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1. This chart lists the resources o the Earth.
!. These resources "ust #e careull$ loo%e& ater a#& use& #ecause the$ sustai' lie a'& are
use& e(er$&a$.
). All li(i'* thi'*s+ i'clu&i'* "a'+ ,ill &ie i there ,ere 'o ,ater or air.
1. A#out three./uarters o the Earth0s surace is co(ere& ,ith ,ater.
!. Hu"a' #ei'*s+ a'i"als a'& 1la'ts ca''ot li(e ,ithout ,ater.
). -ater also a habitat or a lar*e (ariet$ o 1la'ts a'& a'i"als.
2. The importance of water to human beings and animals.
a3 A#out 456 o the hu"a' #o&$ co'sists o ,ater. The "ai' co"1o'e't i' our #loo& is ,ater.
#3 -ater is re/uire& to &issol(e ,aste 1ro&ucts such as urea a'& tra's1ort the" out o the
c3 E(a1oratio' o ,ater 7s,eat3 ro" the #o&$ cools the #o&$ a'& "ai'tai's the te"1erature
o the #o&$.
&3 -ater is re/uire& to &i*est oo& a'& tra's1ort the &i*este& oo& to the cells o the #o&$.
e3 -ater is re/uire& or all che"ical 1rocesses i' the cells such as the 1rocess o respiration
i.e. #ur'i'* *lucose i' the cells to o#tai' e'er*$.
3 -ater "oiste's the suraces o lu'*s or e8cha'*e o *ases to ta%e 1lace &uri'*
*3 -ater "ai'tai's the sha1e a'& su11orts the #o&$ o a'i"als such as earth,or"s a'&
h3 A/uatic a'i"als such as ish+ ,hales+ 1ra,'s a'& coc%les ca''ot li(e ,ithout ,ater.
9. Hu"a' #ei'*s also use ,ater or:
a3 tur'i'* tur#i'es a'& &$'a"os h$&roelectric statio's to *e'erate electricit$.
#3 se1arati'* ti' ore ro" earth i' a 01alu'*0
c3 cooli'* car ra&iators i' "otor cars
&3 tra's1orti'* *oo&s a'& 1eo1le #$ ri(ers a'& seas.
e3 ,ashi'*+ #athi'* a'& coo%i'* i' our ho"es.
;. The importance of water to plants.
a3 Pla'ts ,ither a'& &ie i the$ &o 'ot ha(e ,ater.
#3 See&s &o 'ot *er"i'ate ,ithout ,ater.
c3 <ree' 1la'ts 'ee& ,ater to "a%e oo& 71hotos$'thesis3 i' su'li*ht.
&3 -ater tra's1ort oo& ro" the lea(es to other 1arts o the 1la't.
e3 -ater cools the 1la't ,he' it is transpired ro" the lea(es.
1. Our Earth is surrou'&e& #$ a la$er o air calle& the atmosphere.
!. This la$er o air is i"1orta't #ecause it 1rotects us ro" the har"ul ra$s ro" the su'.
). Hu"a' #ei'*s+ a'i"als a'& 1la'ts ca''ot sur(i(e without air.
2. Air is i"1orta't #ecause it is re/uire& or:
a3 re1iratio'
#3 co"#usio'
c3 &eca$
&3 1hotos$'thesis.
9. Respiration
a3 res1iratio' is carrie& out #$ hu"a' #ei'*s+a'i"als a'& 1la'ts.
#3 It is the 1rocess o #ur'i'* oo& i' o8$*e' 7o8i&isi'*3 i' the cells o the #o&$ to *et
e'er*$. Duri'* the 1rocess+ car#o' &io8i&e a'& ,ater are set ree as ,aste 1ro&ucts.
c3 The ai" o res1iratio' is to *et e'er*$ or carr$i'* out the lie 1rocesses.
