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Copyright 1999, Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.

This paper was prepared for presentation at the 1999 SPE Mid-Continent Operations
Symposium held in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, 2831 March 1999.
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Abstract
This work presents a numerical algorithm that permits the
production optimization of gas wells using the concept of
dynamic nodal analysis. By combining the desirable features
of nodal analysis, material balance technique and decline curve
analysis, the method is able to match the historical
performance of the well data. It is also able to predict the
future performance of the gas well under the existing condition
as well as altered conditions. The proposed technique, which
has several advantages over the classical nodal analysis, can be
used for the selection of the timing and capacity of surface
compressor, the evaluation of the economic viability of a well
stimulation, and the understanding of the effect of individual
production component on the productivity of a gas well over
the life of that well.
Introduction
The production optimization of a gas well requires an
appropriate selection of the individual components in the
production system. Currently nodal analysis is used to
accomplish this task. Nodal analysis involves calculating the
pressure drop in individual components within the production
system so that pressure value at a given node in the production
system (e.g., bottom hole pressure) can be calculated from
both ends (separator and reservoir) [See Figure 1]. The rate at
which pressure is calculated at the node from both ends must
be the same
1,2,3
. This is the rate at which the well produces.
Once the rate under existing conditions is obtained, by
adjusting individual components, the sensitivity of individual
components on the overall production can be investigated;
Hence an optimum selection of components can be obtained at
a given time. The major drawback of the conventional nodal
analysis is that it only provides the user with a snapshot picture
of the well production. It does not provide any information as
to how the production will change as a function of time. For
example, if tubing size is changed, the nodal analysis may
provide the best tubing size at present time; however, it may
not be able to indicate which tubing size is the best over the
life of the well based on the future production. Even
generating future inflow performance curves (which
characterize how the reservoir will behave in the future at
discrete times) may not help since we will not be able to
estimate how the rate has changed over the time intervals.
To include the effect of time on the production
performance, the most commonly used technique is the decline
curve analysis. Decline curve analysis involves matching the
prior production data using one of the decline types
(exponential, hyperbolic or harmonic), and using the estimated
decline parameters, predicting the future performance under
existing conditions. Decline curve analysis is a very powerful
tool, and has been used extensively to predict the future
performance by ignoring the effects of tubing size, choke,
surface pipeline or other components in the production system.
In addition, although it is true that decline curve analysis can
predict the future performance under existing conditions, it
may not predict how the well will behave in future if the
production conditions are altered. These alterations include,
for example, changing skin factor, changing choke size, or
changing the surface compressor.
Conventional material balance technique which uses
diagnostic plots have also been proven to be useful in
understanding the behavior of the gas wells. These plots, for
example, include P/Z (reservoir pressure over compressibility
factor) versus gas production to predict how much gas the well
will eventually produce. These techniques can also account
for, through a trial and error procedure, the presence of water
influx. The drawback of the material balance technique is that
it does not account for time. It can predict the production as a
function of reservoir pressure, but not as a function of time.
Further, it only accounts for reservoir component, and not for
any other component of the production system. The effect of
alterations on the gas well performance cannot be predicted
using the material balance technique. The inclusion of time in
terms of predicting the future performance is critical from
SPE 52170
Gas Well Production Optimization Using Dynamic Nodal Analysis
A.B. Bitsindou, SPE, and M.G. Kelkar, SPE, The University of Tulsa
2 ARSENE B. BITSINDOU, M.G. KELKAR SPE 52170
economic point of view. This cannot be accomplished using
this technique.
To overcome the drawbacks presented in the above
methods, we need a technique which can:
Predict the future performance as a function of time in the
presence of various production components including the
reservoir.
Match the prior production data in the presence of various
production components so that the appropriate parameters
can be assigned for future production prediction. This is
similar to decline curve analysis except that we need to
include the production components in the system.
Quantify the uncertainties with respect to various
parameters ( e.g., reservoir permeability, skin factor,
tubing roughness, drainage area, the type of pressure drop
correlation) by generating alternate possibilities of
parameters which can match the production data.
Predict the future performance under existing conditions
as well as altered conditions to compare the production
scenarios in the future.
Quantify the uncertainty in predicting the future
performance which can be combined with the price of gas
to conduct a risk analysis.
Optimize the producing well configuration so that the net
profit over the life of the well is maximized.
The system considered in this work is shown in Figure 1. It
represents a single well producing from a gas reservoir up to
the separator. This system is divided into the following
completion and piping components:
reservoir
perforations
gravel pack
tubing
bottom hole device
subsurface safety valve (SSSV)
well head choke
surface pipeline
separator
Approach
This section explains the procedure used to combine the
important elements of the decline curve analysis, nodal
analysis and material balance technique.
Assumptions. The major assumptions made with respect to
the flow of gas in the reservoir and the piping system are:
The production system operates under pseudo-steady state
conditions. The well is flowing at a steady flow rate for a
fixed average reservoir pressure and separator pressure.
This implies that the gas well produces with a fixed
liquid/gas ratio.
The drainage mechanism of the reservoir is assumed to be
natural depletion mechanism.
The production exhibits a certain type of decline during
the period of time considered in the history match
computations. That decline can be exponential, hyperbolic
or harmonic according to the behavior of the reservoir
under consideration. This behavior is assessed by using
the decline curve analysis theory and the Fetkovich type
curve
4,5
.
For wet gas reservoir, it is assumed that the reservoir
pressure is above the dew point pressure. This assumption
implies that the flow is single-phase gas in the reservoir.
The well head pressure is reasonably constant throughout
the period of time considered for the history match.
Other limitations involved in this work depend on the type of
correlation selected to compute the pressure losses across the
individual component in the system.
History Match. The procedure used to compute the history
match is summarized in the following steps:
1. Assume that the production history is known. Thus, for
each observed production time T
obs1,
T
obs2,
, T
obs j
,,
T
obs n
,

