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GPRS RF Design and Optimisation
November 2001
Version 1.0
GPRS RF Optimization Report ver 1.0
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Executive Summary
This report endeavors to give a guideline to optimise a GPRS network. There are
different scenarios in which GPRS services are required. One that requires a new design
of a GSM network having the GPRS services in mind and the other a migration from an
existing GSM to GPRS network.
The densed urban area of Paris is taken as an example for this study. As a result a link
budget is created for this design and two coverage scenarios are created which shows
the need for optimisation of such a network.
Finally for capacity dimensioning has been carried out to show the capacity calculations
and assumptions for such a network.
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Document History
Version Prepared by Edited by Date Modifications (Do not
Write in this section)
V1.0 Hilda Correia Payam Taaghol 11/13/01
Luis Rivilla
Maseeh Azhand
Mo Eskici
Ravi Govindasamy
Sasan Fahim
Lauro Ortigoza
Hedayat Azad
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1 Abbreviations............................................................................................................. 5
2 Introduction and Background .................................................................................. 8
2.1 WHAT IS GPRS?..................................................................................................... 8
2.2 GPRS ARCHITECTURE............................................................................................ 9
2.3 NETWORK ELEMENTS OF THE BASE STATION SYSTEM (BSS)................................ 10
2.3.1 Base station controllers (BSC) ..................................................................... 10
2.3.2 Base transceiver stations (BTS)................................................................... 10
2.4 NETWORK ELEMENTS OF THE GPRS SWITCHING SUBSYSTEM (GSS).................... 10
2.4.1 Serving GPRS support node (SGSN) .......................................................... 10
2.4.2 Gateway GPRS support node (GGSN)........................................................ 11
2.4.3 Home location register (HLR) (for GPRS PLMN)......................................... 11
2.4.4 Authentication center (AC)............................................................................ 11
2.4.5 Visitor location register (VLR)....................................................................... 11
2.5 MOBILE STATION FOR GPRS................................................................................. 12
2.5.1 Class-A.......................................................................................................... 12
2.5.2 Class-B.......................................................................................................... 12
2.5.3 Class-C ......................................................................................................... 12
2.6 INTERNAL GPRS PLMN INTERFACES.................................................................... 12
2.6.1 Abis-interface................................................................................................ 12
2.6.2 Gb-interface.................................................................................................. 13
2.6.3 Gd-interface.................................................................................................. 13
2.6.4 Gf-interface................................................................................................... 13
2.6.5 Gn-interface.................................................................................................. 13
2.6.6 Gp-interface.................................................................................................. 13
2.6.7 Gr-interface................................................................................................... 13
2.6.8 Gs-interface.................................................................................................. 13
2.7 EXTERNAL GPRS PLMN INTERFACES................................................................... 14
2.7.1 Gi-interface (GPRS PLMN to Internet) ......................................................... 14
2.8 THE TRANSMISSION PLANE.................................................................................... 14
2.8.1 Signaling Plane ............................................................................................. 15
2.9 THE AIR INTERFACE............................................................................................... 16
2.9.1 Physical Layer............................................................................................... 16
2.9.2 Medium Access Control................................................................................ 19
2.9.3 Radio Resource Management...................................................................... 19
2.9.4 Mobility Management.................................................................................... 19
2.10 GPRS OPERATION................................................................................................ 20
2.10.1 Mobile Originated Packet Transfer............................................................... 21
2.10.2 Mobile Terminated Packet Transfer ............................................................. 22
2.11 WHERE IS GPRS NOW? ........................................................................................ 23
3 GPRS Radio Design and Optimisation Methodology.......................................... 28
3.1 VISIBILITY OF NETWORK PERFORMANCE................................................................. 29
3.2 UNKNOWN SERVICE REQUIREMENTS ...................................................................... 29
3.3 DESIGN CASES...................................................................................................... 30
3.3.1 New GSM Network Design with GPRS........................................................ 30
3.3.2 Migration from GSM to GPRS network......................................................... 31
4 GPRS Link Budgets................................................................................................. 32
4.1 MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE PATH LOSS......................................................................... 34
4.2 CELL SIZE ESTIMATION.......................................................................................... 35
4.3 CELL COUNT ESTIMATION...................................................................................... 36
5 Considerations in the GPRS link budgets............................................................ 37
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5.1 RX SENSITIVITY VS CODING SCHEME..................................................................... 37
5.2 BODY LOSS ........................................................................................................... 37
5.3 2 DB C/I DEGRADATION IN THE DOWNLINK............................................................. 38
5.4 CODING SCHEMES VS CLUTTERS .......................................................................... 38
6 Coverage Analysis ................................................................................................... 39
6.1 COVERAGE CASE STUDY 1..................................................................................... 39
6.1.1 GSM Coverage for Paris within the periphery area...................................... 39
6.1.2 GPRS Coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS1...................... 41
6.1.3 GPRS Coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS2...................... 43
6.1.4 GPRS Coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS3...................... 45
6.1.5 GPRS coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS4..................... 47
6.2 COVERAGE CASE STUDY 2 .................................................................................... 49
6.2.1 GSM Coverage for Paris within the periphery area with 240 sites .............. 49
6.2.2 GPRS Coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS1 with 240 sites51
6.2.3 GPRS Coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS2 with 240 sites53
6.2.4 GPRS Coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS3 with 240 sites55
6.2.5 GPRS Coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS4 with 240 sites57
7 Capacity Dimensioning ........................................................................................... 59
7.1 NETWORK PERFORMANCE..................................................................................... 61
7.1.1 Peak Throughput........................................................................................... 61
7.2 SYSTEM C/I PROFILE AND MEAN DATA RATE PER CHANNEL .................................. 63
7.2.1 Latency.......................................................................................................... 65
8 Capacity case study................................................................................................. 67
8.1 CASE ONE: ADDING TRXS WITHOUT CONSIDERING DEDICATED TSLS TO GPRS
USERS............................................................................................................................. 67
8.1.1 GPRS migration............................................................................................ 68
8.2 CASE TWO: ADDING TRXS WITH CONSIDERING TWO DEDICATED TSLS TO GPRS
USERS............................................................................................................................. 69
8.2.1 GPRS migration............................................................................................ 70
8.3 CASE THREE: ADDING NEW SITES WITH CONSIDERING TWO DEDICATED TSLS TO
GPRS USERS ................................................................................................................. 71
8.3.1 GPRS migration............................................................................................ 71
9 Mobiles availability................................................................................................... 72
9.1 WORLDWIDE GPRS TERMINALS AND HANDSETS................................................... 72
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1 Abbreviations
ABC Administration and Billing Centre
AC Authentication Centre
AGCH Access Grant Channel
APN Access Point Name
ASN ATM Switching Network
BCT Basic Craft Terminal
BER Bit Error Rate
BVC BSSGP Virtual Connection
BVCI BSSGP Virtual Connection Identifier
AMX ATM Multiplexer
ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode
CCU Channel Coding Unit
CCCH Common Control Channel
CS Coding Schemes
CT Craft Terminal
BG Border Gateway
BSS Base Station System
BSSAP Base Station System Application Part
BSSGP Base Station System GPRS Protocol
BSSMAP Base Station System Management Application Part
BSC Base Station Controller
BTS Base Transceiver Station
CCS7 Common Channel Signalling System No. 7 (equal to SS7)
DLCI Data Link Connection Identifier
EIR Equipment Identification Register
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
EWSD Elektronisches Whlsystem Digital
EWSX Elektronisches Whlsystem Express
FR Frame Relay
FTP File Transfer Protocol
GGSN Gateway GPRS Support Node
GR GPRS Register
GPRS General Packet Radio Service
GSM Global system for mobile communication
GSN GPRS Support Node
GTP GPRS Tunnelling Protocol
GTT Global Title Translation
HDLC High Level Data Link Control protocol
HLR Home Location Register
HO Handover
HSCSD High Speed Circuit Switched Data
IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
ID Identifier
IF Interface
IMSI International Mobile Subscriber Identity
IP Internet Protocol
IPv4 Internet Protocol version 4
IPv6 Internet Protocol version 6
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ISP Internet Service Provider
LA Location Area
LAN Local Area Network
LIC Line Interface Controller
LLC Logical Link Control
MAC Media Access Control
MAP Mobile Application Part
MM Mobility Management
MP Main Processor
MP:PD Main Processor for Packet Dispatching
MP:SA Main Processor with Standalone Capabilities
MS Mobile Station
MSC Mobil Switching Centre
MT Mobile Terminated
NS-VC Network Service Virtual Connection
NS-VCI Network Service Virtual Connection Identifier
NS-VL Network Service Virtual Link
NUC Nailed Up Connections
O&M Operation and Maintenance
OMC Operation and Maintenance Centre
OMC-S OMC-Switching Subsystem
OS Operation System
PAGCH Packet Access Grant Channel
PCM Pulse Code Modulation
PCU Packet Control Unit
PCCCH Packet Common Control Channel
PDTCH Packet Data Channel
PDN Packet Data Network
PDP Packet Data Protocol, e.g. IP or X.25
PDU Protocol Data Unit
PLMN Public Land Mobile Network
PRACH Packet Random Access Channel
PSPDN Packet-Switched Private Data Networks
PTM Point To Multipoint
PTP Point To Point
PTP-CLNS Point To Point - Connection Less Network Service
PTP-CONS Point To Point - Connection Oriented Network Service
PVC Permanent Virtual Connection
P-TMSI Packet - Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity
QoS Quality of Service
RA Routing Area
RIP Routing Information Protocol
RLC Radio Link Control
RSS Radio Subsystem
SDU Service Data Unit
SGSN Serving GPRS Support Node
SM Short Message
SM-SC Short Message Service Centre
SMS-GMSC Short Message Service Gateway MSC
SMS-IWMSC Short Message Service Interworking MSC
SSNC Signalling System Network Control
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SSS Switching Subsystem
STP Signalling Transfer Point
TE Terminal Equipment
TCH Traffic Channel
UDI Unrestricted Digital Information
UMTS Universal Mobile Telecommunication System
VCI Virtual Channel or Circuit Identifier
VLR Visited Location Register
VPI Virtual Path Identifier
WAN Wide Area Network
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2 Introduction and Background
Life styles are changing rapidly and subscribers, including individuals, businesses and
corporate users alike, are expecting more mobile services. Ordering cinema tickets
wirelessly, accessing up-to-date traffic information from your car, or viewing video clips
of the latest news will soon become common events in everyday life.
For corporate users, accessing corporate intranets and downloading files quickly and
efficiently will become essential business skills. The data application opportunities for
business and industry are diverse, including remote equipment management, location
identification for transportation companies, and remote information access for mobile
workers. Mobile data technology affords added value to life styles and business
processes leading to enhanced productivity, reduced costs and an overall increase in
efficiency.
The Internet has become a critical resource for millions of people worldwide, with many
individuals doing their shopping on-line, and corporations sharing information and
communicating around the globe via their corporate intranets.
The explosive demand for mobile communications and the tremendous growth of the
Internet present an exciting opportunity for GSM operators to capture new markets by
provisioning a variety of exciting new data applications. GPRS solution, easy access to
high-speed data packet services is easily achieved, enabling operators to respond
quickly to market demands.
GPRS also presents cost implications as users are likely to pay a monthly charge or pay
for the quantity of the data they transfer rather than current billing-by-minute basis of
todays GSM network. For people who want to stay on-line for long periods of time and
use devices for Internet browsing, GPRS will almost certainly be cheaper.
2.1 What is GPRS?
GPRS is a packet switched data service in GSM for mobile access to the Internet and
other packet data networks (PDN). It provides higher user data rates by using traffic
channel combining and different coding schemes. GPRS allows the service subscriber to
send and receive data in an end-to-end transfer mode without utilizing network
resources in circuit switched mode. Resources are used only in case of data
transmission. This allows volume-dependent charging; i.e. the user only pays for the
transferred data.
The GPRS system provides a basic solution for Internet Protocol (IP) communication
between Mobile Stations and Internet Service Hosts (IH) and provides:
efficient use of scarce radio resources
a flexible service, with volume-based (or session duration-based)
charging
fast set-up/access time
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efficient transport of packets in the GSM network
simultaneous GSM and GPRS, co-existence without disturbance
connectivity to other external packet data networks, using the
Internet Protocol.
2.2 GPRS Architecture
Packet-orienting functionality requires some new network elements. GPRS is logically
implemented on the GSM structure through the addition of two network nodes, the
Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) and the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN).
Fig 1 shows the overview of the GPRS logical architecture.
Fig 1: The overview of the GPRS logical architecture.
In addition to adding multiple GPRS nodes and a GPRS backbone, some other technical
changes need to be added to a GSM network to implement a GPRS service. These
include the addition of Packet Control Units (PCU); often hosted in the Base Station
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Subsystems (BSS), mobility management to locate the GPRS Mobile Station (MS), a
new air interface for packet traffic, new security features such as ciphering and new
GPRS specific signaling.
