a* hard labour $n A$ber$a, +here he de3eloped ep$lep,% and e@per$ened a deepen$ng o!
h$, rel$g$ou, !a$*h. Ga*er he publ$,hed and +ro*e !or ,e3eral per$od$al, +h$le produ$ng h$, be,* no3el,.
.$, no3el, are onerned e,pe$all% +$*h !a$*h, ,u!!er$ng, and *he mean$ng o! l$!e; *he% are !amou, !or
*he$r p,%holog$al dep*h and $n,$gh* and *he$r near-prophe*$ *rea*men* o! $,,ue, $n ph$lo,oph% and
pol$*$,. .$, !$r,*, 5oor "ol- (18&6), +a, !ollo+ed *he ,ame %ear b% )he <ouble. )he .ou,e o! *he
<ead (1868) $, ba,ed on h$, $mpr$,onmen* and )he Gambler (1866) on h$, o+n gambl$ng add$*$on.
;e,* -no+n are *he no3ella 2o*e, !rom *he =nderground (186&) and *he grea* no3el, Cr$me and
5un$,hmen* (1866), )he :d$o* (1869), )he 5o,,e,,ed (1878), and )he ;ro*her, Karama6o3 (1881),
+h$h !ou,e, on *he problem o! e3$l, *he na*ure o! !reedom, and *he hara*er,B ra3$ng !or ,ome -$nd
o! !a$*h. ;% *he end o! h$, l$!e, he had been ala$med one o! h$, oun*r%B, grea*e,* +r$*er,, and h$,
+or-, had a pro!ound $n!luene on 81*h-en*ur% l$*era*ure.
Coun$l o! )ren*-15&56() 19*h eumen$al oun$l o! *he #oman Ca*hol$ hurh, +h$h made
,+eep$ng re!orm, and la$d do+n dogma lar$!%$ng nearl% all do*r$ne, on*e,*ed b% *he 5ro*e,*an*,.
Con3ened b% 5ope 5aul ::: a* )ren*o $n nor*hern :*al%, $* ,er3ed *o re3$*al$6e #oman Ca*hol$$,m $n
man% par*, o! 0urope. :n $*, !$r,* per$od (15&5&7) $* aep*ed *he 2$ene Creed a, *he ba,$, o! Ca*hol$
!a$*h, !$@ed *he anon o! *he 7ld and 2e+ )e,*amen*,, ,e* *he number o! ,aramen*, a* ,e3en, and
de!$ned *he na*ure and on,e9uene, o! or$g$nal ,$n; $* al,o ruled aga$n,* ?ar*$n Gu*herB, do*r$ne o!
4u,*$!$a*$on b% !a$*h. :n $*, ,eond per$od (155158) $* on!$rmed *he do*r$ne o! *ran,ub,*an*$a*$on and
$,,ued deree, on ep$,opal 4ur$,d$*$on and ler$al d$,$pl$ne. :n *he !$nal per$od (15686() $* de!$ned
*he ma,, a, a *rue ,ar$!$e and $,,ued ,*a*emen*, on ,e3eral o*her do*r$nal $,,ue,. ;% *he end o! *he
16*h en*ur%, man% o! *he abu,e, *ha* had mo*$3a*ed *he 5ro*e,*an* #e!orma*$on had d$,appeared, and
*he hurh had rela$med man% o! $*, 0uropean !ollo+er,.
2$ol ?ah$a3ell$-(born ?a% (, 1&69, "lorened$ed June 81, 1587, "lorene) :*al$an ,*a*e,man,
h$,*or$an, and pol$*$al *heor$,*. .e ro,e *o po+er a!*er *he o3er*hro+ o! G$rolamo Aa3onarola $n 1&98.
/or-$ng a, a d$ploma* !or 1& %ear,, he ame $n on*a* +$*h *he mo,* po+er!ul !$gure, $n 0urope. .e
+a, d$,m$,,ed +hen *he ?ed$$ !am$l% re*urned *o po+er $n 1518, and dur$ng *he ne@* %ear he +a,
arre,*ed and *or*ured !or on,p$ra%. )hough ,oon relea,ed, he +a, no* perm$**ed *o re*urn *o publ$
o!!$e. .$, !amou, *rea*$,e )he 5r$ne (151(, publ$,hed 15(8) $, a handboo- !or ruler,; *hough
ded$a*ed *o Goren6o deB ?ed$$, ruler o! "lorene !rom 151(, $* !a$led *o +$n ?ah$a3ell$ h$, !a3our.
?ah$a3ell$ 3$e+ed )he 5r$ne a, an ob4e*$3e de,r$p*$on o! pol$*$al real$*%. ;eau,e he 3$e+ed
human na*ure a, 3enal, gra,p$ng, and *horoughl% ,el!-,er3$ng, he ,ugge,*ed *ha* ru*hle,, unn$ng $,
appropr$a*e *o *he ondu* o! go3ernmen*. )hough adm$red !or $*, $n$,$3e br$ll$ane, *he boo- al,o ha,
been +$del% ondemned a, %n$al and amoral, and ?ah$a3ell$an ha, ome *o mean dee$*!ul,
un,rupulou,, and man$pula*$3e. .$, o*her +or-, $nlude a ,e* o! d$,our,e, on G$3% (omple*ed 1518),
*he omed% )he ?andra-e (omple*ed 1518), )he Ar* o! /ar (publ$,hed 1581), and *he "loren*$ne
.$,*or$e, (omple*ed 1585).
:,,a 2e+*on-(born Jan. &, 16&(, /ool,*horpe, G$noln,h$re, 0ng.d$ed ?arh (1, 1787, Gondon)
0ngl$,h ph%,$$,* and ma*hema*$$an. )he ,on o! a %eoman, he +a, ra$,ed b% h$, grandmo*her. .e +a,
edua*ed a* Cambr$dge =n$3er,$*% (166165), +here he d$,o3ered *he +or- o! #en <e,ar*e,. .$,
e@per$men*, pa,,$ng ,unl$gh* *hrough a pr$,m led *o *he d$,o3er% o! *he he*erogeneou,, orpu,ular
na*ure o! +h$*e l$gh* and la$d *he !ounda*$on o! ph%,$al op*$,. .e bu$l* *he !$r,* re!le*$ng *ele,ope $n
1668 and beame a pro!e,,or o! ma*hema*$, a* Cambr$dge $n 1669. .e +or-ed ou* *he !undamen*al,
o! alulu,, *hough *h$, +or- +en* unpubl$,hed !or more *han (1 %ear,. .$, mo,* !amou, publ$a*$on,
5r$n$p$a ?a*hema*$a (1687), gre+ ou* o! orre,pondene +$*h 0dmond .alle%. <e,r$b$ng h$, +or-,
on *he la+, o! mo*$on ( 2e+*onB, la+, o! mo*$on), orb$*al d%nam$,, *$dal *heor%, and *he *heor% o!
un$3er,al gra3$*a*$on, $* $, regarded a, *he ,em$nal +or- o! modern ,$ene. .e +a, ele*ed pre,$den* o!
*he #o%al Ao$e*% o! Gondon $n 171( and beame *he !$r,* ,$en*$,* e3er *o be -n$gh*ed $n 1715. <ur$ng
h$, areer he engaged $n hea*ed argumen*, +$*h ,e3eral o! h$, olleague,, $nlud$ng #ober* .oo-e (o3er
au*hor,h$p o! *he $n3er,e ,9uare rela*$on o! gra3$*a*$on) and G./. Ge$bn$6 (o3er *he au*hor,h$p o!
alulu,). )he ba**le +$*h Ge$bn$6 dom$na*ed *he la,* 85 %ear, o! h$, l$!e; $* $, no+ +ell e,*abl$,hed *ha*
2e+*on de3eloped alulu, !$r,*, bu* *ha* Ge$bn$6 +a, *he !$r,* *o publ$,h on *he ,ub4e*. 2e+*on $,
regarded a, one o! *he grea*e,* ,$en*$,*, o! all *$me.
#ene <e,ar*e,-(born ?arh (1, 1596, Ga .a%e, )oura$ne, "raned$ed "eb. 11, 1651, A*o-holm,
A+ed.) "renh ma*hema*$$an, ,$en*$,*, and ph$lo,opher, on,$dered *he !a*her o! modern ph$lo,oph%.
0dua*ed a* a Je,u$* ollege, he 4o$ned *he m$l$*ar% $n 1618 and *ra3eled +$del% !or *he ne@* 11 %ear,. :n
1688 he ,e**led $n .olland, +here he +ould rema$n un*$l 16&9. <e,ar*e,B, amb$*$on +a, *o $n*rodue
$n*o ph$lo,oph% *he r$gour and lar$*% o! ma*hema*$,. :n h$, ?ed$*a*$on, on "$r,* 5h$lo,oph% (16&1), he
under*oo- *he me*hod$al doub* o! all -no+ledge abou* +h$h $* $, po,,$ble *o be dee$3ed, $nlud$ng
-no+ledge ba,ed on au*hor$*%, *he ,en,e,, and rea,on, $n order *o arr$3e a* ,ome*h$ng abou* +h$h he
an be ab,olu*el% er*a$n; u,$ng *h$, po$n* a, a !ounda*$on, he *hen ,ough* *o on,*ru* ne+ and more
,eure 4u,*$!$a*$on, o! h$, bel$e! $n *he e@$,*ene and $mmor*al$*% o! *he ,oul, *he e@$,*ene o! God, and
*he real$*% o! an e@*ernal +orld. )h$, $ndub$*able po$n* $, e@pre,,ed $n *he d$*um Cog$*o ergo ,um (:
*h$n-, *here!ore : am). .$, me*aph%,$al dual$,m d$,*$ngu$,hed rad$all% be*+een m$nd, *he e,,ene o!
+h$h $, *h$n-$ng, and ma**er, *he e,,ene o! +h$h $, e@*en,$on $n *hree d$men,$on,. )hough h$,
me*aph%,$, $, ra*$onal$,*$ ( ra*$onal$,m), h$, ph%,$, and ph%,$olog% are emp$r$$,*$ ( emp$r$$,m)
and mehan$,*$ ( mehan$,m). :n ma*hema*$,, he !ounded anal%*$ geome*r% and re!ormed algebra$
no*a*$on.
?e44$ #e,*ora*$on-$n Japane,e h$,*or%, *he pol$*$al re3olu*$on *ha* brough* abou* *he !all o! *he
)o-uga+a ,hoguna*e and re*urned on*rol o! *he oun*r% *o d$re* $mper$al rule under *he emperor
?e$4$, beg$nn$ng an era o! ma4or pol$*$al, eonom$, and ,o$al hange -no+n a, *he ?e$4$ per$od
(1868'1918). )h$, re3olu*$on brough* abou* *he modern$6a*$on and /e,*ern$6a*$on o! Japan.
)he leader, o! *he re,*ora*$on, mo,*l% %oung ,amura$ !rom !eudal doma$n, h$,*or$all% ho,*$le *o
)o-uga+a au*hor$*%, +ere mo*$3a*ed b% gro+$ng dome,*$ problem, and *he *hrea* o! !ore$gn
enroahmen*. Adop*$ng *he ,logan P+eal*h% oun*r% and ,*rong arm,Q (!u-o-u--%Rhe$), *he% ,ough* *o
rea*e a na*$on-,*a*e apable o! ,*and$ng e9ual among /e,*ern po+er,. A, e@pre,,ed $n *he Char*er
7a*h o! 1868, *he !$r,* goal o! *he ne+ go3ernmen*, reloa*ed *o )o-%o (!ormerl% 0do), +a, *he
d$,man*l$ng o! *he old !eudal reg$me. )h$, +a, largel% aompl$,hed b% 1871, +hen *he doma$n, +ere
o!!$$all% abol$,hed and replaed b% a pre!e*ure ,%,*em. All !eudal la,, pr$3$lege, +ere al,o
abol$,hed. :n *he ,ame %ear a na*$onal arm% +a, !ormed, +h$h +a, !ur*her ,*reng*hened $n 187( b% a
un$3er,al on,r$p*$on la+. )he ne+ go3ernmen* al,o arr$ed ou* pol$$e, *o un$!% *he mone*ar% and *a@
,%,*em,, +$*h *he agr$ul*ural *a@ re!orm o! 187( pro3$d$ng $*, pr$mar% ,oure o! $nome.
)he re3olu*$onar% hange, arr$ed ou* b% re,*ora*$on leader, a*$ng $n *he name o! *he emperor !aed
$nrea,$ng oppo,$*$on $n *he m$d-1871,. <$,grun*led ,amura$ par*$$pa*ed $n ,e3eral rebell$on, aga$n,*
*he go3ernmen*, *he mo,* !amou, be$ng led b% *he !ormer re,*ora*$on hero Aa$gR )a-amor$. )he,e
upr$,$ng, +ere repre,,ed onl% +$*h grea* d$!!$ul*% b% *he ne+l% !ormed arm%. 5ea,an*,, d$,*ru,*!ul o!
*he ne+ reg$me and d$,,a*$,!$ed b% $*, agrar$an pol$$e,, al,o *oo- par* $n re3ol*, *ha* reahed *he$r pea-
$n *he 1881,. A* *he ,ame *$me, a gro+$ng popular r$gh*, mo3emen*, enouraged b% *he $n*rodu*$on o!
l$beral /e,*ern $dea,, alled !or *he rea*$on o! a on,*$*u*$onal go3ernmen* and +$der par*$$pa*$on
*hrough del$bera*$3e a,,embl$e,. #e,pond$ng *o *he,e pre,,ure,, *he go3ernmen* $,,ued a ,*a*emen* $n
1881 prom$,$ng a on,*$*u*$on b% 1891. :n 1885 a Cab$ne* ,%,*em +a, !ormed, and $n 1886 +or- on *he
on,*$*u*$on began. "$nall% $n 1889 *he on,*$*u*$on, pre,en*ed a, a g$!* !rom *he emperor *o *he people,
+a, o!!$$all% promulga*ed. :* e,*abl$,hed a b$ameral parl$amen*, alled *he <$e* (g$-a$), *o be ele*ed
*hrough a l$m$*ed 3o*$ng !ranh$,e. )he !$r,* <$e* +a, on3ened *he !ollo+$ng %ear, 1891.
0onom$ and ,o$al hange, paralleled *he pol$*$al *ran,!orma*$on o! *he ?e$4$ per$od. Al*hough *he
eonom% rema$ned dependen* on agr$ul*ure, $ndu,*r$al$6a*$on +a, *he pr$mar% goal o! *he go3ernmen*,
+h$h d$re*ed *he de3elopmen* o! ,*ra*eg$ $ndu,*r$e,, *ran,por*a*$on, and ommun$a*$on,. )he !$r,*
ra$lroad +a, bu$l* $n 1878, and b% 1891 *here +ere more *han 1,&11 m$le, (8,851 -m) o! ra$l. )he
*elegraph l$n-ed all ma4or $*$e, b% 1881. 5r$3a*e !$rm, +ere al,o enouraged b% go3ernmen* !$nan$al
,uppor* and a$ded b% *he $n,*$*u*$on o! a 0uropean-,*%le ban-$ng ,%,*em $n 1888. )he,e e!!or*, a*
modern$6a*$on re9u$red /e,*ern ,$ene and *ehnolog%, and under *he banner o! PC$3$l$6a*$on and
0nl$gh*enmen*Q (bunme$ -a$-a) /e,*ern ul*ure, !rom urren* $n*elle*ual *rend, *o lo*h$ng and
arh$*e*ure, +a, +$del% promo*ed. /hole,ale /e,*ern$6a*$on +a, ,ome+ha* he-ed $n *he 1881,,
ho+e3er, +hen a rene+ed appre$a*$on o! *rad$*$onal Japane,e 3alue, emerged. Auh +a, *he a,e $n
*he de3elopmen* o! a modern edua*$onal ,%,*em +h$h, *hough $n!luened b% /e,*ern *heor% and
pra*$e, ,*re,,ed *he *rad$*$onal 3alue, o! ,amura$ lo%al*% and ,o$al harmon%. )he ,ame *enden%
pre3a$led $n ar* and l$*era*ure, +here /e,*ern ,*%le, +ere !$r,* $m$*a*ed, and *hen a more ,ele*$3e
blend$ng o! /e,*ern and Japane,e *a,*e, +a, ah$e3ed.
;% *he earl% 81*h en*ur%, *he goal, o! *he ?e$4$ #e,*ora*$on had been largel% aompl$,hed. Japan +a,
+ell on $*, +a% *o beom$ng a modern $ndu,*r$al na*$on. )he une9ual *rea*$e, *ha* had gran*ed !ore$gn
po+er, 4ud$$al and eonom$ pr$3$lege, *hrough e@*ra*err$*or$al$*% +ere re3$,ed $n 189&; and +$*h *he
Anglo-Japane,e All$ane o! 1918 and $*, 3$*or% $n *+o +ar, (o3er Ch$na $n 1895 and #u,,$a $n 1915),
Japan ga$ned re,pe* $n *he e%e, o! *he /e,*ern +orld, appear$ng !or *he !$r,* *$me on *he $n*erna*$onal
,ene a, a ma4or +orld po+er. )he dea*h o! *he emperor ?e$4$ $n 1918 mar-ed *he end o! *he per$od.
.$ro,h$ma-)h$, modern $*% $n ,ou*hern .on,hu, JapanB, ma$n $,land, ha, one *rag$ la$m *o !ameI :*
+a, *he !$r,* $*% e3er de,*ro%ed b% an a*om$ bomb, on Augu,* 6, 19&5, a* 8I15 $n *he morn$ng. K$d,
ha3e been *augh* abou* *h$, *rag$ hap*er $n +orld h$,*or%, bu* *he !ull $mpa* o! $* an onl% be !el*
here, a* *he !$r,* Ground >ero.
5eae ?emor$al 5ar- (.e$+a Koen) l$e, $n *he en*er o! .$ro,h$ma. Among *he memor$al, %ouBll ,ee
are *he A-;omb <ome, *he ,-ele*al ru$n, o! *he !ormer :ndu,*r$al 5romo*$on .all; *he A*om$ ;omb
?emor$al ?ound, +h$h on*a$n, *he a,he, o! 71,111 un$den*$!$ed 3$*$m,; *he ?emor$al Ceno*aph,
+$*h *he name, o! all o! *ho,e -$lled b% *he bomb; *he 5eae "lame, +h$h +$ll burn un*$l all a*om$
+eapon, 3an$,h !rom *he ear*h; and .$ro,h$ma 2a*$onal 5eae ?emor$al .all !or *he A*om$ ;omb
J$*$m,, +$*h $*, panorama o! *he bombed $*%, made o! 1&1,111 *$le, (one !or e3er% .$ro,h$man +ho
d$ed b% *he end o! 19&5). )he memor$al -$d, +$ll be mo,* a!!e*ed b% $, *he Ch$ldrenB, 5eae
?onumen*Ha ,*a*ue o! a g$rl +$*h ou*,*re*hed arm,, and r$,$ng abo3e her a rane, a *rad$*$onal
Japane,e ,%mbol o! happ$ne,, and longe3$*%. A*reamer, o! paper rane, !rom ,hool -$d, all o3er Japan
!lu**er $n *he bree6e around her. )he ,*a*ue $, ba,ed on a real-l$!e g$rl +ho ,u!!ered !rom *he e!!e*, o!
rad$a*$on a!*er *he bomb$ng. ;el$e3$ng *ha* $! ,he ould !old 1,111 paper rane, ,he +ould beome +ell
aga$n, ,he !olded 1,(11 rane,Hbu* ,*$ll d$ed o! leu-em$a.
)he ma$n !ou, o! *he par- $, *he 5eae ?emor$al ?u,eum. :*, 0a,* ;u$ld$ng *ell, o! .$ro,h$ma be!ore
and a!*er *he bomb, and ra*her *han pre,en*$ng *he $*% a, a blamele,, 3$*$m, a, +a, done !or %ear,,
*he,e e@h$b$*, o+n up *o .$ro,h$maB, m$l$*ar$,*$ pa,*. )he mu,eum al,o doumen*, .$ro,h$maB, urren*
ded$a*$on *o abol$,h$ng nulear +eapon,. ;e prepared *o ,el!-ed$* %our +al--*hrough o! *he ?a$n
;u$ld$ng, !or man% o! $*, $mage, o! *he bombB, e!!e*, are *oo graph$ !or %oung h$ldrenHpho*ograph,
o! burned and ,eared ,-$n, harred rema$n, o! bod$e,, and people +$*h open +ound,. )hereB, a bron6e
;uddha *ha* +a, hal!-mel*ed $n *he bla,*; ,ome gran$*e ,*ep, ,ho+ a dar- ,hado+ *ha* ,ugge,*,
,omeone had been ,$**$ng *here a* *he *$me o! *he e@plo,$onH*he ,hado+ $, all *ha* rema$n,.
J$,$*$ng 5eae ?emor$al 5ar- $, a ,ober$ng e@per$ene, bu* perhap, a nee,,ar% one. /ha* +a, dropped
on .$ro,h$ma $, ,mall ompared *o *he bomb, o! *oda%. )he de$,$on +he*her or no* *o u,e *hem +$ll
,omeda% be $n *he hand, o! our h$ldrenHle*B, ma-e ,ure *he% -no+ +ha* hao, *he% ould be
unlea,h$ng.
Charle, <ar+$n-(born "eb. 18, 1819, Ahre+,bur%, Ahrop,h$re, 0ng.d$ed Apr$l 19, 1888, <o+ne, Ken*)
;r$*$,h na*ural$,*. )he grand,on o! 0ra,mu, <ar+$n and Jo,$ah /edg+ood, he ,*ud$ed med$$ne a* *he
=n$3er,$*% o! 0d$nburgh and b$olog% a* Cambr$dge. .e +a, reommended a, a na*ural$,* on .?A
;eagle, +h$h +a, bound on a long ,$en*$!$ ,ur3e% e@ped$*$on *o Aou*h Amer$a and *he Aou*h Aea,
(18(1(6). .$, 6oolog$al and geolog$al d$,o3er$e, on *he 3o%age re,ul*ed $n numerou, $mpor*an*
publ$a*$on, and !ormed *he ba,$, o! h$, *heor$e, o! e3olu*$on. Aee$ng ompe*$*$on be*+een $nd$3$dual,
o! a ,$ngle ,pe$e,, he reogn$6ed *ha* +$*h$n a loal popula*$on *he $nd$3$dual b$rd, !or e@ample, +$*h
*he ,harper bea- m$gh* ha3e a be**er hane *o ,ur3$3e and reprodue and *ha* $! ,uh *ra$*, +ere pa,,ed
on *o ne+ genera*$on,, *he% +ould be predom$nan* $n !u*ure popula*$on,. .e ,a+ *h$, na*ural ,ele*$on
a, *he mehan$,m b% +h$h ad3an*ageou, 3ar$a*$on, +ere pa,,ed on *o la*er genera*$on, and le,,
ad3an*ageou, *ra$*, graduall% d$,appeared. .e +or-ed on h$, *heor% !or more *han 81 %ear, be!ore
publ$,h$ng $* $n h$, !amou, 7n *he 7r$g$n o! Ape$e, b% ?ean, o! 2a*ural Aele*$on (1859). )he boo-
+a, $mmed$a*el% $n grea* demand, and <ar+$nB, $n*en,el% on*ro3er,$al *heor% +a, aep*ed 9u$-l% $n
mo,* ,$en*$!$ $rle,; mo,* oppo,$*$on ame !rom rel$g$ou, leader,. )hough <ar+$nB, $dea, +ere
mod$!$ed b% la*er de3elopmen*, $n gene*$, and moleular b$olog%, h$, +or- rema$n, en*ral *o modern
e3olu*$onar% *heor%. .$, man% o*her $mpor*an* +or-, $nluded Jar$a*$on $n An$mal, and 5lan*, =nder
<ome,*$a*$on (1868) and )he <e,en* o! ?an (1871). .e +a, bur$ed $n /e,*m$n,*er Abbe%.
<ar+$n$,m.
5o,$*$3$,m-An% ph$lo,oph$al ,%,*em *ha* on!$ne, $*,el! *o *he da*a o! e@per$ene, e@lude, a pr$or$ or
me*aph%,$al ,peula*$on,, and empha,$6e, *he ah$e3emen*, o! ,$ene. 5o,$*$3$,m $, lo,el%
onne*ed +$*h emp$r$$,m, pragma*$,m, and log$al po,$*$3$,m. ?ore narro+l%, *he *erm de,$gna*e, *he
ph$lo,oph% o! Augu,*e Com*e, +ho held *ha* human *hough* had pa,,ed $ne3$*abl% *hrough a
*heolog$al ,*age $n*o a me*aph%,$al ,*age and +a, pa,,$ng $n*o a po,$*$3e, or ,$en*$!$, ,*age.
;el$e3$ng *ha* *he rel$g$ou, $mpul,e +ould ,ur3$3e *he dea% o! re3ealed rel$g$on, he pro4e*ed a
+or,h$p o! man-$nd, +$*h hurhe,, alendar, and h$erarh%.
7**oman,-+ere *he )ur-$,h-,pea-$ng popula*$on o! *he 7**oman 0mp$re +ho !ormed *he ba,e o! *he
,*a*eB, m$l$*ar% and rul$ng la,,e,. #el$able $n!orma*$on abou* *he earl% h$,*or% o! 7**oman )ur-, $,
,are, bu* *he% *a-e *he$r )ur-$,h name, 7,manlS (orrup*ed $n 0uropean language, a, D7**omanD),
!rom *he hou,e o! 7,man : (re$gned a. 1899-1(86), *he !ounder o! *he d%na,*% *ha* ruled *he 7**oman
emp$re !or 681 %ear,. A!*er *he e@pan,$on !rom $*, home $n ;$*h%n$a, *he 7**oman pr$n$pal$*% began
$norpora*$ng o*her )ur-$,h-,pea-$ng ?u,l$m, and non-)ur-$,h Chr$,*$an,, beom$ng *he 7**oman
)ur-, and ul*$ma*el% *he )ur-, o! *he pre,en*. )he 7**oman )ur-, blo-ed all land rou*e, *o 0urope b%
on9uer$ng *he $*% o! Con,*an*$nople, *he ap$*al $*% o! *he ;%6an*$ne 0mp$re, and 0uropean, had *o
!$nd o*her +a%, *o *rade +$*h 0a,*ern oun*r$e,.
