Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 28

British Historians, Muslims and Tragedy of India

After conquering India, various officers of the (English) East India Company
wrote History of India. y depicting that the Indian !uslims were the rulers in
India "efore the English they created a "loating in the minds of Indian
!uslims leading to false pride and arrogance, intransigence, monstrous
am"itions, resulting ultimately in the partition of India in August #$%&.
'his impression is '('A))* +A),E. 'he rulers and the ruling class were
foreign !uslims and they utterly despised native Indian !uslims. I had given
some indications of this in my newsletter num"er - of #- +e"ruary #$./. )ater
on I found that historian ,etumadhavrao 0agdi, historian from !um"ai had
also stressed this vital point in his article in the 1iwali issue of !arathi
maga2ine Kirloskar in 3ovem"er #$&%. Here is the gist of the information.
0agdi says, 4I was always pu22led "y one thing when we read Indian History
in school. 'he prescri"ed te5ts contained three periods 6 Hindu Era, !uslim
Era and the ritish Era. 7hen there were Hindu and !uslim Eras, I could not
understand why the ritish Era was 3(' regarded as Christian Era. I never
got a satisfactory answer in my school days. 'hings were no different in my
college days. 7hen I read histories written "y li8es of 9incent ,mith I "ecame
aware of another tric8 of ritish historians. 'hey would e5tend !uslim Era till
#&-#, start ritish Era from #-:; (when the first ships of the East India
Company landed in ,urat) and <ust "riefly mention !aratha history in
passing.=
41uring my service under the 3i2am (#$;;>%.), I used to hear !uslims saying
that they ruled India for a thousand years. I was shoc8ed "y their claim and
decided to loo8 closer at this issue.=
0rophet !uhammed was an Ara". ,o, many !uslims try to stretch their
ancestry to Ara"s, "ut what was the true picture?
What was the extent of Arab rule?
4Ara"s came to India as merchants. (n the west coast they had their colonies
"ut had nothing to do with politics. Ara"s attac8ed ,indh on the orders of
Caliph of aghdad. !uhammad "in @asim defeated @ing 1ahir in the year
&#:.
'rue, Ara"s tried to invade in other parts of India, "ut Aur<ar 0ratihars of 1elhi,
appa Bawal of Chitod and Chalu8yas of Au<rat 8ept Ara"s in chec8. 'hus
Ara"s ruled ,indh for hundred to hundred and fifty years, later it was ruled "y
'ur8s.
C,indh ruled "y Hindoos, until conquered "y the !oslems, A.1. &##
Aoverned "y the deputies of the (mmiad Caliphs, A.1.&D:
Aoverned "y the deputies of the A""asides, till anne5ed "y !ahmud of
Aha2ni to his dominions in A.1. #:/D
Governed by a Sindhi tribe called the Sumrah, A.D. 1054
The Sammah a!"uts overthre# the Sumrahs A D. 1$15
1
Conquered "y ,hah eg Erghun, prince of @andahar, A.1 #D#$.
Anne5ed "y the English, #.%;
Beference >
Sindh and the races that inhibit the valley o% &ndus. "y Bichard + urton,
Beprinted "y (5ford Eniversity 0ress, #$&;
'hus, ,indh was ruled "y Hindoos for nearly D:: years. 7e have simply
forgotten this history.F
In the days of !uhammad 'ugluc8 (#;/% >#;D:) an Ara" 8night esta"lished a
small 8ingdom in 'amilnadu around !adura, "ut within one or two generations
they were ousted "y 8ings of 1aulataa"aad (1evagiri). In #;D%, Hindu rulers
of 9i<ayanagar a"sor"ed this 8ingdom within their rule. Apart from these two
e5amples, Ara"s did not rule in any part of India. However, hundreds of Ara"
families did migrate to India. 7e can still recognise them "y their names.=
Arab immigrants
4'a8e for instance, ,ayyad. !uhammad 0aigam"arGs daughter +atima was
married to Ali and had two sons Hasan and Hussein. 'heir descendents are
called ,ayyads. +amous ,ayyad "rothers (in the days of the first !aratha
0eshwa ala<i 9ishvanath 6 #&:& to #&/:), ,ir ,ayyad Ahmad @han (of
Aligad movement and who encouraged !uslims to 8eep away from the
Congress party and also demand separate status for !uslims), A"ul @alam
A2aad. !any ,ufi saints were also ,ayyads.