2.3 Network Elements of the Base Station System (BSS)
2.3.1 Base station controllers (BSC)
The BSCs form the intelligent part of the BSS. They handle the most important BSS
control functions. They also perform the radio processing functions such as
management of the radio resources, radio channel management, local connection
management and safeguarding functions. One or more BSCs are linked to a MSC. For
GPRS support the BSC has to be completed with the new hardware unit, known as a
packet control unit (PCU). Furthermore in the BTS new software functionality has to be
completed, called channel codec units (CCU). The packet control unit (PCU) is logical
part of the BSC. The PCU provides interworking between the network side of the GPRS
system and the radio side. In particular it performs the radio specific function of the
GPRS operation. That is, it requests the radio resources from the BSC, manages the
sub-multiplexing of multiple GPRS-MS on one physical channel and performs the
automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol to guarantee a reliable link to the GPRS-MS.
Furthermore it supports layer 1 protocols (frame relay) via the Gb-interface in the
direction to the SGSN. Like the TRAU, the PCU can be located near (or into) the BSC as
well as the SGSN.
2.3.2 Base transceiver stations (BTS)
The PCU function in the BSC is completed by more channel codec units (CCU) in the
BTS, which is realized as a software function. The software function CCU performs
channel coding, including forward error correction (FEC) and interleaving included.
Furthermore it performs radio channel measurements and mapping of GPRS and
signaling onto the Abis interface in the direction to BSC.
2.4 Network Elements of the GPRS Switching Subsystem (GSS)
The GSS consists of (or involves) the following network elements:
- the serving GPRS support node (SGSN)
- the gateway GPRS support node (GGSN)
- the home location register (HLR)
- the authentication center (AC)
- the visitor location register (VLR)
These network elements are described in detail below.
2.4.1 Serving GPRS support node (SGSN)
The SGSN is the GPRS node that serves the GPRS-MS. It can be compared with the
MSC/VLR in case of circuit-switched connections. The SGSN knows the location of the
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GPRS-MS, its states, the supported packet data protocol(s) and the corresponding
GGSN. It is mainly responsible for access control, mobility management and packet data
protocol activation. Regarding the user packet data transfer it maintains a tunnel toward
the corresponding GGSN.
2.4.2 Gateway GPRS support node (GGSN)
The GGSN is the GPRS node that performs interworking with the external packet
network. It is comparable with the combination of a gateway MSC and a part of the HLR.
It knows the address of the SGSN where the mobile is logged on and processes the
packet data protocols that are supported by the GPRS network. It is able to access
Public Data Networks such as IP and X.25. On the other hand the GGSN forwards the
packets of the external packet data protocols by using the GPRS tunneling protocol GTP
to the related SGSN where the destination user resides. Therefore the GGSN holds a
GPRS specific routing table which is updated by the GPRS mobility management
information also provided by the GTP. The GGSN can assign dynamic packet data
protocol addresses.
2.4.3 Home location register (HLR) (for GPRS PLMN)
The subscriber record is extended by the subscription information for GPRS, which
contains the GPRS subscription, itself and a set of the allowed packet data
protocol/address pairs. A packet data protocol (PDP) address pair is qualified by the
assigned GGSN address, quality of service (QoS) and screening parameters. For the
purpose of mobility management the HLR holds the current SGSN address. In a first
approach of ETSI standardization of GPRS the GPRS mobile subscriber database was
named GPRS register (GR). This logical GR was then integrated into the HLR, which
represents a unified home location register for GSM subscriber and GPRS mobile
subscriber. Thus the HLR holds the GPRS mobile subscriber data for the purpose of
GPRS. Although the HLR is part of the GSM PLMN the GPRS mobile subscriber data
has to be considered as an extension of the subscriber data record of a GSM subscriber.
The HLR is connected to the SGSN via the Gr-interface.
2.4.4 Authentication center (AC)
The authentication center (AC) of the GSM PLMN is also used for subscriber
authentication of GPRS mobile subscriber. It is connected to the SGSN via the Gr-
interface.
2.4.5 Visitor location register (VLR)
With GPRS a PLMN operator can provide a new packet oriented network transfer in
addition to the existing circuit-switched network services for data applications. The
network resources can be used more efficiently by a "combined mobility management"
of the packet oriented GPRS network and the circuit-switched GSM network by
introducing the Gs-interface. The interface has to be supported by the MSC/VLR node
and the SGSN. The Gs-interface connects the databases in the MSC/VLR and the
SGSN in order to co-ordinate the location information of a mobile station that is attached
to both GSM and GPRS services.
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2.5 Mobile station for GPRS
According to their capability with respect to parallel operation of circuit-switched and
packet-oriented (GPRS); three classes of GPRS mobile stations (GPRS-MS) are de-
fined:
2.5.1 Class-A
Simultaneous and independent execution of signaling as well as traffic for both circuit-
switched and packet-oriented (GPRS) operation is possible. Therefore the class-A MS
uses two independent receiver/transmitters. The class-A MS is a typical high end MS.
2.5.2 Class-B
Simultaneous execution of signaling for both circuit-switched and packet-oriented
(GPRS) operation is possible. The GPRS traffic will be suspended in case of a pending
or established circuit-switched connection. The class-B MS is a typical all-purpose
mobile.
2.5.3 Class-C
Alternate use of circuit-switched and packet-oriented (GPRS) operation is possible. The
MS supports either packet-oriented (GPRS) operation only or both circuit-switched and
packet-oriented (GPRS) operation. In the latter case only one service at time is available
by default or manual preselection. That means at one time a class-C MS is either a
GPRS-MS or a non GPRS-MS. The class-C MS with exclusive GPRS capability is a
typical low-cost mobile.
2.6 Internal GPRS PLMN Interfaces
2.6.1 Abis-interface
The Abis-interface is the interface from the BSC to the BTS known from non-GPRS
operation. For GPRS purposes the signaling part of the Abis-interface is slightly modified
with respect to message contents and message flow. The traffic data (and dedicated
GPRS signaling) are transferred by TRAU frames, which include the measurement and
physical information.
Examples of the functions for GPRS-MS implemented at the Abis-interface are as
follows:
- transfer of GPRS data and RLC/MAC associated signaling information via 16 kbit/s
channels
- transfer of PCU frames, which are an extension of existing TRAU frames
- logical multiplexing in LAPD channels between BTS and BSC via sent RLC/MAC
signaling over separate control channels
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2.6.2 Gb-interface
The Gb-interface is the interface of the SGSN and BSC (PCU). It consists of permanent
virtual connections (PVCs) which carry packet and signaling data simultaneously. It is
also possible to connect the SGSN and the BSS via an MSC using nailed-up
connections (NUCs) or point-to-point connections. The BSSGP protocol on top of frame
relay (FR) is used to transfer these data. For communication between the SGSN and the
BSS, the BSS GPRS protocol (BSSGP) is used. This protocol is handled between two
peer BSSGP entities, one in the BSS and one in the SGSN. They exchange data via
virtual connections, so-called BSSGP virtual connections (BVCs), which are defined
between the SGSN and each BTS (radio cell) of the BSS and additionally between the
SGSN and a BSS for signaling purposes.
2.6.3 Gd-interface
The Gd-interface is the interface between SGSN and the SMS-GMSC/SMS-IWMSC.
2.6.4 Gf-interface
The Gf-interface is the interface between SGSN and the Equipment Identity Register
(EIR).
2.6.5 Gn-interface
The Gn-interface is the interface between SGSN and GGSN as well as SGSN and
SGSN of the own network. It is used to transfer the packet data and control information
inside the GPRS network by use of the GPRS tunneling protocol (GTP) which runs on
top of the user datagram protocol (UDP) of the Internet protocol (IP) protocol stack.
2.6.6 Gp-interface
The Gp-interface represents the logical interface between two GPRS PLMN operators. It
may be a direct connection or a connection with help of transport network. The protocol
layer is identical with that of the Gn interface.
2.6.7 Gr-interface
The Gr-interface represents the interface between the SGSN and the HLR/AC which
holds the GPRS register. It is used to transfer subscription, authentication and location
information by means of the MAP.
2.6.8 Gs-interface
The Gs-interface describes the logical interface between the SGSN and the MSC/VLR. It
is used to transfer mobility management information.
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2.7 External GPRS PLMN Interfaces
2.7.1 Gi-interface (GPRS PLMN to Internet)
The Gi-interface is the interface of the GGSN and the external packet data network
(PDN, i.e. Internet). There are several incarnations of that interface according to the
connected PDN. It is possible that a single GGSN keeps connections to different
external PDN (e.g. public Internet, private Intranets).
2.8 The Transmission Plane
The transmission plane consists of a layered protocol structure providing user
information transfer, along with associated information transfer control procedures (e.g.,
flow control, error detection, error correction and error recovery). The transmission plane
independence of the Network Subsystem (NSS) platform from the underlying radio
interface is preserved via the Gb interface. The following transmission plane is used in
GPRS, as shown in Fig. 2:
IP
TID TID
MS Um BSS Gb SGSN Gn GGSN Gi
Fig.2: Transmission plane
Application
IP/X.25
SNDCP
LLC
RLC
MAC
GSM PL
LLC Relay
RLC BSSGP
SNDCP
LLC
BSSGP
Frame
Relay
L1bis
GTP
IP
L2
L1
IP/X.25
GTP
IP
L2
L1
MAC
GSM
Frame
Relay
L1bis
TLLI
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Between two GSNs, the GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) tunnels user data and
signaling through the GPRS backbone network by adding routing information. All Point
to Point (PTP) Packet Data Protocol (PDP) and Protocol Data Units (PDUs) are
encapsulated by the GPRS Tunneling Protocol. Below the GTP, the Transmission
Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) respectively, carries GTP
PDUs in the GPRS backbone network for protocols that need a reliable data link (e.g.,
X.25) and those that do not need a reliable data link (e.g., IP). TCP provides flow control
and protection against lost and corrupted GTP PDUs. UDP provides protection against
corrupted GTP PDUs. IP is the GPRS backbone network protocol used for routing user
data and control signaling. Ethernet, ISDN, or asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) based
protocols may be used below IP depending on the operator's architecture.
Between the SGSN and the MS, the Sub-network Dependent Convergence Protocol
(SNDCP): maps network-level characteristics onto the characteristics of the underlying
network. It also provides functionalities like multiplexing of network-layer messages onto
a single virtual logical connection, encryption, segmentation, and compression.
As for the data link layer functionality, between the MS and the BSS, the data link layer
has been separated into two distinct sublayers, the Logical Link Control (LLC) and the
radio link control (RLC)/medium access control (MAC). The LLC layer provides a highly
reliable ciphered logical link between the MS and the SGSN. Protocol functionality is
based on link access procedure-D (LAPD) used within the GSM signaling plane with
support for PTM transmission.
The RLC/MAC layer contains two functions. The RLC function provides a radio-solution-
dependent reliable link. The MAC function controls the access signaling (request and
grant) procedures for the radio channel, and the mapping of LLC frames onto the GSM
physical channel.
The GSM physical layer (GSM PL) is split up into a physical link sublayer (PLL) and a
physical RF sublayer (RFL). The PLL provides services for information transfer over a
physical channel between the MS and the network. These functions include data unit
framing, data coding and the detection and correction of physical medium transmission
errors. The PLL uses the services of the physical RFL.
The PLL is responsible for forward error correction (FEC) coding allowing detection and
correction errors in transmitted code-words and the signaling of uncorrectable code-
words, rectangular interleaving of one radio block over four bursts in consecutive TDMA
frames and, procedures for detecting physical link congestion.
The RFL is part of a complete GSM system that delivers a range of services including
GPRS. The RFL performs the modulation and demodulation of the physical waveforms
and conforms to the GSM 05 series of recommendations.
In the network, the LLC is split between the BSS and the SGSN. In the BSS, this
function relays LLC PDUs between the Um and Gb interfaces. In the SGSN, this function
relays PDP PDUs between the Gb and Gn interfaces. Between BSS and SGSN, Base
Station System GPRS Protocol (BSSGP) conveys routing and QoS -related information.
BSSGP does not perform error correction.
2.8.1 Signaling Plane
The signaling plane consists of protocols for control and support of the transmission
plane functions. Some of these functions deal with controlling the GPRS network access
connections (such as attaching to and detaching from the GPRS network) and
controlling the attributes of an established network access connection (such as
activation of a PDP address). Other functions include controlling the routing path of an
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established network connection in order to support user mobility; and controlling the
assignment of network resources to meet changing user demands; and providing
supplementary services.
Fig. 3 shows the signaling plane between MS and SGSN. GPRS Mobility Management
and Session Management (GMM/SM) is a protocol that supports mobility management
functionality such as GPRS attach, GPRS detach, security, routing area update, location
update, PDP context activation, and PDP context deactivation.
Ms Um BSS Gb SGSN
Fig.3: Signaling plane MS-SGSN
2.9 The Air Interface
The air interface design of GSM-GPRS allows a GPRS MS to access and obtain service
from a GPRS-network. The air interface protocol is concerned with communications
between MS and BSS at the physical, MAC, and RLC protocol layers. The RLC/MAC
sublayer allows efficient multi-user multiplexing on the shared packet data channel(s)
(PDCH) and utilizes a selective ARQ protocol for reliable transmissions across the air
interface.