the corresponding observed rate Q
obs1
, Q
obs2
, ,
Q
obsj,
, Q
obsn
is known.
2. Assume that at time T
j
the following data are known:
fluid properties as a function of pressure and
temperature
The type of decline (harmonic, hyperbolic or
exponential) as well as the rate of decline. If type
is not known, assume exponential decline.
The pressure drop correlations as a function of
rate for each Q.
3. The gas in place at this time T
j
is computed as:

G
V S
B
j
b g
gj

* *
(1)
where
V
b
= reservoir bulk volume
reservoir porosity
S
g
= gas saturation
B
gj
= gas formation volume factor at pressure P
j
4. Calculate the rate Q
j
at which the well will produce at P
j
.
This is done by using the nodal analysis technique. As
stated earlier, in this study the node is chosen at the
bottom hole. The nodal analysis technique is explained in
ref. 1, 2, 3.
SPE 52170 GAS WELL PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION USING DYNAMIC NODAL ANALYSIS 3
5. Assume a small decrement in reservoir pressure P
j
. The
new reservoir pressure is then P
j+1
= P
j
- P
j
. At this
reservoir pressure , calculate the new gas in place

1
* *
1
+

+
j
g
g b
j
B
S V
G

(2)
The total amount of gas produced when the reservoir
pressure decreases from P
j
to P
j+1
is:

1 +

j j
G G G (3)
6. Calculate the rate Q
j+1
at which the well will produce
under the present reservoir pressure P
j+1
. This is done by
nodal analysis.

7. Knowing the total amount of gas produced (G) and the
gas flow rate Q
j
and Q
j+1
at reservoir pressures P
j
and P
j+1
,
we can calculate the elapsed time T required to reach
that production
For exponential decline:

1
ln
1
+

j
j
Q
Q
D
T
(4)

1
1 1
+
+ +

j j
j j j j
G G
Q Q
G
Q Q
D
For harmonic decline:

[ ]
1
1
1
+
+


j
j j
Q
Q Q
D
T
(5)

1
ln
+

j
j j
Q
Q
G
Q
D
For hyperbolic decline:

1
1
]
1

,
_

+
b
j
j
Q
Q
D b
T
1
1 *
*
1
(6)

1
1
]
1

,
_

+
b
j
j j
Q
Q
G b
Q
D
1
1
1 *
* ) 1 (
The total calculated time when the reservoir pressure is P
j+1
can be calculated as:
T T T
j j
+
+1
8. Repeat the process from step 4 to step 7 until the total
calculated time is greater or equal to the observed
production time.