'here were ten Aurus among descendents of Hussein. 'hey were called
Imams and their names !usa, Bi2a, 3a8i, Hafar etc "ecame surnames li8e
!usavi, Bi2avi, 3a8avi, Hafari.
Among the !uslim population the ,ayyads were highly respected, in the
same manner as rahmins used to "e respected "y Hindu @ings. 'ur8s and
0athan rulers also showed respect to ,ayyads.=
4!uhammad 0aigam"ar was "orn in Iuereshi tri"e, hence the surname
Iuereshi. 'hey used to "e traders, hence the name Hashami. 7hen
!uhammad was not strong he was driven out of !ecca and had to see8
refuge in !edina. 'hose who "efriended him were called Ansaris (meaning
friends in Ara"ic language)=
4,ome of the descendents of Ali "ecame Alawi, those who descended from
Caliph Emar were +aru8hi, and those who descended from Caliph A"u a8r
were ,iddiquis.=
4'hese are some of the families who migrated to India.=
Thus Arab ancestry is nothin' to be "roud o%. &n &ndia there #ere never any
Arab Kin's or Generals or Governors.
Rulers were foreigners.
2
4'hings were again different in mediaeval times. 'hose who ruled were openly
foreigners. 'hey regarded Hindus converted to Islam and those foreign
merchants who had settled in India as Hindusthanis. Bulers on the other hand
regarded themselves as 'ur8s or 0athans and were proud of ruling the foreign
land of Hindusthan. 'his is especially true of those who ruled from 1elhiJ
though they were !uslims "y religion, "y race they were 'ur8s, Afghans or
0athans. 'his led to the popular concept that !uslim means 'ur8. In @annad
language !uslims are called 'ur8s. In Erdu, !uslims are also called 'ur8s.
,ame thing applies in 'elagu language. In mediaeval times, in Hindi language
!uslims were called 'ur8s 6 for e5ample, (Tum to nire Turk bhaye) or Kyou
have really "ecome 'ur8.G 9aga"onds or unclean people used to "e called
'ur8s in this way.=
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
)et us e5plore this su"<ect further
!any people are confused "y the word 'ur8. )et us see its proper meaning.
Turs
(5ford English 1ictionary says 6 'ur8oman, 'ur8man, 'urcoL !em"er of any
of various 'ur8ish tri"es in 'ur8estan, Afghanistan, 0ersia M Bussia.
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
0agdi says,
4'ur8s originated from Central Asia. !any confuse "etween 'ur8s and
!ongols. 'he two were "itter enemies for centuries. !ongols originated from
!ongolia (north of China). Aengi28han (##-/>#//&), @u"lai8han (#/#->#/$%)
first !ongol Emperor of China and grandson of Aengi28han etc were
!ongols, "ut they were 3(' !uslims. At one time (#;
th
and #%
th
century)
!ongols controlled vast areas from Iraq and East Bussia to @orea (including
China).=
4'ur8s, 'uranis, 'ur8mans and E2"e8s are neigh"ouring tri"es. 'hey came
from E2"e8istan (cities of 'ash8ent, ,amar8and, u8hara) 'ur8menistan,
,in8iang province of China (cities of *ar8and, @ashgar, @hohan) and al8h
and ahrushan areas of Afghanistan.=
4After Ara"s conquered Central Asia, 'ur8s accepted Islam in the $
th
century.
'ur8s then <oined the armies of Caliph of aghdad and spread all over the
Ara" empire. In the course of time the Caliphs "ecame rulers in name only.
'ur8s then spread west. 'odayGs 'ur8ey (Anatolia) was settled "y them. !any
!ilitary officers accepted the rule of Caliph for namesa8e "ut "ecame rulers
themselves. !ahmood of Aha2ni was one such ruler.=
How did Turs !ome to India?