5e*er :-(1688) and 0mperor (1781) o! #u,,$a (1678-1785) A*a*e,man, m$l$*ar% leader, and d$ploma*,
!ounder o! #u,,$an po+er and $n!luene $n 0urope, o! *he regular #u,,$an arm% and !lee*, and o! a
na*$onal arm, $ndu,*r%. ;orn 5e*er Ale-,e%e3$h #omano3, *he ,on o! ),ar Ale-,e% ?$-ha%lo3$h b%
h$, ,eond +$!e, 5e*er +a, $n on,*an* danger !rom h$, hal!-,$,*er Ao!$a and $n 1688 he and h$, mo*her
re*rea*ed *o *he 3$llage o! 5reobra6hen,-o% near ?o,o+. Foung 5e*er +a, !a,$na*ed b% m$l$*ar$a and
+a, ,oon dr$ll$ng h$, o+n po*e,hn%eHKpla% ,old$er,LHreru$*ed !rom h$, !r$end, and e@per$men*$ng
+$*h an old ,a$l$ng boa*, *he or$g$n o! *he #u,,$an na3%. :n 1687 *he po*e,hn%e +ere re$n!ored b%
dra!*$ng men !rom *he old ,*rel*,% reg$men*, o! ?o,o+ and !ormed $n*o *+o ne+, +e,*ern-,*%le
reg$men*, o! *he :mper$al Guard, *he 5reobra6hen,-$% and Aemeno3,-$%.
:n 1695 and 1696 5e*er and h$, e3ol3$ng arm% made *+o e@ped$*$on, *o *he )ur-$,h-held ,*ronghold o!
A6o3, $n *he ,ou*h, *he ,eond o! +h$h +a, ,ue,,!ul, e,*abl$,h$ng #u,,$an po+er on *he Aea o! A6o3.
"rom ?arh 1697 *o Jul% 1698 5e*er made h$, !amou, $nogn$*o *r$p *o *he +e,*, 3$,$*$ng A+eden,
5ru,,$a, .olland, and 0ngland and bu$ld$ng up a 3a,* ,*ore o! na3al, m$l$*ar%, and ,$en*$!$ -no+ledge
!or h$, la*er re!orm,. .$, *r$p +a, ur*a$led b% ne+, o! *he !$nal ,*rel*,% re3ol*. 5e*er *hen omple*ed *he
*ran,!orma*$on *o a modern regular arm% on *he +e,*ern model, +h$h had begun under h$, !a*her, ),ar
Ale-,e%. .$, ,*ra*eg$ !ou, al,o ,h$!*ed +e,*, *o+ard, 0urope and ae,, *o $* 3$a *he ;al*$, +$*h *he
Grea* 2or*hern +ar. 5e*erB, ne+ arm% ,a+ $*, !$r,* a*$on aga$n,* *he A+ede, a* 2ar3a $n 1711, bu*
learl% had muh *o learn. )he% ,urrounded *he A+ed$,h !or*re,, +$*h abou* (&, 111 *roop, bu* *he
A+ed$,h rel$e! !ore, emerg$ng !rom *he +ood,, onl% 11, 111 ,*rong, *ore $n*o *hem, -$ll$ng up *o 8, 111
and ap*ur$ng all *he$r ar*$ller%. Al*hough 2ar3a +a, a d$,a,*er, 5e*er on*$nued h$, ,*ra*eg% o!
dom$na*$ng *he Gul! o! "$nland and ,eur$ng ae,, *o *he ,ea. ;% 171( *he #u,,$an, had *he ea,*ern
end o! *he Gul!, and on 16 ?a% *he !ounda*$on ,*one o! *he 5e*ropa3lo3,-H5e*er and 5aulH!or*re,,
+a, la$d on *he e,*uar% o! *he r$3er 2e3a. )he gro+$ng ,e**lemen* around +a, alled Aan-* 5e*er ;ur-,
$n <u*hI A* 5e*er,burg.
A* 5ol*a3a on 87 June 1719, *he !$r,* ba**le +here 5e*er *oo- per,onal ommand, *he ne+ #u,,$an arm%
,ored $*, !$r,* 3$*or% o3er a +e,*ern arm%, and one o! #u,,$aB, grea*e,* m$l$*ar% *r$umph,. )he A+ede,,
led b% Charle, M::, b% no+ ou*numbered nearl% *+o *o one and ,hor* o! ammun$*$on, ne3er*hele,,
a**a-ed a ,*rongl% de!ended #u,,$an amp, and lo,* abou* hal! *he$r ,*reng*h -$lled and +ounded.
.$,*or$all%, *he #u,,$an, had been on,$dered o+ardl%, la6%, and be**er a* ,$ege +ar!are *han $n *he
open !$eld. )h$, ba**le announed a ne+ ,*%le.
:n *he en,u$ng %ear,, #u,,$a gre+ ,*ronger, and !ore$gn ob,er3er,, $nlud$ng *he .ano3er$an, and *he
0ngl$,h, ne+l% 4o$ned, e@pre,,ed an@$e*% abou* *he gro+*h o! #u,,$an po+er. )o+ard, *he end o! h$,
re$gn, 5e*er aga$n *urned ,ou*h, ,e$6$ng <erben* $n 1788 and ;a-u and #e,hu* $n 178(, ga$n,
reogn$6ed b% *he 5er,$an, and *he )ur-,. )he rea*$on o! *hree ne+ !lee*, re!le*ed *he ,*ra*eg$
d$re*$on o! 5e*erB, ampa$gn,I *he ;al*$, *he A6o3, and *he Ca,p$an. )he ;al*$ +a, *he b$gge,* and,
b% *he end o! *he Grea* 2or*hern +ar, had 18& #u,,$an-bu$l* ra!* and 55 *a-en !rom *he A+ede,,
$nlud$ng *+en*% ,a$l o! *he l$ne. ;eau,e *he +a*er, o! *he ;al*$ and *he Aea o! A6o3 +ere o!*en
,hallo+, galle%, pro3ed e,pe$all% u,e!ul and 5e*er had &16 b% *he end o! *he 2or*hern +ar. Al*hough
5e*er dre+ muh !rom !ore$gn ad3$,er,, e,pe$all% Ao*,men l$-e 5a*r$- Gordon, Jame, ;rue, and G.
;. 7g$l3%, and *he A+$,, "ran6 Ge!or*, he al,o *hough* pro!oundl% and +ro*e a* leng*h abou* *he ar* o!
+ar. )he Code o! 1716 and #ule, o! Comba* (1718) +ere h$, o+n +or- and dre+ hea3$l% on h$, o+n
e@per$ene. ;% *he end o! h$, re$gn #u,,$a, aord$ng *o a "renh d$ploma* +r$*$ng *o Gou$, M:J $n
178(, K+ho,e 3er% name +a, ,arel% -no+n, ha, no+ beome *he ob4e* o! a**en*$on o! *he grea*er
po+er, o! 0urope, +ho ,ol$$* $*, !r$end,h$pL.
Ca*her$ne *he Grea*-(born ?a% 8, 1789, A*e**$n, 5ru,,$ad$ed 2o3. 17, 1796, ),ar,-o%e Aelo, near A*.
5e*er,burg, #u,,$a) German-born empre,, o! #u,,$a (176896). )he daugh*er o! an ob,ure German
pr$ne, ,he +a, ho,en a* age 1& *o be *he +$!e o! *he !u*ure 5e*er :::. )he marr$age +a, a omple*e
!a$lure. ;eau,e her neuro*$ hu,band +a, $napable o! rul$ng, *he amb$*$ou, Ca*her$ne ,a+ *he
po,,$b$l$*% o! el$m$na*$ng h$m and go3ern$ng #u,,$a her,el!. A!*er 5e*er beame emperor $n 1768, ,he
on,p$red +$*h her lo3er, Gr$gor% G., Coun* 7rlo3, *o !ore 5e*er *o abd$a*e (he +a, murdered ,oon
a!*er) and ha3e her,el! prola$med empre,,. :n her (&-%ear re$gn ,he led #u,,$a $n*o !ull par*$$pa*$on $n
0uropean pol$*$al and ul*ural l$!e. /$*h her m$n$,*er, ,he reorgan$6ed *he adm$n$,*ra*$on and la+ o!
*he #u,,$an 0mp$re and e@*ended #u,,$an *err$*or%, add$ng *he Cr$mea and muh o! 5oland. )hough
,he had one $n*ended *o eman$pa*e *he ,er!,, ,he $n,*ead ,*reng*hened *he ,%,*em ,he had one
ondemned a, $nhuman. Ahe had grea* energ% and +$de $n*ere,*,, and her per,onal l$!e +a, no*able !or
her man% lo3er,, $nlud$ng Gr$gor% 5o*em-$n.
T$ng <%na,*%-(16&&1911C18) Ga,* o! *he $mper$al d%na,*$e, $n Ch$na. )he name T$ng +a, !$r,* appl$ed
*o *he d%na,*% e,*abl$,hed b% *he ?anhu $n 16(6 $n ?anhur$a and *hen appl$ed b% e@*en,$on *o *he$r
rule $n Ch$na. <ur$ng *he T$ng d%na,*%, Ch$naB, *err$*or% and popula*$on e@panded *remendou,l%.
Cul*ural a**$*ude, +ere ,*rongl% on,er3a*$3e and 2eo-Con!u$an$,m +a, *he dom$nan* ph$lo,oph%. )he
ar*, !lour$,hedI l$*era*$ pa$n*$ng +a, popular, no3el, $n *he 3ernaular de3eloped ,ub,*an*$all%, and
4$ng@$ (5e-$ng opera) de3eloped. T$ng porela$n, *e@*$le,, *ea, paper, ,ugar, and ,*eel +ere e@por*ed *o
all par*, o! *he +orld. ?$l$*ar% ampa$gn, $n *he la**er par* o! *he 18*h en*ur% deple*ed go3ernmen*
!$nane,, and orrup*$on gre+. )he,e ond$*$on,, omb$ned +$*h popula*$on pre,,ure, and na*ural
d$,a,*er,, led *o *he 7p$um /ar, and *he )a$p$ng and 2$an rebell$on,, +h$h $n *urn ,o +ea-ened *he
d%na,*% *ha* $* +a, unable *o rebu!! *he demand, o! !ore$gn po+er,. )he d%na,*% ended +$*h *he
republ$an re3olu*$on o! 1911 and *he abd$a*$on o! *he la,* emperor $n 1918.
Ale@ander <ube--(b. =hro3e, +e,*ern Alo3a-$a, 87 2o3. 1981; d. 5rague, 7 2o3. 1998) Alo3a-;
leader o! *he Alo3a- Commun$,* 5ar*% 196( ' 8, leader o! *he C6eho,lo3a- 5ar*% 1968 ' 9. )he ,on o!
a Commun$,* arpen*er, <ubUe- ,pen* h$, h$ldhood !rom 1985 *o 19(8 $n *he Ao3$e* =n$on. .e 4o$ned
*he $llegal Alo3a- Commun$,* 5ar*% $n 19(9. :n Augu,* 19&& he par*$$pa*ed $n *he Alo3a- 2a*$onal
=pr$,$ng and +a, +ounded. =n*$l 19&9 <ubUe- held a 3ar$e*% o! men$al and !a*or% 4ob,. .e *hen
en*ered *he par*% appara*u, !ull-*$me, +or-$ng $n )renU$n, and +a, appo$n*ed *o *he Alo3a- Cen*ral
Comm$**ee $n 1951. 0arl% $n 195( he +a, promo*ed *o po,* o! reg$onal ,ere*ar% o! *he ;an,-O ;%,*r$a
area $n en*ral Alo3a-$a. :n 1958 he +a, made reg$onal ,ere*ar% !or ;ra*$,la3a and member o! *he
Cen*ral Comm$**ee o! *he C6eho,lo3a- 5ar*%. :n 1961 he made h$, onl% *r$p *o *he /e,*, 3$,$*$ng
"$nland. :n June 1961 he beame a ,ere*ar% o! *he Cen*ral Comm$**ee o! *he C6eho,lo3a- 5ar*% and
en*ered *he C6eho,lo3a- 5ar*% 5re,$d$um $n 196(. :n ?a% 196( he replaed Karol ;aVle- a, Alo3a-
5ar*% leader, de!ea*$ng 2o3o*nNB, and$da*e, ?$hal ChudV-. :n June 1966 ChudV- and 2o3o*nN !a$led
*o ou,* <ubUe- !rom leader,h$p o! *he Alo3a- 5ar*%. :n 7*ober 1967 <ubUe- led *he re3ol* aga$n,*
2o3o*nN o! re!orm$,*, and Alo3a- na*$onal$,*, +$*h$n *he C6eho,lo3a- Cen*ral Comm$**ee and
replaed 2o3o*nN a, "$r,* Aere*ar% o! *he C6eho,lo3a- 5ar*% $n Januar% 1968. :mpelled b% eonom$
r$,$, and popular e@pe*a*$on,, <ubUe-B, reg$me ena*ed a ,er$e, o! !ar-reah$ng mea,ure, $n*ended *o
rea*e D,o$al$,m +$*h a human !aeD. )he ulm$na*$on +a, *he DA*$on 5rogrammeD o! Apr$l 1968, b%
+h$h *he par*% announed re!orm, $nlud$ng ba,$ $3$l r$gh*,, an $ndependen* 4ud$$ar%, and eonom$
deen*ral$6a*$on. "rom 89 Jul% *o 8 Augu,* <ubUe- me* *he Ao3$e* leader, a* W$erna-nad-)$,ou $n
Alo3a-$a. .e prom$,ed *o ma$n*a$n *he one-par*% ,%,*em and *o -eep C6eho,lo3a-$a +$*h$n *he
/ar,a+ 5a*. 7n *he n$gh* o! 81 ' 1 Augu,* 1968 *he !ore, o! *he /ar,a+ 5a* $n*er3ened $n
C6eho,lo3a-$a. <ubUe- and !$3e o*her leader, +ere arre,*ed and *a-en *o ?o,o+, bu* +ere ,oon
re*urned *o 5rague. :n 1969 .u,O- replaed <ubUe- a, par*% leader and he beame 5re,$den* o! *he
"ederal A,,embl%. :n 1971 he +a, remo3ed !rom o!!$e and e@pelled !rom *he par*%. "rom *hen un*$l
1989 he +or-ed a, a !ore,* +arden $n Alo3a-$a. .e ,$ded +$*h *he demora*$ oppo,$*$on dur$ng *he
DJel3e* #e3olu*$onD o! 1989 +h$h brough* do+n *he Commun$,* reg$me $n C6eho,lo3a-$a, bu* d$d
no* pla% a ,$gn$!$an* pol$*$al role *herea!*er. .e d$ed a!*er a ar ra,h $n 1998.
A6*e,-2ahua*l-,pea-$ng people +ho $n *he 15*h and earl% 16*h en*ur$e, ruled a large emp$re $n +ha*
$, no+ en*ral and ,ou*hern ?e@$o. )he% ma% ha3e or$g$na*ed on *he nor*hern ?e@$an pla*eau be!ore
m$gra*$ng *o *he$r la*er loa*$on. )he$r m$gra*$on ma% ha3e been l$n-ed *o *he ollap,e o! *he )ol*e
$3$l$6a*$on. )he A6*e emp$re, +h$h a* $*, he$gh* ompr$,ed roughl% !$3e *o ,$@ m$ll$on people ,pread
o3er ,ome 81,111 ,9 m$ (811,111 ,9 -m), +a, made po,,$ble b% *he$r ,ue,,!ul agr$ul*ural me*hod,,
$nlud$ng $n*en,$3e ul*$3a*$on, $rr$ga*$on, and relama*$on o! +e*land,. )he A6*e ,*a*e +a, de,po*$,
m$l$*ar$,*$, and ,harpl% ,*ra*$!$ed aord$ng *o la,, and a,*e. A6*e rel$g$on +a, ,%nre*$, dra+$ng
e,pe$all% on *he bel$e!, o! *he ?a%a. )he A6*e pra*$ed human ,ar$!$e, an a*$3$*% *ha* ,ome*$me,
reahed ma,, propor*$on,. )he emp$re ame *o an end +hen *he Apan$,h on9u$,*ador .ernn Cor*, *oo-
*he emperor ?on*e6uma :: pr$,oner and on9uered *he grea* $*% )enoh*$*ln (modern ?e@$o C$*%).
2ahua.
George Kennan-(191&- ), d$ploma* and h$,*or$an. Kennan, one o! *he !e+ ou*,*and$ng Amer$an publ$
$n*elle*ual, o! *he *+en*$e*h en*ur%, $, be,* -no+n a, D*he !a*her o! on*a$nmen*D and *here!ore a, a
-e% !$gure $n *he emergene o! *he old +ar. )h$, $, no* a +holl% unde,er3ed repu*a*$on, al*hough he
onl% ar*$ula*ed more elo9uen*l% *han o*her, +ha* +a, *a-$ng plae. ;u* h$, Dlong *elegramD !rom
?o,o+ $n 19&6 and *he ar*$le he +ro*e *he ne@* %ear under *he p,eudon%m DMD ha3e r$gh*l% been
,een a, !ounda*$onal *e@*, o! *he old +ar, e@pre,,$ng and leg$*$ma*$ng /a,h$ng*onB, ne+ and
3$gorou,l% an*$-Ao3$e* pol$%.
Kennan, +ho pla%ed a lead$ng role $n *he !ormula*$on o! man% ru$al pol$$e, o! *h$, per$od, mo,*
no*abl% *he ?ar,hall 5lan, a,,umed *ha* *he Ao3$e* reg$me +a, $nheren*l% e@pan,$on$,* and had *o be
Don*a$nedD--,*opped !rom e@pand$ng $n plae, o! 3$*al $mpor*ane *o *he /e,*. A$ne *he #u,,$an,
+ere *hough* *o be !ana*$,, *he% +ere $mpo,,$ble *o *al- +$*h. A*opp$ng *hem *here!ore mean* *he
abandonmen* o! real d$ploma%--$n e!!e*, a per$od o! deep !ree6e oupled +$*h *$*-!or-*a* mo3e, un*$l
!ru,*ra*$on e$*her bro-e *he Ao3$e* reg$me or mello+ed $* *o *he po$n* +here $* ould be made *o ,ee
/e,*ern rea,on. :n,o!ar a, no Dreal d$ploma%D +a, $ndeed *he hara*er$,*$ mar- o! *he old +ar,
Kennan +a, $*, mo,* ,oph$,*$a*ed or$g$na*$ng ,p$r$*.
;% m$d-19&8, ho+e3er, Kennan had beome on3$ned *ha* *he ,$*ua*$on $n /e,*ern 0urope had
$mpro3ed *o *he po$n* +here nego*$a*$on, ould be $n$*$a*ed +$*h ?o,o+ +$*h a 3$e+ *o rea*$ng a
un$!$ed German% ou*,$de *he po+er on!$gura*$on, o! 0a,* and /e,*. )he ,ugge,*$on d$d no* re,ona*e
+$*h$n *he )ruman adm$n$,*ra*$on, $n par* beau,e *he $dea o! a d$3$ded 0urope had ome *o ,eem a
u,e!ul arrangemen*. Kennan +a, *hu, $nrea,$ngl% marg$nal$6ed.
:n 1951 he le!* *he A*a*e <epar*men*, e@ep* !or *+o br$e! amba,,ador$al ,*$n*, $n *he Ao3$e* =n$on and
Fugo,la3$a, and beame a lead$ng Dreal$,*D r$*$ o! Amer$an !ore$gn pol$%. :n*ell$gen* pur,u$* o! *he
na*$onal $n*ere,* ,eemed *o h$m $mpo,,$ble g$3en ,uh a deen*ered ,%,*em o! go3ernmen*, ,uh an
$ngra$ned need *o moral$6e b% pro4e*$ng Amer$an 3alue, on *he +orld, ,uh a ba,$ la- o! a ,en,e o!
l$m$*,. .$, long-,*and$ng d$,enhan*men* +$*h *he ma,, ul*ure o! on,umer$,m al,o ,ur!aed. :n *he
1961,, he +a,, oddl%, a elebra*ed r$*$ o! bo*h *he J$e*nam /ar and *he ,*uden* re3ol*.
)hroughou* *he,e %ear, he +ro*e 3olum$nou,l%, publ$,h$ng ,e3eral $mpor*an* h$,*or$al +or-, on *he
Ao3$e* =n$on and Ao3$e*-Amer$an rela*$on, and, more reen*l%, a mul*$3olume *rea*$,e on *he or$g$n,
o! *he "$r,* /orld /ar. .$, ?emo$r, $, a +or- o! la,*$ng l$*erar% 3alue and one o! *he grea* Amer$an
au*ob$ograph$e,. :n *he 1971, and 1981, he 4o$ned $n *he publ$ deba*e a, a pro!ound and unbend$ng
r$*$ o! *he arm, rae.
Apan$,h olon$6a*$on-ompr$,ed *err$*or$e, and olon$e, adm$n$,*ered b% *he Apan$,h Cro+n $n 0urope,
*he Amer$a,, A!r$a, A,$a and 7ean$a. :* or$g$na*ed dur$ng *he Age o! 0@plora*$on and +a, one o! *he
!$r,* global emp$re,. =nder *he Apan$,h .ab,burg,, Apa$n reahed *he pea- o! $*, pol$*$al and
eonom$ po+er +hen $*, emp$re beame *he !oremo,* global po+er. :n on4un*$on +$*h *he
5or*ugue,e 0mp$re, *he Apan$,h 0mp$reB, e,*abl$,hmen* $n *he 15*h en*ur% u,hered $n *he modern
global era and *he r$,e o! 0uropean dom$nane $n global a!!a$r,.X1Y Apa$nB, *err$*or$al reah be%ond
0urope ,panned !$3e en*ur$e,, !rom *he !$r,* 3o%age, *o *he Amer$a, $n 1&98 un*$l *he lo,, o! $*, la,*
A!r$an olon$e, $n 1975.
/oodro+ /$l,on-(born <e. 88, 1856, A*aun*on, Ja., =.A.d$ed "eb. (, 198&, /a,h$ng*on, <.C.) 88*h
pre,$den* o! *he =.A. (191(81). .e earned a la+ degree and la*er ree$3ed h$, do*ora*e !rom John,
.op-$n, =n$3er,$*%. .e *augh* pol$*$al ,$ene a* 5r$ne*on =n$3er,$*% (18911918). A, $*, pre,$den*
(191811), he $n*rodued 3ar$ou, re!orm,. /$*h *he ,uppor* o! progre,,$3e,, he +a, ele*ed go3ernor o!
2e+ Jer,e%. .$, re!orm mea,ure, a**ra*ed na*$onal a**en*$on, and he beame *he <emora*$ 5ar*%
pre,$den*$al nom$nee $n 1918. .$, ampa$gn empha,$6ed h$, progre,,$3e 2e+ "reedom pol$%, and he
de!ea*ed )heodore #oo,e3el* and /$ll$am .. )a!* *o +$n *he pre,$den%. A, pre,$den*, he appro3ed
leg$,la*$on *ha* lo+ered *ar$!!,, rea*ed *he "ederal #e,er3e A%,*em, e,*abl$,hed *he "ederal )rade
Comm$,,$on, and ,*reng*hened labour un$on,. :n !ore$gn a!!a$r, he promo*ed ,el!-go3ernmen* !or *he
5h$l$pp$ne, and ,ough* *o on*a$n *he ?e@$an $3$l +ar. "rom 191& he ma$n*a$ned =.A. neu*ral$*% $n
/orld /ar :, o!!er$ng *o med$a*e a ,e**lemen* and $n$*$a*e peae nego*$a*$on,. A!*er *he ,$n-$ng o! *he
Gu,$*an$a (1915) and o*her unarmed ,h$p,, he ob*a$ned a pledge !rom German% *o ,*op $*, ,ubmar$ne
ampa$gn. Campa$gn$ng on *he *heme *ha* he had -ep* u, ou* o! +ar, he +a, narro+l% reele*ed $n
1916, de!ea*$ng Charle, 03an, .ughe,. German%B, rene+ed ,ubmar$ne a**a-, on unarmed pa,,enger
,h$p, au,ed /$l,on *o a,- !or a delara*$on o! +ar $n Apr$l 1917. :n a on*$nu$ng e!!or* *o nego*$a*e a
peae agreemen*, he pre,en*ed *he "our*een 5o$n*, (1918). .e led *he =.A. delega*$on *o *he 5ar$, 5eae
Con!erene. )he )rea*% o! Jer,a$lle, !aed oppo,$*$on $n *he Aena*e !rom *he #epubl$an ma4or$*% led
b% .enr% Cabo* Godge. :n ,earh o! popular ,uppor* !or *he *rea*% and $*, pro3$,$on rea*$ng *he Geague
o! 2a*$on,, /$l,on began a ro,,-oun*r% ,pea-$ng *our, dur$ng +h$h he ollap,ed. .e re*urned *o
/a,h$ng*on, <.C. (Aep*ember 1919), +here he ,u!!ered a ma,,$3e ,*ro-e *ha* le!* h$m par*$all%
paral%6ed. :n *he mon*h, *ha* !ollo+ed, h$, +$!e 0d$*h on*rolled ae,, *o h$m, made ,ome de$,$on,
b% de!aul*, and eng$neered a o3er-up o! h$, ond$*$on. .e re4e*ed an% a**emp*, *o omprom$,e h$,
3er,$on o! *he Geague o! 2a*$on, and urged h$, Aena*e !ollo+er, *o 3o*e aga$n,* ra*$!$a*$on o! *he
*rea*%, +h$h +a, de!ea*ed $n 1981. .e +a, a+arded *he 1919 2obel 5r$6e !or 5eae.