9. At this point, we have the model predicted timesT
1
, T
2
,
, T
j
, T
j+k
, and the corresponding rates:Q
1
, Q
2
, ,
Q
j
, , Q
j+k
, For each observed time T
obs j
, we calculate
the corresponding predicted rate Q
j
by interpolating the
model predicted rates. At this point, we check how the
calculated flow rate Q
j
compares with the historical
observed production rate Q
obs j
at the same time.
10. If the difference between the predicted and observed rates
is significant, a regression technique is used to adjust
some of the parameters and the procedure is repeated
(steps 3 - 9). The process terminates when a desirable
match between predicted and observed rates is achieved.
The regression analysis technique is discussed below:
Regression Analysis. The basic objective of using the non-
linear regression in this problem is to determine the optimum
set, , of reservoir/completion parameters such that the
observed data match as closely as possible to the calculated
data from the model.
In this study, the parameters on which the regression is
performed consist of any set of three variables chosen among
the following parameters: permeability, skin, radius of
drainage, pay, perforated interval, radius of perforations,
diameter of perforations, porosity, water saturation, and
density of perforations. For example, one can choose a set
such that parameters ={permeability, skin, radius of drainage}.
In this case the regression calculations will be performed on
the following variables: permeability, skin and radius of
drainage.
In this study, the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm
6,7
, has
been used. This algorithm has been selected because it does
not require to provide the derivatives of the functions to
minimize.
An obvious choice of objective function to minimize is the
difference between observed and predicted rates. However,
such choice will be sensitive to outlier data. Considering that
the observed rates fluctuate significantly, it is better to choose
an objective function which is more resistant to the outlier
data. In our work, we used a correlation coefficient between
observed rate and predicted rate as one of the matching
functions, and we also used a plot between observed and
predicted rates to have a slope of one, and the intercept of
zero. If average reservoir pressure data were available, we also
make sure that it matches with predicted average reservoir
pressures.
The Levenberg Marquardt algorithm
6,7
that we use is
unconstrained: i.e., variables can be chosen to minimize the
objective function with value between infinite. Obviously,
for our problem, we need to ensure that the values of the
variables lie in the predefined interval of uncertainty and that
these values are meaningful. For example we may want the
regressed permeability value to be between K
max
and K
min
. In
order to keep the values of the regression variables in certain
4 ARSENE B. BITSINDOU, M.G. KELKAR SPE 52170
predefined intervals, the imaging extension
6,7
procedure is
used.
Future Performance Prediction
1. The future performance of the well under the existing
conditions as well as under altered conditions can be
calculated. The procedure is the same as described from
step 2 to step 8 in the History Matching section. Repeat
the steps till an abandonment rate is reached.
2. Consider different scenarios for variations in production
procedures. These include, for example, changing the
number of perforations, stimulating the well, fracturing
the well, installing the compressor at the surface.
3. Predict the future performance under the new operating
conditions using the same procedure as explained in Step
1.
4. Repeat Step 3 for alternate combinations of input
parameters to quantify uncertainties in the prediction of
future performance.
5. Compare the performance under the new scenario with the
base case to calculate the incremental gas production as a
function of time.
6. Repeat step 5 for different input configuration.
7. Use information generated in step 5 and step 6 to study
the economic feasibility of making the changes in the
production configuration.
Results
This section presents the results obtained by applying the
dynamic nodal analysis technique to several production
systems. Those production systems include synthetic data as
well as actual field data. These results validate the dynamic
nodal analysis technique.
Synthetic Data
These synthetic data have been generated using the results
from a simulation of an actual field well. They represent a gas
condensate well which was open to production for five years.
The characteristics of the reservoir as well as the description of
the completion are summarized in Table 1.
History Match. The computer program was run with the
regression parameters selected to be radius of drainage, skin
and permeability. The result of the history match is shown in
Figure 2 and Table 2. As it can be seen, the predicted rate
matches very well with the observed data. Also, the predicted
reservoir pressure matches very well with the observed data
3
.
Several runs of the program were conducted in order to
assess the sensitivity of the history match with respect to errors
in the input historical production data. The results of these