&3 A'$ li(i'* thi'* e'close& i' a co'tai'er ,ill &ie &ue to lac% o air 7o8$*e'3.
e3 Astro'auts *oi'* i'to outer s1ace #ri'* o8$*e' 7i' c$li'&ers3 alo'* ,ith the".
3 Mou'tai' cli"#ers a'& &ee1 sea &i(ers carr$ alo'* c$li'&ers o o8$*e' or #reathi'*.
;. Combustion
a3 Co"#ustio' or #ur'i'* 'ee&s air 7o8$*e'3.
#3 No su#sta'ce ca' #ur' ,ithout o8$*e'.
c3 =ur'i'* 1ro&uces car#o' &io8i&e as ,ell as ,ater a'& e'er*$ i' the or" o heat a'& li*ht.
4. Decay
a3 Deca$ is a 1rocess o #rea%i'* u1 a su#sta'ce i'to si"1ler a'& s"aller 1arts #$ #acteria
a'& u'*i.
#3 The 1rocess o &eca$ uses o8$*e'.
c3 Deca$ is i"1orta't #ecause it re"o(es u',a'te& or*a'ic su#sta'ces ro" our
>. Photosynthesis.
a3 Photos$'thesis is the 1rocess #$ ,hich *ree' 1la'ts "a%e oo& i' su'li*ht.
#3 This 1rocesses uses ,ater a'& car#o' &io8i&e ro" the air+ a'& 1ro&uces *lucose a'&
c3 This 1rocess 'ee&s the 1rese'ce o lea.*ree' 7chloro1h$ll3 a'& li*ht e'er*$.
&3 Photos$'thesis is i"1orta't #ecause ,ithout it there ,ill #e 'o 1la'ts+ a'i"als or hu"a'
e3 Photos$'thesis #ala'ces u1 the 1rocesses o res1iratio'+ co"#ustio' a'& &eca$.
1. Soil is the irst la$er o 1articles o' the surace o the Earth. It is or"e& ro" the
,eatheri'* o roc%s.
!. Importance of soil.
a3 Soil is the ha#itat or a lar*e (ariet$ o 1la'ts a'& a'i"als such as earth,or"s+ i'sects a'&
#3 Soil or" the ou'&atio' or hu"a' #ei'*s to #uil& their ho"es.
c3 Soil co'tai's s1aces ,hich are ille& ,ith air or ,ater. This e'a#les 1la'ts a'& a'i"als to
li(e i' the soil.
&3 Soil is rich ,ith mineral salts such as the salts o 1otassiu"+ calciu"+ "a*'esiu" a'&
'itrates+ ,hich are re/uire& #$ 1la'ts to *ro, ,ell.
e3 Soil is rich i' humus 7&eca$e& 1arts o 1la'ts a'& a'i"als.3 Hu"us is a source o oo& or
a'i"als such as earth,or"s a'& 1ro(i&es "i'erals or 1la'ts.
3 Soil is also a (er$ useul su#sta'ce or hu"a' #ei'*s. Soil is use& or:
i. "a%i'* #ric%s or #uil&i'* houses a'& actories.
ii. "a%i'* ute'sils such as cu1s a'& saucers+ #o,ls+ tea1ots+ (ases a& lo,er 1ots.
*3 Soil allo,s us to carr$ out ar"i'* a'& so 1ro&uce oo& to ee& a'& i'creasi'* ,orl&
h3 Soil stores i"1orta't uels such as coal+ 'atural *as 1etroleu". These uels su11ort "a'$
1. Soil is rich i' mineral ores.
!. Mi'eral ores are i"1orta't #ecause the$ are use& to 1ro&uce "etals.
). So"e e8a"1les o ores are *i(e' i' the ta#le #elo,.
2. The ores are heate& i' lar*e ur'aces to o#tai' the "etals.
Fossil Fuels
1. Coal+ 'atural *as a'& 1etroleu" are calle& fossil fuels. This is #ecause the$ ,ere or"e& i'
the earth lo'*+ lo'* a*o.