:na,-Group o! Aou*h Amer$an :nd$an, +ho ruled an emp$re *ha* e@*ended along *he 5a$!$ oa,* and
Ande, ?oun*a$n, !rom +ha* $, no+ nor*hern 0uador *o en*ral Ch$le. Aord$ng *o *rad$*$on (*he :na
le!* no +r$**en reord,), *he !ounder o! *he :nan d%na,*% led *he *r$be *o Cu6o, +h$h beame *he$r
ap$*al. =nder *he !our*h emperor, *he% began *o e@pand, and under *he e$gh*h *he% began a program o!
permanen* on9ue,* b% e,*abl$,h$ng garr$,on, among *he on9uered people,. =nder )opa :na
Fupan9u$ and h$, ,ue,,or, *he emp$re reahed $*, ,ou*hernmo,* and nor*hernmo,* e@*en*. ;% *he earl%
16*h en*ur% *he :na on*rolled an emp$re o! ,ome 18 m$ll$on ,ub4e*,. )he% on,*ru*ed a 3a,*
ne*+or- o! road,, *he$r arh$*e*ure +a, h$ghl% de3eloped, and *he rema$n, o! *he$r $rr$ga*$on ,%,*em,,
palae,, *emple,, and !or*$!$a*$on, are ,*$ll $n e3$dene *hroughou* *he Ande,. :nan ,o$e*% +a, h$ghl%
,*ra*$!$ed and !ea*ured an ar$,*ora*$ bureaura%. )he$r pan*heon, +or,h$ped $n a h$ghl% organ$6ed
,*a*e rel$g$on, $nluded a ,un god, a rea*or god, and a ra$n god. )he :nan emp$re +a, o3er*hro+n $n
15(8 b% *he Apan$,h on9u$,*adore,, +ho made grea* u,e o! *he :nan road ,%,*em dur$ng *he$r
on9ue,*,. )he :naB, de,endan*, are *he Tuehua-,pea-$ng pea,an*, o! *he Ande, ( Tuehua). :n 5eru
nearl% hal! *he popula*$on $, o! :nan de,en*. )he% are pr$mar$l% !armer, and herder, l$3$ng $n lo,e-
-n$* ommun$*$e,. )he$r #oman Ca*hol$$,m $, $n!u,ed +$*h bel$e! $n pagan ,p$r$*, and d$3$n$*$e,.
Andean $3$l$6a*$on; A*ahuallpa; A%mara; Ch$m; "ran$,o 5$6arro.
?a%an,-
Group o! ?e,oamer$an :nd$an, +ho be*+een 851 and 911 de3eloped one o! *he /e,*ern .em$,phereB,
grea*e,* $3$l$6a*$on,. ;% 811 *he% had de3eloped $*$e, on*a$n$ng palae,, *emple,, pla6a,, and ball
our*,. )he% u,ed ,*one *ool, *o 9uarr% *he $mmen,e 9uan*$*$e, o! ,*one needed !or *ho,e ,*ru*ure,;
*he$r ,ulp*ure and rel$e! ar3$ng +ere al,o h$ghl% de3eloped. ?a%an h$erogl%ph$ +r$*$ng ,ur3$3e, $n
boo-, and $n,r$p*$on,. ?a%an ma*hema*$, !ea*ured po,$*$onal no*a*$on and *he u,e o! *he 6ero; ?a%an
a,*ronom% u,ed an aura*el% de*erm$ned ,olar %ear and pre$,e *able, o! *he po,$*$on, o! Jenu, and *he
?oon. Calendr$al aura% +a, $mpor*an* !or *he elabora*e r$*ual, and eremon$e, o! *he ?a%an
rel$g$on, +h$h +a, ba,ed on a pan*heon o! god,. #$*ual bloodle**$ng, *or*ure, and human ,ar$!$e +ere
emplo%ed $n an a**emp* *o prop$*$a*e *he god,, en,ure !er*$l$*%, and ,*a3e o!! o,m$ hao,. A* *he he$gh*
o! $*, Cla,,$ per$od, ?a%an $3$l$6a*$on $nluded more *han &1 $*$e, o! 5,11151,111 people. A!*er 911
*he $3$l$6a*$on del$ned rap$dl% !or un-no+n rea,on,. <e,endan*, o! *he ?a%a are no+ ,ub,$,*ene
!armer, $n ,ou*hern ?e@$o and Gua*emala. Ch$hn :*6; Copn; Gaandn; ?a%a od$e,; ?a%a
language; Tu$h; )$-al; )6el*al; )6o*6$l; =@mal.
<e,ere*-An area propo,ed b% *he ?ormon, $n 18&9 a, an $ndependen* ,*a*e or a ,*a*e o! *he =n$on.
<e,ere* +ould ha3e $nluded muh o! *he ,ou*h+e,* =n$*ed A*a*e,, +$*h a ap$*al a* Aal* Ga-e C$*%.
Congre,, re!u,ed *o reogn$6e *he pro3$,$onal ,*a*e and rea*ed *he =*ah )err$*or% $n 1851.
;r$*$,h #e3olu*$on o! 1688-al,o alled #e3olu*$on o! 1688, or ;loodle,, #e3olu*$on , $n 0ngl$,h
h$,*or%, *he e3en*, o! 1688'89 *ha* re,ul*ed $n *he depo,$*$on o! Jame, :: and *he ae,,$on o! h$,
daugh*er ?ar% :: and her hu,band, /$ll$am :::, pr$ne o! 7range and ,*adholder o! *he 2e*herland,.
A!*er *he ae,,$on o! Jame, :: $n 1685, h$, o3er* #oman Ca*hol$$,m al$ena*ed *he ma4or$*% o! *he
popula*$on. :n 1687 he $,,ued a <elara*$on o! :ndulgene, ,u,pend$ng *he penal la+, aga$n,* d$,,en*er,
and reu,an*,, and $n Apr$l 1688 ordered *ha* a ,eond <elara*$on o! :ndulgene be read !rom e3er%
pulp$* on *+o ,ue,,$3e Aunda%,. /$ll$am Aanro!*, *he arhb$,hop o! Can*erbur%, and ,$@ o*her
b$,hop, pe*$*$oned h$m aga$n,* *h$, and +ere pro,eu*ed !or ,ed$*$ou, l$bel. )he$r a9u$**al almo,*
o$n$ded +$*h *he b$r*h o! a ,on *o Jame,L, #oman Ca*hol$ 9ueen, ?ar% o! ?odena (June). )h$, e3en*
prom$,ed an $nde!$n$*e on*$nuane o! h$, pol$% and brough* d$,on*en* *o a head. Ae3en em$nen*
0ngl$,hmen, $nlud$ng one b$,hop and ,$@ prom$nen* pol$*$$an, o! bo*h /h$g and )or% per,ua,$on,,
+ro*e $n3$*$ng /$ll$am o! 7range *o ome o3er +$*h an arm% *o redre,, *he na*$onL, gr$e3ane,.
/$ll$am +a, bo*h Jame,L, nephe+ and h$, ,on-$n-la+, and, un*$l *he b$r*h o! Jame,L, ,on, h$, +$!e,
?ar%, +a, he$r apparen*. /$ll$amL, h$e! onern +a, *o he- *he o3ergro+*h o! "renh po+er $n
0urope, and he +elomed 0nglandL, a$d. )hu,, ha3$ng been $n lo,e *ouh +$*h *he lead$ng 0ngl$,h
malon*en*, !or more *han a %ear, he aep*ed *he$r $n3$*a*$on. Gand$ng a* ;r$@ham on )or ;a%
(2o3ember 5), he ad3aned ,lo+l% on Gondon, a, ,uppor* !ell a+a% !rom Jame, ::. Jame,L, daugh*er
Anne and h$, be,* general, John Churh$ll, +ere among *he de,er*er, *o /$ll$amL, amp; *hereupon
Jame, !led *o "rane.
/$ll$am +a, no+ a,-ed *o arr% on *he go3ernmen* and ,ummon a 5arl$amen*. /hen *h$, Con3en*$on
5arl$amen* me* (Januar% 88, 1689), $* agreed, a!*er ,ome deba*e, *o *rea* Jame,L, !l$gh* a, an abd$a*$on
and *o o!!er *he Cro+n, +$*h an aompan%$ng <elara*$on o! #$gh*, *o /$ll$am and ?ar% 4o$n*l%. ;o*h
g$!* and ond$*$on, +ere aep*ed. )hereupon *he on3en*$on *urned $*,el! $n*o a proper 5arl$amen* and
large par*, o! *he <elara*$on $n*o a ;$ll o! #$gh*,. )h$, b$ll ga3e *he ,ue,,$on *o ?ar%L, ,$,*er, Anne,
$n de!aul* o! $,,ue *o ?ar%; barred #oman Ca*hol$, !rom *he *hrone; abol$,hed *he Cro+nL, po+er *o
,u,pend la+,; ondemned *he po+er o! d$,pen,$ng +$*h la+, Pa, $* ha*h been e@er$,ed and u,ed o!
la*eQ; and delared a ,*and$ng arm% $llegal $n *$me o! peae.
)he ,e**lemen* mar-ed a on,$derable *r$umph !or /h$g 3$e+,. :! no #oman Ca*hol$ ould be -$ng,
*hen no -$ng,h$p ould be unond$*$onal. )he adop*$on o! *he e@lu,$on$,* ,olu*$on len* ,uppor* *o John
Go-eL, on*en*$on *ha* go3ernmen* +a, $n *he na*ure o! a ,o$al on*ra* be*+een *he -$ng and h$,
people repre,en*ed $n parl$amen*. )he re3olu*$on permanen*l% e,*abl$,hed 5arl$amen* a, *he rul$ng
po+er o! 0ngland.
0nl$gh*enmen*-0uropean $n*elle*ual mo3emen* o! *he 17*h18*h en*ur% $n +h$h $dea, onern$ng
God, rea,on, na*ure, and man +ere blended $n*o a +orld3$e+ *ha* $n,p$red re3olu*$onar% de3elopmen*,
$n ar*, ph$lo,oph%, and pol$*$,. Cen*ral *o 0nl$gh*enmen* *hough* +ere *he u,e and elebra*$on o!
rea,on. "or 0nl$gh*enmen* *h$n-er,, ree$3ed au*hor$*%, +he*her $n ,$ene or rel$g$on, +a, *o be ,ub4e*
*o *he $n3e,*$ga*$on o! un!e**ered m$nd,. :n *he ,$ene, and ma*hema*$,, *he log$, o! $ndu*$on and
dedu*$on made po,,$ble *he rea*$on o! a ,+eep$ng ne+ o,molog%. )he ,earh !or a ra*$onal rel$g$on
led *o <e$,m; *he more rad$al produ*, o! *he appl$a*$on o! rea,on *o rel$g$on +ere ,-ep*$$,m,
a*he$,m, and ma*er$al$,m. )he 0nl$gh*enmen* produed modern ,eular$6ed *heor$e, o! p,%holog% and
e*h$, b% men ,uh a, John Go-e and )homa, .obbe,, and $* al,o ga3e r$,e *o rad$al pol$*$al
*heor$e,. Go-e, Jerem% ;en*ham, J.-J. #ou,,eau, ?on*e,9u$eu, Jol*a$re, and )homa, Je!!er,on all
on*r$bu*ed *o an e3ol3$ng r$*$9ue o! *he au*hor$*ar$an ,*a*e and *o ,-e*h$ng *he ou*l$ne o! a h$gher
!orm o! ,o$al organ$6a*$on ba,ed on na*ural r$gh*,. 7ne o! *he 0nl$gh*enmen*B, endur$ng lega$e, $, *he
bel$e! *ha* human h$,*or% $, a reord o! general progre,,.
Grea* A+a-en$ng-#el$g$ou, re3$3al $n ;r$*$,h 2or*h Amer$a !rom 1781 $n*o *he 17&1,. :* +a, par* o! a
mo3emen*, -no+n a, 5$e*$,m or Tu$e*$,m on *he 0uropean on*$nen* and e3angel$al$,m $n 0ngland,
*ha* ,+ep* /e,*ern 0urope $n *he la*e 17*h and earl% 18*h en*ur% under *he leader,h$p o! preaher,
,uh a, John /e,le%. :n 2or*h Amer$a *he Grea* A+a-en$ng +a, a 5ro*e,*an* e3angel$al rea*$on
aga$n,* !ormal$,m and ra*$onal$,m $n rel$g$on, and $* had a ,*rong Cal3$n$,* elemen*. #e3$3al$,*
preaher, empha,$6ed *he need !or ,$nner, *o !ear pun$,hmen* and *o hope !or *he unearned g$!* o! grae
!rom God. George /h$*e!$eld (171&1771) +a, one o! *he mo,* popular, preah$ng *o huge ro+d,
*hroughou* *he olon$e, $n 17(9&1. Jona*han 0d+ard, al,o helped $n,p$re *he Grea* A+a-en$ng and +a,
$*, mo,* $mpor*an* *heolog$an. Among $*, re,ul*, +ere m$,,$on, *o *he :nd$an, and *he !ound$ng o!
ollege, ($nlud$ng 5r$ne*on =n$3.). Ano*her re3$3al -no+n a, *he Aeond Grea* A+a-en$ng ourred
$n 2e+ 0ngland and Ken*u-% $n *he 1791,.
Johanne, Kepler-(born <e. 87, 1571, /e$l der A*ad*, /r**embergd$ed 2o3. 15, 16(1, #egen,burg)
German a,*ronomer. ;orn $n*o a poor !am$l%, he ree$3ed a ,holar,h$p *o *he =n$3er,$*% o! )b$ngen.
.e ree$3ed an ?.A. $n 159&, a!*er +h$h he beame a ma*hema*$, *eaher $n Au,*r$a. .e de3eloped a
m%,*$al *heor% *ha* *he o,mo, +a, on,*ru*ed o! *he !$3e regular pol%hedron,, enlo,ed $n a ,phere,
+$*h a plane* be*+een eah pa$r. .e ,en* h$, paper on *he ,ub4e* *o )%ho ;rahe, +ho $n3$*ed Kepler *o
4o$n h$, re,earh ,*a!!. :n a**emp*$ng *o under,*and a*mo,pher$ re!ra*$on o! l$gh*, he beame *he !$r,*
*o e@pla$n aura*el% ho+ l$gh* beha3e, +$*h$n *he e%e, ho+ e%egla,,e, $mpro3e 3$,$on, and +ha*
happen, *o l$gh* $n a *ele,ope. :n 1619 he publ$,hed h$, !$nd$ng *ha* *he orb$* o! ?ar, +a, an ell$p,e
and no* *he per!e* $rle h$*her*o pre,umed *o be *he orb$* o! e3er% ele,*$al bod%. )h$, !a* beame *he
ba,$, o! *he !$r,* o! KeplerB, *hree la+, o! plane*ar% mo*$on. .e al,o de*erm$ned *ha* plane*, mo3e
!a,*er a, *he% near *he Aun (,eond la+), and $n 1619 he ,ho+ed *ha* a ,$mple ma*hema*$al !ormula
rela*ed *he plane*,B orb$*al per$od, *o *he$r d$,*ane !rom *he Aun (*h$rd la+). :n 1681 he de!ended h$,
mo*her !rom harge, o! +$*hra!*, *hereb% pre,er3$ng h$, o+n repu*a*$on a, +ell.
?ar*$n Gu*her-(born 2o3. 11, 1&8(, 0$,leben, Aa@on%d$ed "eb. 18, 15&6, 0$,leben) German pr$e,* +ho
,par-ed *he #e!orma*$on. Gu*her ,*ud$ed ph$lo,oph% and la+ be!ore en*er$ng an Augu,*$n$an mona,*er%
$n 1515. .e +a, orda$ned *+o %ear, la*er and on*$nued h$, *heolog$al ,*ud$e, a* *he =n$3er,$*% o!
/$**enberg, +here he beame a pro!e,,or o! b$bl$al ,*ud$e,. 7n a *r$p *o #ome $n 1511 he +a, ,ho-ed
b% *he orrup*$on o! *he lerg% and +a, la*er *roubled b% doub*, en*r$ng on !ear o! d$3$ne re*r$bu*$3e
4u,*$e. .$, ,p$r$*ual r$,$, +a, re,ol3ed +hen he h$* on *he $dea o! 4u,*$!$a*$on b% !a$*h, *he do*r$ne
*ha* ,al3a*$on $, gran*ed a, a g$!* *hrough GodB, grae. .e urged re!orm o! *he #oman Ca*hol$ Churh,
pro*e,*$ng *he ,ale o! $ndulgene, and o*her abu,e,, and $n 1517 he d$,*r$bu*ed *o *he arhb$,hop o!
?a$n6 and ,e3eral !r$end, h$, 2$ne*%-!$3e )he,e, (aord$ng *o legend, Gu*her na$led *he *he,e, *o *he
door o! *he a,*le hurh $n /$**enberg); *he *he,e, 9ue,*$oned #oman Ca*hol$ *eah$ng and alled !or
re!orm. :n 1581 he +a, e@ommun$a*ed b% 5ope Geo M and delared an ou*la+ a* *he <$e* o! /orm, (
/orm,, <$e* o!). =nder *he pro*e*$on o! *he ele*or o! Aa@on%, Gu*her *oo- re!uge $n /ar*burg. )here
he *ran,la*ed *he ;$ble $n*o German; h$, ,uperbl% 3$gorou, *ran,la*$on ha, long been regarded a, *he
grea*e,* landmar- $n *he h$,*or% o! *he German language. .e la*er re*urned *o /$**enberg, and $n 1585
he marr$ed *he !ormer nun Ka*her$ne o! ;ora, +$*h +hom he ra$,ed !$3e h$ldren. )hough h$, preah$ng
+a, *he pr$n$pal ,par- *ha* ,e* o!! *he 5ea,an*,B /ar (158&85), h$, 3ehemen* denun$a*$on o! *he
pea,an*, on*r$bu*ed *o *he$r de!ea*. .$, brea- +$*h #ome led *o *he !ound$ng o! *he Gu*heran Churh
( Gu*heran$,m); *he Gu*heran on!e,,$on o! !a$*h or, Aug,burg Con!e,,$on, +a, produed +$*h Gu*herB,
,an*$on b% 5h$l$pp ?elanh*hon $n 15(1. Gu*herB, +r$*$ng, $nluded h%mn,, a l$*urg%, and man%
*heolog$al +or-,.
John Cal3$n-(born Jul% 11, 1519, 2o%on, 5$ard%, "raned$ed ?a% 87, 156&, Gene3a, A+$*6.) "renh
5ro*e,*an* *heolog$an and ma4or !$gure o! *he #e!orma*$on. .e ,*ud$ed rel$g$on a* *he =n$3er,$*% o!
5ar$, and la+ $n 7rlan, and ;ourge,. /hen he re*urned *o 5ar$, $n 15(1 he ,*ud$ed *he ;$ble and
beame par* o! a mo3emen* *ha* empha,$6ed ,al3a*$on b% grae ra*her *han b% +or-,. Go3ernmen*
$n*olerane promp*ed h$m *o mo3e *o ;a,el, A+$*6., +here he +ro*e *he !$r,* ed$*$on o! :n,*$*u*e, o! *he
Chr$,*$an #el$g$on (15(6). Ga$n$ng a repu*a*$on among 5ro*e,*an* leader,, he +en* *o Gene3a *o help
e,*abl$,h 5ro*e,*an*$,m $n *ha* $*%. .e +a, e@pelled b% $*% !a*her, $n 15(8 bu* re*urned $n 15&1, +hen
*he *o+n oun$l $n,*$*u*ed *he hurh order ou*l$ned $n h$, 0le,$a,*$al 7rd$nane,, $nlud$ng
en!oremen* o! ,e@ual moral$*% and abol$*$on o! Ca*hol$ ,uper,*$*$on. .e appro3ed *he arre,* and
on3$*$on !or here,% o! ?$hael Aer3e*u,. ;% 1555 Cal3$n had ,ueeded $n e,*abl$,h$ng a *heora%
$n Gene3a, +here he ,er3ed a, pa,*or and head o! *he Gene3an Aadem% and +ro*e *he ,ermon,,
b$bl$al ommen*ar$e,, and le**er, *ha* !orm *he ba,$, o! Cal3$n$,m.
"reder$- *he Grea*-(born Jan. 8&, 1718, ;erl$nd$ed Aug. 17, 1786, 5o*,dam, near ;erl$n) K$ng o!
5ru,,$a (17&186). )he ,on o! "reder$- /$ll$am :, he ,u!!ered an unhapp% earl% l$!e, ,ub4e* *o h$,
!a*herB, apr$$ou, bull%$ng. A!*er *r%$ng *o e,ape $n 17(1, he ,ubm$**ed *o h$, !a*her bu* on*$nued *o
pur,ue $n*elle*ual and ar*$,*$ $n*ere,*,. 7n h$, !a*herB, dea*h (17&1), "reder$- beame -$ng and
a,,er*ed h$, leader,h$p. .e ,e$6ed par*, o! A$le,$a dur$ng *he /ar o! *he Au,*r$an Aue,,$on,
,*reng*hen$ng 5ru,,$a on,$derabl%. .e $n3aded Aa@on% $n 1756 and marhed on $n*o ;ohem$a.
"reder$- +a, almo,* de!ea*ed $n *he Ae3en Fear,B /ar (17566(), un*$l h$, adm$rer 5e*er ::: ,$gned a
#u,,o-5ru,,$an peae *rea*% *ha* la,*ed un*$l 1781. )he "$r,* 5ar*$*$on o! 5oland $n 1778 led *o
enormou, *err$*or$al ga$n, !or 5ru,,$a. Au,*ro-5ru,,$an r$3alr% led *o *he /ar o! *he ;a3ar$an
Aue,,$on (177879), a d$ploma*$ 3$*or% !or "reder$-, bu* on*$nued !ear o! .ab,burg amb$*$on, led
h$m *o !orm a league o! German ,*a*e, aga$n,* Jo,eph ::. =nder "reder$-B, leader,h$p 5ru,,$a beame
one o! *he grea* ,*a*e, o! 0urope, +$*h 3a,*l% e@panded *err$*or$e, and $mpre,,$3e m$l$*ar% ,*reng*h. :n
add$*$on *o modern$6$ng *he arm%, "reder$- al,o e,pou,ed *he $dea, o! enl$gh*ened de,po*$,m and
$n,*$*u*ed numerou, eonom$, $3$l, and ,o$al re!orm,.
Aule$man *he ?agn$!$en*-(1&9&-1566), 7**oman )ur- ,ul*an +ho ruled !rom 1581, +hen 7**oman
po+er +a, a* $*, 6en$*h. Gord o! K*he realm, o! *he #oman,, *he 5er,$an, and *he Arab,L, h$, emp$re
,*re*hed !rom Alg$er, *o A6erba$4an and !rom ?oldo3a *o Femen. 7ne Jene*$an amba,,ador repor*ed
!an$!ull%, $! no* $naura*el%, *ha* h$, emp$re bordered *ho,e o! Apa$n, 5er,$a, and o! 5re,*er John (*he
!abled emperor o! Ab%,,$n$a).
Aule$man ,ueeded h$, !a*her, Ael$m K*he Gr$mL, on 1 7*ober 1581. A* !$r,*, *he Chr$,*$an /e,*
+elomed *he ae,,$on o! a man reno+ned a, a ,holar. ;u* ne3er +ould *he 7**oman emp$re be a,
adm$red or !eared a, under Aule$man. .e $nher$*ed a ,uperb m$l$*ar% mah$ne +h$h +or-ed beau,e,
unl$-e +e,*ern 0uropean arm$e, o! *he *$me, *he !ore, +ere promp*l% pa$d and ,uppor*ed b% a ,uperb
adm$n$,*ra*$on. .e ould pu* an arm% o! 111, 111 $n*o *he !$eld en*red on *he pro!e,,$onal orp, o!
4an$,,ar$e,, Chr$,*$an-born men !rom *he ;al-an,, are!ull% ,ele*ed and ,uperbl% *ra$ned, par*$ularl%
$n m$l$*ar%Hand *here!ore generalHeng$neer$ng. .e +a, al,o helped b% *he ,h$,m $n *he Chr$,*$an
Churh +h$h o$n$ded +$*h h$, ae,,$on. )he ,ame %ear, Gu*her ,e* *he #e!orma*$on $n *ra$n. =nl$-e
Ael$m, +ho had d$re*ed 7**oman e@pan,$on ea,* and ,ou*h, Aule$man ,en,ed $* +a, *$me *o mo3e +e,*.
:n 1581 he *oo- ;elgrade and mo3ed aga$n,* #hode,, +h$h had been an un+elome Chr$,*$an ,*rong
po$n* $n *he ea,*ern ?ed$*erranean !or 811 %ear,. )he -n$gh*, +$*hdre+ *o ?al*a on 2e+ FearB, <a%,
158(. :n a hara*er$,*$ a,$de, Aule$man ,a$d he +a, ,ad *o ma-e *he Grand ?a,*er, an old man, lea3e
h$, home and h$, belong$ng,. :n 1586 he de!ea*ed a !oolhard% a**a- b% *he .ungar$an arm% a* ?oha,,
and ap*ured ;uda, bu* dela%ed *he !ormal anne@a*$on o! .ungar% !or *+en*% %ear,, allo+$ng *he
.ungar$an, *o ,9uabble among *hem,el3e,. :n 15(8 he perhap, me* h$, ma*h $n *he .ol% #oman
0mperor and K$ng o! Apa$n, Charle, J. )he 7**oman arm% +a, held up une@pe*edl% b% *he ,*ubborn
re,$,*ane a* Gun,, 71 m$le, (11( -m) ,ou*h-ea,* o! J$enna, and Charle, d$d no* ma-e *he m$,*a-e o!
mo3$ng ou* *o mee* *he 7**oman,, a, *he .ungar$an, had.