run are shown in Figure 3. Again, the predicted rate matches
very well with the observed data. Also, the predicted reservoir
pressure matches very well with the observed data
3
.
Future Performance Simulations.
Future Performance Simulations for Different Skin Values.
In order to simulate the effect of a stimulation job (acidizing,
fracturation,..) on the performance of the well, the program has
been run with different skin factors. The skin of 116.5, 50 and
0.0 has been used in the forecast computations. The results of
this sensitivity analysis are shown in Figure 4.
The improvement of the well performance as the skin factor is
reduced is clearly displayed on the graph. The forecast
performance declines faster as the skin is lower. For example
the decline rate corresponding to skin 0.0 is greater than the
one corresponding to skin 116.5. This is due to the fact that the
removal of the skin does not increase the reserves, but
accelerates the gas recovery.
Field case
Case #1: Dry Gas Well Producing at a Constant Well
Head Pressure. This field case represents a dry gas well, open
to production since 1989. It has been produced at a constant
well head pressure. The initial reservoir pressure is estimated
to be 2083 psia.
History Match. The computer program was run with the
regression parameters selected to be radius of drainage, skin
and permeability. The results of the history match are shown in
Figure 5 and Figure 6. An excellent production history match
is obtained. The reservoir pressure history match is also in
very good agreement with the observed field data. The
calculated values of the regressed parameters as well as the
observed values based on well test of those parameters are
shown in Table 3. The skin exhibits a good agreement
between the observed value and the calculated value from well
test. The permeability and radius of drainage calculated from
the program are higher than the corresponding observed
values. This may be due to the fact that the actual reservoir
drive mechanism may not be exactly natural depletion. Some
other mechanism such as compaction drive may contribute to
the actual reservoir mechanism. The change in rate observed at
time 750 days is simply due to a well head pressure
perturbation that was very limited in time.
Future Performance Prediction Using Different Well Head
Pressure Values. Different runs of the program were
conducted at various well head pressures to simulate the effect
of the installation of a compressor on the future performance
of the producing system. Well head pressure values of 870
psia, 700 psia, 500 psia, 300 psia, and 100 psia were used in
the forecast computations. The well was producing at a well
head pressure of 870 psia. The results of these simulations are
shown in Figure 7. As can be seen, the well performance
improves as the well head pressure decreases. However the
increase in flow rate is not linearly related to the decrease in
the well head pressure. For example, the gain in flow rate
obtained from reducing the well head pressure from 870 psia
SPE 52170 GAS WELL PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION USING DYNAMIC NODAL ANALYSIS 5
to 700 psia is about 2400 Mscf/D, whereas the increase in the
well performance is only 500 Mscf/D when the well head
pressure is reduced from 300 to 100 psia. This sensitivity
analysis is useful to the engineer in the process of deciding
whether or not to install a compressor and under what
optimum conditions it can be operated.
Future Performance Prediction for Different Density of
Perforation. In order to assess the sensitivity of the density of
perforations on the well performance, the program was run
with different values of perforation densities. Perforation
densities of 4 spf, 8 spf and 12 spf are used in the forecast
computations. The overbalanced perforation mode is used. The
well is actually perforated overbalanced with a perforation
density of 4 spf. The results of the simulations are summarized
in Figure 8. As can be seen, the well performance improves
slightly as the perforation density increases. However the gain
in flow rate remains marginal compared to those obtained by
reducing the well head pressure (by installing a compressor for
example).
Case #2: Conversion of the Original Data from Constant
Flow Rate to Constant Well Head Pressure. This field case
represents a condensate gas production system. The well, open
to production since 1989, exhibits a very high condensate yield
of 145 BBL/MMscf. The initial reservoir pressure is 5011
psia. The PVT analysis estimates the dew point pressure at
5025 psia. The decline curve analysis indicates that the well
produces with exponential decline.
In order to use the computer program presented in this
work, it is required that the well head pressure be reasonably
constant during the period of time considered in the history
match computations. Case #2 does not satisfy this requirement
as it is producing with constant rate but not with constant well
head pressure. For this well, the data were converted from
constant rate to equivalent constant well head pressure. The
conversion equation used is the following:
[ ]
[ ]
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
WF R
WF R
P P
P P
Q
Q