!. Fossil uels ,ere or"e& ro" 1la'ts a'& a'i"als ,hich #eca"e #urie& i' the earth.
). Fossil uels are i"1orta't #ecause the$ are "ai'l$ use& to ru' our i'&ustries.
2. 7a3 Coal is actuall$ car#o' ,hich has #ee' har&e'e& #$ *reat 1ressure i' the earth.
7#3 Coal is use&:
i. i' ur'aces or e8tracti'* "etals ro" the ores.
ii. or heati'* #oilers to *et stea" to tur' &$'a"os a'& 1ro&uce electricit$.
iii. or ,ar"i'* #ouses i' ,i'ter i' col& cou'tries.
9. 7a3 Natural gas is ou'& tra11e& i' the earth.
7#3 It is use& as a uel a'& also as a ra, "aterial or 1ro&uci'* h$&ro*e'+ urea+ alcohol
a'& a""o'ia
;. 7a3 Petroluem su11lies a#out hal o the e'er*$ 'ee&e& #$ the ,orl&.
7#3 It is ou'& as a thic%+ #lac% li/ui& i' certai' areas o the earth.
7c3 Pertoleu" is the source or "a'$ 1ro&ucts+ so"e o these are sho,' i' the i*ure
Pla'ts a'& A'i"als
1. Pla'ts a'& a'i"als are i"1orta't to hu"a' #ei'*s #ecause hu"a' #ei'*s ca''ot sur(i(e
,ithout 1la'ts a'& a'i"als.
!. Pla'ts a'& a'i"als are the sources or:
a3 oo&
#3 clothes
c3 #uil&i'* "aterials
&3 uel
These "aterials are the #asic 'ee&s o hu"a' #ei'*s.
1. The resources o' Earth e8ist i' three &ieret or" i.e. as elements, compounds a'&
!. <e'erall$+ "atter ca' #e &i(i&e& i'to ele"e'ts+ co"1ou'&s a'& "i8tures+ a'& classiie& as
). A' atom is the s"allest 1article i' a' ele"e't.
2. A molecule is a co"#i'atio' o a *rou1 o ato"s. A "olecule ca' co'sist o o'e or "ore
tha' o'e t$1e o ato".
9. There are t,o t$1es o "olecules i.e. "olecules that co'sist o o'e t$1e o ele"e't+ li%e
o8$*e' a'& "olecules that co'sist o &iere't t$1es o ele"e'ts+ li%e a""o'ia.
;. The su""ar$ o the classiicatio' o a "olecule is sho,' i' the chart #elo,.
1. A' element is a su#sta'ce ,hich ca''ot #e s1lit u1 i'to si"1ler su#sta'ces #$ a'$ 1h$sical
or che"ical 1rocess.
!. A' ele"e't is the si"1lest %i'& o "atter.
). A' ele"e't is a su#sta'ce "a&e u1 o o'e t$1e o 1article o'l$.
2. The 1article i' a' ele"e't co'sist o ato"s or "olecules o the sa"e t$1e.
9. Co11er+ iro'+ lea&+ *ol& o8$*e'+ h$&ro*e'+ 'itro*e'+ etc. are e8a"1les o ele"e'ts.
;. Ele"e'ts li%e co11er+ iro'+ lea& a'& *ol& co'sist o ato"s ,hereas ele"e'ts li%e o8$*e'+
h$&ro*e' a'& 'itro*e' co'sist o "olecules.
4. Ele"e'ts ca' e8ist i' three &iere't states+ i.e soli&+ li/ui& or *aseous.
1. Ele"e'ts ca' #e classiie& as either "etallic ele"e'ts or 'o'."etallic ele"e'ts i.e "etals a'&
!. All "etallic ele"e'ts are soli& at roo" te"1erature e8ce1t or "ercur$.
). No'."etallic ele"e'ts ca' e8ist i' three states i.e soli&+ li/ui& a'& *aseous.