)he 7**oman arm% po,,e,,ed ,ome o! +orldB, mo,* po+er!ul ar*$ller%, bu* ,*$ll pre!erred *he po+er!ul
ompo,$*e bo+ *o *he mu,-e*, no+ beom$ng dom$nan* $n +e,*ern 0uropean arm$e,. Aule$manB, la,*
ampa$gn $n 1566 +a, ano*her $nur,$on $n*o .ab,burg *err$*or%, +$*h *he large,* arm% he had e3er
a,,embled. 7n 7 Aep*ember he d$ed $n h$, *en*, among h$, *roop,, $n *he ,$ege o! A6$ge*h. .$, grand
3$6$er -ep* h$, dea*h ,ere*, embalmed *he bod%, and arr$ed $* home a, $! $* +ere al$3e. .e +a,
,ueeded b% h$, b$bulou, ,on Ael$m ::, K*he Ao*L.
;r$gham Foung-(born June 1, 1811, /h$*$ngham, J*., =.A.d$ed Aug. 89, 1877, Aal* Ga-e C$*%, =*ah)
=.A. rel$g$ou, leader, ,eond pre,$den* o! *he ?ormon hurh. .e ,e**led $n ?endon, 2.F., $n 1889 and
+a, bap*$6ed $n*o Jo,eph Am$*hB, Churh o! Je,u, Chr$,* o! Ga**er-da% Aa$n*, $n 18(8. :n 18(& he 4o$ned
*he ?ormon, $n ?$,,our$, and +hen *he% +ere dr$3en ou* $n 18(8, he organ$6ed *he$r mo3e *o 2au3oo,
:ll. .e e,*abl$,hed a ?ormon m$,,$on $n 0ngland $n 18(9. A!*er Am$*hB, murder $n 18&&, Foung *oo-
o3er *he hurh. .e led *he per,eu*ed ?ormon, !rom :ll$no$, *o =*ah (18&6&8), hoo,$ng *he ,$*e o!
Aal* Ga-e C$*% !or *he ne+ ?ormon head9uar*er,. 0le*ed pre,$den* o! *he ?ormon, $n 18&7, he
beame go3ernor o! *he pro3$,$onal ,*a*e o! <e,ere* $n 18&9 and o! *he *err$*or% o! =*ah $n 1851. .$,
d$*a*or$al au*onom% and legal$6a*$on o! pol%gam% led 5re,. Jame, ;uhanan *o replae h$m a,
go3ernor $n 1857 and ,end *he arm% *o a,,er* !ederal ,uprema% $n *he ,o-alled =*ah /ar, bu* Foung
rema$ned head o! *he ?ormon hurh un*$l h$, dea*h. .e *oo- more *han 81 +$3e, and !a*hered &7
h$ldren.
Geh /ale,a-(b. 5opo+o, 89 Aep*. 19&() 5ol$,h; ha$rman o! Aol$dar$*% 1981 ' 8111, 5re,$den* 1991 '
95 /aZ[,a +a, *he ,on o! a arpen*er. A!*er elemen*ar% edua*$on and *hree %ear,B 3oa*$onal *ra$n$ng he
mo3ed *o Gda\,-, +here he +or-ed a, an ele*r$$an $n *he Gen$n Ah$p%ard,. .e +a, de*erm$ned *o
,eure reogn$*$on !or *he +or-er, ,ho* b% *he reg$me a!*er *he !ood r$o*, o! 1971. :n 1976 he 4o$ned $n
demon,*ra*$on, aga$n,* *he go3ernmen*B, +a*er$ng-do+n o! *he eonom$ one,,$on, $* had made $n
1971 and a, a re,ul* +a, d$,m$,,ed !rom h$, 4ob. "rom 1976 *o 1981 he +a, unemplo%ed and ed$*ed an
underground ne+,paper. A* *he ,ame *$me he +a, a prom$nen* member o! *he /or-er,B Ael!-<e!ene
Comm$**ee, an uno!!$$al organ$6a*$on +h$h had lo,e l$n-, +$*h *he Ca*hol$ $n*ell$gen*,$a. :n Augu,*
1981 *he +or-er, o! Gda\,- +en* on ,*r$-e a* *he go3ernmen*B, ra$,$ng !ood pr$e,. /aZ[,a l$mbed
$n*o *he Gen$n Ah$p%ard, +here h$, !ormer olleague, reogn$6ed h$m a, leader o! *he ,*r$-e +h$h ,oon
,pread. A* *he end o! *he mon*h, /aZ[,a led a omm$**ee +h$h nego*$a*ed +$*h *he Commun$,* reg$me.
7n (1 Augu,* *he go3ernmen* gran*ed *he +or-er,B r$gh* *o !orm $ndependen* *rade un$on, and *he$r
r$gh* *o ,*r$-e a, +ell a, general !reedom o! e@pre,,$on. )he,e one,,$on, +ere unpreeden*ed $n *he
Ao3$e* ;lo. :n Aep*ember 1981, /aZ[,a beame ha$rman o! Aol$dar$*%, *he ne+l% rea*ed na*$onal
organ$6a*$on o! *he $ndependen* *rade un$on,. ;% *he *$me o! $*, !$r,* ongre,, $n Aep*ember 1981,
Aol$dar$*% had 9] m$ll$on member,. /aZ[,a *r$ed *o pla% a modera*$ng role +$*h$n *he organ$6a*$on. A
de3ou* Ca*hol$ h$m,el! he +a, $n lo,e *ouh +$*h *he pr$ma*e o! 5oland, Card$nal Glemp, and +a,
ad3$,ed b% member, o! *he Ca*hol$ $n*ell$gen*,$a, ,uh a, )adeu,6 ?a6o+$e-$. .e +a, unable *o
re,*ra$n *he rad$al +$ng o! Aol$dar$*%, +h$h pu,hed !or a grea*er ,hare o! pol$*$al po+er. A!*er
General Jaru6el,-$B, delara*$on o! mar*$al la+ $n <eember 1981, /aZ[,a +a, pu* under hou,e arre,*
!or ele3en mon*h,. =pon h$, relea,e he re,umed leader,h$p o! *he no+ underground Aol$dar$*%
organ$6a*$on. :n 198( he +a, a+arded *he 2obel 5eae 5r$6e !or h$, de!ene o! *he 5ol$,h +or-er,. .e
dona*ed *he mone% *o har$*%. Aol$dar$*% re!u,ed *o o-opera*e +$*h Jaru6el,-$B, programme o!
eonom$ re!orm, +h$h !a$led.
:n Januar% 1989 *he Commun$,* reg$me legal$6ed Aol$dar$*% and /aZ[,a pla%ed a -e% role $n *he
nego*$a*$on, be*+een *rade un$on, hurh, and ,*a*e +h$h led *o *he par*$all% !ree ele*$on, o! ?a%
1989. :n Aep*ember 1989 /aZ[,aB, and$da*e, ?a6o+$e-$, !ormed *he !$r,* non-Commun$,*
go3ernmen* ,$ne *he 19&1,. :n Apr$l 1991 /aZ[,a +a, re-ele*ed ha$rman o! Aol$dar$*%. 73er *he %ear
a ,pl$* +$*h$n Aol$dar$*% gre+, par*l% beau,e o! /aZ[,aB, r$*$$,m o! *he ,lo+ pae o! pol$*$al re!orm
and *he har,h ,o$al on,e9uene, o! rap$d mar-e*$6a*$on. /hen Jaru6el,-$ re,$gned a, 5re,$den* $n
2o3ember he ,*ood aga$n,* ?a6o+$e-$ and 5ol$,h-born Canad$an ^m$gr^, )%m$\,-$. :n *he !$r,*
ele*oral round he ga$ned onl% &1 per en* o! *he 3o*e aga$n,* )%m$\,-$B, 8( per en* and ?a6o+$e-$B,
18 per en*. ;u* $n *he ,eond round he +on a de$,$3e 3$*or% +$*h 7& per en* o! *he 3o*e aga$n,*
)%m$\,-$B, 86 per en*, and beame 5re,$den* $n <eember 1991. .$, popular$*% on*$nued *o be eroded
b% au,*er$*% and he +a, narro+l% de!ea*ed b% *he re!ormed Commun$,* and$da*e $n *he pre,$den*$al
ele*$on, o! Januar% 1996.
Karol /o4*%la-(born ?a% 18, 1981, /ado+$e, 5ol.d$ed Apr$l 8, 8115, Ja*$an C$*%; bea*$!$ed ?a% 1,
8111; !ea,* da% 7*ober 88) 5ope (19788115), *he b$,hop o! #ome and head o! *he #oman Ca*hol$
Churh, *he !$r,* non-:*al$an pope $n &55 %ear, and *he !$r,* e3er !rom a Ala3$ oun*r%. .e ,*ud$ed !or
*he pr$e,*hood a* an underground ,em$nar% $n Kra-+ dur$ng /orld /ar :: and +a, orda$ned $n 19&6.
.e earned a do*ora*e $n ph$lo,oph% $n #ome (19&8) and re*urned home *o ,er3e $n a par$,h, earn$ng a
,eond do*ora*e (al,o 19&8), $n ,ared *heolog%, !rom *he Jag$ellon$an =n$3er,$*%. .e beame
arhb$,hop o! Kra-+ $n 196& and ard$nal $n 1967. 0le*ed pope a!*er *he ((-da% pon*$!$a*e o! John
5aul : (b. 1918d. 1978), he beame -no+n !or h$, energ%, har$,ma, and $n*elle* a, +ell a, !or h$,
on,er3a*$3e *heolog$al 3$e+, and !er3en* an*$ommun$,m. :n 1981 John 5aul +a, ,ho* $n A*. 5e*erB,
A9uare b% a )ur-$,h gunman, bu* he reo3ered, re,umed h$, +or-, and !orga3e h$, +ould-be a,,a,,$n.
.$, *r$p, abroad a**ra*ed ,ome o! *he large,* ro+d, e3er a,,embled. .$, non3$olen* a*$3$,m ,purred
mo3emen*, *ha* on*r$bu*ed *o *he peae!ul d$,,olu*$on o! *he Ao3$e* =n$on $n 1991. .e hamp$oned
eonom$ and pol$*$al 4u,*$e $n de3elop$ng na*$on,. :n nam$ng && ard$nal, !rom !$3e on*$nen*,
("ebruar% 8111), John 5aul reahed ou* *o ul*ure, around *he +orld. .e al,o anon$6ed more ,a$n*,,
!rom more par*, o! *he +orld, *han had an% o*her pope. .$, eumen$al e!!or*,, $nlud$ng mee*$ng, +$*h
Je+$,h, ?u,l$m, and 0a,*ern 7r*hodo@ rel$g$ou, leader,, +ere +$del% pra$,ed, bu* he o!*en dre+
r$*$$,m !or h$, *rad$*$onal$,* 3$e+, on $,,ue, o! gender and ,e@ual$*%. Al*hough a!!l$*ed +$*h
5ar-$n,on d$,ea,e ,$ne *he earl% 1991,, John 5aul rema$ned a*$3e and made a h$,*or$ *r$p *o
Jeru,alem $n ?arh 8111, dur$ng +h$h he ,ough* *o $mpro3e rela*$on, be*+een *he #oman Ca*hol$
Churh and Je+,. .e +a, bea*$!$ed on ?a% 1, 8111.
!$n de ,$_le-)he end o! *he n$ne*een*h en*ur%; *he phra,e $, "renh !or Pend o! *he en*ur%.Q "$n de
,$_le $, par*$ularl% u,ed *o de,r$be *he per$odB, ,el!-on,$ou, ar*$,*$ mo3emen*, and a ,oph$,*$a*ed
de,pa$r *ha* beame popular a* *he *$me. 7,ar /$lde $, one o! *he be,*--no+n !$n-de-,$_le !$gure,.
Congre,, o! J$enna-)he J$enna Congre,, pro3$ded *he onlu,$on *o *he "renh #e3olu*$on and *he
2apoleon$ /ar,. 2ego*$a*$on, *oo- plae $n "rane !rom "ebruar% *o Apr$l o! 181&, $n Gondon dur$ng
June o! *ha* %ear, $n J$enna !rom Aep*ember 181& *o June 1815, and *hen aga$n $n 5ar$, !rom Jul% *o
2o3ember o! 1815. )he h$e! repre,en*a*$3e, $nluded #ober* A*e+ar*, J$,oun* Ca,*lere$gh o! ;r$*a$n;
h$, all%, Klemen, /en6el 2epomu- Go*har 3on ?e**ern$h o! Au,*r$a; "`r,* Karl Augu,* 3on
.ardenberg o! 5ru,,$a; and Charle,-?aur$e de )alle%rand-5^r$gord, 5r$ne de ;^n^3en* o! "rane.
),ar Ale@ander : d$re*ed *he #u,,$an,, a$ded and $n!luened b% h$, d$3er,e mul*$-na*$onal o*er$e o!
a,,$,*an*,I Coun* Andrea, #a6umo3,-%, +ho +a, amba,,ador *o Au,*r$a; *he /e,*phal$an Gra! Karl
#ober* 3on 2e,,elrode, +ho ,er3ed a, a 9ua,$-!ore$gn m$n$,*er; *he Cor!u Gree- Coun* :oOnn$,
An*an$o, Kapod,*r$a,; *he Cor,$an Coun* Carlo Andrea 5o66o d$ ;orgo; *he 5ru,,$an .e$nr$h
"r$edr$h Karl 3om und 6um A*e$n; *he Al,a*$an An,*ed*; and *he 5ole 5r$ne Adam Jer6% C6ar*or%,-$.
A* *he pea- o! h$, $n!luene $n earl% 181&, Ale@ander d$re*ed *he non-pun$*$3e oupa*$on o! 5ar$, and
*he e@$le o! 2apoleon : *o 0lba. )he )rea*% o! Chaumon* e,*abl$,hed *he Tuadruple All$ane *o on*a$n
"rane, +h$le *he !$r,* )rea*% o! 5ar$, re,*ored *he "renh monarh%. Ale@ander al,o helped blo- a
5ru,,$an ,heme *o !ru,*ra*e "rane and Au,*r$an de,$gn, on A+$*6erland and 5$edmon*-Aard$n$a, bu*
,uppor*ed *he a**ahmen* o! ;elg$um *o *he 2e*herland, and par* o! *he #h$neland *o 5ru,,$a a, he-,
on "renh po+er. :n Gondon, ho+e3er, he !r$gh*ened *he ;r$*$,h +$*h plan, *o reun$*e *he e*hn$ 5ol$,h
land, a, h$, o+n ,epara*e -$ngdom.
A* J$enna, *he ;r$*$,h, Au,*r$an,, and "renh *h+ar*ed *h$, ,heme, +h$h +a, ,uppor*ed b% a 5ru,,$a
ben* on anne@$ng all o! Aa@on%. ;% Januar% 1815 Ale@ander +a, read% *o omprom$,e, an a**$*ude
,*reng*hened b% 2apoleonB, *emporar% re*urn *o po+er $n ?arh. )he "$nal A* o! June &, 1815, dra+n
up b% ?e**ern$hB, men*or, "r$edr$h Gen*6, re!le*ed *h$, ,p$r$* o! omprom$,e. Au,*r$a re*a$ned
Gal$$a, and 5ru,,$a rega$ned 5o6nan and )orun, and al,o a9u$red par* o! Aa@on% and more o! *he
#h$neland. ?o,* o! *he 2apoleon$ <uh% o! /ar,a+ beame *he *,ar$,* K$ngdom o! 5oland. <enmar-
ob*a$ned a ,mall duh% a, par*$al ompen,a*$on !or 2or+a%, +h$h *he A+ed$,h ro+n a9u$red a,
#u,,$an-,pon,ored ompen,a*$on !or *he lo,, o! "$nland. A German Con!edera*$on dom$na*ed b%
Au,*r$a and, *o a le,,er e@*en*, 5ru,,$a, bu* +$*h #u,,$an ,uppor* !or ,uh m$ddle-,$6ed ,*a*e, a,
/`r**emberg, replaed *he de!un* .ol% #oman 0mp$re. )he 7**oman, rema$ned ou*,$de *he "$nal A*,
re!u,$ng *o allo+ Anglo-"renh-Au,*r$an med$a*$on o! d$!!erene, +$*h #u,,$a a, a preond$*$on o! a
general guaran*ee.
;a- $n 5ar$,, Ale@ander promo*ed *he .ol% All$ane, +h$h ?e**ern$h $n,$,*ed be an $deal
bro*herhood o! Chr$,*$an ,o3ere$gn,, no* people,, a, *he #u,,$an emperor en3$,$oned. 7! *he
0uropean,, onl% *he ;r$*$,h, *he 5apa%, and *he 7**oman, re!u,ed *o ,$gn $*. )he (Congre,, o!) J$enna
,%,*em +ea*hered re3olu*$on, and d$ploma*$ r$,e,. 0@ep* !or ;elg$an $ndependene $n 18(1,
0uropeB, border, rema$ned e,,en*$all% ,*able un*$l 1859.
2apoleon-(born Aug. 15, 1769, A4a$o, Cor,$ad$ed ?a% 5, 1881, A*. .elena :,land) "renh general
and emperor (181&15). ;orn *o paren*, o! :*al$an ane,*r%, he +a, edua*ed $n "rane and beame an
arm% o!!$er $n 1785. .e !ough* $n *he "renh #e3olu*$onar% /ar, and +a, promo*ed *o br$gad$er
general $n 179(. A!*er 3$*or$e, aga$n,* *he Au,*r$an, $n nor*hern :*al%, he nego*$a*ed *he )rea*% o!
Campo "orm$o (1797). .e a**emp*ed *o on9uer 0g%p* (179899) bu* +a, de!ea*ed b% *he ;r$*$,h under
.ora*$o 2el,on $n *he ;a**le o! *he 2$le. )he Coup o! 1819 ;ruma$re brough* h$m *o po+er $n 1799,
and he $n,*alled a m$l$*ar% d$*a*or,h$p, +$*h h$m,el! a, "$r,* Con,ul. .e $n*rodued numerou, re!orm,
$n go3ernmen*, $nlud$ng *he 2apoleon$ Code, and reon,*ru*ed *he "renh edua*$on ,%,*em. .e
nego*$a*ed *he Conorda* o! 1811 +$*h *he pope. A!*er 3$*or% aga$n,* *he Au,*r$an, a* *he ;a**le o!
?arengo (1811), he embar-ed on *he 2apoleon$ /ar,. )he !orma*$on o! oal$*$on, o! 0uropean
oun*r$e, aga$n,* h$m led 2apoleon *o delare "rane a hered$*ar% emp$re and *o ro+n h$m,el!
emperor $n 181&. .e +on h$, grea*e,* m$l$*ar% 3$*or% a* *he ;a**le o! Au,*erl$*6 aga$n,* Au,*r$a and
#u,,$a $n 1815. .e de!ea*ed 5ru,,$a a* *he ;a**le, o! Jena and Auer,*ed* (1816) and #u,,$a a* *he ;a**le
o! "r$edland (1817). .e *hen $mpo,ed *he )rea*% o! )$l,$* on #u,,$a, end$ng *he !our*h oal$*$on o!
oun*r$e, aga$n,* "rane. <e,p$*e h$, lo,, *o ;r$*a$n a* *he ;a**le o! )ra!algar, he ,ough* *o +ea-en
;r$*$,h ommere and e,*abl$,hed *he Con*$nen*al A%,*em o! por* blo-ade,. .e on,ol$da*ed h$,
0uropean emp$re un*$l 1811 bu* beame embro$led $n *he 5en$n,ular /ar (18181&). .e led *he "renh
arm% $n*o Au,*r$a and de!ea*ed *he Au,*r$an, a* *he ;a**le o! /agram (1819), ,$gn$ng *he )rea*% o!
J$enna. )o en!ore *he )rea*% o! )$l,$*, he led an arm% o! abou* 611,111 $n*o #u,,$a $n 1818, +$nn$ng
*he ;a**le o! ;orod$no, bu* +a, !ored *o re*rea* !rom ?o,o+ +$*h d$,a,*rou, lo,,e,. .$, arm% grea*l%
+ea-ened, he +a, me* b% a ,*rong oal$*$on o! all$ed po+er,, +ho de!ea*ed h$m a* *he ;a**le o! Ge$p6$g
(181(). A!*er 5ar$, +a, *a-en b% *he all$ed oal$*$on, 2apoleon +a, !ored *o abd$a*e $n 181& and +a,
e@$led *o *he $,land o! 0lba. :n 1815 he mu,*ered a !ore and re*urned *o "rane *o ree,*abl$,h h$m,el!
a, emperor !or *he .undred <a%,, bu* he +a, de$,$3el% de!ea*ed a* *he ;a**le o! /a*erloo. .e +a, ,en*
$n*o e@$le on *he remo*e $,land o! A*. .elena, +here he d$ed ,$@ %ear, la*er. 7ne o! *he mo,* elebra*ed
!$gure, $n h$,*or%, 2apoleon re3olu*$on$6ed m$l$*ar% organ$6a*$on and *ra$n$ng and brough* abou*
re!orm, *ha* permanen*l% $n!luened $3$l $n,*$*u*$on, $n "rane and *hroughou* 0urope.
Karl ?ar@-(born ?a% 5, 1818, )r$er, #h$ne pro3$ne, 5ru,,$a XGer.Yd$ed ?arh 1&, 188(, Gondon,
0ng.) German pol$*$al ph$lo,opher, eonom$ *heor$,*, and re3olu*$onar%. .e ,*ud$ed human$*$e, a* *he
=n$3er,$*% o! ;onn (18(5) and la+ and ph$lo,oph% a* *he =n$3er,$*% o! ;erl$n (18(6&1), +here he +a,
e@po,ed *o *he +or-, o! G./.". .egel. /or-$ng a, a +r$*er $n Cologne and 5ar$, (18&8&5), he beame
a*$3e $n le!*$,* pol$*$,. :n 5ar$, he me* "r$edr$h 0ngel,, +ho +ould beome h$, l$!elong ollabora*or.
0@pelled !rom "rane $n 18&5, he mo3ed *o ;ru,,el,, +here h$, pol$*$al or$en*a*$on ma*ured and he
and 0ngel, made name, !or *hem,el3e, *hrough *he$r +r$*$ng,. ?ar@ +a, $n3$*ed *o 4o$n a ,ere* le!*-
+$ng group $n Gondon, !or +h$h he and 0ngel, +ro*e *he Commun$,* ?an$!e,*o (18&8). :n *ha* ,ame
%ear, ?ar@ organ$6ed *he !$r,* #h$neland <emora*$ Congre,, $n German% and oppo,ed *he -$ng o!
5ru,,$a +hen he d$,,ol3ed *he 5ru,,$an A,,embl%. 0@$led, he mo3ed *o Gondon $n 18&9, +here he ,pen*
*he re,* o! h$, l$!e. .e +or-ed par*-*$me a, a 0uropean orre,ponden* !or *he 2e+ For- )r$bune
(185168) +h$le +r$*$ng h$, ma4or r$*$9ue o! ap$*al$,m, <a, Kap$*al (( 3ol., 18679&). .e +a, a lead$ng
!$gure $n *he "$r,* :n*erna*$onal !rom 186& un*$l *he de!e*$on o! ?$-ha$l ;a-un$n $n 1878. ?ar@$,m;
ommun$,m; d$ale*$al ma*er$al$,m.
#ober* 0. Gee-(born Jan. 19, 1817, A*ra*!ord, /e,*moreland oun*%, Ja., =.A.d$ed 7*. 18, 1871,
Ge@$ng*on, Ja.) =.A. and Con!edera*e m$l$*ar% leader. .e +a, *he ,on o! .enr% Gee. A!*er gradua*$ng
!rom /e,* 5o$n*, he ,er3ed $n *he eng$neer$ng orp, and $n *he ?e@$an /ar under /$n!$eld Ao**. .e
*ran,!erred *o *he a3alr% $n 1855 and ommanded !ron*$er !ore, $n )e@a, (185657). :n 1859 he led
=.A. *roop, aga$n,* *he ,la3e $n,urre*$on a**emp*ed b% John ;ro+n a* .arper, "err%. :n 1861 he +a,
o!!ered ommand o! a ne+ arm% be$ng !ormed *o !ore *he ,eeded Aou*hern ,*a*e, ba- $n*o *he
=n$on. )hough oppo,ed *o ,ee,,$on, he re!u,ed. A!*er h$, home ,*a*e o! J$rg$n$a ,eeded, he beame
ommander o! J$rg$n$aB, !ore, $n *he Amer$an C$3$l /ar and ad3$,er *o Je!!er,on <a3$,, pre,$den* o!
*he Con!edera%. )a-$ng ommand o! *he Arm% o! 2or*hern J$rg$n$a (1868) a!*er Jo,eph John,*on +a,
+ounded, Gee repul,ed *he =n$on !ore, $n *he Ae3en <a%,B ;a**le,. .e +on 3$*or$e, a* ;ull #un,
"reder$-,burg, and Chanellor,3$lle. .$, a**emp*, *o dra+ =n$on !ore, ou* o! J$rg$n$a b% $n3ad$ng
*he 2or*h re,ul*ed $n !a$lure, a* An*$e*am and Ge**%,burg. :n 186&65 he ondu*ed de!en,$3e ampa$gn,
aga$n,* =n$on !ore, under =l%,,e, A. Gran* *ha* au,ed hea3% =n$on a,ual*$e,. Gee ended h$, re*rea*
beh$nd !or*$!$a*$on, bu$l* a* 5e*er,burg and #$hmond ( 5e*er,burg Campa$gn). ;% Apr$l 1865
d+$ndl$ng !ore, and ,uppl$e, !ored Gee, no+ general o! all Con!edera*e arm$e,, *o ,urrender a*
Appoma**o@ Cour* .ou,e. A!*er ,e3eral mon*h, o! reupera*$on, he aep*ed *he po,* o! pre,$den* o!