(7)
Q
1
is the actual constant flow rate corresponding to the
flowing bottom hole pressure P
wf1
. Since Q
1
and P
wf1
are
known, the flow rate Q
2
can be computed by assuming a fixed
value of the corresponding bottom hole pressure P
wf2
.
This conversion technique works well if the total reservoir
pressure decline is small during the time period considered for
history match calculations, and the reservoir is producing
under pseudo-steady state conditions.
History Match. The computer program was run with the
regression parameters selected to be radius of drainage, skin
and permeability. The results obtained are presented in
Figure 9 and Figure 10. An excellent production history
match is obtained. The reservoir pressure history match is also
very good.
The calculated values of the regressed parameters as well
as the estimated values (from well test) of those parameters are
shown in Table 4.
The regressed value of the permeability agrees with the
value obtained from well test. The predicted radius of drainage
is greater than the observed drainage radius. This is probably
due to the fact that the computer program uses volumetric
drive mechanism and it has been documented that the reservoir
drive mechanism for case #2 is not volumetric
3
.
Future Performance Prediction Using Different Perforated
Interval Values. In order to assess the sensitivity of the well
performance with respect to the perforated interval, the
program is run with different values of perforated interval.
Perforated interval values of 17 ft and 64 ft are used in the
forecast computations. The actual perforated interval of the
well is 17 ft. The results of the simulations are summarized in
Figure 11.
As it can be seen, the well performance increases as the
perforated interval increases.
Future Performance Prediction Using Different Tubing
Inside Diameter Values. Different runs of the program were
conducted with various tubing inside diameter values in order
to simulate the effect of the recompletion of the well with
different tubing size. Tubing inside diameter values of 1.995,
1.049 and 2.441 have been used in the forecast
computations. The results of these simulations are shown in
Figure 12. As can be seen, the well production life is extended
as the tubing size is reduced. For example for tubing sizes of
1.995 and 2.441, the well dies respectively after 2184 days
and 8544 days of production for liquid loading. However the
life of the well is extended well beyond 12000 days when it is
completed with a tubing of 1.049 inside diameter.
Conclusions
Dynamic nodal analysis technique allows to perform sensitivity
analysis of future performance for gas wells once a satisfactory
match of the past production performance is obtained. The major
contribution of this work is that it provides a tool to analyze the
well performance changes as a function of time when the
production parameters are altered. The classic nodal analysis can
only be used if the production parameters remained unchanged.
The dynamic nodal analysis provides valuable means to help the
engineer in decisions making. Opening a gas well to production
always involves considerable expenses whereas a model can be
run many times at lower cost to try many different possible
scenarios in order to make technical and economical decisions.
It should be noted that the prediction of the future performance
based on history match of well performance is not unique. There
are many other sets of system parameters that can match the past
performance of the well. There is always some uncertainty
associated to the model used to arrive at a satisfactory historical
performance match. Based upon the history match results, the
engineer can obtain a range of future performances, and hence
can make a decision in light of uncertainties.
6 ARSENE B. BITSINDOU, M.G. KELKAR SPE 52170
The computer program presented in this paper is capable of
history matching the production data as well as predicting the
future performance under different scenarios. The program has
been validated with the help of both synthetic and field data. The
program provides a logical improvement to conventional nodal
analysis.
Nomenclature