2. The ollo,i'* sho,s e8a"1les o "atellic ele"e'ts a'& 'o'."etallic ele"e'ts.
1. Metals ha(e a shi'$ a11eara'ce.
!. Metals are har&+ "allea#le a'& &uctile i.e. ca' #e %'oc%e& i'to sha1e a'& &ra,' i'to ,ires
,ithout #rea%i'*.
). Metals co'&uct heat a'& electricit$.
2. Metals ha(e hi*h "elti'* a'& #oili'* 1oi'ts.
9. The &e'sit$ o "etals is hi*h.
;. The te'sile stre'*th o "etals is hi*h.
1. No'."etals ha(e a &ull a11eara'ce. The surace o 'o'."etals &oes 'ot shi'e.
!. No'."etals are sot a'& #rittle.
). No'."etals 7i'sulator3+ e8ce1t *ra1hite+ &o 'ot co'&uct heat a'& electricit$.
2. No'."etals ha(e lo, "elti'* a'& #oili'* 1oi'ts.
9. The &e'sit$ o 'o'."etals is usuall$ lo,.
;. The te'sile stre'*th o 'o'."etals is lo,.
4. The su""ar$ o the &iere'ces #et,ee' "etals a'& 'o'."etals are sho,' o' the
ollo,i'* 1a*e.
>. A' e81eri"e't is carrie& out to stu&$ the 1ro1erties o "etals a'& 'o'."etals.
E81eri"e't 1
=elo, are so"e e8a"1les sho,i'* the uses o "etals a'& 'o'."etals a'& the 1ro1erties that
"a%e the" suita#le or use.
1. A compound is a su#sta'ce that co'tai's t,o or "ore ele"e'ts che"icall$ co"#i'e&
!. The 1ro1erties o a co"1ou'& are &iere't ro" those o their co'stitue't ele"e'ts. A
co"1ou'& #eco"es a' e'tirel$ 'e, su#sta'ce a'& the ori*i'al su#sta'ces &o 'ot %ee1
their ori*i'al 1ro1erties.
). E8a"1les o co"1ou'&s are iro' rust 7iro' o8i&e3+ "a*'esiu" o8i&e+ car#o' &io8i&e a'&
co11er sul1hate.
2. The s"allest 1ossi#le 1article o a co"1ou'& is a molecule.
9. A co"1ou'& "a$ #e se1arate& i'to its ele"e'ts #$ usi'* electricit$ 7a che"ical 1rocess3A
For e8a"1le+ ,he' a'& electric curre't 1asses throu*h a co11er chlori&e solutio'+ the
co11er chlori&e #rea%s u1 i'to soli& co11er a'& *aseous chlori'e. The 1rocess i' ,hich this
occurs is calle& electrol$sis.
1. A mixture is a su#sta'ce that co'sists o t,o or "ore su#sta'ces ,hich are 'ot Boi'e&
to*ether che"icall$.
!. There is 'o che"ical reactio' i' the or"atio' o "i8tures.
). The co'stitue'ts o a "i8ture %ee1 their o,' ori*i'al 1ro1erties ,hich are u'cha'*e&.
2. A "i8ture "a$ co'sists o ele"e'ts+ co"1ou'&s or #oth. Also+ the su#sta'ces i' a "i8ture
"a$ #e i' a soli&+ li/ui& or *aseous state.
1. Mi8ture o sul1hur a'& iro' is 1re1re& #$ "i8i'* iro' ili'*s ,ith sul1hur 1o,&er.
!. The #lac% iro' ili'*s a'& the $ello, sul1hur 1o,&er ca' #e clearl$ see' ,ith the u'ai&e&
). The iro' sul1hi&e co"1ou'& is 1re1are& #$ heati'* iro' ili'*s ,ith sul1hur 1o,&er.