2.9.1 Physical Layer
The physical channel dedicated to packet data traffic is called a packet data channel
(PDCH). A cell that supports GPRS may allocate one or more shared PDCHs, which are
taken from the common pool of physical channels available to the cell and otherwise
used as traffic channels (TCHs). The allocation of TCHs and PDCHs is done
GMM/SM
BSSGP
Network
service
GMM/SM
LLC
RLC
MAC
GSM RF
LLC
L1bis
RLC
MAC
GSM RF
BSSGP
Network
Service
L1bis
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dynamically according to the "capacity on demand" principle, which is an important
concept in GPRS air interface other than the Master-slave concept.
The master-slave concept states that at least one PDCH (mapped on one physical time
slot), acting as a master, accommodates packet common control channels (PCCCHs)
which carry all necessary control signaling for initiating packet transfer as well as user
data and dedicated signaling. The others, acting as slaves, are only used for user data
transfer. The capacity on demand concept states that load supervision should be done in
the MAC layer to monitor the load on the PDCH(s), and the number of allocated PDCHs
in a cell can be increased or decreased according to demand. However, the existence of
PDCH(s) does not imply the existence of PCCCH. When no PCCCH is allocated in a
cell, all GPRS attached MSs automatically camp on the existing GSM CCCH as they do
in the idle state. When a PCCCH is allocated in a cell, all GPRS attached MS camp on it.
Group Name Direction Function Description
PBCCH PBCCH Downlink Broadcast Transmits system information to all GPRS
terminals in a cell.
PRACH Uplink Random
access
Used by the MSs to initiate packet transfers or
respond to paging messages on this chanel.MSs
transmit access burst with long guard times.On
receiving access bursts the BSS assigns a timing
advance to each terminal.
PPCH Downlink Paging Used to page an MS prior to downlink packet
transfer
PAGCH Downlink Access
grant
Used in the packet transfer establishment phase
to send resource assignment to an MS prior to
the packet transfer.
PCCC
H
PNCH Downlink Multicast Used to send a PTM Multicast notification to a
group of MSs prior to a PTM packet transfer.The
notification hasthe form of a resource assignment
for the packet transfer.
PDTCH Downlink
and Uplink
Data Its used for data transfer.More than one PDTCH
can be used in parallel(Multislot operation) for
individual.
PTCH
PACCH Downlink
and Uplink
Associated
control
Its used to convey signalling Information related
to agiven Ms such asacknowledgements (Ack)
and power control (PC) information.It also carries
resource assignment messages either for
allocation of a PDTCH or further occurences of a
PACCH,one PACCH is associated with one or
several PDTCHs concurrently assigned to one
MS.
Table 1: GPRS Logical Channels
In GPRS, a multiframe structure is needed for the PDCH in order to accommodate
paging groups and possibly blocks for broadcasting GPRS system information. The
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multiframe structure of both 51 TDMA frames and 52 TDMA frames are the same as
those specified for GSM.
The network layer protocol data units (N-PDUs or packets) received form the network
layer are transmitted across the air interface between the MS and the SGSN using the
LLC protocol. First, the SNDCP transforms packets into LLC frames. The process
includes optional header/data compression, segmentation, and encryption. An LLC
frame is then segmented into RLC data blocks, which are formatted into the physical
layer. Each block comprises four normal bursts in consecutive TDMA frames. Table 2
lists the GPRS logical channels and their functions. Fig. 4 shows the packet
transformation data flow.
Packet(N-PDU) Network Layer
LLC Frame SNDCP Layer
LLC Layer
RLC Block RLC/MAC Layer
Normal burst
Physical Layer
PH: Packet header
FH: Frame header
BH: Block header
FCS: Frame check sequence
BSC: Block check sequence
Fig. 4: Packet transformation data flow
Four different coding schemes, CS-1 to CS-4, are defined for the radio blocks carrying
RLC data blocks. In GPRS, the differential initial code rates are obtained by puncturing a
different number of bits from a common convolution code (rate 1/3). The resulting coding
schemes are listed in Table 2. The selection of the initial modulation and code rate to
use is based on regular measurements of the link quality.
PH User data
Segment Segment
FH Info FSC
Segme Segme Segme
BH Info BS Trail
Convolutional encoding
Burst Burst Burst Burst
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Table 2 - Coding parameters for the GPRS coding schemes
2.9.2 Medium Access Control
The MAC sublayer manages access to the physical layer resources to minimize
collisions between multiple users and to efficiently use the RF resources. The MAC
sublayer serves as a shared medium between multiple MSs and the BSs for the transfer
of higher layer service data units (SDUs).
2.9.3 Radio Resource Management
GPRS radio resource management procedures are required for the following functions:
allocation and release of physical resources (i.e., timeslots) associated with a
GPRS channel;
monitoring GPRS channel utilization to detect under-utilized or congested GPRS
channels;
initiating congestion control procedures; and
distribution of GPRS channel configuration information for broadcasting to the
MSs.
GSM radio resources are dynamically shared between GPRS and other GSM services.
GPRS radio resources may dynamically be increased to an operator defined maximum
or decrease to an operator defined minimum.
2.9.4 Mobility Management
The mobility management functions of GPRS ensure that the network knows the current
location of MSs and provides user identity confidentiality. This is done by information
exchange between the SGSN and the MSC/VLR.
Among other functions, mobility management deals with cell selection, attach, routing
area, update, detach and suspend procedures. These functions are based on the
definition of the possible states and MS and a SGSN can have (i.e., idle, steady and
ready). Mobility management functions are performed taking into account the mobile
class.
Channel name Radio Interface rate per time
slot(kbps)
CS-1
CS-2
CS-3
CS-4
9.05
13.4
15.6
21.4
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2.10 GPRS Operation
In order to access the GPRS services, an MS shall first make its presence known to the
network by performing a GPRS attach. This operation establishes a logical link between
the MS and the SGSN, and makes the MS available for SMS over GPRS, paging via
SGSN, and notification of incoming GPRS data.
In order to send and receive GPRS data, the MS shall activate the packet data address
that it wants to use. This operation makes the MS known in the corresponding GGSN,
and interworking with external data networks can commence.
User data is transferred transparently between the MS and the external data networks
with a method known as encapsulation and tunneling: data packets are equipped with
GPRS-specific protocol information and transferred between the MS and GGSN. This
transparent transfer method lessens the requirement for the GPRS PLMN to interpret
external data protocols, and it enables easy introduction of additional interworking
protocols in the future. User data can be compressed and protected with retransmission
protocols for efficiency and reliability.
Fig. 5 - An example of routing
Fig. 5 shows a simple example of routing in a mobile originated transmission. The
serving SGSN of the source mobile encapsulates the packets transmitted by the MS and
routes them to the appropriate GGSN. Based on the examination of the destination
address, packets are then routed on the destination GGSN through the packet data
network. The GGSN checks the routing context associated with the destination address
and determines the serving SGSN and relevant tunneling information. Each packet is
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then encapsulated and forwarded to the SGSN, which delivers it to the destination
mobile.
2.10.1 Mobile Originated Packet Transfer
An MS initiates a packet transfer by making a packet channel request on the PRACH or
RACH. The network responds on PAGCH or AGCH, respectively. Fig. 6 shows an up-
link data transfer procedure. It is possible to use a one -or two phase- packet access
method. In one phase access, the network responds to the packet channel request with
the packet immediate assignment, reserving the resources on the PDCHs for up-link
transfer of radio blocks. In a two-phase access, the network responds to the packet
channel request with the packet immediate assignment, which reserves the up-link
resources for transmitting the packet resource request. The packet resource request
carries the complete description of the requested resources for the up-link transfer.
Thereafter, the network responds with the packet resource assignment, reserving
resources for the up-link transfer.
If there is no response to the packet channel request within a predefined time period, the
MS retries after a random back-off time. However, the MS may contend again even
though its last packet channel request was already correctly received. This could
produce a wave of packet channel request on the BSS that may exceed the limit of
packets that it can handle. To avoid this problem, the sender is notified that its message
is correctly received and that it will receive a resource assignment later. In this way, the
system builds a queue of MSs, which wait for their turn to receive a packet resource
assignment to send a frame.
On a request for an attach, authentication of the MS may be performed (i.e. the SGSN
obtains triplet information and challenges the MS). If the MS passes authentication,
GSM encryption is used and subscriber data from the GPRS HLR is downloaded into the
SGSN. In order to access a data service, the user is first required to establish a PDP
context with the network. This identifies to the network the type of data network to which
the mobile station wishes to connect (e.g., X.25 or IP) and, in the case of IP, if a static or
dynamic IP address is to be used. The IP address space may belong to either a GSM
service provider or another data network. In addition, the context identifies the point of
interconnect to the data network (the GGSN). In the case of dynamic IP allocation, the
GGSN or network behind the GGSN allocates the IP address.
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MS BSS
Packet channel request
PRACH or RACH
PAGCH or AGCH Packet immediate assignment
Packet resource request
PACCH
Packet resource assignment
PACCH
Random access Transmission
Frame Transmission
PDTCH
Negative acknowledgement
PACCH
Retransmission of blocks in error
PDTCH
Acknowledgement
PACCH
FIG 6 -MAC layer:Random access and transmission for uplink data transfer
2.10.2 Mobile Terminated Packet Transfer
A BSS initiates a packet transfer by sending a packet-paging request on the PPCH or
PCH downlink. The MS responds to the page by initiating a procedure for page response
very similar to the packet access procedure described earlier. The paging procedure is
followed by the packet resource assignment for downlink frame transfer containing the
list of PDCHs to be used. Fig. 7 shows a downlink data transfer.
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MS BSS
Packet paging request
PPCH or PCH
PRACH or RACH Packet channel request
Packet immediate assignment
PAGCH or AGCH
Packet paging response
PACCH
Packet resource assignment
PACCH or PAGCH or AGCH
Paging transmission
Frame Transmission
PDTCH
Negative acknowledgement
PACCH
Retransmission of blocks in error
PDTCH
Acknowledgement
PACCH
FIG 7 -MAC layer:Random access and transmission for downlink data transfer
Since an identifier is included in each radio block, it is possible to multiplex radio blocks
destined for different MSs on the same PDCH downlink. It is also possible to interrupt a
data transmission to one MS if a higher priority data or pending control message is to be
sent to some other MS. Furthermore, if more that one PDCH is available for the down-
link traffic, and provided the MS is capable of monitoring multiple PDCHs, blocks
belonging to the same frame can be transferred on different PDCHs in parallel.
The network obtains acknowledgements for down-link transmission by polling the MS.
The MS sends the ACK/NACK message in the reserved radio block which is allocated in
the polling process. In the case of a negative acknowledgement, only those blocks listed
as erroneous are retransmitted.
2.11 Where is GPRS now?
In the following table show the countries and operators that have the GPRS system
planned, in deployment or in service.