b = decline exponent for hyperbolic decline behavior.
B
g
= gas formation volume factor, cf/scf
= reservoir porosity
G = gas in place, Mscf
G = gas in place decrease, Mscf
P = pressure, psia.
P = pressure drop, psia
Q = gas flow rate, Mscf/D
Q
obs
= observed flow rate, Mscf/D
S
g
= gas saturation, fraction
T = temperature, R
T
obs
= Observed production Time, days
T = elapsed time, days
V
b
= reservoir bulk volume, Mscf
set of 3 independent regression variables
Subscript
g = gas
R = reservoir
WF = at bottom hole in well flowing conditions
Acknowledgement
The authors thank the University of Tulsa for provinding the
computer facilities used to conduct this study. They also express
their gratitude to Dr Leslie G. Thompson of the University of
Tulsa, and Stuart Cox of Marathon Oil Co. for their comments
and suggestions. They are also grateful to Marathon Oil Co. for
providing the field data used during the test of the computer
program.
References
1. Brown, K.E. et al.: The technology of artificial lift methods,
Pennwell Publishing Company, Tulsa, OK (1984), volume 4.
2. Perez, G. and Kelkar, B.G.: A Simplified Method to Predict
Over-all Production Performance, Journal of Canadian Petroleum
Technology, January-February, 1990, Volume 29, No. 1.
3. Bitsindou, A.: Gas Well Production Optimization Using Dynamic
Nodal Analysis, M.S. thesis, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK
(1998).
4. Fetkovich, M.J., Fetkovich, E.J. and Fetkovich, M.D.: Useful
Concepts for Decline-Curve Forecasting, Reserve Estimation, and
Analysis, paper SPE 28628 presented at the 1994 SPE Annual
Technical Conference and exhibition, New Orleans, Sept. 25-28.
5. Fetkovich, M.J.: Decline Curve Analysis Using Type Curves,
JPT, June 1980, 1065-1077.
6. Carvalho, R. Thompson, L.G., Redner, R. and Reynolds, A.C.:
Simple Procedure for Imposing Constraints for Nonlinear Least
Square Optimization, paper SPE 29582.
7. Carvalho, R.: Nonlinear Regression: Application to Well Test
Analysis, PhD Dissertation, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK
(1993).
Table 1-SYNTHETIC DATA: INPUT PARARMETERS
Type of decline = exponential
Pressure decrement [psia] = 50
Optimization tolerance = 0.000001
Reservoir
Initial pressure [psia] = 5011
Initial temperature [F] = 212
Pay [ft] = 64.5
Skin = 116.5
Drainage radius [ft] = 9108
Permeability [md] = 11
Porosity [fraction] = 0.06
Water saturation [fraction] = 0.533
Fluid properties
Specific gravity of produced gas = 0.646
Oil density [API] = 51.1
Specific gravity of produced water = 1.0
Completion
Hole diameter [in] = 8.496
Casing diameter [in] = 5
Perforated interval [ft] = 17
Perforation diameter [in] = 0.36
Perforation tunnel length [in] = 12.33
Perforation density [SPF] = 4
Mode of perforation = overbalance
Tubing inside diameter [in] = 1.945
Tubing roughness [ft] = 0.00015
Tubing length [ft] = 8688.0
Hole inclination angle [degree] = 90
Pressure drop correlation: Beggs and Brill
Production
Oil/Gas ratio, [SBBLO/MMscf] = 145.0
Water/Gas ratio, [SBBLW/MMscf] = 0.0
Well head pressure, [psia] = 2250.0
Well head temperature, [F] = 111.0
Reference separator pressure, [psia] = 14.7
Reference separator temperature, [deg F] = 60.0
Limits of regression parameters
KMIN [md] = 0.0 KMAX [md] = 100.0
SMIN = -5.0 SMAX = 175.0
reMIN [ft] = 2500.0 reMAX [ft] = 10000.0
SPE 52170 GAS WELL PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION USING DYNAMIC NODAL ANALYSIS 7
TABLE 2-HISTORY MATCH FOR SYNTHETIC DATA
Regression
parameters
Calculated
value
Initial
value
Comment
Permeability [md] 11.05 10.8 From well test
Skin 116.45 101 From well test
Drainage radius [ft] 9107.8 2500.0 Estimated
TABLE 3-HISTORY MATCH FOR CASE #1
Regression
parameters
Calculated
value
Initial
value
Comment
Permeability [md] 32.9 24 From well test
Skin 4.1 6.4 From well test
Drainage radius [ft] 4532.7 1000.0 Estimated
TABLE 4-HISTORY MATCH FOR CASE #2
Regression
parameters
Calculated
value
Initial
value
Comment
Permeability [md] 12.9 10.8 From well test
Skin 147.0 101 From well test
Drainage radius [ft] 9204.8 2500.0 Estimated
Fig. 1-System description and pressure losses.
1700
1750
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Time [days]
R
a
t
e

