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TI-Nspire CAS OS3 and Casio ClassPad version

Fourth edition
ESSENTIAL
PETER JONES
MICHAEL EVANS
KAY LIPSON
Further
Mathematics
ENHANCED
CAS calculator material prepared in collaboration with
Russell Brown
Kevin McMenamin
ISBN 978-1-107-65590-4
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Peter Jones, Michael Evans, Kay Lipson 2012 Cambridge University Press
Text
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C Peter Jones, Michael Evans, Kay Lipson 2012
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First published 1998
TI-N/CP version 2009
Fourth edition, Enhanced version 2012
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National Library of Australia Cataloguing in Publication data
Jones, Peter, 1943
Essential further mathematics TIN/CP version / Peter Jones, Michael Evans, Kay Lipson.
4th ed. enhanced.
9781107655904 (pbk.)
Essential mathematics.
For secondary school age.
Mathematics Problems, exercises, etc.
Mathematics Study and teaching (Secondary).
Lipson, Kay.
Evans, Michael (Michael Wyndham)
510
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ISBN 978-1-139-09677-5 Electronic version
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Contents
Acknowledgements xiv
About the authors xv
CORE
CHAPTER 1 Organising and displaying data 1
1.1 Classifying data 1
1.2 Organising and displaying categorical data 3
1.3 Organising and displaying numerical data 8
1.4 What to look for in a histogram 20
1.5 Stem-and-leaf plots and dot plots 26
Key ideas and chapter summary 34
Skills check 35
Multiple-choice questions 35
Extended-response questions 37
CHAPTER 2 Summarising numerical data: the
median, range, IQR and box plots 40
2.1 Will less than the whole picture do? 40
2.2 The median, range and interquartile range
(IQR) 41
2.3 The five-number summary and the box plot 45
2.4 Relating a box plot to distribution shape 52
2.5 Interpreting box plots: describing and
comparing distributions 54
Key ideas and chapter summary 57
Skills check 58
Multiple-choice questions 59
Extended-response questions 60
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iv Contents
CHAPTER 3 Summarising numerical data: the mean and
the standard deviation 63
3.1 The mean 63
3.2 Measuring the spread around the mean:
the standard deviation 67
3.3 The normal distribution and the 689599.7% rule:
giving meaning to the standard deviation 73
3.4 Standard scores 79
3.5 Populations and samples 82
Key ideas and chapter summary 88
Skills check 90
Multiple-choice questions 91
Extended-response questions 93
CHAPTER 4 Displaying and describing relationships
between two variables 95
4.1 Investigating the relationship between two
categorical variables 95
4.2 Using a segmented bar chart to identify
relationships in tabulated data 99
4.3 Investigating the relationship between a numerical
and a categorical variable 102
4.4 Investigating the relationship between two
numerical variables 104
4.5 How to interpret a scatterplot 107
4.6 Calculating Pearsons correlation
coefficient, r 112
4.7 The coefficient of determination 118
4.8 Correlation and causality 121
4.9 Which graph? 122
Key ideas and chapter summary 123
Skills check 124
Multiple-choice questions 125
Extended-response questions 128
CHAPTER 5 Regression: fitting lines to data 131
5.1 Least squares regression line: the theory 131
5.2 Calculating the equation of the least squares
regression line 133
5.3 Performing a regression analysis 140
5.4 A graphical approach to regression: the three
median line 153
5.5 Extrapolation and interpolation 157
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Contents v
Key ideas and chapter summary 159
Skills check 160
Multiple-choice questions 160
Extended-response questions 162
CHAPTER 6 Data transformation 166
6.1 Data transformation 166
6.2 Transforming the x-axis 169
6.3 Transforming the y-axis 183
6.4 Choosing and applying the appropriate
transformation 190
Key ideas and chapter summary 197
Skills check 197
Multiple-choice questions 197
Extended-response questions 200
CHAPTER 7 Time series 204
7.1 Time series data 204
7.2 Smoothing a time series plot (moving
means) 212
7.3 Smoothing a time series plot (moving
medians) 217
7.4 Seasonal indices 222
7.5 Fitting a trend line and forecasting 229
Key ideas and chapter summary 235
Skills check 236
Multiple-choice questions 237
Extended-response questions 239
CHAPTER 8 Revision of the Core 241
8.1 Displaying, summarising and describing
univariate data 241
8.2 Displaying, summarising and describing
relationships in bivariate data 245
8.3 Regression and data transformation 247
8.4 Time series 251