Country Operator Network System Supplier Mobile Data Status
Argentina Telecom Personal Personal US TDMA-800 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Australia Cable & Wireless Optus Optus Mobile Digital GSM-900 Nokia GPRS Planned
Cable & Wireless Optus Optus Mobile Digital GSM-900 Nortel GPRS Planned
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Telstra CDMA-800 Nortel 1XRTT
Vodafone Vodafone GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS Planned
Austria Connect Austria One GSM-1800 Nokia HSCSD Planned
max.mobil Siemens GPRS In Service
Mobilkom A1 - Mobilkom GSM-9/18 Motorola GPRS Planned
tele.ring GSM-1800 Alcatel GPRS In Service
Belgium Belgacom Mobile Proximus GSM-900 Motorola GPRS Planned
Belgacom Mobile Proximus GSM-9/18 Motorola GPRS Planned
Mobistar GSM-900 Nokia GPRS Trial
Bolivia Entel Movil Entel Movil GSM-1900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Nuevatel Nuevatel GSM-1900 Nokia GPRS In Deployment
Telemar Alcatel&Nokia GPRS In Deployment
Brazil MobiTel Siemens GPRS In Service
Bulgaria GloBul Motorola GPRS In Deployment
Canada Clearnet Communications PCS CDMA-1900 Lucent 1XRTT
Microcell Telecommunications Fido CDMA-1900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Microcell Telecommunications Fido CDMA-1900 Nortel GPRS In Deployment
Rogers AT&T Cantel AT&T US TDMA-8/19 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Bell Mobility CDMA-1900 Nortel 1XRTT
Bell Mobility CDMA-1900 Nortel 1XRTT
China Beijing Mobile GSM-900 Motorola GPRS In Deployment
Beijing Unicom GSM-900 Siemens GPRS Trial
China Mobile A, M, N & E GPRS Test
China Unicom No, M & S GPRS Test
Chongqing Mobile CTA GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Fujian Mobile GSM-900 Nokia GPRS In Deployment
Fujian Mobile GSM-9/18 Nokia GPRS Planned
Fuzhou Unicom GSM-900 Siemens GPRS Trial
Guangdong Mobile GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Guangdong Mobile GSM-900 Nokia GPRS In Deployment
Shenzhen Unicom GSM-900 Motorola GPRS In Deployment
Guangxi Mobile GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Hainan Mobile GSM-900 Nokia GPRS In Deployment
Hebei Mobile GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Hebei Mobile GSM-900 Motorola GPRS Planned
Hebei Mobile GSM-900 Nortel GPRS Trial
Heilongjiang Unicom GSM-900 Siemens GPRS In Deployment
Henan Mobile GSM-900 Nokia GPRS Planned
Hubei Mobile GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Jiangsu Mobile GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Nanjing Unicom GSM-900 Alcatel GPRS Trial
Wuxi Unicom GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS Trial
Shandong Mobile GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Shanghai Mobile GSM-1800 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Shanghai Mobile GSM-900 Siemens GPRS Trial
Shanghai Unicom GSM-900 Nokia GPRS Planned
Shanghai Unicom GSM-900 Siemens GPRS Planned
Sichuan Mobile GSM-900 Motorola GPRS In Deployment
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Tianjin Mobile GSM-900 Motorola GPRS In Deployment
Tianjin Mobile GSM-900 Nortel GPRS Trial
Yunnan PTA GSM-900 Nokia HSCSD In Deployment
Zhejiang Mobile GSM-900 Alcatel GPRS Trial
Zhejiang Mobile GSM-900 Motorola GPRS In Deployment
Zhejiang Unicom GSM-900 Nortel GPRS Planned
CroNet Siemens GPRS In Service
Croatia Vip Net Ericsson GPRS In Service
Cyprus CYTA (South) Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Czech Cesky Mobil Oscar GSM-9/18 Ericsson GPRS Planned
Republic EuroTel Praha Nokia GPRS In Deployment
RadioMobil Paegas GSM-900 Motorola GPRS In Deployment
Denmark Dansk Mobil Telefon Sonofon GSM-900 Nokia GPRS Trial
Mobilix Mobilix GSM-1800 Nokia GPRS Trial
Orange Nokia GPRS In Deployment
Tele Danmark Mobil GSM-1800 Nokia HSCSD In Service
Telia Ericsson GPRS In Service
Tele Danmark Mobil GSM-900 Nokia HSCSD In Service
El Salvador Personal Alcatel GPRS In Deployment
Estonia Radiolinja Nokia GPRS In Deployment
Finland Alands Mobile Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Radiolinja GSM-900 Nokia GPRS In Deployment
Radiolinja GSM-900 Siemens GPRS Trial
Radiolinja GSM-9/18 Nokia GPRS In Deployment
Radiolinja GSM-9/18 Siemens GPRS Trial
Sonera GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS In Service
Sonera GSM-9/18 Nokia HSCSD In Service
Suomen 2G Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Telia Nokia GPRS In Deployment
France Bouygues Telecom Bouygues GSM-1800 Nortel GPRS Trial
Cegetel SFR GSM-900 Alcatel GPRS Trial
Cegetel SFR GSM-900 Nokia GPRS Planned
France Telecom Itineris GSM-900 Alcatel GPRS Trial
France Telecom Itineris GSM-900 Motorola GPRS Trial
France Telecom Itineris GSM-9/18 Alcatel GPRS Trial
France Telecom Itineris GSM-9/18 Motorola GPRS Trial
Orange France Alcatel GPRS In Deployment
Germany E-Plus Nokia GPRS In Service
Mannesmann Mobilfunk D2 GSM-900 Ericsson HSCSD In Service
Mannesmann Mobilfunk D2 GSM-900 Siemens GPRS Planned
T-Mobil D1 GSM-900 Alcatel GPRS In Deployment
T-Mobil D1 GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
T-Mobil D1 GSM-900 Lucent GPRS In Deployment
T-Mobil D1 GSM-900 Motorola GPRS In Service
Viag Interkom E2 Mobilfunk GSM-1800 Nokia GPRS In Service
Greece Cosmote Cosmote GSM-1800 Nokia GPRS In Service
Panafon Panafon GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS In Service
Hong Kong Cable & Wireless HKT 1010 and One2Free GSM-9/18 Nokia HSCSD Planned
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Mandarin Communications Sunday GSM-1800 Nortel GPRS Trial
New World Telephone New World PCS GSM-1800 Nokia HSCSD In Deployment
New World Telephone New World PCS GSM-1800 Nokia HSCSD In Deployment
Pacific Century CyberWorks
HKT
1010 and One2Free GSM-9/18 Nokia HSCSD Planned
Peoples Phone Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
SmarTone SmarTone GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
SmarTone SmarTone GSM-9/18 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
SmarTone GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Sunday Communications GSM-1800 Nortel GPRS Trial
Pannon Ericsson GPRS In Service
Hungary Westel 900 Eurofon GSM-900 Motorola GPRS Trial
Iceland Landssimi Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
TAL TAL GSM-900 Nortel GPRS Planned
India BPL Mobile GSM-900 Motorola GPRS Planned
Escotel Mobile-Haryana Lucent GPRS In Deployment
Escotel Mobile-Kerala Lucent GPRS In Deployment
Escotel Mobile-Uttar Pradesh Lucent GPRS In Deployment
Spice Communications-Punjab GPRS Planned
Indonesia Telkomsel Siemens GPRS In Deployment
Ireland Eircell Ericsson GPRS In Service
Esat Digifone Nortel GPRS In Deployment
Israel Orange Ericsson GPRS In Service
Italy Blu GSM-1800 Nokia GPRS Planned
Omnitel Nokia GPRS In Service
Telecom Italia Mobile GSM-900 Ericsson HSCSD In Deployment
Telecom Italia Mobile GSM-900 Siemens GPRS Trial
Telecom Italia Mobile GSM-9/18 Ericsson HSCSD In Deployment
Lebanon FTML Cellis GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS Planned
Liechtenstein Viag Europlattform GSM-1800 Nokia GPRS In Deployment
Bite Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Lithuania Omnitel Motorola GPRS In Deployment
Luxembourg LuxGSM Siemens GPRS In Service
Socit Europenne de
Communication
TANGO GSM-9/18 Ericsson HSCSD In Service
Celcom Celcom GSM GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS Planned
Celcom Cellcom GSM GSM-900 Lucent GPRS Trial
Malaysia Digi Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Time Wireless Adam GSM-1800 Nokia GPRS In Service
Malta MobIsle Communications GSM-1800 Nortel GPRS Planned
Vodafone Siemens GPRS In Service
Mexico Telcel Telcel US TDMA 1900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Morocco ONPT Siemens GPRS In Deployment
Netherlands Ben Nederland Ben GSM-1800 Nokia GPRS Planned
Dutchtone Nokia GPRS In Deployment
KPN ATF-4 GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS Trial
Libertel Vodafone Ericsson GPRS In Service
Telfort GSM-1800 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
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New Zealand Vodafone New Zealand (formerly BellSouth) GSM-900 Nokia GPRS Trial
Norway NetCom NetCom GSM-900 Siemens GPRS In Service
Telenor Mobil Telenor Mobil GSM-900 Ericsson HSCSD In Deployment
Telenor Mobil Telenor Mobil GSM-900 Nokia HSCSD In Deployment
Telenor Mobil Telenor Mobil GSM-9/18 Nokia HSCSD In Deployment
Philippines Globe Telecom Handyphone GSM-900 Nokia GPRS Planned
Smart Communications Gold GSM GSM-9/18 Nokia GPRS Planned
Poland Centertel Idea GSM-1800 Nokia GPRS In Service
Polkomtel Plus GSM GSM-900 Nokia GPRS Planned
Polska Telefonia Cyfrowa Era GSM GSM-9/18 Ericsson GPRS Trial
Portugal Optimus Nokia GPRS In Deployment
Telecel Telecel GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS Trial
Telecel Telecel GSM-9/18 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
TMN Telemovel GSM-9/18 Alcatel GPRS Trial
Qatar Q-Tel Alcatel GPRS In Deployment
Romania MobilRom Siemens GPRS In Service
Russia KB Impuls Bee Line GSM GSM-9/18 Nokia GPRS In Deployment
Mobile Telesystems MTS GSM-900 Motorola GPRS In Deployment
Sonic Duo Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Saudi Arabia STC Al-Jawwal GSM GSM-9/18 Lucent GPRS Trial
Singapore MobileOne GSM M1 GSM GSM-900 Nokia HSCSD In Service
Singapore Telecom SingTel Mobile GSM-900 Ericsson HSCSD In Deployment
Singapore Telecom SingTel Mobile GSM-9/18 Ericsson HSCSD In Deployment
StarHub GSM-1800 Nokia GPRS Trial
South Africa Vodacom Vodacom GSM-900 Alcatel GPRS Trial
Vodacom Vodacom GSM-900 Siemens GPRS Trial
Spain AirTel S & E GPRS In Deployment
Amena GPRS In Service
Telefnica MoviStar GSM-9/18 Nokia GPRS In Service
Sweden Convig Siemens GPRS In Deployment
Europolitan Europolitan GSM-900 Nokia GPRS Planned
Europolitan GSM-1800 Nokia HSCSD In Service
Tele2 Siemens GPRS In Service
Telia Mobitel Telia Mobitel GSM GSM-900 Ericsson HSCSD Trial
Switzerland diAx GSM-9/18 Nokia GPRS Planned
Orange GSM-1800 Nokia GPRS Planned
Sunrise Nokia GPRS In Deployment
Swisscom GSM-9/18 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Taiwan Chunghwa Telecom GSM National GSM-9/18 Nokia GPRS Planned
Chunghwa Telecom GSM National GSM-9/18 Nortel GPRS Planned
FarEasTone GSM-1800 GSM-9/18 Ericsson GPRS Trial
Mobitai Siemens GPRS In Deployment
KG Telecom GSM-1800 GSM-1800 Nokia GPRS In Deployment
FarEasTone GSM North GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS Trial
KG Telecom GSM-1800 GSM-1800 Lucent GPRS Planned
KG Telecom GSM-1800 GSM-1800 Nokia GPRS In Service
KG Telecom GSM-1800 GSM-1800 Nokia GPRS In Deployment
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TransAsia Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Thailand AIS Siemens GPRS In Deployment
CP Orange Alcatel GPRS In Deployment
TAC Nokia GPRS In Deployment
Tunisia Tunisie Telecom Tunicell GSM-900 Alcatel GPRS Planned
Turkey Telsim Telsim GSM-900 Motorola GPRS Trial
Turkcell GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS Planned
Uae Etisalat A & M GPRS In Deployment
UK BT Cellnet BT Cellnet GSM-900 Motorola GPRS In Deployment
BT Cellnet GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS In Service
One-2-One GSM-1800 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
One-2-One GSM-1800 Nortel GPRS Planned
Orange Orange GSM-1800 Nokia HSCSD Trial
Orange GSM-1800 Ericsson GPRS Planned
Vodafone Vodafone GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS Trial
Ukraine Kyivstar GSM Kyivstar GSM GSM-900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
UMC Siemens GPRS In Deployment
USA Alltel Trial cdma2000 Motorola 1XRTT
Alltel CDMA-800 Motorola 1XRTT
Cingular Wireless BellSouth Mobility
DCS
GSM-1900 Nortel GPRS In Deployment
Cingular Wireless Pacific Bell Wireless GSM-1900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Powertel Powertel GSM-1900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Sprint PCS Sprint PCS CDMA-1900 Lucent 1XRTT
Sprint PCS Sprint PCS CDMA-1900 Nortel 1XRTT
Sprint PCS CDMA-1900 Motorola 1XRTT
Verizon Wireless CDMA-8/19 Lucent 1XRTT
Verizon Wireless CDMA-8/19 Nortel 1XRTT
VoiceStream Omnipoint GSM-1900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
VoiceStream Omnipoint GSM-1900 Nortel GPRS In Deployment
VoiceStream VoiceStream GSM-1900 Nokia GPRS In Deployment
VoiceStream GSM-1900 Ericsson GPRS In Deployment
Leap Wireless Cricket CDMA-1900 Ericsson 1XRTT
Venezuela Digitel GSM-900 Nokia&Siemen
s
Infonet GSM-900
Digicel GSM-900
3 GPRS Radio Design and Optimisation Methodology
Operators implementing 2.5G already have operational GSM voice networks, often
supporting millions of customers. It is therefore imperative that voice quality of service
(QoS) is maintained across these networkseven after GPRS services are runningas
voice traffic will still provide the main source of revenue. Evidence from operators which
have embraced and heavily marketed mobile internet services shows that, on average,
82 per cent of revenue generated from their mobile internet customers is still derived
from voice traffic. .
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Currently, some of the largest GSM networks have over 60 per cent of their customer
base using prepaid services. While the growth of prepaid services has greatly enhanced
operators' customer bases and revenues, it has also driven the requirements for fully
optimised radio interfaces, as the increased demand has required more efficient
frequency reuse, traffic management algorithms and aggressive parameter
management.
3.1 Visibility of network performance
The importance of an optimised air interface, one that will deliver 2.5G services through
the same scarce air interface resource effectively, increases as the network customer
base growsand particularly when that growth is rapid. In order for operators to meet
this increased challenge through optimisation techniques, the need for clear and relevant
visibility of network performance becomes critical. The reuse of the same radio interface
in 2.5G networks means that visibility of interactions between the circuit and packet-
switched traffic in radio resource usage is imperative for capacity planning, traffic
management algorithm development, hot-spot detection and engineering rule design
and validation.
One of the major factors driving this search for detail is the significant differences in how
and where control of the interaction between the mobile terminal and the network
resides in 2G and 2.5G networks. In 2.5G, the network will no longer enjoy the levels of
control that it currently has in 2G and this will directly affect optimisation strategies.
Providing an optimised 2G network requires a detailed understanding of how the
network is operating. This understanding is gained through a mixture of OSS systems,
drive tests, comparative / benchmarking exercises, detailed investigation and, of course,
customer feedback.