2. The "i8ture *lo,s as a che"ical reactio' ta%es 1lace.
9. A 'e, #lac% su#sta'ce is 1ro&uce&. A co"1ou'& is or"e&.
1. The &iere'ces #et,ee' a "i8ture a'& a co"1ou'& ca' #e su""arise& as ollo,s:
!. The ollo,i'* e81eri"e't ca' #e carrie& out to sho, the &iere'ces #et,ee' co"1u'&s
a'& "i8tures.
E81eri"e't !
1. A "i8ture ca' #e se1arate& i'to its co'stitue'ts ,ithout a'$ che"ical cha'*es.
!. The co'stitue'ts o a "8ture ca' #e se1arate& usi'* 1h$sical "ea's as &escri#e& i' the
ollo,i'* 1a*e.
E81eri"e't )
E81eri"e't 2
1. The 'atural resources o earth i'clu&e:
a3 air
#3 ,ater
c3 soil
&3 1la'ts a'& a'i"als
e3 "i'eral ores
3 ossil uels
!. a3 Air+ ,ater a'& soil are rec$cle& i' 'ature.
#3 1la'ts a'& a'i"als re1ro&uce the"sel(es.
c3 These resources are renewable.
). a3 Mi'eral ores 7such as ti' ore a'& iro' ore3 a'& ossil uels 7such as coal+ 'atural *as a'&
1etroleu"3 ca''ot #e re'e,e& or nonrenewable.
#3 O'e &a$ resources ,ill #e use& u1.
2. Our 'atural resources "ust #e loo%e& ater a'& use& carefully #ecause lie o' earth
&e1e'&s o' the".
9. U'ortu'atel$ "a'0s acti(ities are ast &estro$i'* these resources.
;. These resources "ust #e 1rotecte& throu*h 1reser(atio'+ co'(ersatio' a'& rec$cli'*.
1.Preser!ation is the "ai'te'a'ce o Earth0s resources i' their 'atural e'(iro'"e't so that
the #ala'ce o 'ature is 'ot u1set.
. Preser(i'* orests e'a#les 1la'ts a'& a'i"als to lourish i' their 'atural e'(iro'"e't.
!. Co'(ersatio' is the careul a'& ,ise use o earth0s resources so that the$ are 'ot ,aste&
a'& ca' last lo'*.
). Rec$cli'* is reusi'* thi'*s such as 1a1er+ 1lastics+ *lass a'& "etals.
. Rec$cli'* 1a1er re&uces the cutti'* &o,' o trees.
2. Reaso's or 1reser(i'*+ co'ser(i'* a'& rec$cli'* earth0s resources i'clu&e the ollo,i'*.
a3 "ai'tai'i'* our *oo& health 71ollute& air a'& ,ater cause sic%'ess3
#3 e'suri'* our air a'& ,ater are al,a$s clea' a'& 1le'tiul or use 7to a(oi& ,ater shorta*e3
c3 "ai'tai'i'* the ertilit$ o soil a'& 1re(e'ti'* soil erosio' 7so that soil is suita#le or
ar"i'* a'& la'& is sae or #uil&i'* houses o'3
&3 1re(e'ti'* the e8ti'ctio' o 1la'ts a'& a'i"als such as Ralesia a'& ora'* uta' 7so that
our &esce'&a'ts ca' e'Bo$ ,atchi'* a'& stu&$i'* the"3
e3 "ai'tai'i'* a'& re1la'ti'* our orests 7so that lo*s are al,a$s a(aila#le3
3 e'suri'* that our resources are 'ot ,aste& a'& ca' last 7rec$cli'* alu"i'iu" ti's re&uces
the use o ores3
1. Earth0s resources ha(e #ee' #a&l$ aecte& #$ "a'0s acti(ities. The$ "ust #e 1rotecte&
#eore the$ #eco"e har"ul 7air a'& ,ater3+ are use& u1 7"i'erals ores a'& ossil uels3 or
e8ti'ct 71la'ts a'& a'i"als3
!. So"e ,a$s or 1reser(i'* a'& co'ser(i'* the" are *i(e' i' the ta#le #elo,.
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