8.5 Extended-response questions 255
MODULE 1 Number patterns and
applications
CHAPTER 9 Arithmetic and geometric
sequences 261
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vi Contents
9.1 Sequences 261
9.2 Arithmetic sequences 262
9.3 The nth term of an arithmetic sequence
and its applications 266
9.4 The sum of an arithmetic sequence
and its applications 276
9.5 Geometric sequences 283
9.6 The nth term of a geometric
sequence 287
9.7 Applications modelled by geometric
sequences 291
9.8 The sum of the terms in a geometric
sequence 296
9.9 The sum of an infinite geometric sequence 299
9.10 Rates of growth of arithmetic and geometric
sequences 304
Key ideas and chapter summary 309
Skills check 310
Multiple-choice questions 311
Extended-response questions 312
CHAPTER 10 Difference equations 314
10.1 Introduction 314
10.2 The relationship between arithmetic and geometric
sequences and difference equations 322
10.3 First-order difference equations 324
10.4 Solving first-order difference equations that
generate arithmetic sequences 326
10.5 Solving difference equations that generate
geometric sequences 327
10.6 Solution of general first-order difference equations
(optional) 329
10.7 Summary of first-order difference equations 330
10.8 Applications of first-order difference
equations 331
10.9 The Fibonacci sequence 340
Key ideas and chapter summary 347
Skills check 348
Multiple-choice questions 348
Extended-response questions 350
CHAPTER 11 Revision: Number patterns and
applications 352
11.1 Multiple-choice questions 352
11.2 Extended-response questions 357
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Contents vii
MODULE 2 Geometry and trigonometry
CHAPTER 12 Geometry 362
12.1 Properties of parallel lines: a review 362
12.2 Properties of triangles: a review 364
12.3 Properties of regular polygons: a review 366
12.4 Pythagoras theorem 369
12.5 Similar figures 373
12.6 Volumes and surface areas 377
12.7 Areas, volumes and similarity 384
Key ideas and chapter summary 389
Skills check 391
Multiple-choice questions 392
CHAPTER 13 Trigonometry 394
13.1 Defining sine, cosine and tangent 394
13.2 The sine rule 399
13.3 The cosine rule 403
13.4 Area of a triangle 406
Key ideas and chapter summary 408
Skills check 409
Multiple-choice questions 410
CHAPTER 14 Applications of geometry and
trigonometry 412
14.1 Angles of elevation and depression, bearings, and
triangulation 412
14.2 Problems in three dimensions 419
14.3 Contour maps 423
Key ideas and chapter summary 426
Skills check 426
Multiple-choice questions 426
Extended-response questions 428
CHAPTER 15 Revision: Geometry and
trigonometry 433
15.1 Multiple-choice questions 433
15.2 Extended-response questions 440
ISBN: 9781107655904 Peter Jones, Michael Evans, Kay Lipson 2012 Cambridge University Press
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viii Contents
MODULE 3 Graphs and relations
CHAPTER 16 Constructing and interpreting linear
graphs 443
16.1 The gradient of a straight line 443
16.2 The general equation of a straight line 445
16.3 Finding the equation of a straight line 447
16.4 Equation of a straight line in intercept form 451
16.5 Linear models 452
16.6 Simultaneous equations 454
16.7 Problems involving simultaneous linear
equations 458
16.8 Break-even analysis 460
Key ideas and chapter summary 462
Skills check 463
Multiple-choice questions 463
Extended-response question 466
CHAPTER 17 Graphs 467
17.1 Line segment graphs 467
17.2 Step graphs 470
17.3 Non-linear graphs 472
17.4 Relations of the form y = kx
n
for
n = 1, 2, 3, 1, 2 474
17.5 Linear representation of non-linear relations 477
Key ideas and chapter summary 484
Skills check 485
Multiple-choice questions 485
Extended-response questions 489
CHAPTER 18 Linear programming 490
18.1 Regions defined by an inequality 490
18.2 Regions defined by two inequalities 492
18.3 Feasible regions 494
18.4 Objective functions 495
Key ideas and chapter summary 505
Skills check 506
Multiple-choice questions 507
Extended-response questions 509
CHAPTER 19 Revision: Graphs and relations 512
19.1 Multiple-choice questions 512
19.2 Extended-response questions 516
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Contents ix
MODULE 4 Business-related mathematics
CHAPTER 20 Principles of financial mathematics 523
20.1 Percentage change 523
20.2 Simple interest 528
20.3 Compound interest 536
20.4 Reducing balance loans 548
Key ideas and chapter summary 550
Skills check 551
Multiple-choice questions 551
Extended-response questions 553
CHAPTER 21 Applications of financial
mathematics 555
21.1 Percentage changes and charges 555
21.2 Bank account balances 560
21.3 Time payments (Hire purchase) 563