2G operators have access to measurement systems that have matured with the
networks, providing a rich variety of views on network performance. These tools enable
both network monitoring and localised investigation to be available to optimisation
teams. Although there are limitations in each individual tool, used together, the operator
can access a wealth of data and accumulated knowledge.
The 2.5G networks, which have recently been launched or are very soon to be launched,
lack the support of mature measurement systems and the ubiquitously available tools
from the 2G environment. In fact, until relatively recently, the extent of the problem was
such that reliable terminals with which network testing could begin were not even
available.
3.2 Unknown service requirements
Although the introduction of test mobiles has been addressed and measurement
systems are beginning to deliver the visibility of network performance operators expect
and require, other issues for 2.5G network optimisation have become more pressing. In
2G, where voice calls and usage patterns are relatively well understood, the major
problems faced by the operator were the volumes of data to be captured and analysed.
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In 2.5G networks, whilst the existing challenges with voice remain, there are additional
problems, particularly 'what services will be used by which customers, where, when and
in what quantities? For example, if we look at the Scandinavian countries where mobile
penetration rates are highest, the impact of having sections of the population with almost
100 per cent mobile ownership rates has meant that additional services, such as mobile
chat rooms, are being developed and deployed. These were unforeseen at the launch of
GSM. Again, looking at how mobile usage patterns have migrated from the early adopter
countries to the rest of the world, it is fair to assume that what is happening in
Scandinavia is likely to appear elsewhere as the economic opportunity for services
develop. This leaves the operators with a challenge: how to optimise the 2.5G networks
without impacting their growing 2G networks and without fully understanding how these
networks will be used? However, the rate at which the new 2.5G networks will be used is
largely in the hands of the network operators. They can control the rate of uptakes
through their policies on handset availability, service offering, pricing structures,
partnerships and co-operation with branded and proven content providers. Operators are
already aware of the impact of these policies through their 2G experience and the
policies through their 2G experience and the effects of the prepaid explosion on their
networks.
In order to optimise these 2.5G networks, operators now require tools that can be used
to understand, in detail, how the packet network service usage is interacting with their
voice services. These tools must provide the ability to analyse and report on network
performance based on multiple manufacturer test handset types, because as with 2G,
terminal performance directly impacts the customers' perception of service. The details
of call/session events and the sequences of these events, as seen from the often multi-
vendor network infrastructure, must therefore be clearly visible and accessible through
any new optimisation tools.
Any new tools must also permit operators to develop algorithms in their network-level
measurement tools for wholesale network optimisation algorithms that will require
refining and developing as the handset and service mix on the 2.5G networks alter and
as the user base grows. The advantages of providing optimised networks, delivering
maximum QoS and equipment use are well known from experience in 2G.
3.3 Design Cases
This document considers two scenarios where the GPRS design is concern. This can
involve a new design for a GPRS services and a migration from GSM to GPRS network.
3.3.1 New GSM Network Design with GPRS
In comparison, designing a new 2.5G GSM air interface from scratch (one which would
cater for internet) is much easier than optimising the existing GSM air interface to
accommodate for GPRS.
In the new design for GPRS all parameters regarding GPRS will be included in the link
budgets as shown below in the next section. In the new design the cell radius will have
been already calculated with GPRS in mind. As a result the network will be designed
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according to the market requirements to ensure QoS. Further more, the allocation of
time slot to GPRS could also be determined from the start to ensure the required
throughput with regards to capacity study.
3.3.2 Migration from GSM to GPRS network
In this case the existing GSM network is analysed to accommodate GPRS services.
The steps that must be taken to ensure the migration is shown in the Figure 8 below.
The design involves for coverage and capacity dimensions.
Input Parameters
Dat a Subscri bers/ Appl i cat i ons and Traffi c per
Subscri ber/ QoS/ Ar eas t o be cover ed
Coverage Planning
Desi gn of Radi o Cel l s ( Li nkbudget)
and Int erference Anal ysi s for al l CS
Traffic Planning
How many subscri ber wi l l use
which applications with which
data rate and QoS according to
which traffic model?
Results:
* Cel l Di amet er
*Reduct i on of mean t hroughput by Int erference
*Tot al Number of Radi o Cel l s f or Cover age
Results:
*Number of needed PDCHs per radi o cel l
*Number of new r adi o cel l s/ BTS
*Mean Dat a Thr oughput
Results:
Number of new equi pment uni t s needed i n t he net wor k!
Figura 8: Migration from GSM to GPRS
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4 GPRS Link Budgets
In analysing the GPRS link budgets, as an example the dense urban area of Paris is
considered. The design is based on this area. The examples of the link budgets and
other parameters are show below.
Inputs to the Link budgets of both GSM and GPRS are shown in the table below.
Table 3: Input data for the GPRS link Budget
Denseurban InDoor Urban InDoor Suburban InDoor Rural-Open InCar Rural-Open Outdoor
Area that should be covered (km2) 40 35 1 20 4.2
Total Area (km2) 100.2
General
Information Frequency (MHz) 900
Cell pattern Clover pattern Clover pattern Clover pattern Clover pattern Clover pattern
Standard deviation (dB) 7 7 6 5 5
Probability on cell border (%) 90 90 90 90 90
BS antenna height (m) 30 30 35 50 50
BS Peak Power at PA output (Watt) 35
BS Peak Power at PA output (dBm) 45.4
BS sensitivity (dBm) -109.4
BS sensitivity for CS-1 for GPRS -109.2
BS sensitivity for CS-2 for GPRS -105.6
Base BS sensitivity for CS-3 for GPRS -103.4
Station BS sensitivity for CS-4 for GPRS -96.1
BS antenna gain (dB) 15.5
Uplink diversity gain (dB) 4
BS cable loss (dB) 2
Connector loss (dB) 0
Combiner loss (dB) 5.7
Jumper cables loss 0
Duplexer loss dB 0
MS antenna height (m) 1.5
MS Power (Watt) 2
Mobile MS Power (dBm) 33
Station MS sensitivity for GSM handsets (dBm) -100
MS sensitivity for GPRS handsets (dBm) -104
MS antenna gain (dB) 0
Downlink diversity gain (dB) 0
Interference degradation margin (dB) 3
Inter. Degrad. margin for GPRS load (dB) 2
Other Body loss (dB) 3
losses InDoor/InCar penetration loss (dB) 18 18 15 6 0
Fade margin 9 9 7.7 6.4 6.4
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Power_Threshold = Mobile_Sensitivity + Losses MS_Gains
Table 4: Received power thresholds
ERP = Output_Power Hardware_Losses + BS_Gains
Table 5: Effective Radiated Power
Denseurban InDoor Urban InDoor Suburban InDoor Rural-Open InCar Rural-Open Outdoor
Power thresholds (dBm) -67 -67 -71.3 -81.6 -87.6
MS sensitivity (dBm) -100 -100 -100 -100 -100
Losses Interference degradation margin (dB) 3 3 3 3 3
Body loss (dB) 3 3 3 3 3
Fade margin (dB) 9 9 7.7 6.4 6.4
InDoor/InCar penetration loss (dB) 18 18 15 6 0
Gains MS antenna gain (dB) 0 0 0 0 0
Downlink diversity gain (dB) 0 0 0 0 0
Fade Standard deviation (dB) 7 7 6 5 5
margin Probability on cell border (%) 90 90 90 90 90
calculation Fade Margin (dB) 9 9 7.7 6.4 6.4
Coding scheme Denseurban InDoor Urban InDoor Suburban InDoor Rural-Open InCar Rural-Open Outdoor
Coding scheme-1 (dBm) -71.8 -71.8 -76.1 -86.4 -92.4
For GPRS Coding scheme-2 (dBm) -68.1 -68.1 -72.4 -82.7 -88.7
Coding scheme-3 (dBm) -66.4 -66.4 -70.7 -81 -87
Coding scheme-4 (dBm) -58.7 -58.7 -63 -73.3 -79.3
ERP (dBm) 53.2
EIRP (dBm) 55.4
BS Peak Power at PA output (dBm) 45.4
DL-Cable Loss (dB) 2
Connector loss (dB) 0
Combiner loss (dB) 5.7
Duplexer loss (dB) 0
Jumper cables loss (dB) 0
BS downlink diversity gain (dB) 0
BS antenna gain (dB) 15.5
Hardware
losses
Gains
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4.1 Maximum Allowable Path Loss
Table 6: Maximum allowable path losses for uplink and for downlink
MAPL Up = PA m - L CCC - L Body - L Bldg - M Fade + G B + G M + Diversity gain - RX Base
Uplink Denseurban InDoor Urban InDoor Suburban InDoor Rural-Open InCar Rural-Open Outdoor
Max. Allowable Path Loss 126.9 126.9 131.2 141.5 147.5
MAPL for GPRS for CS-1 (dB) 129.7 129.7 134 144.3 150.3
MAPL for GPRS for CS-2 (dB) 126 126 130.3 140.6 146.6
MAPL for GPRS for CS-3 (dB) 124.3 124.3 128.6 138.9 144.9
MAPL for GPRS for CS-4 (dB) 116.6 116.6 120.9 131.2 137.2
MS Power (dBm) 33
BS cable loss (dB) 2
Connector loss (dB) 0
Jumper cables loss 0
Duplexer loss 0
Interference degradation margin (dB) 3
Body loss (dB) 3
InDoor/InCar penetration loss (dB) 18 18 15 6
Fade Margin (dB) 9 9 7.7 6.4 6.4
MS antenna gain (dB) 0
BS antenna gain (dB) 15.5
Uplink diversity gain (dB) 4
BS sensitivity (dBm) -109.4
PL Down = PA B - L CCC - L Bldg - L Body - M Fade + G M + G B - RX Mobile
Downlink Denseurban InDoor Urban InDoor Suburban InDoor Rural-Open InCar Rural-Open Outdoor
Max. Allowable Path Loss 120.2 120.2 124.5 134.8 140.8
MAPL for GPRS for CS-1 (dB) 125 125 129.3 139.6 145.6
MAPL for GPRS for CS-2 (dB) 121.3 121.3 125.6 135.9 141.9
MAPL for GPRS for CS-3 (dB) 119.6 119.6 123.9 134.2 140.2
MAPL for GPRS for CS-4 (dB) 111.9 111.9 116.2 126.5 132.5
BS Power (dBm) 45.4
BS cable loss (dB) 2
Connector loss (dB) 0
Combiner loss (dB) 5.7
Jumper cables loss 0
Duplexer loss 0
Interference degradation margin (dB) 3
Body loss (dB) 3
InDoor/InCar penetration loss (dB) 18 18 15 6
Fade Margin (dB) 9 9 7.7 6.4 6.4
MS antenna gain (dB) 0
BS antenna gain (dB) 15.5
Downlink diversity gain (dB) 0
MS sensitivity (dBm) -100
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4.2 Cell Size Estimation
Table 7: Cell size estimation
(PathLoss-
A
+
C+A(hm)
-
Cm
)/
B
PathLoss = A+BlogR-A(hm)-C+Cm R=10
f<1500 A= 69.55+26.16log(f)-13.82log(hb) f = frequency (MHz)
1500<f<2000 A= 46.3+33.9log(f)-13.82log(hb) hb = height of the base station antenna (m)
B= 44.9-6.55log(hb)
for urban C= 0
for Suburban C= 2[log(f/28)]2+5.4
for Open & Rural C= 4.78[log(f)]2-18.33log(f)+40.94
for large cities, A(hm)=[log(11.75hm)]2-4.97 hm = height of the mobile station antenna (m)
for other cities, A(hm)= [1.11log(f)-0.7]hm-[1.56log(f)-0.8]
f<1500 Cm= 0
f>1500 for large cities Cm= 3
f>1500 for other cities Cm= 0
Frequency band A B C [suburban] C [open&rural] A(hm) Cm
300< f < 1500MHz 126.4191683 35.22485578 9.942607248 28.50641809 0.060195463 0
1500 > f > 2000MHz
Denseurban InDoor Urban InDoor Suburban InDoor Rural-Open InCar Rural-Open Outdoor
Maximum Allowable PathLoss 120.2 120.2 124.5 134.8 140.8
MAPL for GPRS for CS-1 (dB) 125.0 125.0 129.3 139.6 145.6
MAPL for GPRS for CS-2 (dB) 121.3 121.3 125.6 135.9 141.9
MAPL for GPRS for CS-3 (dB) 119.6 119.6 123.9 134.2 140.2
MAPL for GPRS for CS-4 (dB) 111.9 111.9 116.2 126.5 132.5
A 126.4191683
B 35.22485578
Clutter correction factor C -1.0 1.0 11.0 29.0 29.0
A(hm) 0.060195463
Cm 0
Range or Radius for GSM (km) 0.626 0.714 1.818 11.559 17.110
Radius for CS-1 for GPRS (km) 0.857 0.977 2.488 15.819 23.416
Radius for CS-2 for GPRS (km) 0.673 0.767 1.953 12.421 18.386
Radius for CS-3 for GPRS (km) 0.602 0.686 1.748 11.114 16.452
Radius for CS-4 for GPRS (km) 0.364 0.415 1.057 6.719 9.945
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4.3 Cell Count Estimation
Site_Count = (Clutter_Area)/(Site_Area_in_the_Clutter)
Table 8: Cell count estimation
For Clover Pattern: For Hexagon Pattern:
R
R
The area of each Cell: The area of each Cell:
The area of each Site: The area of each Site:
C
2
8
3 3
_ =
R
S
2
8
3 9
_ =
R
C
2
2
3
_ =
R
S
2
2
3 3
_ =
Clutter Denseurban InDoor Urban InDoor Suburban InDoor Rural-Open InCar Rural-Open Outdoor
Clutter area (km2) 40 35 1 20 4.2
Cell pattern Clover pattern Clover pattern Clover pattern Clover pattern Clover pattern
Cell range for GSM (km) 0.626 0.714 1.818 11.559 17.11
Site size for GSM (km2) 0.764 0.993 6.440 260.348 570.444
No of sites in each clutter for GSM 53 36 1 1 1
Total no of sites for GSM 92
Required Coding Schemes for GPRS CS-3 CS-3 CS-2 CS-2 CS-2
Cell range for required CS for GPRS (km) 0.602 0.686 1.953 12.421 18.386
Site size for required CS for GPRS (km2) 0.706 0.917 7.432 300.626 658.700
No of sites in each clutter for GPRS 57 39 1 1 1
Total no of sites for GPRS 99
Cell Range for GPRS CS-1 (km) 0.857 0.977 2.488 15.819 23.416
Cell Range for GPRS CS-2 (km) 0.673 0.767 1.953 12.421 18.386
Cell Range for GPRS CS-3 (km) 0.602 0.686 1.748 11.114 16.452
Cell Range for GPRS CS-4 (km) 0.364 0.415 1.057 6.719 9.945
Site size for GPRS CS-1 (km2) 1.431 1.860 12.062 487.608 1068.412
Site size for GPRS CS-2 (km2) 0.883 1.146 7.432 300.626 658.700
Site size for GPRS CS-3 (km2) 0.706 0.917 5.954 240.688 527.413
Site size for GPRS CS-4 (km2) 0.258 0.336 2.177 87.968 192.718
No of sites in each clutter for GPRS CS-1 28 19 1 1 1
No of sites in each clutter for GPRS CS-2 46 31 1 1 1
No of sites in each clutter for GPRS CS-3 57 39 1 1 1
No of sites in each clutter for GPRS CS-4 155 105 1 1 1
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5 Considerations in the GPRS link budgets
As we will see in the link budgets there are some new aspects regarding the GPRS
design that we will have to take into account.