/a,h$ng*on College (la*er /a,h$ng*on and Gee =n$3er,$*%), +here he ,er3ed un*$l h$, dea*h.
Grea* <epre,,$on-Gonge,* and mo,* ,e3ere eonom$ depre,,$on e3er e@per$ened b% *he /e,*ern
+orld. :* began $n *he =.A. ,oon a!*er *he 2e+ For- A*o- ?ar-e* Cra,h o! 1989 and la,*ed un*$l abou*
19(9. ;% la*e 19(8 ,*o- 3alue, had dropped *o abou* 81 o! *he$r pre3$ou, 3alue, and b% 19(( 11,111 o!
*he =.A.B, 85,111 ban-, had !a$led !or a omb$na*$on o! rea,on,, $nlud$ng del$n$ng proper*% 3alue,,
ban- run, b% pan$-ed u,*omer,, and de!aul*, on loan,. )he,e and o*her ond$*$on,+or,ened b%
mone*ar% pol$% m$,*a-e,, adherene *o *he gold ,*andard (un*$l 19((), and *he $n*rodu*$on o!
3olun*ar% +age-and-pr$e on*rol, *hrough *he 2a*$onal #eo3er% Adm$n$,*ra*$onled *o muh-redued
le3el, o! demand and hene o! produ*$on, re,ul*$ng $n h$gh unemplo%men* (b% 19(8, 85(1). A$ne *he
=.A. +a, *he ma4or red$*or and !$nan$er o! po,*+ar 0urope, *he =.A. !$nan$al brea-do+n pre$p$*a*ed
or e@aerba*ed eonom$ !a$lure, around *he +orld, e,pe$all% $n ;r$*a$n and German%. :,ola*$on$,m
,pread a, na*$on, ,ough* *o pro*e* dome,*$ produ*$on b% $mpo,$ng *ar$!!, and 9uo*a,, ul*$ma*el%
redu$ng *he 3alue o! $n*erna*$onal *rade b% more *han hal! b% 19(8. )he Grea* <epre,,$on on*r$bu*ed
*o pol$*$al uphea3al. :* led *o *he ele*$on o! =.A. 5re,. "ran-l$n #oo,e3el*, +ho upon *a-$ng o!!$e
delared a na*$onal ban- hol$da% dur$ng +h$h all ban-, +ere lo,ed un*$l be$ng deemed ,ol3en* b%
go3ernmen* $n,pe*or,. .e al,o $n*rodued ma4or hange, $n *he ,*ru*ure o! *he =.A. eonom% *hrough
h$, 2e+ <eal program, o! eonom$ rel$e! and re!orm. )he Grea* <epre,,$on al,o ad3aned Adol!
.$*lerB, r$,e *o po+er $n German% $n 19(( and !omen*ed pol$*$al e@*rem$,m $n o*her oun*r$e,. ;e!ore
*he Grea* <epre,,$on, go3ernmen*, rel$ed on $mper,onal mar-e* !ore, *o ah$e3e eonom$ orre*$on.
A!*er+ard, go3ernmen* a*$on ame *o a,,ume a pr$n$pal role $n en,ur$ng eonom$ ,*ab$l$*%.
"a,$,m-5h$lo,oph% o! go3ernmen* *ha* ,*re,,e, *he pr$ma% and glor% o! *he ,*a*e, un9ue,*$on$ng
obed$ene *o $*, leader, ,ubord$na*$on o! *he $nd$3$dual +$ll *o *he ,*a*eB, au*hor$*%, and har,h
,uppre,,$on o! d$,,en*. ?ar*$al 3$r*ue, are elebra*ed, +h$le l$beral and demora*$ 3alue, are
d$,paraged. "a,$,m aro,e dur$ng *he 1981, and B(1, par*l% ou* o! !ear o! *he r$,$ng po+er o! *he
+or-$ng la,,e,; $* d$!!ered !rom on*emporar% ommun$,m (a, pra*$ed under Jo,eph A*al$n) b% $*,
pro*e*$on o! bu,$ne,, and lando+n$ng el$*e, and $*, pre,er3a*$on o! la,, ,%,*em,. )he leader, o! *he
!a,$,* go3ernmen*, o! :*al% (1988&(), German% (19((&5), and Apa$n (19(975);en$*o ?u,,ol$n$, Adol!
.$*ler, and "ran$,o "rano+ere por*ra%ed *o *he$r publ$, a, embod$men*, o! *he ,*reng*h and re,ol3e
nee,,ar% *o re,ue *he$r na*$on, !rom pol$*$al and eonom$ hao,. Japane,e !a,$,*, (19(6&5)
!o,*ered bel$e! $n *he un$9uene,, o! *he Japane,e ,p$r$* and *augh* ,ubord$na*$on *o *he ,*a*e and
per,onal ,ar$!$e. *o*al$*ar$an$,m; neo!a,$,m.
.oloau,*-A%,*ema*$ ,*a*e-,pon,ored -$ll$ng o! Je+, and o*her, b% 2a6$ German% and $*, ollabora*or,
dur$ng /orld /ar ::. "ueled b% an*$-Aem$*$,m, *he 2a6$ per,eu*$on o! Je+, began ,oon a!*er Adol!
.$*ler beame hanellor o! German% $n 19(( +$*h a bo%o** o! Je+$,h bu,$ne,,e, and *he d$,m$,,al o!
Je+$,h $3$l ,er3an*,. =nder *he 2rnberg Ga+, (19(5), Je+, lo,* *he$r $*$6en,h$p. Abou* 7,511 Je+$,h
bu,$ne,,e, +ere gu**ed and ,ome 1,111 ,%nagogue, burned or damaged $n *he Kr$,*allnah* pogrom $n
19(8, and *herea!*er Je+, +ere $mpr$,oned $n onen*ra*$on amp, or !ored $n*o ghe**o,. German
3$*or$e, earl% $n /orld /ar :: (19(9&5) brough* mo,* 0uropean Je+, under *he on*rol o! *he 2a6$,
and *he$r ,a*ell$*e,. A, German arm$e, mo3ed $n*o 5oland, *he ;al-an,, and *he Ao3$e* =n$on, ,pe$al
mob$le -$ll$ng un$*,, *he 0$n,a*6gruppen, rounded up and -$lled Je+,, #oma (G%p,$e,), ommun$,*,,
pol$*$al leader,, and $n*elle*ual,. 7*her group, *arge*ed b% *he 2a6$, $nluded homo,e@ual, and *he
men*all% re*arded, ph%,$all% d$,abled, and emo*$onall% d$,*urbed. A* *he /ann,ee Con!erene (19&8),
a !$nal ,olu*$on +a, !ormula*ed !or *he e@*erm$na*$on o! 0uropean Je+r%, and *herea!*er Je+, !rom all
o3er 2a6$-oup$ed 0urope +ere ,%,*ema*$all% e3aua*ed *o onen*ra*$on and e@*erm$na*$on amp,,
+here *he% +ere e$*her -$lled or !ored $n*o ,la3e labour. =nderground re,$,*ane mo3emen*, aro,e $n
,e3eral oun*r$e,, and Je+$,h r$,$ng, *oo- plae aga$n,* o3er+helm$ng odd, $n *he ghe**o, o! 5oland
( /ar,a+ Ghe**o =pr$,$ng). :nd$3$dual, ,uh a, #aoul /allenberg ,a3ed *hou,and, b% *he$r e!!or*,;
+he*her *he All$ed go3ernmen*, and *he Ja*$an ould ha3e done more *o a$d Je+, ha, long been a
ma**er o! on*ro3er,%. ;% *he end o! *he +ar, an e,*$ma*ed ,$@ m$ll$on Je+, and m$ll$on, o! o*her, had
been -$lled b% 2a6$ German% and $*, ollabora*or,.
#onald #eagan-(born "eb. 6, 1911, )amp$o, :ll., =.A.d$ed June 5, 811&, Go, Angele,, Cal$!.) &1*h
pre,$den* o! *he =.A. (198189). .e a**ended 0ure-a College and +or-ed a, a rad$o ,por*, announer
be!ore go$ng *o .oll%+ood $n 19(7. :n h$, areer a, a mo3$e a*or, he appeared $n more *han 51 !$lm,
and +a, *+$e pre,$den* o! *he Areen A*or, Gu$ld (19&758, 195961). :n *he m$d-1951, he beame a
,po-e,man !or *he General 0le*r$ Co.; he ho,*ed $*, *ele3$,$on *hea*re program !rom 195& *o 1968.
.a3$ng graduall% hanged h$, pol$*$al a!!$l$a*$on !rom l$beral <emora* *o on,er3a*$3e #epubl$an, he
+a, ele*ed go3ernor o! Cal$!orn$a $n 1966 and ,er3ed *+o *erm,. :n 1981 he de!ea*ed $numben* 5re,.
J$mm% Car*er *o beome pre,$den*. Ahor*l% a!*er *a-$ng o!!$e, he +a, +ounded $n an a,,a,,$na*$on
a**emp*. .$, adm$n$,*ra*$on adop*ed pol$$e, ba,ed on ,uppl%-,$de eonom$, $n an e!!or* *o promo*e
rap$d eonom$ gro+*h and redue *he !ederal de!$$*. Congre,, appro3ed man% o! h$, propo,al,
(1981), +h$h ,ueeded $n lo+er$ng $n!la*$on bu* doubled *he na*$onal deb* b% 1986. .e began *he
large,* peae*$me m$l$*ar% bu$ldup $n =.A. h$,*or%; $n 198( he propo,ed on,*ru*$on o! *he A*ra*eg$
<e!en,e :n$*$a*$3e. .$, adm$n$,*ra*$on onluded a *rea*% +$*h *he Ao3$e* =n$on *o re,*r$* $n*ermed$a*e-
range nulear +eapon,, ondu*ed a pro@% +ar aga$n,* 2$aragua *hrough $*, ,uppor* o! *he Con*ra,,
and $n3aded Grenada o,*en,$bl% *o pre3en* *he $,land na*$on !rom beom$ng a Ao3$e* ou*po,*. .e +a,
reele*ed b% a large marg$n $n 198&. ;eg$nn$ng $n 1986, *he :ran-Con*ra A!!a$r *emporar$l% +ea-ened
h$, pre,$den%. )hough h$, $n*elle*ual apa$*% !or go3ern$ng +a, o!*en d$,paraged b% h$, r$*$,, h$,
a!!ab$l$*% and ar*!ul ommun$a*$on ,-$ll, enabled h$m *o pur,ue numerou, on,er3a*$3e pol$$e, +$*h
on,p$uou, ,ue,,, and h$, *ough ,*ane *o+ard *he Ao3$e* =n$on $, o!*en red$*ed +$*h on*r$bu*$ng
*o *he dem$,e o! Ao3$e* ommun$,m. :n 199& he re3ealed *ha* he had Al6he$mer d$,ea,e.
#$hard 2$@on- (born Jan. 9, 191(, Forba G$nda, Cal$!., =.A.d$ed Apr$l 88, 199&, 2e+ For-,
2.F.) (7*h pre,$den* o! *he =.A. (19697&). .e ,*ud$ed la+ a* <u-e =n$3er,$*% and pra*$ed $n
Cal$!orn$a (19(7&8). A!*er ,er3$ng $n /orld /ar ::, he +a, ele*ed *o *he =.A. .ou,e o!
#epre,en*a*$3e, (19&6). A, a member o! *he .ou,e =n-Amer$an A*$3$*$e, Comm$**ee, he ree$3ed
na*$onal a**en*$on !or h$, ho,*$le 9ue,*$on$ng o! Alger .$,,. :n 1951 he +a, ele*ed *o *he Aena*e
!ollo+$ng a b$**er ampa$gn $n +h$h he un!a$rl% por*ra%ed h$, opponen* a, a ommun$,* ,%mpa*h$6er;
*he ep$*he* )r$-% <$- da*e, !rom *h$, per$od. .e +on *he 3$e pre,$den% $n 1958 a, *he runn$ng ma*e
o! #epubl$an <+$gh* <. 0$,enho+er. <ur$ng *he ampa$gn he del$3ered a na*$onall% *ele3$,ed addre,,,
*he Che-er, ,peeh (named !or *he dog he adm$**ed ree$3$ng a, a pol$*$al g$!*), *o rebu* harge, o!
!$nan$al m$,ondu*. .e and 0$,enho+er +ere reele*ed ea,$l% $n 1956. A, *he #epubl$an pre,$den*$al
and$da*e $n 1961, he lo,* narro+l% *o John ". Kenned%. A!*er !a$l$ng *o +$n *he 1968 Cal$!orn$a
guberna*or$al rae, he announed h$, re*$remen* !rom pol$*$, and r$*$$6ed *he pre,,, delar$ng *ha* $*
+ould no* ha3e <$- 2$@on *o -$- around an%more. .e mo3ed *o 2e+ For- *o pra*$e la+. .e
reen*ered pol$*$, b% runn$ng !or pre,$den* $n 1968, narro+l% de!ea*$ng .uber* .. .umphre% +$*h h$,
,ou*hern ,*ra*eg% o! ,ee-$ng 3o*e, !rom ,ou*hern and +e,*ern on,er3a*$3e, $n bo*h par*$e,. A,
pre,$den*, he began *o +$*hdra+ =.A. m$l$*ar% !ore, !rom Aou*h J$e*nam +h$le re,um$ng *he bomb$ng
o! 2or*h J$e*nam. .$, e@pan,$on o! *he J$e*nam /ar *o Cambod$a and Gao, $n 1971 pro3o-ed
+$de,pread pro*e,*, $n *he =.A. .e e,*abl$,hed d$re* rela*$on, +$*h Ch$na and made a ,*a*e 3$,$* *here
$n 1978, *he !$r,* b% a =.A. pre,$den*. 7n a 3$,$* *o *he Ao3$e* =n$on la*er *ha* %ear, he ,$gned
agreemen*, re,ul*$ng !rom *he A*ra*eg$ Arm, G$m$*a*$on )al-, be*+een *he =.A. and *he Ao3$e* =n$on
held be*+een 1969 and 1978, -no+n a, AAG) :. :n dome,*$ a!!a$r,, 2$@on re,ponded *o per,$,*en*
$n!la*$on and $nrea,$ng unemplo%men* b% de3alu$ng *he dollar and $mpo,$ng unpreeden*ed peae*$me
on*rol, on +age, and pr$e,. .$, adm$n$,*ra*$on $nrea,ed !und$ng !or man% !ederal $3$l-r$gh*,
agen$e, and propo,ed leg$,la*$on *ha* rea*ed *he 7upa*$onal Aa!e*% and .eal*h Adm$n$,*ra*$on
(7A.A) and *he 0n3$ronmen*al 5ro*e*$on Agen% (05A). :n 1978 he +on reele*$on +$*h a land,l$de
3$*or% o3er George ?Go3ern. A,,$,*ed b% .enr% A. K$,,$nger, he onluded a peae agreemen* +$*h
2or*h J$e*nam (197(), *hough *he +ar d$d no* ome *o an end un*$l 1975. .$, adm$n$,*ra*$on helped *o
underm$ne *he oal$*$on go3ernmen* o! Ch$leB, ?ar@$,* 5re,. Aal3ador Allende, lead$ng *o AllendeB,
o3er*hro+ $n a m$l$*ar% oup $n 197(. 2$@onB, ,eond *erm +a, o3er,hado+ed b% *he /a*erga*e
,andal, +h$h ,*emmed !rom $llegal a*$3$*$e, b% 2$@on and o*her, rela*ed *o *he burglar% and
+$re*app$ng o! *he head9uar*er, o! *he <emora*$ 5ar*%. A!*er leng*h% ongre,,$onal $n3e,*$ga*$on, and
!a$ng near-er*a$n $mpeahmen*, 2$@on re,$gned *he pre,$den% on Aug. 8, 197&, *he !$r,* pre,$den* *o
do ,o. )hough ne3er on3$*ed o! +rongdo$ng, he +a, pardoned b% h$, ,ue,,or, Gerald "ord. :n
re*$remen*, he +ro*e h$, memo$r, and ,e3eral boo-, on !ore$gn pol$%, +h$h mode,*l% rehab$l$*a*ed h$,
repu*a*$on and earned h$m a role a, an elder ,*a*e,man and !ore$gn-pol$% e@per*.
.enr% K$,,$nger-(b. "uer*h, German%, 87 ?a% 198() =A; 2a*$onal Aeur$*% Ad3$,er 1969 ' 75,
Aere*ar% o! A*a*e 197( ' 7 7! German Je+$,h or$g$n, K$,,$ngerB, !am$l% !led !rom 2a6$ German% *o
*he =n$*ed A*a*e, $n 19(8. .e ,er3ed $n *he =A armed !ore, 19&( ' 5. A!*er *he +ar he *oo- a ;A and
5h.<. a* .ar3ard =n$3er,$*% and *augh* Go3ernmen* a* .ar3ard =n$3er,$*%. A, d$re*or o! *he .ar3ard
:n*erna*$onal Aer3$e, and d$re*or o! *he Ape$al A*ud$e, 5ro4e* o! *he #o-e!eller ;ro*her, "und he
beame a9ua$n*ed +$*h prom$nen* pol$*$al a, +ell a, aadem$ !$gure,. .$, boo- 2ulear /eapon,
and "ore$gn 5ol$% (1957) +on h$m +$de ala$m a, a onep*ual ,*ra*eg$ *h$n-er. .e beame an
ad3$,er on !ore$gn pol$% *o 2el,on #o-e!eller. A!*er #$hard 2$@onB, ele*$on a, 5re,$den* $n 1968, he
+a, appo$n*ed 2a*$onal Aeur$*% Ad3$,er. .e pro3$ded *he $n*elle*ual ba,$, !or *he pol$% op*$on,
+h$h +ere ho,en b% 5re,$den* 2$@on on *he 3$*al $,,ue, o! !ore$gn pol$% ,uh a, J$e*nam, Ch$na,
d^*en*e +$*h *he Ao3$e* =n$on, and *he ?$ddle 0a,*. "ollo+$ng 2$@onB, re-ele*$on a, 5re,$den* $n 1978,
he +a, appo$n*ed Aere*ar% o! A*a*e, *hough he on*$nued *o ,er3e al,o a, 2a*$onal Aeur$*% Ad3$,er
un*$l 1975. A!*er 2$@onB, re,$gna*$on $n 197& and *he ,ue,,$on o! 5re,$den* "ord, he on*$nued *o be
an e@*remel% $n!luen*$al ad3$,er *o *he 5re,$den* a, Aere*ar% o! A*a*e, *hough "ord appo$n*ed a ne+
2a*$onal Aeur$*% Ad3$,er $n 1975. A!*er *he end o! h$, ,er3$e a, Aere*ar% o! A*a*e $n 1977, he !ormed
a pr$3a*e ompan%, K$,,$nger A,,o$a*e,, +h$h o!!ered ad3$e on $n*erna*$onal a!!a$r, and !ore$gn
$n3e,*men*.
.e +on ala$m !or h$, $n*elle*ual aumen and *he ,oph$,*$a*$on o! h$, *h$n-$ng. 7n *he o*her hand,
he +a, r$*$$6ed a, amoral $n h$, approah. /$*h regard *o J$e*nam, !or e@ample, h$, r$*$, ,ugge,*
*ha* *he e@*en,$3e u,e o! !ore b% ma,,$3e bomb$ng o! 2or*h J$e*nam and *he $n3a,$on o! Cambod$a
+a, un4u,*$!$ed and !u*$le. .$, de!ender, ,ugge,*, ho+e3er, *ha* *h$, ,*ra*eg% brough* ,ue,, $n h$,
nego*$a*$on, +$*h h$, 2or*h J$e*name,e oun*erpar*, Ge <u )ho, +h$h ended *he +ar and +on
K$,,$nger a 4o$n* 2obel 5eae 5r$6e $n 197(. .$, $dea, on *r$angular =A H Ch$ne,e H Ao3$e*
d$ploma% and *he dra+$ng o! *he Ao3$e* =n$on $n*o *he +eb o! $n*en*$onal a!!a$r, b% mean, o! d^*en*e
,$m$larl% earned r$*$$,m, and pra$,e. :n *he ?$ddle 0a,*, +here he a*ed a, em$,,ar% be*+een :,rael
and Arab oun*r$e, a!*er *he Fom K$ppur /ar $n 197(, h$, r$*$, ,ugge,*ed *ha* he +a, onerned
largel% *o pro*e* Amer$an $n*ere,*, and e@lude *he Ao3$e* =n$on, +h$le h$, de!ender, pra$,e h$, ,*ep-
b%-,*ep approah $n !or+ard$ng *he peae proe,, $n *he ?$ddle 0a,*. .e ,e* ou* h$, 3$e+, on
$n*erna*$onal rela*$on, a* on,$derable leng*h $n /h$*e .ou,e Fear, (1979), Fear, o! =phea3al (1988),
and <$ploma% (199&).
d^*en*e-<^*en*e (a "renh +ord mean$ng relea,e !rom *en,$on) $, *he name g$3en *o a per$od o!
$mpro3ed rela*$on, be*+een *he =n$*ed A*a*e, and *he Ao3$e* =n$on *ha* began *en*a*$3el% $n 1971 and
*oo- de$,$3e !orm +hen 5re,$den* #$hard ?. 2$@on 3$,$*ed *he ,ere*ar%-general o! *he Ao3$e*
Commun$,* par*%, Geon$d :. ;re6hne3, $n ?o,o+, ?a% 1978. ;o*h oun*r$e, ,*ood *o ga$n $! *rade
ould be $nrea,ed and *he danger o! nulear +ar!are redued. :n add$*$on, 2$@on--a and$da*e !or
reele*$on--+a, under !$re a* home !rom *ho,e demand$ng ,o$al hange, ra$al e9ual$*%, and an end *o
*he J$e*nam /ar. )he *r$p *o #u,,$a, l$-e h$, h$,*or$ *r$p *o Ch$na a !e+ mon*h, earl$er, perm$**ed h$m
*o -eep publ$ a**en*$on !ou,ed on h$, !ore$gn pol$% ah$e3emen*, ra*her *han h$, dome,*$ problem,.
2$@onB, *r$p *o Ch$na had al,o he$gh*ened *he Ao3$e*,B $n*ere,* $n d^*en*e; g$3en *he gro+$ng an*agon$,m
be*+een #u,,$a and Ch$na, ;re6hne3 had no +$,h *o ,ee h$, mo,* po*en* r$3al, lo,e ran-, aga$n,* h$m.
7n ?a% 88 2$@on beame *he !$r,* =.A. pre,$den* *o 3$,$* ?o,o+. .e and ;re6hne3 ,$gned ,e3en
agreemen*, o3er$ng *he pre3en*$on o! a$den*al m$l$*ar% la,he,; arm, on*rol, a, reommended b%
*he reen* A*ra*eg$ Arm, G$m$*a*$on )al-, (AAG)); oopera*$3e re,earh $n a 3ar$e*% o! area,, $nlud$ng
,pae e@plora*$on; and e@panded ommere. )he AAG) *rea*% +a, appro3ed b% Congre,, la*er *ha*
,ummer, a, +a, a *hree-%ear agreemen* on *he ,ale o! gra$n *o *he Ao3$e*,. :n June 197(, ;re6hne3
3$,$*ed *he =n$*ed A*a*e, !or Aumm$* ::; *h$, mee*$ng added !e+ ne+ agreemen*,, bu* d$d ,%mbol$6e *he
*+o oun*r$e,B on*$nu$ng omm$*men* *o peae. Aumm$* :::, $n June 197&, +a, *he lea,* produ*$3e; b%
*hen, *he AAG) *al-, had ground *o a hal*, ,e3eral ommer$al agreemen*, had been blo-ed $n
Congre,, beau,e o! Ao3$e* *rea*men* o! Je+,, and *he /a*erga*e $n3e,*$ga*$on +a, approah$ng a
l$ma@. 2$@onB, ,ue,,or $n *he *al-,, 5re,$den* J$mm% Car*er, ,uppor*ed AAG) ::, bu* al,o pre,,ed a
m$l$*ar% bu$ldup and a human r$gh*, ampa$gn, +h$h ooled rela*$on, be*+een *he oun*r$e,. /$*h *he
ele*$on o! #onald #eagan, +ho empha,$6ed m$l$*ar% preparedne,, a, *he -e% *o Ao3$e*-Amer$an
rela*$on,, d^*en*e a, 2$@on had en3$,$oned $* ame *o an end.
.ernan Cor*e,-(born 1&85, ?edelln, near ?r$da, 0@*remadura, Ca,*$led$ed <e. 8, 15&7, Ca,*$lle4a de
la Cue,*a, near Ae3$lla) Apan$,h on9u$,*ador +ho +on ?e@$o !or Apa$n. Cor*, le!* Apa$n !or *he 2e+
/orld $n 151&, 4o$n$ng <$ego Jel69ue6 de Cullar (b. 1&65d. 158&) $n *he on9ue,* o! Cuba (1511). :n
1519, +$*h 518 men and 16 hor,e,, he burned h$, ,h$p, on ?e@$oB, ,ou*hea,*ern oa,*, *hu,
omm$**$ng h$m,el! *o on9ue,*. A!*er aumula*$ng *hou,and, o! :nd$an all$e, +ho re,en*ed A6*e
dom$na*$on, he !orged ahead *o )enoh*$*ln, *he A6*e ap$*al (*oda% ?e@$o C$*%). )he emperor
?on*e6uma ::, bel$e3$ng Cor*, *o be *he god Tue*6ala*l, +elomed h$m bu* +a, *a-en pr$,oner.