21.4 Inflation 569
21.5 Depreciation 573
21.6 Applications of finance solvers 584
Key ideas and chapter summary 599
Skills check 601
Multiple-choice questions 602
Extended-response questions 604
CHAPTER 22 Revision: Business-related
mathematics 608
22.1 Multiple-choice questions 608
22.2 Extended-response questions 612
MODULE 5 Networks and decision
mathematics
CHAPTER 23 Undirected graphs 616
23.1 Introduction and definitions 616
23.2 Planar graphs and Eulers formula 621
23.3 Complete graphs 624
23.4 Euler and Hamilton paths 625
23.5 Weighted graphs 628
Key ideas and chapter summary 632
Skills check 634
Multiple-choice questions 634
Extended-response questions 638
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x Contents
CHAPTER 24 Directed graphs 641
24.1 Introduction, reachability and dominance 641
24.2 Network flows 647
24.3 The critical path problem 651
24.4 Allocation problems 658
Key ideas and chapter summary 664
Skills check 665
Multiple-choice questions 665
Extended-response questions 669
CHAPTER 25 Revision: Networks and decision
mathematics 673
25.1 Multiple-choice questions 673
25.2 Extended-response questions 679
MODULE 6 Matrices and applications
CHAPTER 26 Matrices and applications I 692
26.1 What is a matrix? 692
26.2 Using matrices to represent information 698
26.3 Matrix arithmetic: addition, subtraction and scalar
multiplication 701
26.4 Matrix arithmetic: the product of two
matrices 708
Key ideas and chapter summary 717
Skills check 719
Multiple-choice questions 719
Extended-response questions 722
CHAPTER 27 Matrices and applications II 724
27.1 The inverse matrix 724
27.2 Applications of the inverse matrix:
solving simultaneous linear equations 731
27.3 Matrix powers 739
27.4 Transition matrices and their applications 741
Key ideas and chapter summary 756
Skills check 758
Multiple-choice questions 758
Extended-response questions 762
ISBN: 9781107655904 Peter Jones, Michael Evans, Kay Lipson 2012 Cambridge University Press
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Contents xi
CHAPTER 28 Revision: Matrices and
applications 765
28.1 Multiple-choice questions 765
28.2 Extended-response questions 771
Glossary 778
Appendix: TI-Nspire CAS 788
Appendix: ClassPad 798
Answers 801
ISBN: 9781107655904 Peter Jones, Michael Evans, Kay Lipson 2012 Cambridge University Press
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Acknowledgements
Cambridge University Press and the authors would like to acknowledge all the reviewers who
provided invaluable feedback throughout the development of this text. In particular we would
like to thank Cathy Ashworth (Sandringham Secondary College), Anthony Gale (Catholic
Regional College, Sydenham), Tim Grant (St Bernards College, Essendon), David Greenwood
(Trinity Grammar School, Kew), Fran Petrie (Melbourne High School), Paul Rice
(St Bernards College, Essendon), Inna Smith (St Michaels Grammar School, St Kilda), Kyle
Staggard (Bendigo Senior Secondary College), Rob Vermay (St Pauls Anglican Grammar
School), Leah Whifn (Bendigo Senior Secondary College) and Joe Wilson (Wesley College).
We also acknowledge the work of James Wan and James Hillis who checked all of the answers
in this book.
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ISBN: 9781107655904 Peter Jones, Michael Evans, Kay Lipson 2012 Cambridge University Press
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About the authors
Peter Jones
Peter Jones has been an active supporter of school mathematics over many years. Peter is a
highly experienced writer of mathematical texts and he is the lead author on two of the
Essential VCE Mathematics textbooks. His area of expertise is applied statistics.
Michael Evans
Michael Evans gained a wealth of experience while he was Head of Mathematics at Scotch
College. He is now employed at the Australian Mathematics Sciences Institute (AMSI), and is
heavily involved in curriculum development both at the Victorian and national levels. Michael
is an experienced writer of mathematical texts and he is lead author on a number of the texts in
the Essential VCE Mathematics series.
Kay Lipson
Kay Lipsons experience involves teaching mathematics and statistics at both the secondary
and tertiary levels, as well as extensive periods as a VCE examiner. At the time of publication
she was the Academic Dean for Swinburne University Online.
ISBN: 9781107655904 Peter Jones, Michael Evans, Kay Lipson 2012 Cambridge University Press
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ISBN: 9781107655904 Peter Jones, Michael Evans, Kay Lipson 2012 Cambridge University Press
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