5.1 Rx Sensitivity Vs Coding Scheme
It is known that for a given BLER each type of modulation and coding requires a
minimum signal to noise ratio (C/N), which at bit level is stated Eb/No. The Rx sensitivity
is depending on this C/N as shown here
Rx= 10 log (KTB) + NF + C/N
To achieve the required BLER (eg 10%) each coding scheme requires a level of C/N,
therefore due to the differrent C/N requirements of each coding schemes, the Rx
sensitivity will be different for each one of them too. As the data rates increases the error
protection is reduced and therefore more C/N is required.
As an example here is a table with some results based on simulation of propagation
condition TU50 with ideal frequency hopping and without Rx diversity:
Service QoS
Required
C/N
BS Sensitivity for
Talk Family from
NOKIA
Speech RBERII<8% 6.0 dB -108 dBm
CS-1 BLER<10% 6.2 dB -107.8 dBm
CS-2 BLER<10% 9.8 dB -104.1 dBm
CS-3 BLER<10% 12 dB -102,0 dBm
CS-4 BLER<10% 19.3 dB -94,7 dBm
Table 9: Changes in BTS Sensitivity for differents coding schemes
5.2 Body Loss
The typical 3 dB body loss associated with voice service has to be excluded from the
GPRS service link budgets. This gives GPRS services a 3 dB benefit. In effect, this
result in CS-1 is achieving a higher tolerable path loss than the voice service, while CS-2
becomes comparable to the voice service. So the cell radio for CS-1 and CS-2 is usually
bigger or similar than for voice service. Therefore, in terms of coverage, the service for
CS-1 and CS-2 will be available at least in the area that would have been covered in a
GSM voice network.
The table below shows the parameters that have differences in maximum allowable path
loss in case of sensitivities for various coding schemes and for the GSM voice traffic.
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Service Speech CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4
Required C/N 6.0 dB 6.2dB 9.8dB 12.0dB 19.3
BTS Sensitivity -108dBm -107.8 dBm -104.1dBm -102.4 dBm -94.7 dBm
Body Loss 3 dB 0 dB 0 dB 0 dB 0 dB
Link budget
difference related
to talk family
Speech service
--- +2.8 dB -0.8 dB -3.0 dB -10.3 dB
Table 10: GPRS maximum allowable path loss differences related to GSM due to change in
sensitivity
5.3 2 dB C/I degradation in the Downlink
One factor affecting the interference level is the actual load factor of the interferers.
Simulations performed have indicated that the effect of GPRS load on the existing GSM
service will be of the order of up 2dB C/I degradation in the downlink TCH case, but less
on the uplink. No effect would be anticipated on the downlink BCCH case. That is
because on the TCH case, the amount of interference generated depends on the loading
of the TRXs and the power control, but since downlink power control to GPRS terminal is
not used (at least in the phase 1) and extra load can be anticipated, there will tend to be
an increase in interference levels when GPRS services are introduced. On the BCCH
case, permanently keyed carriers and the absence of downlink power control serve to
keep the interference at a fixed amount.
As the power control is implemented in the uplink case, the effect of the GPRS traffic is
not a problem and there are not any differences between BCCH and TCH cases.
So, in the link budgets, 2 dB have to be added in the computation of the MAPL for
downlink to take this factor into account.
5.4 Coding Schemes Vs Clutters
Operators may choose different coding schemes for different clutters. The reasons may
be based on:
The forecasted demand for the data rate,
The capability of offering the coding schemes without (or with the minimum)
changing in the existing GSM network,
Or other reasons based on their business
The cell count obtained from the link budgets analysis is approximately the same when
designing the area using Planet. The coverage maps are shown in the next chapter.
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6 Coverage Analysis
6.1 Coverage case study 1
Based on the Link Budgets Analysis we designed a GSM network for the city Paris. The
total area considered for the design is approximately for 100 km
2
including 40 km
2
of
dense urban, 35 km
2
urban, 1 km
2
suburban and 1 km
2
rural and open area.
6.1.1 GSM Coverage for Paris within the periphery area
Figure 9: GSM Coverage for Paris
Coverage
Open/Rural outdoor Level: -87.6 dBm
Open/rural Incar Level: -81.6 dBm
Suburban-Indoor Level: -71.3 dBm
Urban-Indoor Level: -67dBm
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Figure 10: Details of the coverage
The above table shows the covered area with the required threshold for Dense urban for
GSM signal for different clutters.
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6.1.2 GPRS Coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS1
Figure 11: GPRS CS1 Coverage
Coverage
Coding Scheme-1 Level: -71.8 dBm
Coding Scheme-2 Level: -68.1 dBm
Coding Scheme-3 Level: -66.4 dBm
Coding Scheme-4 Level: -58.7dBm
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Figure 12: Details of coverage for CS1
The above table shows the covered area with the required threshold for GPRS Coding
scheme 1 for different clutters. As we see comparing to the GSM coverage CS1 gives us
a better coverage than GSM.
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6.1.3 GPRS Coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS2
Figure 13: GPRS coverage for CS2
Coverage
Coding Scheme-1 Level: -71.8 dBm
Coding Scheme-2 Level: -68.1 dBm
Coding Scheme-3 Level: -66.4 dBm
Coding Scheme-4 Level: -58.7dBm
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Figure 14: Details of coverage for CS2
The above table shows the covered area with the required threshold for GPRS Coding
scheme 2 for different clutters. As we could expect from the Link Budgets results CS2
coverage is almost the same as GSM coverage. That means with an existing GSM
network we can meet at least the GPRS CS2 threshold.
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6.1.4 GPRS Coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS3
Figure 15: GPRS coverage for CS3
Coverage
Coding Scheme-1 Level: -71.8 dBm
Coding Scheme-2 Level: -68.1 dBm
Coding Scheme-3 Level: -66.4 dBm
Coding Scheme-4 Level: -58.7dBm
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Figure 16: Details of coverage for CS3
The covered area with the required threshold for GPRS Coding scheme 3 for different
clutters is shown in the above table. We can see how the covered area is shrinking
comparing to the GSM coverage. That means with an existing GSM network we cannot
meet the GPRS CS3 threshold for all parts.
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6.1.5 GPRS coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS4
Figure 17: GPRS coverage for CS4
Coverage
Coding Scheme-1 Level: -71.8 dBm
Coding Scheme-2 Level: -68.1 dBm
Coding Scheme-3 Level: -66.4 dBm
Coding Scheme-4 Level: -58.7dBm
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Figure 18: Details of coverage for CS4
The above table shows the covered area with the required threshold for GPRS Coding
scheme 4 for different clutters. As we can see the covered area in the objective areas is
shrinking to 1/3 to 1/5 comparing to the GSM coverage. That means with an existing
GSM network we can not meet the GPRS CS4 threshold.
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6.2 Coverage Case Study 2
In some cases due to the nature of the network there might be more sites available than
required for a specific coding scheme. In this case the radio interface can simply be
optimised to respond to the requirement of the throughput. For example as shown
below a is the same area analysed in case study 1. But here the design shows 240 sites
to cover traffic issues.
6.2.1 GSM Coverage for Paris within the periphery area with 240 sites
Figure 19: GSM Coverage for 240 sites
Coverage
Open/Rural outdoor Level: -87.6 dBm
Open/rural Incar Level: -81.6 dBm
Suburban-Indoor Level: -71.3 dBm
Urban-Indoor Level: -67dBm
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Figure 20: Details of the coverage for GSM with 240 sites
The above table shows the covered area with the required threshold for Dense urban for
GSM signal for different clutters.
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6.2.2 GPRS Coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS1 with 240 sites
Figure 21: GPRS CS-1 coverage for 240 sites
Coverage
Coding Scheme-1 Level: -71.8 dBm
Coding Scheme-2 Level: -68.1 dBm
Coding Scheme-3 Level: -66.4 dBm
Coding Scheme-4 Level: -58.7dBm
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Figure 22: Details of the coverage for CS-1 with 240 sites
The above table shows the covered area with the required threshold for GPRS Coding
scheme 1 for different clutters. As we see comparing to the GSM coverage CS1 gives us
a better coverage than GSM.
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6.2.3 GPRS Coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS2 with 240 sites
Figure 23: GPRS CS-2 coverage for 240 sites
Coverage
Coding Scheme-1 Level: -71.8 dBm
Coding Scheme-2 Level: -68.1 dBm
Coding Scheme-3 Level: -66.4 dBm
Coding Scheme-4 Level: -58.7dBm
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Figure 24: Details of the coverage for CS-2 with 240 sites
The above table shows the covered area with the required threshold for GPRS Coding scheme 2 for
different clutters. As we see comparing to the GSM coverage CS2 gives us a better coverage than
GSM.
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6.2.4 GPRS Coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS3 with 240 sites
Figure 25: GPRS CS-3 coverage for 240 sites
Coverage
Coding Scheme-1 Level: -71.8 dBm
Coding Scheme-2 Level: -68.1 dBm
Coding Scheme-3 Level: -66.4 dBm
Coding Scheme-4 Level: -58.7dBm
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Figure 26: Details of the coverage for CS-3 with 240 sites
The covered area with the required threshold for GPRS Coding scheme 3 for different
clutters, is shown in the above table. We can see how the covered area is almost the
same as GSM coverage. That means with an existing GSM network we can meet at
least the GPRS CS3 threshold for this network.
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6.2.5 GPRS Coverage for Paris within the periphery area for CS4 with 240 sites
Figure 27: GPRS CS-4 coverage for 240 sites with 240 sites
Coverage
Coding Scheme-1 Level: -71.8 dBm
Coding Scheme-2 Level: -68.1 dBm
Coding Scheme-3 Level: -66.4 dBm
Coding Scheme-4 Level: -58.7dBm
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Figure 28: Details of the coverage for CS-4
The above table shows the covered area with the required threshold for GPRS Coding
scheme 4 for different clutters. As we can see the covered area in the objective areas is
shrinking comparing to the GSM coverage. That means we cannot meet the GPRS CS4
threshold for this network.
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7 Capacity Dimensioning
The notion of running a new data service on residue capacity in the GSM network may
seem at first to relegate GPRS to the status of a second class service. However, a few
simple calculations will show us that the residue capacity in a typical cell is more than
enough to provide a high level of service to IP traffic. Table 2 shows the capacity of a
shared 4 carriers (30 channel) cell operating at a circuit switched blocking level of 1% - a
typical design level.
Cell capacity 30 channels
Circuit switched capacity @ 1% blocking 20 Erlangs, i.e 20
channels average
Resultant capacity for IP data traffic 10 channels
Resultant end user IP throughput available
1
100kbit/s
Note 1: assumes Coding Scheme 2 (CS2) ie approximately 10kbit/s per channel.
Table 11: Typical loading capability of a GSM cell (4 carriers)
What this tells us is that in a cell where we can support an average of 20 voice users we
can also support a data throughput of 100kbit/s. If each of the data users requires an
average throughput of 5kbit/s (not untypical in a bursty data environment) the cell can
also support 20 data users. In practice since only 10-20% of data users will want to
transfer data simultaneously, the peak data rate available per user will be in the region of
25 50kbit/s.