.ear$ng *ha* a Apan$,h !ore !rom Cuba +a, om$ng *o rel$e3e h$m o! ommand, Cor*, le!* )enoh*$*ln
under *he ommand o! a ap*a$n and ,e* ou* *o de!ea* h$, Apan$,h opponen*,. #e*urn$ng +$*h *he
oppo,$*$on !ore, no+ under h$, ommand, he d$,o3ered *ha* *he $*% had re3ol*ed; he led h$, *roop,
a+a% b% n$gh* $n a o,*l% re*rea*, bu* he re*urned $n 1581 *o on9uer *he $*% and +$*h $* *he emp$re. )he
ab,olu*e ruler o! a huge *err$*or%, he +a, !ored *o re*$re a!*er a d$,a,*rou, e@ped$*$on $n 158& *o *he
.onduran 4ungle,. .$, !$nal %ear, +ere be,e* b% m$,!or*une.
"ran$,o 5$66aro-(.1&75-15&1), on9u$,*ador o! 5eru. Alread% an old man b% on*emporar%
,*andard,, dur$ng a 1586-8 e@ped$*$on do+n *he 5a$!$ oa,* +$*h Almagro, he learned o! *he :na
emp$re. A*a%$ng beh$nd +h$le h$, par*ner ,a$led ba- !or ,uppl$e, and re$n!oremen*,, he dre+ a l$ne $n
*he ,and +$*h h$, ,+ord $n !ron* o! h$, d$,p$r$*ed men and a,-ed *ho,e de,$rou, o! +eal*h and glor% *o
ro,, $*. /$*h onl% *h$r*een !ollo+er, he on*$nued ,ou*h, olle*$ng e3$dene o! abundan* *rea,ure. Aen*
ba- *o Apa$n *o leg$*$m$6e *he par*ner,B po,$*$on, he ob*a$ned a mar9u$,a*e and 3$ero%,h$p o3er *he
,*$ll *o be +on pro3$ne, relega*$ng Almagro *o a ,ubord$na*e po,$*$on. :n 15(1, aompan$ed b% !our
hal!-bro*her, and la*er 4o$ned b% Ao*o, he re*urned *o 5eru.
)he :na emp$re +a, ne+l% +ra-ed b% a $3$l +ar $n +h$h A*ahualpa de!ea*ed h$, hal!-bro*her
.ua,ar, bu* 5$6arro made none o! *he loal all$ane, *ha* el,e+here pro3ed ,o u,e!ul and ad3aned
$n*o *he 5eru3$an h$ghland, +$*h 61 a3alr% and 111 $n!an*r%, e9u$pped +$*h *+en*% ro,,bo+, and a
!e+ !$rearm,. Go,$ng man% hor,e, on *he +a%, he pa,,ed *hrough ,e3eral narro+ de!$le, +here he ould
ea,$l% ha3e been ,*opped *o arr$3e $n 2o3ember 15(8 a* Ca4amara, +here A*ahualpa +$*h an arm% o!
,ome (1, 111 a+a$*ed h$, homage. )he :na aep*ed an $n3$*a*$on *o d$ne and en*ered Ca4amara +$*h
a re*$nue o! abou* 5, 111, onl% *o be ap*ured $n an ambu,h $n +h$h hal! h$, e,or* +a, -$lled.
5$6arroB, onl% *hough* +a, *o e@*or* a ran,om o! pr$ele,, ar*e!a*,, mel*ed do+n *o abou* 6 *on, o! gold
and 18 o! ,$l3er. A*$ll +$*h onl% a !e+ hundred men under h$, ommand, he ho,e *o murder *he ,oure
o! h$, au*hor$*% $n Augu,* 15((. .e $gnored *he ,%mbol$ $mpor*ane o! *he :na ap$*al a* Cu6o and
!ounded G$ma $n one o! *he +or,* loa*$on, e3er ho,en !or a ap$*al $*%. :n h$, ab,ene, *he puppe*
:na ?ana Capa e,aped *o rall% h$, people, redu$ng Apan$,h au*hor$*% *o G$ma and Cu6o, *he la**er
be,$eged !rom "ebruar% *o Augu,* 15(6.
2o ,ooner had *he :na, d$,per,ed *o plan* !or *he om$ng %ear *han a +ra*h!ul Almagro re*urned !rom
a horrendou, e@plora*$on o! nor*hern Argen*$na and Ch$le and ,e$6ed Cu6o, $mpr$,on$ng Gon6alo and
.ernando 5$6arro. .e de!ea*ed one arm% ,en* b% 5$6arro and ano*her under ?ana Capa be!ore
marh$ng on G$ma. 7ne *here, he nab3el% aep*ed an under*a-$ng b% "ran$,o *o reogn$6e h$, la$m
*o Cu6o and relea,ed .ernando, un*$l *hen a ho,*age. )he la**er re*urned +$*h an arm% *o de!ea* and
e@eu*e h$m $n Apr$l 15(8.
"ran$,o ,pen* *+o %ear, $n Cu6o *r%$ng *o ,ubdue *he ?ana Capa rebell$on be!ore re*urn$ng *o
G$ma. )he hao, $n 5eru +a, ,o no*or$ou, *ha* *he Cro+n ,en* ou* a omm$,,$oner *o re,*ore order, bu*
be!ore he arr$3ed 5$6arro had been a,,a,,$na*ed b% Almagro lo%al$,*,, +hom he had gra*u$*ou,l%
$n,ul*ed. A mumm$!$ed bod% !al,el% bel$e3ed *o be h$, +a, on d$,pla% $n G$ma a*hedral !or en*ur$e,.
?on*e6uma-?on*e6uma (mcn*d,eBmf) or ?o*e6uma (mc--), 1&81g-1581, A6*e emperor (.1518-
1581). .e $, ,ome*$me, alled ?on*e6uma :: *o d$,*$ngu$,h h$m !rom ?on*e6uma : (ruled 1&&1-69),
+ho arr$ed on on9ue,*, around )enoh*$*lOn. .$, re$gn +a, mar-ed b% $ne,,an* +ar!are, and h$,
de,po*$ rule au,ed gra3e unre,*. /hen .ernOn Cor*^, arr$3ed $n ?e@$o he +a, *hu, able *o ga$n
na*$3e all$e,, no*abl% $n *he pro3$ne o! *he )la@ala. ?on*e6uma, bel$e3$ng *he Apan$,h *o be
de,endan*, o! *he god Tue*6aloa*l, *r$ed *o per,uade *hem *o lea3e b% o!!er$ng r$h g$!*,. )ha* !a$l$ng,
he ree$3ed *hem $n h$, ,plend$d our* a* )enoh*$*lOn $n 2o3., 1519. Cor*^, la*er ,e$6ed h$m a, a
ho,*age and a**emp*ed *o go3ern *hrough h$m. :n June, 1581, *he A6*e ro,e aga$n,* *he Apan$,h.
?on*e6uma +a, -$lled, al*hough +he*her b% *he Apan$,h or *he A6*e $, no* er*a$n. .$, ,ue,,or d$ed
a !e+ mon*h, la*er and +a, replaed b% Cuauh*^mo. ?on*e6umaB, name $, l$n-ed b% a legend *o
!abulou, *rea,ure, *ha* *he Apan$,h appropr$a*ed and pre,umabl% lo,* a* ,ea.
A*ahualpa-d. 15((, !a3or$*e ,on o! .ua%na Capa, :na o! 5eru. A* h$, !a*herB, dea*h (1585) he ree$3ed
*he -$ngdom o! Tu$*o +h$le h$, hal! bro*her, *he leg$*$ma*e he$r .uO,ar, $nher$*ed *he re,* o! *he :na
emp$re. Ahor*l% be!ore *he arr$3al (15(8) o! "ran$,o 5$6arro, A*ahualpa $n3aded *he doma$n, o!
.uO,ar, +hom he de!ea*ed and $mpr$,oned, and made h$m,el! :na. 7n 2o3. 16, 15(8, 5$6arro me*
A*ahualpa a* Ca4amara. :n3$*ed $n*o *he $*%, A*ahualpa +a, ,e$6ed and $mpr$,oned. .e o!!ered a room
!ull o! gold a, ran,om and a* *he ,ame *$me ,ere*l% ordered *he dea*h o! .uO,ar. .e +a, *r$ed !or h$,
bro*herB, murder and !or plo**$ng aga$n,* *he Apan$,h and +a, e@eu*ed. .e $, al,o -no+n a, A*abal$pa.
Jame,*o+n-ormer 3$llage, A0 Ja., !$r,* permanen* 0ngl$,h ,e**lemen* $n Amer$a; e,*. ?a% 1&, 1617, b%
*he Gondon Compan% on a mar,h% pen$n,ula (no+ an $,land) $n *he Jame, #$3er and named !or *he
re$gn$ng 0ngl$,h monarh, Jame, :. <$,ea,e, ,*ar3a*$on, and 2a*$3e Amer$an a**a-, +$ped ou* mo,* o!
*he olon%, bu* *he Gondon Compan% on*$nuall% ,en* more men and ,uppl$e,, and John Am$*h br$e!l%
pro3$ded e!!$$en* leader,h$p (he re*urned *o 0ngland $n 1619 !or *rea*men* o! an $n4ur%). A!*er *he
,e3ere +$n*er o! 1619-11 (*he D,*ar3$ng *$meD), *he ,ur3$3or, prepared *o re*urn *o 0ngland bu* +ere
,*opped b% *he *$mel% arr$3al o! Gord <e la /arr +$*h ,uppl$e,. John #ol!e ul*$3a*ed *he !$r,* *obao
*here $n 1618, $n*rodu$ng a ,ue,,!ul ,oure o! l$3el$hood; $n 161& he a,,ured peae +$*h *he loal
2a*$3e Amer$an, b% marr%$ng 5oahon*a,, daugh*er o! h$e! 5o+ha*an. :n 1619 *he !$r,* repre,en*a*$3e
go3ernmen* $n *he 2e+ /orld me* a* Jame,*o+n, +h$h rema$ned *he ap$*al o! J$rg$n$a *hroughou* *he
17*h en*. )he 3$llage +a, almo,* en*$rel% de,*ro%ed dur$ng ;aonB, #ebell$on; $* +a, par*$all% rebu$l*
bu* !ell $n*o dea% +$*h *he remo3al o! *he ap$*al *o /$ll$am,burg (1698-1711).
7! *he 17*h-en*ur% ,e**lemen*, onl% *he old hurh *o+er (bu$l* .16(9) and a !e+ gra3e,*one, +ere
3$,$ble +hen 2a*$onal 5ar- Aer3$e e@a3a*$on, began $n 19(&. )oda%, mo,* o! Jame,*o+n :,land $,
o+ned b% *he =.A. go3ernmen* and $, $nluded $n Colon$al 2a*$onal .$,*or$al 5ar- (,ee 2a*$onal 5ar-,
and ?onumen*,, *able); a ,mall por*$on ompr$,e, *he Jame,*o+n 2a*$onal .$,*or$ A$*e, +h$h $,
o+ned b% *he A,,o$a*$on !or *he 5re,er3a*$on o! J$rg$n$a An*$9u$*$e,. A *eren*enar% elebra*$on +a,
held $n 1917, and $n 1957 *he Jame,*o+n "e,*$3al 5ar- +a, bu$l* *o ommemora*e *he (51*h
ann$3er,ar%. )he par-, +h$h +a, renamed Jame,*o+n Ae**lemen* $n 1991, on*a$n, e@h$b$* pa3$l$on,
and repl$a, o! *he !$r,* !or*, *he *hree ,h$p, *ha* brough* *he !$r,* ,e**ler,, and a 2a*$3e Amer$an
3$llage. 0@a3a*$on, *ha* began $n 199& !$nall% uno3ered *he or$g$nal !or* a* Jame,*o+n, +h$h had
long been bel$e3ed *o ha3e been eroded a+a% b% *he r$3er.
C$*% on a .$ll-$, an me*aphor !rom *he Aal* and G$gh* ,e*$on o! Je,u,B Aermon on *he ?oun* $n *he
Go,pel o! ?a**he+.
:* ma% al,o re!er *oI
C$*% upon a .$ll, a l$ne !rom a !amou, ,ermon b% 5ur$*an John /$n*hrop !re9uen*l% $n3o-ed $n
d$,u,,$on, o! Amer$an e@ep*$onal$,m.
C$*% on a .$ll (,er$e,), a ,er$e, o! omp$la*$on album, !rom 0,,en*$al #eord,.
Gou$, M$J-(16(8-1715). Gou$,, *he grea*e,* -$ng o! "raneB, grand ,$_le, +a, onl% a ,mall bo% +hen
he ,ueeded h$, !a*her $n 16&(. ;eau,e o! h$, %ou*h, real po+er pa,,ed *o h$, mo*her Anne o! Au,*r$a
a, regen* and *o *he :*al$an-born !$r,* m$n$,*er, Card$nal ?a6ar$n. /hen ?a6ar$n d$ed $n 1661, Gou$,
re!u,ed *o appo$n* ano*her !$r,* m$n$,*er and $n,*ead gra,ped *he re$n, o! go3ernmen* h$m,el!, ne3er *o
rel$n9u$,h *hem ,o long a, he l$3ed. <ur$ng *h$, Kper,onal re$gnL, "rane e@er$,ed pre-em$nen* po+er
on *he on*$nen* o! 0urope.
Gou$,, +ho adop*ed *he ,un a, h$, ,%mbol *o beome *he KAun K$ngL, d$,pla%ed *he ,plendour o! h$,
re$gn b% on,*ru*$ng h$, opulen* and 3a,* palae a* Jer,a$lle,. )here h$, da66l$ng our* ,*ru**ed and
b$-ered, +h$le Gou$, re,er3ed real au*hor$*% !or h$m,el!. Gou$, $, repu*ed *o ha3e la$med K: am *he
,*a*eL, and al*hough *h$, ,*a*emen* ma% be apor%phal, h$, +$ll +a,, $ndeed, *he +$ll o! *he ,*a*e $n
ma**er, o! m$l$*ar% ma**er, and !ore$gn pol$%.
<ur$ng *he ,eond hal! o! *he 17*h en*ur%, "renh *roop, pro3ed *hem,el3e, 3$r*uall% $n3$n$ble on *he
ba**le!$eld. 5henomenal gro+*h o! h$, arm% mul*$pl$ed $*, e!!e*. "renh !ore, dur$ng *he Geague o!
Aug,burg +ar l$mbed abo3e &11, 111 men on paper, and ma% ha3e a**a$ned (&1, 111 $n real$*%.
Adm$n$,*ra*$3e re!orm, arr$ed ou* b% +ar m$n$,*er, ?$hel Ge )ell$er and h$, ,on, *he ?ar9u$, de
Gou3o$,, pro3$ded a more regular pro3$,$on o! !ood, e9u$pmen*, and pa%, ma-$ng ,uh large !ore,
po,,$ble.
Gou$, regarded be$ng a ,old$er a, an e,,en*$al a**r$bu*e o! -$ng,h$p, and he de3o*ed h$m,el! 3er% muh
*o m$l$*ar% a!!a$r,. <ur$ng +ar*$me, he regularl% +en* *o *he !$eld un*$l *he $n!$rm$*$e, o! age -ep* h$m
!rom do$ng ,o, %e* he ne3er ommanded $n ba**le. .e had a penhan* !or ,$ege, and a**ended o3er
*+en*% o! *hem. :n on*ra,* *o h$, $den*$!$a*$on +$*h *he arm%, Gou$, ne3er harboured e9ual onern !or
h$, na3%. Al*hough $* e@panded m$gh*$l% b% 1691, he la*er allo+ed $* *o del$ne $n order *o onen*ra*e
re,oure, on land.
A, be!$**ed *he *one o! *he age, Gou$, ared muh !or h$, glo$re, be,* *ran,la*ed a, !ame or repu*a*$on,
bu* *ha* doe, no* mean *ha* h$, !ore$gn pol$% +a, 3a$nglor$ou,. .$,*or$an, ha3e o!*en argued *ha* *he
+ar, he !ough* dur$ng h$, per,onal re$gn, l$-e *ho,e o! 2apoleon a en*ur% la*er, re,ul*ed !rom a de,$re
*o anne@ muh o! *he on*$nen*. Fe* Gou$,B, goal, +ere more mode,* and rea,onable.
0arl% $n h$, per,onal re$gn, *he %oung -$ng lu,*ed *o e,*abl$,h h$, repu*a*$on a, a +arr$or--$ng b%
on9ue,*. .$, Apan$,h +$!e had renouned her la$m, *o *he doma$n, o! her !a*her, 5h$l$p :J, on*$ngen*
upon del$3er% o! a huge do+r% +h$h +a, ne3er pa$d. )here!ore, +hen 5h$l$p d$ed $n 1665, Gou$,
$n,$,*ed *ha* par*, o! *he Apan$,h 2e*herland, ,hould go *o, or Kde3ol3eL upon, h$, +$!e, ,e**$ng o!! *he
/ar o! <e3olu*$on (1667-8). An all$ane led b% *he <u*h $mpo,ed an end *o *h$, br$e! ,*ruggle, and
al*hough Gou$, ree$3ed *+el3e $mpor*an* !or*re,, *o+n,, he bel$e3ed h$m,el! hea*ed. :n *he <u*h +ar
(1678-8), Gou$, $n*ended *o pun$,h *he <u*h and ga$n a !ree hand $n *he Apan$,h 2e*herland,. "renh
arm$e, $n3aded *he <u*h 2e*herland,, bu* !a$led *o $mpo,e *he$r *erm,. A, *he all$ane aga$n,* Gou$,
gre+, he had *o +$*hdra+ ,ou*h $n 167&.
A* m$d-our,e dur$ng *he <u*h +ar, Gou$, ga3e up h$, dream o! add$ng *he Apan$,h 2e*herland, *o h$,
-$ngdom and, $n,*ead, ame *o a,,o$a*e h$, glo$re le,, +$*h on9uer$ng more *err$*or% *han +$*h
pro*e*$ng +ha* he alread% held. Jauban, Gou$,B, grea* m$l$*ar% eng$neer, urged Gou$, *o rea*e a double
l$ne o! !or*re,,e,, -no+n a, *he pr^ arr^, *o ,eal o!! h$, nor*hern border. ;u* he al,o ad3oa*ed rea*$ng
a more de!en,$ble !ron*$er *o *he ea,* b% ,e$6$ng add$*$onal ,*rong po$n*,. A!*er *he lo,e o! *he <u*h
+ar, +h$h ne**ed h$m more !or*re,,e, $n *he 2e*herland, plu, *he en*$re pro3$ne o! "ranhe-Com*^,
Gou$, re,ol3ed *o *a-e ,*$ll o*her -e% *o+n,, par*$ularl% A*ra,bourg and Gu@embourg, $n a ,er$e, o!
land grab, -no+n a, *he K#eun$on,L. )he l$ma@ o! *h$, proe,, +a, *he br$e! and pro!$*able +ar o! *ha*
name (168(-&).
/hen Gou$, demanded 0uropean reogn$*$on o! all h$, *err$*or$al ga$n,Hand d$d ,o b% $n3ad$ng
German land, *o ompel ,uh reogn$*$onHhe pre$p$*a*ed *he Geague o! Aug,burg +ar $n +h$h he
!aed *he KGrand All$aneL o! *he 0ngl$,h, <u*h, Apan$,h, and Au,*r$a, along +$*h ,e3eral le,,er
German ,*a*e, and Aa3o%. <ur$ng *h$, +ar Gou$,B, arm% +on all $*, ma4or ba**le, and en4o%ed *he upper
hand $n ,$ege +ar!are, bu* *he ,*ruggle ,o e@hau,*ed "rane *ha* Gou$, ,ar$!$ed ,ome o! h$, earl$er
a9u$,$*$on, *o ,eure a peae ,e**lemen*.
Gou$,B, la,* grea* +ar ame +$*h *he $ne3$*ab$l$*% o! ,un,e*, +hen Charle, ::, *he h$ldle,, -$ng o! Apa$n,
d$ed $n 1711. ;e!ore Charle,B, dea*h, Gou$, *r$ed *o hammer ou* an agreemen* +$*h o*her ruler, *o a3o$d
a ma4or +ar b% d$3$d$ng *he Apan$,h $nher$*ane. .o+e3er, all pr$or arrangemen*, d$,,ol3ed +hen
Charle, ,*$pula*ed on h$, dea*hbed *ha* e3er%*h$ng ,hould go *o Gou$,B, grand,on, 5h$l$p o! An4ou.
Gou$, reall% had l$**le ho$e bu* *o aep* *he d%$ng delara*$on, bu* he ,hould ha3e a3o$ded *he ,er$e,
o! $ll-on,$dered a*, *ha* alarmed h$, !oe,, +ho one aga$n !ormed a Grand All$ane *o oppo,e h$m $n a
!$nal a*al%,m, *he /ar o! *he Apan$,h Aue,,$on. )+o br$ll$an* all$ed ommander,, ?arlborough and
5r$ne 0ug_ne o! Aa3o%, +on a ,er$e, o! ba**le, and ,$ege, *ha* nearl% e@hau,*ed Gou$,B, ,*reng*h. ;u*
he re!u,ed *o ap$*ula*e and e3en*uall% ou*la,*ed h$, enem$e,. /hen Tueen Anne remo3ed
?arlborough !rom ommand and ;r$*$,h !ore, !rom *he +ar, Gou$,B, arm$e, rea,,er*ed "renh po+er,
de!ea*ed 0ug_ne, and e,*abl$,hed a ,e**lemen* *ha* d$d no* re9u$re Gou$, *o ,ar$!$e *err$*or% and *ha*
al,o le!* h$, grand,on 5h$l$p on *he Apan$,h *hrone.
Ae3en Fear, /ar-(17566() ?a4or 0uropean on!l$* be*+een Au,*r$a and $*, all$e, "rane, Aa@on%,
A+eden, and #u,,$a on one ,$de aga$n,* 5ru,,$a and $*, all$e, .ano3er and ;r$*a$n on *he o*her. )he +ar
aro,e ou* o! Au,*r$aB, a**emp* *o +$n ba- *he r$h pro3$ne o! A$le,$a, *a-en b% 5ru,,$a $n *he /ar o!
*he Au,*r$an Aue,,$on. 0arl% 3$*or$e, b% "reder$- :: *he Grea* $n Aa@on% and ;ohem$a (175658)
+ere o!!,e* b% a de$,$3e 5ru,,$an de!ea* b% Au,*r$a and #u,,$a near "ran-!ur* (1759). A!*er
$nonlu,$3e !$gh*$ng $n 176161, "reder$- onluded a peae +$*h #u,,$a (1768) and dro3e *he
Au,*r$an, !rom A$le,$a. )he +ar al,o $n3ol3ed *he o3er,ea, olon$al ,*ruggle, be*+een ;r$*a$n and
"rane $n 2or*h Amer$a ( "renh and :nd$an /ar) and $n :nd$a. )he 0uropean on!l$* +a, ,e**led +$*h
*he )rea*% o! .uber*u,burg, b% +h$h "reder$- on!$rmed 5ru,,$aB, ,*a*ure a, a ma4or 0uropean po+er.
.a$*$an #e3olu*$on-A, +a, *he a,e +$*h ,e3eral olon$e, $n *he Car$bbean $n *he e$gh*een*h en*ur%,
*he "renh olon% o! Aa$n*-<om$ngue +a, dr$3en pr$mar$l% b% an agr$ul*ural e@por* eonom%. Aa$n*-
<om$ngue produed o!!ee, ooa, o**on, $nd$go, and ,ugarane. .o+e3er, *o+ard 1751, g$3en *he
,u,*a$ned demand !or ,ugar on *he 0uropean mar-e*, ,ugarane ,urpa,,ed all o*her rop,. :n Aa$n*-
<om$ngue *he *op$ o! *he da% +a, *he PAugar #e3olu*$on,Q 4u,* a, *he P:ndu,*r$al #e3olu*$onQ +a, *he
*op$ o! *he da% $n 0ngland. Augarane +a, one o! *he !a*or, *ha* hanged no* onl% *he ,la3e
rela*$on,h$p bu* al,o *he pol$*$al and eonom$ ,*ru*ure, $n Aa$n*-<om$ngue.
"rom ,mall !arm, (m$n$!und$a) $n *he beg$nn$ng, ,ugarane !$r,* *ran,!ormed Aa$n*-<om$ngue $n*o a
,%,*em o! large !arm, (la*$!und$a) and *hen $n*o a plan*a*$on eonom% +here agr$ul*ural rop, blended
+$*h $ndu,*r$al produ*$on. )he au*hor$*$e, $n *he me*ropol$, had enabled "renh ap$*al$,*, *o ,e* up
+or-,hop, and !a*or$e, $n *he olon%, and *herea!*er ,ome ,la3e, +or-ed $n *he ne+ agro-$ndu,*r$al
plan*,. 7*her, e3en ree$3ed +age, and ,mall land, $n order *o mee* *he$r need,. A* *he ,ame *$me, *he
,la3e *rade $n*en,$!$ed and more ,la3e, +ere landed $n *he olon%.