[
M
s
c
f
/
D
]
Observed rate
Predicted rate
Fig. 2-Synthetic data: production history match.
8 ARSENE B. BITSINDOU, M.G. KELKAR SPE 52170
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Time [days]
R
a
t
e

[
M
s
c
f
/
d
]
Observed data [after adding errors between
-10% and +10% to the original data]
Predicted rate [No error added to the
original data]
Predicted rate [after adding errors between
-10% and +10% to the original data]
Fig.3-Synthetic data: sensitivity of rate history match with respect
to errors in the observed rate data.
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Time [days]
R
a
t
e

[
M
s
c
f
/
D
]
Observed rate
History match [skin=116.5]
Skin=116.5
Skin=50.0
Skin=0.0
Fig. 4-Synthetic data: sensitivity of rate with respect to skin
factor.
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Time [days]
R
a
t
e

{
M
s
c
f
/
D
]
Observed rate
Predicted rate
Fig. 5-Case #1: production history match.
0
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000
Time [days]
R
e
s
e
r
v
o
i
r

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
M
s
c
f
/
D
]
Observed reservoir pressure
Predicted reservoir pressure
Fig. 6-Case #1:reservoir pressure history match.
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
18000
20000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Time [days]
R
a
t
e

[
M
s
c
f
/
D
]
Observed rate [Well head pressure = 870 psia]
Predicted rate [Well head pressure = 870 psia]]
Well head pressure= 870 psia
Well head pressure = 700 psia
Well head pressure = 500 psia
Well head pressure = 300 psia
Well head pressure= 100 psia
Fig. 7-Case #1: sensitivity of rate with respect to well head
pressure.
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
14000
16000
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000
Time [days]
R
a
t
e

[
M
s
c
f
/
D
]
Observed rate [SPF=4]
Predicted rate [SPF=4]
SPF=4
SPF=8
SPF=12
Fig. 8-Case #1: sensitivity of rate with respect to perforation
density.
SPE 52170 GAS WELL PRODUCTION OPTIMIZATION USING DYNAMIC NODAL ANALYSIS 9
1700
1750
1800
1850
1900
1950
2000
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Time [days]
R
a
t
e

[
M
s
c
f
/
D
]
Observed rate
Predicted rate
Fig. 9-Case #2: production history match.
4650
4700
4750
4800
4850
4900
4950
5000
5050
0 500 1000 1500 2000
Time [days]
R
e
s
e
r
v
o
i
r

P
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

[
p
s
i
a
]
Predicted reservoir pressure
Observed reservoir pressure
Fig. 10-Case #2: reservoir pressure history match.
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Time [days]
R
a
t
e

[
M
s
c
f
/
D
]
Observed rate [Perforated interval= 17 ft]
History match [Perforated interval= 17 ft]
Perforated interval= 17 ft
Perforated interval= 64 ft
Fig. 11-Case #2: sensitivity of rate with respect to perforated
interval.
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000
Time [days]
R
a
t
e

[
M
s
c
f
/
D
]
Observed rate [tubing size = 1.995 in.]
Predicted rate [Tubing size = 1.995 in.]
Tubing size = 1.049 in.
Tubing size = 1.995 in.
Tubing size = 2.441 in.
Fig. 12-Case #2: sensitivity of rate with respect to tubing inside
diameter.