This simplistic calculation needs to be refined to take account of the probability of
multiple users all requiring instantaneous transmission of large files of data, but in
practice when such occasions arise the end result will simply be that all users will
experience slow data transfer, the files will still transfer successfully.
Theoretically a GSM network having 2% blocking and having 1 TRX a sector will have traffic
2.9 Erlangs. This means there is 7 timeslots available for usage. A cell offering a circuit-
switched load of 2.9 Erlangs with 7 circuits will, on average, have 4.1 spare circuits.
However, there is a certain overhead associated with the division of the circuit-switched area
and the GPRS area. Due to this reason by simulation tests done the available circuits for
GPRS is reduced from 4.1 to 3.1 circuits. On the other hand if this overhead in not
considered this will lead to adverse effects of increased blocking percentage. Therefore the
mean free time slots in a circuit-switched environment will be 1. This can be extended to 14,
22 etc timeslots depending on the traffic with a blocking of 2% as shown in the table below.
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No of TRX (TCH) GSM Traffic @ 2%
blocking (Erl)
Mean free TCH for
GPRS (2%
blocking)
Mean free Time
Slots in Circuit
Switch
1(7) 2.9 3.1 1.0
2(14) 8.2 4.3 1.5
3(22) 14.9 5.6 1.5
4(30) 21.9 5.6 2.5
5(38) 29.2 5.8 3.0
6(46) 36.5 6.5 3.0
7(54) 43.9 7.1 3.0
8(62) 51.5 6.5 4.0
Table 12: Mean free time slots for GPRS in a circuit-switch
What the foregoing example tells us is that for a large number of cells in a GSM network,
the existing capacity of the network will suffice to provide a good quality data service to a
large community of data customers. In practice, the take-up of GPRS will not be
instantaneous across the GSM customer base from day one, so it will be possible to
monitor usage and performance as GPRS usage grows, to validate performance
expectations.
There are a number of cases where the existing capacity of a GSM network will not be
sufficient to provide a satisfactory level of service to GPRS users:
- In existing network hotspots, where the circuit switched network is congested.
- In locations where high usage of GPRS data service is encountered (e.g. in-
building cells)
- In multilayer networks where one layer of the network is used in high
utilization mode ie where the blocking level on circuit switched traffic is
knowingly driven up in order to achieve high levels of channel utilization.
In all these cases, additional carrier capacity must be provided to offer GPRS traffic
suitable throughput.
The real answer to the radio network dimensioning challenge will come from experience.
Experience will tell us whether the busy hour for voice traffic (circuit switched) coincides
with that for data traffic. Experience will also tell us whether the geographic spread of
data usage matches that of voice. Finally, experience will tell us what sort of use
customers make of GPRS, what sort of file sizes are transported, and what sort of
speeds they require. Careful monitoring of loading and service levels experienced on
GPRS in the growth phase of the service will enable dimensioning decisions to be made
ahead of growth.
All the foregoing analysis and discussion has assumed provision of equal performance
across GPRS users on a GSM network. However, the GPRS standards proved for users
to be given differential service levels. In particular, users may be offered a precedence
class that promotes their data to first in the queue when encountering shared radio (or
Core network) resources. Once this feature is developed by equipment vendors it will be
possible to offer a subset of GPRS users premium service, guaranteeing high levels of
throughput even if the cell they are in is heavily loaded.
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7.1 Network Performance
The two major measures of GPRS performance are:
Peak Throughput: the rate at which data is transferred
Latency: the time taken for data packets to pass through the GPRS bearer
7.1.1 Peak Throughput
An overview of GPRS peak throughputs based on the number of timeslosts available in
GPRS handsets, and the Coding Schemes supported by the network is shown in Table
13.
Timeslots CS-1 (kbps)
Raw throughput/
Useable data
CS-2 (kbps)
Raw throughput/
Useable data
1 9.05/7.41 13.4/11.11
2 18.1/14.29 26.8/22.22
3 27.15/22.22 40.2/33.33
4 36.2/28.57 53.6/40
Table 13 Typical GPRS Peak Throughputs
The key drivers for peak throughput are:
Mobile terminal timeslots / available radio capacity
Radio coding scheme
Protocol overhead
Radio blocking level
Timeslots - As shown in the table, the number of timeslots (TS) that a mobile terminal
has will drive the peak throughput. Initial GPRS terminals are expected to be on the
order of 1 TS uplink and 2 TS downlink (1U/2D). Future handsets are likely to have at
least 4 TS downlink, and perhaps multiple uplink TSs. It is also important to remember
that the throughputs in Table 16 are peak throughputs and are only achievable if there
is sufficient capacity available in the radio network support them. In busy times when
multiple GSM and GPRS users are vying for the same timeslots, the actual throughput
will vary and will often be well below the peak level.
Coding Schemes - The second key driver of throughput is the radio interface coding
scheme. As shown in Table 16, higher coding schemes offer greater throughputs.
GPRS offers four coding schemes, but initial supplier GPRS radio infrastructure offerings
are expected to be limited to CS-1 and CS-2. Higher CS coding levels also result in
greater C/I levels which results in reduced coverage areas. For CS-2 the coverage area
is not significantly lower that CS-1, but coverage is progressively reduced for CS-3 and
CS-4. Due to the reliability of CS1 this coding scheme is always used for signalling
packets. Whereas it is planned that a bursty data transfer always start with CS1 for the
first data packets. The resource management shall use a higher CS if it is possible.
The actual performance of each of these CS is dependent upon the chanel C/I. The
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interference has an influence to the BER. That means data services have specific
minimum and optimum C/I requirements. These requirements are higher than for voice.
The figure shows the possible throughput for the different CS as a function of the C/I.
Fig. 29: Data throughput Vs C/I for GPRS coding schemes
All four coding schemes are based on a standard GPRS coded block of 425 bits, which
consists of the Uplink State Flag (USF), the user data block (which is of varying size
depending on the coding scheme being used) and a Block Check Sequence (BCS for
error detection). For CS1, CS2 and CS3, this radio block is then further coded with a
rate convolutional code. For CS2 & CS3 this is then punctured (some of the resulting
bits of the code are removed) in order to return the total coded length back to 456 bits for
transmission. For CS4, no forward error correction code is used and the only error
checking is the BCS.
The full parameters of the coding schemes are shown in Table 14 below, together with
the achieved raw user data rates.
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Coding
Scheme
Code
rate
USF
bits
Pre-
coded
USF
bits
Radio
Block bits
excl. USF
and BCS
BCS
bits
Tail
bits
Coded
bits
Punctured
bits
Raw
User
Data rate
kb/s
CS-1 3 3 181 40 4 456 0 9.05
CS-2 2/3 3 6 268 16 4 588 132 13.4
CS-3 3/4 3 6 312 16 4 676 220 15.6
CS-4 1 3 12 428 16 - 456 - 21.4
Table 14: Coding Parameters for the Coding Schemes.
7.2 System C/I Profile and Mean Data Rate per Channel
The C/I for a given user will depend on the location within the cell. Depending on the C/I
ratio and the frequency reuse factor, the probability of the C/I range within the cell for
each reuse factor can be compared.
Taking into consideration of a lognormal fading (Standard deviation of 7) simulation tests
show typical C/I distributions for different reuse patterns. This is show in the figure 30
below.
Figure 30: C/I distribution, 3-sector sites, 65 degree antennas, K=3,9 and 12
Also the data rate depends on the C/I and the coding schemes used. The figure 31
below shows the comparison of data rates for different C/I intervals.
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Figure 31: Typical data rate per C/I interval
Considering the probability and data rate for each C/I interval the mean data rate can be
calculated using the formula shown.
p
r
i
i
i
D

=
The results of the above formula are tabulated in the Table Y below showing for omni, sector,
reuse patterns and the data rate for the coding schemes.
Configuration Mean data rate (optimum)
kbps
(CS-1 and 2)
Mean data rate (optimum)
kbps
(CS-1, 2, 3 and 4)
Omni, K=3 9.8 12.4
Omni, K=9 12.5 17.3
Omni, K=12 12.8 18.2
3-Sector, K=3 11.4 15.1
3-Sector, K=9 12.9 18.7
3-Sector, K=12 13.1 19.3
Table 15: Mean data rate per channel for different coding schemes and configurations
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Protocol Overhead This causes the true user throughput to be significantly less than
the peak raw throughput. The raw user data rates assume an error free channel, and
exclude any higher layer protocol overheads, such as TCP/IP, and the link establishment
and control overheads. Therefore, the true peak user throughput rates for any of these
coding schemes will be lower, as shown earlier in Table 14.
An overview of the GPRS protocols that impact the useable peak data rate is shown
below in Table 16.
CS2, 2 TS CS2, 4 TS
Application Data 20.44kb/s 40.88 kb/s
TCP/IP 22.2 kb/s 44.44 kb/s
SNDCP 22.32 kb/s 44.64 kb/s
Logical Link 22.62 kb/s 45.24 kb/s
Radio Link 23.2 kb/s 46.4 kb/s
Radio Layer 26.8 kb/s 53.6 kb/s
Table 16 : Impact of GPRS protocol overheads on peak throughput
By adding headers and error detection trailers, each protocol reduces the effective
amount of useable data that is transmitted with a given packet. The method used for the
numbers quoted in Table 6 for useable data is the throughput that includes the TCP/IP
overhead. This is consistent with data rates quoted for other Internet communications;
however, TCP/IP itself adds a 40 bytes header per packet, leaving the final peak
throughout of actual application data at 6.81 kbps for CS-1 or 10.22 kbps for CS-2,
assuming no header compression.
Radio Blocking Finally, the actual useable peak throughput will be influenced by the
quality of the radio environment. The numbers for useable throughput described in this
section is all based on an ideal radio environment. The useable throughput achieved in
a real world radio environment is likely to be less than this, and can vary widely at
different times and locations in the network based on radio blocking levels and number
of required re-transmissions.
7.2.1 Latency
The major elements of latency and representative latency figures are provided below in
Table 17.
Latency Element Uplink TBF
Establishment
1TS
Ongoing
Uplink Latency
1 TS
Downlink TBF
Establishment
2TS
Ongoing
Downlink
Latency 2TS
MS Delay 250 ms 100 ms 150 ms 150 ms
TBF Establishment 400 ms 0 1000 ms 0
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Over the Air Delay 400 ms 400 ms 200 ms 200 ms
SGSN/GGSN
Latency
50 ms 50 ms 50 ms 50 ms
Total 1.1 seconds 0.55 seconds 1.4 seconds 0.4 seconds
Table 17: GPRS Latency Examples for 1 TS Uplink, and 2TS Downlink
These latency calculations are from the Mobile Station (MS) to the Gi GGSN interface to
external networks. Any delays in external to the GPRS network from interconnections via
the Internet or in application processing are not included.
In this example, a round trip ping which measures the time to send a packet to a server
outside the network and receive a response, the total time would be at approximately 2.5
seconds (1.1 uplink plus 1.4 downlink). Based on a 500 ms variance, a round trip ping
should generally take 2-3 seconds since radio resources must be allocated for a one
time ping. Subsequent transfers would only require about one second round trip as long
as the radio resources are allocated to GPRS, since Temporary Block Flow (TBF)
establishment would not be necessary.
The actual latency experienced by the user could also vary based on the specific way
the infrastructure is implemented by suppliers and the applications accessed. More
operational experience is required to understand which types of applications will require
frequent TBF set-ups and hence have greater latency.
The key elements of GPRS latency are defined below:
RLC Block Error Rate - the time taken to retransmit erroneous information due to errors
caused by the hostile radio environment. This rate is highly variable depending on radio
conditions. For the purposes of the examples in Table 17, ideal radio conditions are
assumed and no delay is accounted for.
Mobile Station (MS) delay - the time taken by the Mobile Station (MS) to process an IP
datagram and request radio resource. This includes the delay from the PC to MS, and
the MS processing time. This delay is typically less than 100ms, with the exception of
the processing to establish a request for an uplink TBF channel, which could be in the
order of 100-200 ms.
Temporary Block Flow (TBF) Establishment/Cleardown Time - the time it takes the
BSS/PCU to provide and release the radio resources required by the user to enable data
transfer to take place in either the uplink or downlink. This only occurs on the first
transmission, and is not required for subsequent transmissions as long as the resources
are allocated to GPRS. The time for TBF establishment can be on the order of 500 ms
to 1s and is independent upon the amount of data to be transferred.
Throughput over the air delay - the rate at which user data is physically transmitted from
the MS to the SGSN once a TBF is established. This delay is directly related to the size
of the IP datagram being sent. The smaller the packet sizes the shorter the delay. For
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the examples used we are assuming an MTU (Message Transmission Unit) of 400- 600
kbytes for a 400ms delay for 1 TS. This delay is proportionally reduced for multiple
timeslot MSs.
SGSN/GGSN delay - the delay for the packet to transit through the SGSN and GGSN.
This should be almost negligible, and is assumed to be less than 50ms.
8 Capacity case study
Generic impact of the migration of GSM towards GPRS on capacity
The report investigates GPRS migration and its impact on existing GSM network capacity.