)he "renh merhan* mar$ne beame 3er% a*$3e, *ran,por*$ng a large number o! ommod$*$e, and
produ*, !rom Aa$n*-<om$ngue *o "rane; *he,e +ere re!$ned b% "renh $ndu,*r$e, and la*er d$,*r$bu*ed
on *he 0uropean mar-e*. )he %$eld, +ere ,$gn$!$an* !or *he me*ropol$, and !or "renh merhan*,, +ho
$n3e,*ed more and more $n *he olon%. Aa$n*-<om$ngue beame a *hr$3$ng eonom%. :n 1788 $*, e@por*,
reahed 81& m$ll$on !ran,, or *he e9u$3alen* *hen o! abou* h&8 m$ll$on, ,urpa,,$ng e3en =.A. e@por*,.
Aa$n*-<om$ngue beame *he 4e+el o! *he "renh olon$al emp$re and ,uppl$ed "rane +$*h hal! o! *he
+eal*h $* der$3ed !rom all o! $*, olon$e, omb$ned.
Ala3er% and ap$*al$,m oe@$,*ed a, a h%br$d ,%,*em. :* +a, d$!!$ul* *o reon$le *he mean, o! ap$*al$,*
produ*$on +$*h *he ,o$al rela*$on, o! ,la3er%. Ano*her omple@ $,,ue !or Aa$n*-<om$ngue +a, *ha* $*
+a, bu$l* on a h$erarh$al 3$e+ o! ,o$al rela*$on,. :n 1789, Aa$n*-<om$ngue on,$,*ed o! &1,111
+h$*e,, 88,111 A!!ranh$,Holored and bla- !reemenHand &51,111 ,la3e,, bu* ,-$n olor de*erm$ned
,o$al ,*a*u,. )h$, ra$al on,*ru* +ould ollap,e l$-e a pa- o! ard,.
:n 1789, Aa$n*-<om$ngue +a, plagued b% a number o! on*rad$*$on,. )he grea* +h$*e plan*er,
demanded pol$*$al au*onom%. )he A!!ranh$,, mo,* o! +hom +ere lando+ner,, lamored !or $3$l and
pol$*$al e9ual$*% +$*h *he +h$*e,. )he ,la3e, loo-ed !or !reedom. ;rough* !rom A!r$a, *he% *o$led on
plan*a*$on, and $n produ*$on +or-,hop, and +ere a* *he mer% o! *he o3er,eerB, +h$p. 7n *he n$gh* o!
81'88 Augu,* 1791, !ollo+$ng a pol$*$al mo3emen* $n *he 2or*h 5ro3$ne under *he leader,h$p o! a
er*a$n ;ou-man, ,la3e, ,e* !$re *o *he plan*a*$on, and a**a-ed *he$r ma,*er,. )he $n,urre*$on ,pread *o
*he /e,* and Aou*h 5ro3$ne,.
)he !$gh* +aged b% *he ,la3e, beame more ,*ru*ured +$*h *he emergene o! )ou,,a$n*-Gou3er*ure. A,
*he ommander o! an arm% *ha* he per,onall% organ$6ed, he beame a po+er!ul !$gure $n *he olon%.
"rom 179&*o1818, )ou,,a$n*-Gou3er*ure led *he omba*. :n order *o -eep Aa$n*-<om$ngue +$*h$n $*,
olon$al emp$re, *he "renh au*hor$*$e, ame *o *erm, +$*h )ou,,a$n*-Gou3er*ure, promo*$ng h$m *o *he
ran- o! general $n h$e! o! *he Aa$n*-<om$ngue arm% and, la*er, go3ernor. :n ,uh a po,$*$on o! po+er,
he made !reedom o! bla-, *he !ou, o! h$, $n*erna*$onal pol$% and made *he re3$3al o! produ*$on *he
!ou, o! h$, dome,*$ pol$%.
)ou,,a$n*-Gou3er*ure !orged an au*onomou, pol$% 3$,-i-3$, "rane. :n 1811, +$*hou* *he ba-$ng o!
"renh au*hor$*$e,, he en*ered *he ea,*ern ,$de o! *he $,land, *hen under Apan$,h dom$na*$on, and
abol$,hed ,la3er% *here. :n *he ,ame %ear he promulga*ed a on,*$*u*$on !or *he en*$re $,land +$*h
$mmed$a*e appl$a*$on. 2one*hele,,, he ,en* $* *o "rane !or appro3al b% 2apoleon ;onapar*e. :n
re,pon,e, 2apoleon deplo%ed *+en*%-*+o *hou,and *roop, and e$gh*%-,$@ +ar,h$p, $n order *o ,ubdue
)ou,,a$n*-Gou3er*ure and re,*ore ,la3er% $n *he olon% and $n all *he o*her "renh dependen$e, o!
Amer$a. )he *roop, al,o had a m$,,$on *o e@pand *he "renh olon$al emp$re $n Amer$a, go$ng !rom
Aa$n*-<om$ngue up *o *he !ormer "renh po,,e,,$on, along *he ?$,,$,,$pp$.
)he re3olu*$onar$e, o! Aa$n*-<om$ngue +ere unable *o +$*h,*and *he a,,aul* o! *he "renh *roop,.
)ou,,a$n*-Gou3er*ure +a, arre,*ed !or *rea,on $n 1818 and ,en* *o "rane, +here he d$ed. /hen lea3$ng
Aa$n*-<om$ngue, )ou,,a$n*-Gou3er*ure delaredI P;% o3er*hro+$ng me, %ou ha3e merel% ,ueeded $n
u**$ng *he *run- o! 1195176(88.ha$*$an-re3.11.*$!.a$*$an #e3olu*$on. P#e3enge *a-en b% *he ;la-
Arm% !or *he Cruel*$e, pra*$,ed on *hem b% *he "renh,Q $llu,*ra*$on !rom ?aru, #a$n,!ord, An
.$,*or$al Aoun* o! *he ;la- 0mp$re o! .a%*$ (GondonI J. Cundee, 1815), page ((7. 5r$n*, and
5ho*ograph, <$3$,$on, G$brar% o! Congre,,Aa$n*-<om$ngueB, )ree o! G$ber*%; bu* $* +$ll gro+ aga$n, !or
*he roo*, are deep, and man%.Q
5rophe*$ +ord, !rom *he old leaderE )he re,$,*ane o! *he $nd$genou, arm%, under *he leader,h$p o!
General Jean-Ja9ue, <e,,al$ne,, hanged d$re*$onI !rom au*onom% *o $ndependene. A!*er *+o %ear,,
"renh *roop, ap$*ula*ed *o *he ragged *roop, o! Aa$n*-<om$ngue. 7n 1Januar% 181& *he $ndependene
o! *he olon% +a, prola$med under *he abor$g$nal name o! .a$*$. "or *he !$r,* *$me $n *he h$,*or% o!
human$*%, an upr$,$ng o! ,la3e, had led *o a 3$*or$ou, re3olu*$on. )hu, .a$*$ beame *he !$r,* ,*a*e *o
prola$m *he abol$*$on o! ,la3er%. .a$*$ +a, *he !$r,* bla- republ$ o! *he +orld and +a, *he ,eond
republ$ $n *he /e,*ern .em$,phere a!*er *he =n$*ed A*a*e,.
)he on,e9uene, o! *he .a$*$an #e3olu*$on +ere on,$derable. :* ,ounded *he dea*h -nell !or ,la3er%
*hroughou* *he +orld and +ea-ened olon$al$,m $n *he Amer$a,. "or e@ample, $n 1815 *he Jene6uelan
re3olu*$onar% "ran$,o de ?$randa ree$3ed a,,$,*ane !rom General Jean-Ja9ue, <e,,al$ne, *o
l$bera*e Aou*h Amer$a !rom *he %o-e o! Apa$n. A$m$larl%, $n 1815 *he l$bera*or A$man ;olV3ar ree$3ed
,ub,*an*$al a$d !rom *he .a$*$an pre,$den* Ale@andre 5^*$on *o !$gh* !or !reedom and $ndependene $n
Ga*$n Amer$a. )he .a$*$an #e3olu*$on rema$n, one o! *he grea*e,* re3olu*$on, o! modern *$me, and
hanged *he per,pe*$3e o! human be$ng, on ,la3er%, olon$al$,m, and manB, e@plo$*a*$on o! man.
:ran$an .o,*age Cr$,$,-7n 2o3ember &, 1979, a group o! :ran$an m$l$*an*, ,*ormed *he Amer$an
emba,,% $n )ehran, :ran, and ap*ured do6en, o! emba,,% and m$l$*ar% per,onnel. "or &&& da%,,
!$!*%*+o Amer$an, rema$ned ap*$3e $n :ran, +h$le *he$r na*$on +a$*ed, hoped, and hung %ello+
r$bbon,. )he ou*ome o! *he ho,*age r$,$, +ould ul*$ma*el% hange *he our,e o! a pre,$den%, and
mal$gn rela*$on, be*+een *+o po+er!ul na*$on,.
)he or$g$n, o! an*$-Amer$an !er3or. :n *he earl% 1971,, Amer$a and :ran en4o%ed mu*uall% ,a*$,!%$ng
rela*$on,. A* *he *$me, *he oun*r% +a, ruled b% Ahah ?ohammad #e6a 5ahla3$, a man *he Amer$an
go3ernmen* had ,uppor*ed !or more *han *+en*%-!$3e %ear,. 5ahla3$ had r$,en *o po+er *han-, *o
;r$*$,h and Ao3$e* !ore,, +h$h 4o$n*l% $n,*alled 5ahla3$ on *he *hrone $n 19&1 *o ga$n 3aluable
$n!luene o3er *he oun*r%B, o$l. )+o %ear, la*er, *he =n$*ed A*a*e, and Grea* ;r$*a$n made a !ormal
delara*$on *o promo*e :ranB, $ndependene, pr$mar$l% *o pre3en* *he ommun$,*, !rom ga$n$ng a ,*rong
!oo*hold $n *he oun*r%.
:n *he earl% 1951,, *he :ran$an pr$me m$n$,*er, ?ohammad ?o,,adegh, began ga$n$ng po+er and publ$
,uppor*, and 3ehemen*l% oppo,ed *he +e,*ern $n!luene $n :ran. :n 1958, ?o,,adeghB, par*% +on *he
na*$onal ele*$on,, and he demanded on*rol o3er :ranB, armed !ore,, +h$h 5ahla3$ den$ed. :n 195(,
*he =n$*ed A*a*e, Cen*ral
:n*ell$gene Agen% (C:A) ,ere*l% helped *o o3er*hro+ ?o,,adegh and re,*ore 5ahla3$ *o po+er.
5ahla3$ rema$ned a !r$end *o *he =n$*ed A*a*e,, bu* endured har,h r$*$$,m b% h$, oun*r%men !or
rul$ng +$*h an $ron !$,*, and l$3$ng opulen*l% o!! *he ,po$l, o! h$, oun*r%B, o$l produ*$on +h$le *he
ma4or$*% o! h$, people l$3ed $n po3er*%. <ur$ng *he ne@* *+o deade,, *he Ahah a**emp*ed *o br$ng
!ur*her /e,*ern $n!luene *o :ran, a pra*$e *ha* +a, an ana*hema *o *he gro+$ng number, o!
!undamen*al$,* :,lam$ group, $n *he oun*r%. )ho,e +ho dared oppo,e *he AhahB, rule !aed *he r$,- o!
*or*ure or dea*h a* *he hand, o! h$, ,ere* pol$e.
:n 1978, :ran$an oppo,$*$on leader, organ$6ed ,*r$-e,, demon,*ra*$on,, and r$o*, $n pro*e,* o! *he AhahB,
pol$$e,. :n 5ar$,, e@$led :,lam$ leader A%a*olla #uhollah Khome$n$ (5ahla3$ had ,en* Khome$n$ !rom
*he oun*r% am$d r$o*, $n *he earl% 1961,) ,lo+l% began *o ga$n popular$*% among *he :ran$an people. :n
<eember, 1978, Khome$n$ $,,ued a prolama*$on all$ng !or :ran$an, *o Dun$*e, ar$,e, and ,ar$!$e
%our blood,D urg$ng *hem *o de!% *he AhahB, order proh$b$*$ng publ$ demon,*ra*$on,. Khome$n$B, +ord,
$n,p$red h$, !ollo+er, *o !$ll *he ,*ree*,, han*$ng rel$g$ou, ,logan, and all$ng !or re3olu*$on. )he Ahah
+a, le!* +$*h *+o ho$e,I ,urrender or lamp do+n on h$, people m$l$*ar$l% *o re,*ore order. 7n
Januar% 16, 1979, *he Ahah ,*epped do+n !rom po+er and !led *o ?oroo.
Khome$n$ re*urned *o :ran on "ebruar% 1, 1979, +here he +a, gree*ed b% m$ll$on, o! h$, !ollo+er,.
Ge,, *han *+o +ee-, la*er, Khome$n$ a,,umed po+er, announ$ng *he rea*$on o! a ne+ !undamen*al$,*
:,lam$ ,*a*e. Khome$n$ labeled *he =n$*ed A*a*e, D)he Grea* Aa*an.D .a*red gre+ +hen =.A. 5re,$den*
J$mm% Car*er allo+ed *he depo,ed Ahah *o *ra3el *o Amer$a la*er *ha* %ear !or aner *rea*men*.
"ur$ou, ,*uden*, ga*hered $n *he ,*ree*,, ra$,$ng *he$r !$,*, and ,hou*$ng, D<ea*h *o Amer$a,D a,,um$ng
*he =n$*ed A*a*e, +a, aga$n *r%$ng *o ,ere*l% re,*ore *he Ahah *o po+er.
7n *he morn$ng o! 2o3ember &, 1979, :ran$an !er3or reahed a bo$l$ng po$n*. A ro+d ga*hered around
*he =.A. emba,,%, ,hou*$ng an*$-Amer$an ,logan,. A* 11I(1 A.?. abou* *hree *hou,and people 4umped
*he *en-!oo* +all ,urround$ng *he emba,,% and ,+armed *he ground,, !or$ng *he$r +a% $n*o *he
ba,emen* and !$r,* !loor o! *he haner% bu$ld$ng. )he guard, launhed *ear ga,, bu* *he% +ere unable *o
on*rol *he mob. )he :,lam$ m$l$*an*, rounded up 66 emba,,% +or-er,, m$l$*ar% o!!$$al,, and ?ar$ne
guard,. )he ho,*age, +ere bl$nd!olded, bound, and ,ho3ed $n*o +$ndo+le,, room,. "$!*%-*hree people
+ere held ap*$3e $n *he emba,,% ompound. :* +a, unlear +ha* role, $! an%, Khome$n$ pla%ed $n
orhe,*ra*$ng *he ho,*age r$,$,, bu* $* +a, lear *ha* he d$d l$**le *o ,*op $*. /hen Khome$n$ no*ed ho+
popular *he ho,*age ,$*ua*$on had beome among h$, people, he allo+ed $* *o on*$nue, de,p$*e
on*$nuou, pre,,ure !rom *he =n$*ed A*a*e, go3ernmen*.
Amer$an, +a*hed *he e3en*, o! *he r$,$, pla%ed ou* on *ele3$,$on. Fello+ r$bbon, +ere *$ed around
*ree *run-, *hroughou* *he oun*r% $n ommemora*$on o! *he ho,*age,. 5re,$den* Car*er re,ponded b%
!ree6$ng b$ll$on, o! dollar, $n :ran$an a,,e*,, bo*h $n *he =n$*ed A*a*e, and abroad, and b% $n,*$*u*$ng an
embargo on :ran$an o$l. A*$ll, *he :ran$an, re!u,ed *o relea,e *he ho,*age,, demand$ng *he AhahB,
e@*rad$*$on *o :ran.
A re,ue a**emp*. /h$le 5re,$den* Car*er +a, *r%$ng *o nego*$a*e *he ho,*age,B relea,e, beh$nd-*he-
,ene, a dar$ng re,ue plan +a, *a-$ng ,hape. )he propo,al +a, *o ,+oop $n and land e$gh* Amer$an
m$l$*ar% hel$op*er, $n *he emba,,% ompound, e@*ra* *he ho,*age,, and e,ape *o ,$@ plane, +a$*$ng on
an a$r,*r$p $n *he :ran$an de,er*. 7n Apr$l 8&, 1981, *he plan +a, launhed. )he m$,,$on, ho+e3er, +a,
!raugh* +$*h m$,*a-e, and bad lu-. )hree o! *he hel$op*er, mal!un*$oned; *he p$lo* o! a !our*h,
bl$nded b% a du,* ,*orm, ra,hed $n*o a re!uel$ng a$rra!*. 0$gh* =.A. ,er3$emen +ere -$lled $n *he
un,ue,,!ul opera*$on.
)he ho,*age-*a-er, re,ponded *o *he !a$led re,ue a**emp* b% mo3$ng *he$r ap*$3e, *o ,e3eral ,ere*
loa*$on, $n d$!!eren* $*$e,. 7n Jul% 11, one $ll ap*$3e +a, relea,ed. ?ean+h$le, *he ongo$ng ho,*age
r$,$, +a, o,*$ng 5re,$den* Car*er *he ,uppor* o! h$, people and ,ome o! h$, ad3$,or,, $nlud$ng
Aere*ar% o! A*a*e C%ru, Jane, +ho had oppo,ed *he re,ue. Car*er la*er lo,* h$, reele*$on b$d *o
!ormer Cal$!orn$a go3ernor #onald #eagan $n a land,l$de.
)he ,$ege end,. :n *he !all o! 1981, *he e@$led Ahah d$ed o! aner ompl$a*$on,. :n Aep*ember, :ran
agreed *o beg$n nego*$a*$on, !or *he ho,*age,B relea,e. :n e@hange !or *he$r relea,e, *he =n$*ed A*a*e,
agreed *o *urn o3er h8 b$ll$on o! :ranB, !ro6en a,,e*,, and *o re!ra$n !rom $n*er!er$ng pol$*$all% or
m$l$*ar$l% $n :ranB, $n*ernal a!!a$r,. )he =n$*ed A*a*e, and :ran ,$gned *he agreemen* on Januar% 19,
1981, bu* $n a !$nal embarra,,men* *o Car*er, *he m$l$*an*, d$d no* relea,e *he ho,*age, un*$l Januar% 81,
*he da% 5re,$den* #eagan +a, $naugura*ed. Ju,* m$nu*e, a!*er #eagan *oo- o!!$e, a plane arr%$ng *he
!$!*%-*+o rema$n$ng ho,*age, le!* )ehran !or a =.A. Arm% ba,e $n German%. "rom h$, home $n Georg$a,
!ormer pre,$den* Car*er announed *ha* *he plane arr%$ng *he ho,*age, had leared :ran$an a$r,pae,
and *ha* e3er% one o! *he ho,*age, D+a, al$3e, +a, +ell, and !ree.D
5eae o! /e,*phal$a-16&8, general ,e**lemen* end$ng *he )h$r*% Fear, /ar. :* mar-ed *he end o! *he
.ol% #oman 0mp$re a, an e!!e*$3e $n,*$*u*$on and $naugura*ed *he modern 0uropean ,*a*e ,%,*em. )he
h$e! par*$$pan*, $n *he nego*$a*$on, +ere *he all$e, A+eden and "rane; *he$r opponen*,, Apa$n and *he
.ol% #oman 0mp$re; and *he 3ar$ou, par*, o! *he emp$re (+h$h had been r$3en b% *he +ar) *oge*her
+$*h *he ne+l% $ndependen* 2e*herland,. 0arl$er endea3or, *o br$ng abou* a general peae had been
un,ue,,!ul. )he ompa* -no+n a, *he 5eae o! 5rague (?a%, 16(5) mar-ed a ,*ep $n *he d$re*$on o!
peae and ,$gnaled *he bel$e! o! *he 5ro*e,*an* po+er, *ha* *he A+ed$,h !ore, on +h$h *he% depended
+ould no* be able *o ma$n*a$n a preponderan* role $n German%. )he ond$*$on, o! *he ompa* +ere no*
$n aord +$*h #$hel$euB, de,$gn *o brea- up *he $mper$al po+er, ho+e3er, and *he +ar on*$nued
de,p$*e o!!er, o! med$a*$on !rom *he pope and *he -$ng o! <enmar-. Congre,,e, +ere propo,ed and
d$,arded. :* +a, no* un*$l <e. 85, 16&1, *ha* a prel$m$nar% *rea*% pro3$ded !or *+o onurren*
on!erene,-a* ?`n,*er and 7,nabr`-. )he on!erene,, !$@ed !or 16&(, me* $n 16&& and began
,er$ou, +or- $n 16&5. )he *rea*$e, +ere ,$gned 7*. 8&, 16&8. )hrough *he "renh and A+ed$,h
D,a*$,!a*$on,D *he po+er and $n!luene o! *he .ol% #oman 0mp$re and o! *he hou,e o! .ap,burg +ere
le,,ened. )he ,o3ere$gn*% o! *he German ,*a*e, +a, reogn$6ed, and *he emp$re on*$nued onl% $n
name. "rane, emerg$ng a, *he dom$nan* 0uropean po+er, had $*, ,o3ere$gn*% o3er *hree b$,hopr$,
(?e*6, )oul, and Jerdun) and o3er 5$nerolo on!$rmed. ;re$,ah +a, made o3er *o "rane. Al,ae +a,
eded de,p$*e amb$gu$*% o! *$*le, and "rane +a, allo+ed *o !or*$!% a garr$,on a* 5h$l$pp,burg. A+eden
ob*a$ned / 5omeran$a, $nlud$ng A*e**$n and *he $,land o! #`gen; *he arhb$,hopr$ (bu* no* *he $*%) o!
;remen and *he ad4o$n$ng b$,hopr$ o! Jerden; and /$,mar and *he $,land o! 5jl. :* +a, agreed *ha* *he
=pper 5ala*$na*e and *he old ele*oral 3o*e ,hould rema$n +$*h ;a3ar$a, +h$le *he #hen$,h 5ala*$na*e,
+$*h a ne+ ele*oral 3o*e, +a, a,,$gned *o Charle, Gou$,, *he ,on o! "reder$- *he /$n*er K$ng. )he
A+$,, Con!edera*$on and *he $ndependen* 2e*herland, +ere e@pl$$*l% reogn$6ed. )he ele*or o!
;randenburg ree$3ed ompen,a*$on !or 5omeran$a; *he du-e o! ?e-lenburg, !or 5jl and par* o!
/$,mar. )he ou*ome o! *he rel$g$ou, del$bera*$on, +a, ,$gn$!$an*. )err$*or$al ruler, on*$nued *o
de*erm$ne *he rel$g$on o! *he$r ,ub4e*,, bu* $* +a, ,*$pula*ed *ha* ,ub4e*, ould +or,h$p a, *he% had $n
168&. )erm, o! !ored em$gra*$on +ere ea,ed; Cal3$n$,m +a, reogn$6ed; and ruler, ould allo+ !ull
*olera*$on, a* *he$r d$,re*$on. "$nall%, rel$g$ou, 9ue,*$on, ould no longer be de$ded b% a ma4or$*% o!
*he $mper$al e,*a*e,. "u*ure d$,pu*e, +ere *o be re,ol3ed b% a omprom$,e be*+een *he on!e,,$on,. )he
era o! rel$g$ou, +ar!are +a, o3er, and a general a**emp* had been made *o+ard rel$g$ou, *olera*$on.
C$3$l #$gh*, ?o3emen*-?o3emen* !or ra$al e9ual$*% $n *he =.A. *ha*, *hrough non3$olen* pro*e,*,
bro-e *he pa**ern o! ra$al ,egrega*$on $n *he Aou*h and ah$e3ed e9ual r$gh*, leg$,la*$on !or bla-,.
"ollo+$ng *he =.A. Aupreme Cour* de$,$on $n ;ro+n 3. ;oard o! 0dua*$on o! )ope-a (195&), A!r$an
Amer$an and +h$*e ,uppor*er, a**emp*ed *o end en*renhed ,egrega*$on$,* pra*$e,. /hen #o,a 5ar-,
+a, arre,*ed $n 1955 $n ?on*gomer%, Ala., an A!r$an Amer$an bo%o** o! *he bu, ,%,*em +a, led b%
?ar*$n Gu*her K$ng, Jr., and #alph Aberna*h%. :n *he earl% 1961, *he A*uden* 2on3$olen* Coord$na*$ng
Comm$**ee led bo%o**, and ,$*-$n, *o de,egrega*e man% publ$ !a$l$*$e,. =,$ng *he non3$olen* me*hod,
o! ?ohanda, K. Gandh$, *he mo3emen* ,pread, !or$ng *he de,egrega*$on o! depar*men* ,*ore,,
,upermar-e*,, l$brar$e,, and mo3$e *hea*re,. )he <eep Aou*h rema$ned adaman* $n $*, oppo,$*$on *o
mo,* de,egrega*$on mea,ure,, o!*en 3$olen*l%; pro*e,*er, +ere a**a-ed and oa,$onall% -$lled. )he$r
e!!or*, ulm$na*ed $n a marh on /a,h$ng*on, <.C., $n 196( *o ,uppor* $3$l r$gh*, leg$,la*$on.
"ollo+$ng *he a,,a,,$na*$on o! John ". Kenned%, 5re,. G%ndon ;. John,on per,uaded Congre,, *o pa,,
*he C$3$l #$gh*, A* o! 196&, a 3$*or% *ha* +a, !ollo+ed b% *he Jo*$ng #$gh*, A* $n 1965. A!*er 1965,
m$l$*an* group, ,uh a, *he ;la- 5an*her 5ar*% ,pl$* o!! !rom *he $3$l r$gh*, mo3emen*, and r$o*, $n
bla- ghe**o, and K$ngB, a,,a,,$na*$on au,ed man% ,uppor*er, *o +$*hdra+. :n *he ,ueed$ng deade,,
leader, ,ough* po+er *hrough ele*$3e o!!$e and ,ub,*an*$3e eonom$ and edua*$onal ga$n, *hrough
a!!$rma*$3e a*$on.