The following example aims to shed light on the various options available to the network
planners.
Assumptions
The city comprises of 30,000 subscribers
A city is covered by 9 base stations regularly located
in a grid (3x3)
Each base station is 3-sectored with 3 TRXs per
sector
Traffic demand is almost uniform geographically
20mErlang per subscriber during busy hour- GSM
2% blocking probability
For GPRS Coding schemes 1 & 2 will be offered
8.1 Case one: Adding TRXs without considering dedicated TSLs to GPRS
users
There are 9 sites (all with three sectors). So the number of the subscribers per sector will
be:
30000 / 27 = 1111.1111 Subscribers
The required traffic per sector:
1111.1111 x 20 mE = 22.2222 Erlangs/ sector
Considering 2% blocking, from the Erlang B table 14.9 Erlangs can offered with 3 TRXs
per sector. However the traffic offered is 22.22 Erlangs. Therefore the network suffers
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with a 15.7% blocking which is not acceptable. So we need to increase the TRXs to
meet the required blocking.
According to the Erlang-B equation we can offer a 21.9 Erlangs traffic with 4 TRXs for
2% blocking. The traffic offered is 22.22 Erlangs. This is very close to our need but is
still not enough.
So lets try to find how many more TRXs we need after adding one TRX to each sector.
With 4 TRXs/sec sites we will offer:
21.9 x 27= 591.3 Erlangs traffic offered
While the demand for traffic is:
30000 x 0.020 = 600 Erlang
That means we still need to offer 8.7 Erlangs more:
600 591.3 = 8.7 Erlangs
for offering an additional of 8.7 Erlang we need to change some of the sectors to 5TRXs
from 4TRXs. Any change from 4TRXs to 5TRXs gives us 7.3 Erlang more for that
sector:
29.2 [the traffic offered by 5TRXs] 21.9 [the traffic offered by 5TRXs] = 7.3 Erlangs
more
8.7 [the required traffic] / 7.3 = 1.4 sectors or approximately 2 sectors. In other words
2 sectors will have to be upgraded with 5 TRXs.
This can be achieved by adding only two more TRXs in total. (i.e. all the sectors should
be up graded to 4 TRXs except two of them that should be 5 TRXs).
In fact, in a real network we usually dont have a uniform traffic and it is very likely to
have more traffic in some regions. In that case, with taking the statistics into account
these two sectors can be chosen.
8.1.1 GPRS migration
According to Table 12 the number of free time slots in a circuit switched territory for
4TRXs sectors we have to leave 2.5 TSLs in order to not to exceed 2% blocking during
GPRS usage.
We have then:
TSL available for GPRS = Total channels - used traffic - 2.5
= 30 - 21.9 - 2.5
= 5.6 Timeslots available for GPRS
The mean data rate per Timeslot for CS1 & CS2 having the frequency reuse
configuration of 3 sec./ 9 is 12.9 kbps. That means:
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Total Data Rate in Cell = 12.9 x 5.6 = 72.24 kbps (in busy hour)
According to the number of free time slots in a circuit switched territory for 5TRXs
sectors we have to leave 3 TSLs in order not to exceed 2% blocking during GPRS
usage.
We have then:
TSL available for GPRS = Total channels - used traffic - 3
= 38 (21.9 + 8.7/2) - 3
= 8.7 Timeslots available for GPRS in the 5TRXs sectors
That means:
Total Data Rate in Cell = 12.9 x 8.7 = 112.23 kbps (in busy hour)
8.2 Case two: Adding TRXs with considering two dedicated TSLs to GPRS
users
In this case we consider two dedicated TSLs for each sector. There are 9 sites (all with
three sectors). So the number of the subscribers per sector will be:
30000 / 27 = 1111.1111 Subscribers
The required traffic per sector:
1111.1111 x 20 mE = 22.2222 Erlangs/ sector
Considering 2% blocking, from the Erlang B table 14.9 Erlangs are offered with 3 TRXs
per sector. From the previous analysis this network suffered from 15.7% blocking which
is not acceptable. Again the situation will be even worse with the GPRS usage. Because
after assigning two TSLs for GPRS, GSM traffic will we left out with 20 TSLs which
causes 21.5% blocking. So we need to increase the TRXs to meet the required blocking.
The number of available TSLs for GSM after dedicating two channels for GPRS will be:
Considering 4 TRXs per sector Available TSLs for GSM= 32 2 [for control channels]
2 [for GPRS] = 28 TSLs
According to the Erlang-B equation we can offer a 20.2 Erlangs traffic with 4 TRXs (28
TSLs) for 2% blocking. This is close to our need but is still not enough.
So lets try to find how many more TRXs we need after adding one TRX to each sector.
With 4 TRXs/sec sites we will offer:
20.2 x 27= 545.4 Erlangs traffic offered
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While the demand for traffic is:
30000 x 0.020 = 600 Erlang
That means we still need to offer 54.6 Erlangs more:
600 545.4 = 54.6 Erlangs
The available TSLs for GSM with 5 TRXs are:
Available TSLs for GSM= 40 2 [for control channels] 2 [for GPRS] = 36 TSLs
According to the Erlang-B equation we can offer a 27.4 Erlangs traffic with 5 TRXs (36
TSLs) for 2% blocking. Which 20.2 of it is already considered. That means for each
sector with 5 TRXs 7.2 more Erlangs is offered. The no. of the 5 TRXs sectors can be
found then:
27.4 [Erlangs offered by 5TRXs] 20.2 [Erlangs offered by 4TRXs] = 7.2 [Erlangs
added]
And:
Number of Sectors with 5 TRXs = 54.6 / 7.2 = 7.6 (or 8 sectors)
8.2.1 GPRS migration
According to the Table 12 number of free time slots in a circuit switched territory for
4TRXs sectors we have to leave 2.5 TSLs in order to not to exceed 2% blocking during
GPRS usage.
We have then:
TSL available for GPRS = Total channels - used traffic - 2.5
= 30 20.2 - 2.5
= 7.3 Timeslots available for GPRS
The mean data rate per Timeslot for CS1 & CS2 having the frequency reuse
configuration of 3 sec./ 9 is 12.9 kbps. That means:
Total Data Rate in Cell = 12.9 x 7.3 = 94.17 kbps (in GSM busy hour)
According to the number of free time slots in a circuit switched territory for 5TRXs
sectors we have to leave 3 TSLs to not to exceed 2% blocking during GPRS usage.
We have then:
TSL available for GPRS = Total channels - used traffic - 3
= 38 (20.2 + 54.6/8) - 3
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= 7.975 Timeslots available for GPRS in the 5TRXs sectors
That means:
Total mean Data Rate in Cell = 12.9 x 7.975 = 102.88 kbps (in busy hour)
For both 4 TRX sectors and 5 TRX sectors we will have the minimum data rate of:
12.9 x 2 [dedicated TSLs to GPRS] = 25.8 kbps
8.3 Case three: Adding new sites with considering two dedicated TSLs to
GPRS users
The demanded traffic is:
0.020 x 30000 =600 Erlangs
The offered traffic is:
13.2 [for 20 TSLs] x 27 [sectors] = 356.4 Erlangs
so we need to offer 243.6 Erlangs more:
600 356.4 = 243.6 Erlangs
Then the required no. of sites (based on 3 TRXs per sector) will be:
243.6 / (13.2 x 3) = 6.15 Sites (or 7 sites)
8.3.1 GPRS migration
The traffic handled by each sector is:
600 [demanded traffic] / (9 + 7) x 3 = 12.5 Erlangs
According to the Table 12 number of free time slots in a circuit switched territory for
3TRXs sectors we have to leave 1.5 TSLs in order to not to exceed 2% blocking during
GPRS usage.
We have then:
TSL available for GPRS = Total channels - used traffic - 1.5
= 24 2 [control] 12.5 [used traffic] - 1.5
= 8 Timeslots available for GPRS
The mean data rate per Timeslot for CS1 & CS2 having the frequency reuse
configuration of 3 sec./ 9 is 12.9 kbps. That means:
Total mean Data Rate in Cell = 12.9 x 8 = 103.2 kbps (in GSM busy hour)
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And the minimum data rate will be:
12.9 x 2 [dedicated TSLs to GPRS] = 25.8 kbps
9 Mobiles availability
Availability of GPRS handsets, which include: GSM/GPRS mobile Internet phones,
Personal Digital Assistants with the GSM/GPRS PC Card modem or with a GSM/GPRS
mobile Internet phone used as a modem and GSM/GPRS PC Card modems, is a big
factor.
There are expected to be many more GPRS enabled phones coming to market over the
next six months. However, more critical right now to the development of the GPRS
market is the availability of GPRS-enabled PDAs and other hand-held computing
devices. To date none of the popular PDA devices on the market has a network
approved GPRS enabled version commercially available. Given the expectation that the
GPRS market will build initially around business applications, this is a problem.
In the table below shows the available GPRS hand sets in the market.
9.1 Worldwide GPRS Terminals and Handsets
9/25/01
Vendor Model Frequency Available
Alcatel One Touch 502
One Touch 700
702
900/1800
900/1800
900/1800
Q2 2001
Q4 2001
Q4 2001
Audiovox GP710 Yes
Ericsson R520
R600
T39
T65
T68
900/1800/1900
900/1800
900/1800/1900
900/1800
900/1800/1900
Yes
Q4 2001 / Q1 2002
Yes
Q4 2001
Q4 2001
GTran Wireless Dot Surfer
PCMCIA
Wireless Dot Surfer
PCMCIA
1800 only
900/1800/1900
Q3 2001
Q4 2001
Maxon MX 7810 EGSM 900/GSM 1800 Q4 2001
Mitsubishi /
Trium
Trium G360
Trium G520
Trium GT550
Trium Eclipse
Trium Geo GPRS
900/1800
900/1800
900/1800
900/1800
900/1800
Q3 2001
Q1 2002
Q1 2002
Available
Available
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Trium Mondo
Trium Sirius
900/1800
900/1800
Available
Available
Motorola Accompli 008
Accompli 009
Talkabout 192
Timeport 260
Timeport 280
Timeport P7382i
Timeport P7389i
V. Series 66
V. Series 120
900/1800/1900
900/1800/1900
900/1800/1900
900/1800/1900
900/1800/1900
1900 only
900/1800/1900
900/1800/1900
900/1800/1900
Yes
Q4 2001
Q3 2001
Yes
Q3 2001
Yes
Yes
Q3 2001
Q4 2001
NEC DB4300
DB7000
900/1800
900/1800
Q4 2001
Q4 2001
Nokia 6310
8310
900/1800
900/1800
Q4 2001
Q3 2001
Novatel Merlin G100 PCMCIA
Merlin G100 PCMCIA
1900 only
900/1800
Q2 2001
Q3 2001
Panasonic GD95
GD96
900/1800 Yes
Q4 2001 / Q1 2002
Philips Fisio 610
Fisio 611
Fisio 612
Xenium 9660
900/1800 Q3 2001
Q1 2002
Q1 2002
Q3 2201
Pogo GPRS SmartPhone Q4 2001
Sagem MC850
MW 959
MWX1
900/1800
900/1800
900/1800
Q4 2001
Yes
Q4 2001
Samsung SGH-Q100 900/1800 Yes
Sendo Z100 900/1800/1900 Q4 2001
Sharp Zaurus Q4 2001
Siemens ME45
S45
EGSM 900/GSM 1800
EGSM 900/GSM 1800
Yes
Yes
Xircom PCMCIA modem Q3 2001
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SIEMENS, S45
Siemens first GPRS Phone, the S45, is an innovative mobile business tool with an
outstanding performance via high-speed data transfer and flexible memory
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ERICSSON, T39
The T39 was first launched on the Swedish and Italian markets. Reaction from
consumers has been positive.
T39 has plenty of features of interest to a broad market.
To date, the T39 is available in stores all over Europe. And it will become available on
the Asian and U.S. markets shortly.
NOKIA, 6310
Availability: Europe, Africa,
Asia Pacific
Key features: GPRS, HSCSD,
Bluetooth, WAP 1.2.1, voice
recorder, voice commands, voice
dialing
Operating frequency: EGSM
900/1800 networks in Europe,
Africa and Asia Pacific
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NOKIA, 8310
Availability: Europe, Africa,
Asia Pacific
Key features: Latest look and
feel, WAP over GPRS,
integrated FM radio, user
changeable front and back
covers, voice features
Operating frequency: EGSM
900/1800 networks in Europe,
Africa, and Asia Pacific
MOTOROLA, P7389i
Microbrowser for web access
(01)
on the go
Tri-band GSM 900/1800/1900
MHz networks (provides roaming
in select cities in Europe, Asia or
America)
Built-In Microbrowser - access
Directions, Stock quotes, and
Airline information, all wireless!
(01)
iTAP software for simplified
text entry - anticipates the word
you are trying to spell when
entering text in email, short
messages or other edit modes.
Supports European Operators
Standard - SMG 31
International Access
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SAMSUNG, SGH-Q100
Multy Slot: Class 8 (1Tx, 4Rx)
LCD display: 4 Gray Graphic, 128x128 pixels up to 6 lines
Wap 1.1
Wap Interactive game
PC synchronization using easy GPRS-SMS edit
Data communication with PC using the RS-232C cable