?$-ha$l Gorbahe3-#u,,$an; General Aere*ar% o! *he C5A= 1985 ' 91 Gorbahe3 +a, born $n*o a
pea,an* !am$l%. .e en*ered *he Ga+ "aul*% o! ?o,o+ A*a*e =n$3er,$*% $n 1951, gradua*$ng +$*h *op
mar-, $n 1955. .e 4o$ned *he C5A= $n 1958. "rom 1956 he !ollo+ed a areer $n *he Commun$,* Fou*h
Geague (Com,omol) $n *he A*a3ropol reg$on, be!ore 4o$n$ng *he loal par*% appara*u, $n 1968. :n 1967
he gradua*ed !rom A*a3ropol Agr$ul*ural :n,*$*u*e. :n 1971 he beame "$r,* Aere*ar% o! *he A*a3ropol
reg$on. 2e@* %ear he +a, ele*ed *o *he Cen*ral Comm$**ee. :n 1978 he mo3ed *o ?o,o+ a, ,ere*ar%
o! *he Cen*ral Comm$**ee $n harge o! agr$ul*ure. .e en4o%ed *he pa*ronage o! Andropo3, +ho made
h$m a !ull member o! *he 5ol$*buro $n 1981.
A!*er Andropo3 +a, ele*ed Ao3$e* leader $n 2o3ember 1988, Gorbahe3 beame *he ,eond mo,*
po+er!ul man $n *he =AA#, +$*h a br$e! o3er$ng *he +hole eonom%. .$, po+er, $nrea,ed dur$ng *he
br$e! re$gn o! Chernen-o !rom 198& *o 1985. A!*er Chernen-oB, dea*h $n ?arh 1985, Gorbahe3B, b$d
!or *he general ,ere*ar%,h$p +a, ,*rongl% re,$,*ed b% *he ;re6hne3$*e, +$*h$n *he 5ol$*buro, +hom he
de!ea*ed +$*h *he ,uppor* o! G$gahe3 and Grom%-o. Gorbahe3 beame 5re,$den* o! *he =AA# a!*er
Grom%-oB, !ored re*$remen* $n 1988.
Gorbahe3B, re!orm, re3ol3ed around *he re,*ru*ur$ng (pere,*ro$-a) o! *he eonom% and $nrea,ed
!reedom o! e@pre,,$on (gla,no,*) $n pol$*$al and ul*ural a!!a$r,. .e d$d no* !ollo+ a pre$,e bluepr$n*
$n e$*her area and $* $, deba*able ho+ !ar h$, pol$$e, +ere !ored upon h$m b% *he eonom$ r$,$, and
gro+*h o! na*$onal unre,* +$*h$n *he Ao3$e* =n$on, +h$h +or,ened +$*h eah %ear o! h$, rule. .e +a,
un+$ll$ng *o remo3e *he lau,e o! *he on,*$*u*$on guaran*ee$ng *he Dlead$ng roleD o! *he Commun$,*
5ar*%, bu* a!*er 1988 underm$ned $*, po+er b% allo+$ng par*$all% !ree ele*$on, *o *he leg$,la*ure, $n *he
un$on republ$, and *o *he Congre,, o! 5eopleB, <epu*$e, and b% augmen*$ng *he po+er o! *he
pre,$den%. )h$, d$d no*h$ng *o pre3en* *he gro+$ng ,el!-a,,er*$3ene,, o! *he #u,,$an (a, d$,*$n* !rom)
*he Ao3$e* Commun$,* 5ar*%. ;% 1991 Gorbahe3B, hold on po+er +a, ,ha-% and he +a, unable *o
,a*$,!% *he demand, o! on,er3a*$3e Commun$,*, demand$ng *he ma$n*enane o! *he Ao3$e* =n$on and
*he par*%-,*a*e and o! *he na*$onal$,*, $n *he republ$, a* a *$me +hen *he eonom% +a, brea-$ng do+n.
:n Augu,* 1991, Gorbahe3B, opponen*, +$*h$n *he leader,h$p ,*aged a oup *o ,a3e *he un$on, pla$ng
h$m under hou,e arre,*. )he% ,urrendered *hree da%, la*er, ha3$ng !a$led *o +$n *he ,uppor* o! e$*her *he
people or *he arm%. 7n h$, re*urn *o po+er, Gorbahe3 re,$gned a, par*% leader. :n <eember 1991 he
re,$gned a, 5re,$den* +hen *he Ao3$e* =n$on +a, 3o*ed ou* o! e@$,*ene b% *he repre,en*a*$3e, o! $*,
on,*$*uen* republ$,. :n 1998 Gorbahe3 +a, e@pelled !rom *he C5A= !or au,$ng *he ollap,e o! *he
=AA#.
:n $n*erna*$onal a!!a$r, Gorbahe3 o3er,a+ *he +$*hdra+al o! *he #ed Arm% !rom A!ghan$,*an, a grea*
$mpro3emen* o! rela*$on, +$*h *he =AA and 0uropean Commun$*%, and *he normal$6a*$on o! rela*$on,
+$*h Ch$na. :n 0a,*ern 0urope $n 1989 he aep*ed *he *rade un$on mo3emen* Aol$dar$*%B, ele*oral
3$*or% $n 5oland and *hen enouraged *he o3er*hro+ o! hard-l$ne reg$me, $n 0a,* German%,
C6eho,lo3a-$a, ;ulgar$a, and #oman$a, +h$le ma$n*a$n$ng a pol$% o! ,*r$* non-$n*er3en*$on one
re3olu*$on, had ,*ar*ed. .e o-opera*ed +$*h *he =A-led =2 !ore, dur$ng *he Gul! /ar aga$n,* :ra9 $n
1991 ' 1, e3en *hough $* +a, a !ormer Ao3$e* all%.
A$ne 1991 Gorbahe3 ha, been head o! *he ?o,o+-ba,ed DGorbahe3 "undD, a en*re !or *he ,*ud%
o! $n*erna*$onal rela*$on,.
Chernob%l-A $*% o! nor*hern =-ra$ne near *he border o! ;elaru,. :* +a, e3aua*ed and rema$n,
un$nhab$*ed a, a re,ul* o! a ma4or nulear po+er plan* a$den* nearb% on Apr$l 86, 1986.
)ran,on*$nen*al #a$lroad-$, a on*$guou, ne*+or- o! ra$lroad *ra-ageX1Y *ha* ro,,e, a on*$nen*al
land ma,, +$*h *erm$nal, a* d$!!eren* oean, or on*$nen*al border,. Auh ne*+or-, an be 3$a *he *ra-,
o! e$*her a ,$ngle ra$lroad, or o3er *ho,e o+ned or on*rolled b% mul*$ple ra$l+a% ompan$e, along a
on*$nuou, rou*e. Al*hough 0urope $, r$,,ro,,ed b% ra$l+a%,, *he ra$lroad, +$*h$n 0urope are u,uall%
no* on,$dered *ran,on*$nen*al, +$*h *he po,,$ble e@ep*$on o! *he h$,*or$ 7r$en* 0@pre,,.
)ran,on*$nen*al ra$lroad, helped open up unpopula*ed $n*er$or reg$on, o! on*$nen*, *o e@plora*$on and
,e**lemen* *ha* +ould no* o*her+$,e ha3e been !ea,$ble. :n man% a,e, *he% al,o !ormed *he ba-bone,
o! ro,,-oun*r% pa,,enger and !re$gh* *ran,por*a*$on ne*+or-,.
:n *he =n$*ed A*a*e, o! Amer$a, *ran,on*$nen*al ra$lroad, rea*ed a na*$on-+$de *ran,por*a*$on ne*+or-
*ha* un$*ed *he oun*r%. )h$, ne*+or- replaed *he +agon *ra$n, o! pre3$ou, deade, and allo+ed !or *he
*ran,por*a*$on o! larger 9uan*$*$e, o! good, o3er longer d$,*ane,. Con,*ru*$on b% *he Cen*ral 5a$!$
#a$lroad and =n$on 5a$!$ #a$lroad o! *he 1,988 m$le D5a$!$ #a$lroadD l$n- be*+een Coun$l
;lu!!,:AC7maha, 20 and *he Aan "ran$,o ;a% a* 7a-land, CA 3$a 7gden, =) and Aaramen*o, CA
onne*$ng +$*h *he e@$,*$ng ra$lroad ne*+or- *o *he 0a,* Coa,* rea*$ng *he +orldB, !$r,*
*ran,on*$nen*al ra$lroad +hen $* opened $n 1869 +a, made po,,$ble b% *he Congre,, *hrough *he
pa,,age o! 5a$!$ #a$lroad A*, o! 1868, 186& and 1867.
;erl$n a$rl$!*-(19&8-9). A* *he end o! // ::, ;erl$n +a, d$3$ded $n*o Amer$an, ;r$*$,h, "renh, and
Ao3$e* ,e*or,. Auppl$e, !or +e,*ern ,e*or, had *o pa,, *hrough *he Ao3$e*-on*rolled 6one, and a,
!r$*$on be*+een *he =AA# and *he /e,* +$dened ,o *he Ao3$e*, $nrea,ed $n*er!erene +$*h *ra!!$. :n
?arh 19&8 *he Ao3$e*,, *hen ha$r$ng *he All$ed Con*rol Coun$l +h$h go3erned ;erl$n, ad4ourned a
mee*$ng +$*hou* ,e**$ng *he da*e !or ano*her, and *he bod% ne3er me* aga$n. )ra!!$ on*rol beame
more r$g$d, and All$ed leader, on,$dered a 3ar$e*% o! plan, !rom +$*hdra+al *o m$l$*ar% a*$on *o !ore
a rou*e *o *he $*%.
7n 5 Apr$l a ;r$*$,h pa,,enger a$rra!* ra,hed a!*er be$ng rammed b% a Ao3$e* !$gh*er. 2ego*$a*$on,
beame more ar$mon$ou,, and on 8& June *he Ao3$e*, ,*opped ra$l *ra!!$ and u* o!! ,uppl$e, !rom
ea,*ern po+er ,*a*$on,. )he All$e, de$ded *o *a-e *he unpreeden*ed ,*ep o! ,uppl%$ng /e,* ;erl$n
!rom *he a$r, !l%$ng argo *o $*, *hree a$r!$eld,, )egel, Ga*o+, and )empleho!. )here +ere *hree narro+
a$r orr$dor,, a$r,pae o3er ;erl$n +a, ,hared +$*h *he Ao3$e*,, and $n$*$all% mo,* a$rra!* a3a$lable +ere
<a-o*a,. ;u* ,oon larger C-5&, appeared and *he *onnage !lo+n $n $nrea,edI 1, &11 *on, (1, &88
*onne,) arr$3ed $n June, b% m$d-Jul% *h$, 9uan*$*% arr$3ed eah da%, and b% Januar% 19&9, +$*h *he a$rl$!*
$n !ull ,pa*e de,p$*e a*ro$ou, +ea*her, a da$l% a3erage o! 5, 511 *on, (5, 588 *onne,) arr$3ed.
)he Ao3$e*, l$!*ed *he blo-ade $n ?a%, bu* *he a$rl$!* on*$nued un*$l Aep*ember. :*, human o,* had
been hea3%I !l%$ng ond$*$on,, o!*en 3er% d$!!$ul*, +ere +or,ened b% Ao3$e* mo- a$r a**a-,; p$lo*,
+ere e@hau,*ed and du,* !rom oal, a ommon argo, +or-ed $*, +a% $n*o on*rol able,. Cra,he, and
a$den*, o,* *he l$3e, o! 71 a$rre+ a, +ell a, 7 German,. )he a$rl$!* +a, an $mpor*an* ,%mbol o!
+e,*ern re,ol3e and a *e,*$mon% *o *he de*erm$na*$on o! *he popula*$on o! /e,* ;erl$n *o re,$,* Ao3$e*
pre,,ure.
.o Ch$ ?$nh-(1891-1969), leader o! *he J$e*name,e ommun$,*, and o! *he $ndependene mo3emen*
$n *ha* oun*r% $n *he deade, !ollo+$ng // ::. .o +a, born 2gu%en )a* )hanh $n *he Annam
pro3$ne, and +a, edua*ed $n .u^. :n *he 1981, and 19(1, .o opera*ed $n *he mur-% under+orld o!
*he J$e*name,e $ndependene mo3emen*, and +a, a !ound$ng member o! *he Commun$,* 5ar*% $n
J$e*nam. <ur$ng // ::, .o and h$, ommun$,* group, +h$h $nluded *he m$l$*ar% leader Jo 2gu%en
G$ap, !ormed a ba,e near *he Ch$ne,e border and a*ed, +$*h Amer$an ,uppor*, aga$n,* *he Japane,e
oupa*$on !ore. .o al,o *oo- *he oppor*un$*% *o ,ol$d$!% *he po,$*$on o! *he ommun$,*, a, *he leader,
and dom$nan* !ore o! *he $ndependene mo3emen*, +h$h beame +$del% -no+n a, *he J$e*m$nh.
)he J$e*m$nh +a, able *o e@plo$* *he hao, +h$h de,ended upon J$e*nam a* *he end o! // :: *o
,e$6e po+er, and *he <emora*$ #epubl$ o! J$e*nam +a, prola$med b% .o on 8 Aep*ember 19&5.
.o+e3er, *he ,$*ua*$on +a, !ar !rom ,*able. Kuom$n*ang *roop, had !looded *he $*% le,, *han *+o
+ee-, be!ore, and *he "renh go3ernmen*, reen*l% re,*ored *o 5ar$,, +a, alread% ma-$ng plan, *o
rea,,er* on*rol. )he !rag$l$*% o! J$e*m$nh on*rol +a, 9u$-l% e@po,ed $n 19&5-6, and .o +a, !ored *o
re*urn *o *he ommun$,* ,*ronghold near *he Ch$ne,e border. )he !ollo+$ng e$gh* %ear, +$*ne,,ed a
monumen*al ,*ruggle on *he par* o! *he J$e*name,e, *o rea*e an arm% and a log$,*$al ne*+or- apable
o! de!ea*$ng *he "renh, and *o u,e *ha* !ore e!!e*$3el% aga$n,* *he "renh !ore, $n :ndoh$na. G$apB,
3$*or% a* <$en ;$en 5hu $n 195& del$3ered ,uh a 3$*or%, bu* .o +a, d$,appo$n*ed b% *he peae
on!erene +h$h !ollo+ed, and +h$h gran*ed *he J$e*m$nh on*rol o3er onl% 2or*h J$e*nam.
:n ,p$*e o! *h$, ,e*ba-, .o +a, prepared *o be pa*$en*. K:! +e ha3e *he people, L .o had one remar-ed,
K+e +$ll ha3e e3er%*h$ng.L :n *he %ear, !ollo+$ng <$en ;$en 5hu he ,e* up a ommun$,* ,*a*e appara*u,
$n *he nor*h, and allo+ed ommun$,*, $n *he ,ou*h *o ag$*a*e !or reun$!$a*$on o! *he oun*r%. /hen +ar
bro-e ou* aga$n $n *he earl% 1961, .o +a, alread% *oo $ll *o per!orm an a*$3e role, bu* rema$ned an
$n,p$ra*$on *o *ho,e !$gh*$ng *he Aou*h J$e*name,e and Amer$an !ore,. .e d$ed $n .ano$ ,$@ %ear,
be!ore *he un$!$a*$on o! J$e*nam under *he reg$me he had rea*ed.
A$no-Ao3$e* ;lo-+a, *he +or,en$ng o! pol$*$al and $deolog$al rela*$on, be*+een *he 5eopleB,
#epubl$ o! Ch$na (5#C) and *he =n$on o! Ao3$e* Ao$al$,* #epubl$, (=AA#) dur$ng *he Cold /ar. :n
*he 1961,, Ch$na and *he Ao3$e* =n$on +ere *he *+o large,* Commun$,* ,*a*e, $n *he +orld. )he
do*r$nal d$3ergene der$3ed !rom Ch$ne,e and #u,,$an na*$onal $n*ere,*,, and !rom *he r^g$me,B
re,pe*$3e $n*erpre*a*$on, o! ?ar@$,mI ?ao$,m and ?ar@$,m'Gen$n$,m.
:n *he 1951, and *he 1961,, $deolog$al deba*e be*+een *he Commun$,* par*$e, o! #u,,$a and Ch$na
al,o onerned *he po,,$b$l$*% o! peae!ul oe@$,*ene +$*h *he ap$*al$,* /e,*. Fe*, *o *he Ch$ne,e
publ$, ?ao >edong propo,ed a bell$geren* a**$*ude *o+ard, ap$*al$,* oun*r$e,, an $n$*$al re4e*$on o!
peae!ul oe@$,*ene, +h$h he pere$3ed a, ?ar@$,* re3$,$on$,m !rom *he Ao3$e* =n$on.
J$e*nam /ar-(195&75) 5ro*ra*ed on!l$* be*+een Aou*h J$e*nam (+$*h $*, pr$n$pal all%, *he =.A.) and
2or*h J$e*nam, $n +h$h Aou*h J$e*nam +a, !$gh*$ng *o pre3en* be$ng un$*ed +$*h 2or*h J$e*nam
under ommun$,* leader,h$p. A!*er *he "$r,* :ndoh$na /ar, J$e*nam +a, par*$*$oned *o ,epara*e *he
+arr$ng par*$e, un*$l !ree ele*$on, ould be held $n 1956. .o Ch$ ?$nhB, popularand ommun$,*-
,%mpa*h$6$ngJ$e* ?$nh par*% !rom *he 2or*h +a, e@pe*ed *o +$n *he ele*$on,, +h$h *he leader $n *he
Aou*h, 2go <$nh <$em, re!u,ed *o hold. :n *he +ar *ha* en,ued, !$gh*er, *ra$ned b% 2or*h J$e*nam (*he
J$e* Cong) !ough* a guerr$lla +ar aga$n,* =.A.-,uppor*ed Aou*h J$e*name,e !ore,; 2or*h J$e*name,e
!ore, la*er 4o$ned *he !$gh*$ng. A* *he he$gh* o! =.A. $n3ol3emen*, *here +ere more *han hal! a m$ll$on
=.A. m$l$*ar% per,onnel $n J$e*nam. )he )e* 7!!en,$3e o! 1968, $n +h$h *he J$e* Cong and 2or*h
J$e*name,e a**a-ed (6 o! && Aou*h J$e*name,e pro3$n$al ap$*al, and 6& d$,*r$* ap$*al,, mar-ed a
*urn$ng po$n* $n *he +ar. ?an% $n *he =.A. had ome *o oppo,e *he +ar on moral and pra*$al ground,,
and 5re,. G%ndon ;. John,on de$ded *o ,h$!* *o a pol$% o! de-e,ala*$on. 5eae *al-, +ere begun $n
5ar$,. ;e*+een 1969 and 197( =.A. *roop, +ere +$*hdra+n !rom J$e*nam, bu* *he +ar +a, e@panded *o
Cambod$a and Gao, $n 1971. 5eae *al-,, +h$h had reahed a ,*alema*e $n 1971, ,*ar*ed aga$n $n 197(,
produ$ng a ea,e-!$re agreemen*. "$gh*$ng on*$nued, and *here +ere numerou, *rue 3$ola*$on,. :n
1975 *he 2or*h J$e*name,e launhed a !ull-,ale $n3a,$on o! *he Aou*h. )he Aou*h ,urrendered la*er
*ha* %ear, and $n 1976 *he oun*r% +a, reun$*ed a, *he Ao$al$,* #epubl$ o! J$e*nam. ?ore *han
(,111,111 people ($nlud$ng 58,111 Amer$an,) d$ed o3er *he our,e o! *he +ar, more *han hal! o! *hem
$3$l$an,.
;$ll% Graham-(born 2o3. 7, 1918, Charlo**e, 2.C., =.A.) =.A. Chr$,*$an e3angel$,*. )he ,on o! a da$r%
!armer, he under+en* a on3er,$on e@per$ene a* age 16 dur$ng a re3$3al. A!*er a**end$ng ;ob Jone,
College and *he "lor$da ;$ble :n,*$*u*e, he +a, orda$ned a Aou*hern ;ap*$,* lerg%man $n 19&1. .e la*er
earned a degree $n an*hropolog% !rom /hea*on College. .e +on numerou, on3er*, +$*h h$, *en*
re3$3al, and rad$o broada,*,, and b% 1951 he had beome !undamen*al$,mB, lead$ng ,po-e,man. .e
led a ,er$e, o! +$del% *ele3$,ed $n*erna*$onal re3$3al ru,ade, *hrough *he ;$ll% Graham 03angel$,*$
A,,o$a*$on $n ?$nneapol$,, ?$nn., and he en4o%ed lo,e a,,o$a*$on, +$*h a ,er$e, o! =.A. pre,$den*,.
Graham and h$, +$!e, #u*h, +ere a+arded *he Congre,,$onal Gold ?edal $n 1996.
Aope, )r$al-(Jul% 1181, 1985) /$del% publ$$6ed *r$al (alled *he ?on-e% )r$al) $n <a%*on, )enn. John
). Aope, (191171), a h$gh-,hool *eaher, +a, harged +$*h *eah$ng Charle, <ar+$nB, *heor% o!
e3olu*$on, +h$h 3$ola*ed a ,*a*e la+ proh$b$*$ng *he *eah$ng o! an% do*r$ne *ha* den$ed *he d$3$ne
rea*$on o! human,. )he *r$al +a, broada,* l$3e on rad$o and a**ra*ed +orld+$de $n*ere,*. )he
pro,eu*or +a, /$ll$am Jenn$ng, ;r%an; *he de!en,e a**orne% +a, Clarene <arro+. )he 4udge l$m$*ed
argumen*, *o *he ba,$ harge *o a3o$d a *e,* o! *he la+B, on,*$*u*$onal$*% and a d$,u,,$on o! <ar+$nB,
*heor%. Aope, +a, !ound gu$l*% and !$ned h111; he +a, la*er a9u$**ed on *he *ehn$al$*% *ha* he had
been !$ned e@e,,$3el%. )he la+ +a, repealed $n 1967.
/$ll$am Jenn$ng, ;r%an-(born ?arh 19, 1861, Aalem, :ll., =.A.d$ed Jul% 86, 1985, <a%*on, )enn.)
=.A. pol$*$$an and ora*or. .e pra*$ed la+ a* Ja-,on3$lle, :ll. (188(87), be!ore mo3$ng *o G$noln,
2eb., +here he +a, ele*ed *o *he =.A. Congre,, $n 1891. :n *he =.A. .ou,e o! #epre,en*a*$3e,
(189195), he beame *he na*$onal leader o! *he "ree A$l3er ?o3emen*; he ad3oa*ed $*, a$m, $n h$,
Cro,, o! Gold ,peeh, +h$h +on h$m *he <emora*$ 5ar*% nom$na*$on !or pre,$den* $n 1896. .e +a,
*he par*%B, nom$nee aga$n $n 1911 and 1918. :n 1911 he !ounded a ne+,paper, )he Commoner, and
*herea!*er le*ured +$del% *o adm$r$ng aud$ene,; he +a, alled *he Grea* Commoner. .e helped ,eure
*he pre,$den*$al nom$na*$on !or /oodro+ /$l,on $n 1918 and ,er3ed a, h$, ,ere*ar% o! ,*a*e (191(15),
on*r$bu*$ng *o +orld la+ b% e,pou,$ng arb$*ra*$on *o pre3en* +ar. A bel$e3er $n a l$*eral $n*erpre*a*$on
o! *he ;$ble, he +a, a pro,eu*$ng a**orne% $n *he Aope, *r$al (1985), $n +h$h he deba*ed Clarene
<arro+ on *he $,,ue o! e3olu*$on; *he *r$al *oo- a hea3% *oll on h$, heal*h, and he d$ed ,oon a!*er $*
ended.
Fugo,la3 /ar,-+ere e*hn$ on!l$*, !ough* !rom 1991 *o 1999 on *he *err$*or% o! !ormer Fugo,la3$a.
)he +ar, aompan$ed *he brea-up o! *he oun*r%, +here $*, on,*$*uen* republ$, delared
$ndependene, bu* *he $,,ue, o! e*hn$ m$nor$*$e, $n *he ne+ oun*r$e, (h$e!l% Aerb, $n en*ral par*, and
Alban$an, $n *he ,ou*hea,*) +ere le!* unre,ol3ed a!*er *ho,e republ$, +ere reogn$6ed $n*erna*$onall%.
)he +ar, are generall% on,$dered *o be a ,er$e, o! largel% ,epara*e bu* rela*ed m$l$*ar% on!l$*,
ourr$ng and a!!e*$ng mo,* o! *he !ormer Fugo,la3 republ$,I
/$l,on$an$,m-are +ord, u,ed *o de,r$be a er*a$n *%pe o! $deolog$al per,pe*$3e, on !ore$gn pol$%.
)he *erm ome, !rom *he $deolog% o! =n$*ed A*a*e, 5re,$den* /oodro+ /$l,on and h$, !amou,
"our*een 5o$n*, *ha* he bel$e3ed +ould help rea*e +orld peae $! $mplemen*ed.
Long essay question
-For this section I will ask you a question about 19
th
century America, 1803-1893
The component parts of the question will include
-A brief background on America 1776-1!"# what leads up to the 1$
th
century%
-A combination focus on &anifest 'estiny# the (ars )11*# &e+ican-American# ,i-il.#
economics# culture# diplomacy/
-'iscuss post 1$" America# discuss the transition from frontier to imperialism/
-0e familiar# and prepared to use# the following terms1
2ouisiana 3urchase# (ar of 11*# &onroe 'octrine# 4acksonian America#
Te+as5anne+ation and (ar# sla-ery -s/# free soil# the secession crisis#
,i-il (ar# settlement of the (est# 6econstruction# Frederick 4ackson
Turner7s frontier thesis/
888-This is a long essay question so I am e+pecting a minimum of 9 pages# aim around
6-7/

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