4!ahmood of Aa2ni was the first 'ur8 who invaded 3orthern India #& times.
He destroyed the famous ,omnath temple in Au<arat for the last time in #:/-.
At the time of his death 'ur8ish rulers controlled 0un<a", 3orth 7est +rontier
0rovince and ,indh. !ahmoodGs descendents ruled till ##$:. y then a 'ur8
named !uhammad Ahori deposed the Aha2ni dynasty and attac8ed 1elhi. In
##$/, in the "attle of 'hanesar, he defeated 0rithvi Ba< Chauhan and
!ahmood Ahori "ecame ruler of 1elhi 6 A<mer.
CA piece of missing history 6 'he time difference "etween #:/- and ##$/ is
#-- years. 1id the !uslims say 6 we had enough loot? 3o. 'hey tried again
3
"ut on #% Hune #:;; the entire !uslim army of 0athans and 0ersians was
wiped out at the attle of ahiraich, -: miles from )uc8now, "y the com"ined
army of #& Hindu 8ings. 3ot one !uslim was left alive even to tell fol8s "ac8
home that they had lost. ,o severe was the shoc8 that !uslims dare not
attac8 India for - generationsNN
Also in ##$# Ahori was defeated "y 0rithwira< Chauhan, "ut was allowed to
go free. He paid dearly for this folly a year later.F
@utu"uddin Ai"a8, one of AhoriGs officers founded the Aulam dynasty of 1elhi.
'hese Aulams were 'ur8s. 'he successors were Altmash, Ba2ia, 3asiruddin,
al"an. 'hey were all 'ur8s. !a<ority of their 8nights were also 'ur8s. ,ome
8nights, though originally 'ur8s had settled in Afghanistan for generations and
had "ecome Afghans. In history "oo8s they are called 'ur8ish Afghans.=
4'ur8s of Aulam dynasty e5tended their rule Eastwards up to engal "y
defeating various Hindu @ings.=
4'he Aulam dynasty was followed "y the @hil<is (#/$: to #;/%). 'he well>
8nown Allauddin @hil<i conquered !alwa, Au<arat, and !aharashtra and
imposed heavy tri"utes on 8ings of Andhra, @arnata8 and 'amilnadu (#/$->
#;#-). After his death there was "lood"ath and many claimants to his throne
were 8illed. @utu"uddin !u"ari8 8han @hil<i eventually succeeded and ruled
for four years.=
"truggle for #ower
In his e5cellent "oo8 Si* Glorious +"ochs o% &ndian ,istory, 9eer ,avar8ar
gives startling information
4In #;/:, @husro, a Hindu who was forci"ly converted to Islam 8illed !u"ari8,
son of Allauddin @hil<i and "ecame 8ing in 1elhi in his place. A shoc8 to the
whole of India, as @husro declared himself to "e a Hindu againNN However,
within a year Aiyasuddin 'ur8 defeated @husro and re>esta"lished the rule of
'ur8s in 1elhi. His son was !uhammad 'ugluc8 (#;/% to #;D:) who once
e5tended his rule right up to !adura in the ,outh.
ut during 'ugluc8Gs days itself his empire had started to crum"le. In #;%&
Alauddin Hasan Aangu ahamani esta"lished his own 8ingdom in southern
India. 'hus started the ahamani dynasty. He was an Afghan ('ur8ish
Afghan).=
9IHA*A3AAAB
4Harihar and u88arai, two Hindu youths were forci"ly converted to Islam and
ta8en to 1elhi. 'hey "ecame so confident of !uhammad 'agluc8 that he sent
them south for a "attle in #;;#. ut they escaped with the help of Hindu
warriors and encouragement of 9idyaranyaswami (,han8aracharya) they
"ecame Hindus and esta"lished the mighty 9i<ayanagar Empire in #;;-. It
lasted till #D-D, more than /:: years.=
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
!r 0agdi continues,
4
4+iro2shah 'agluc8 succeeded !uhammad 'ugluc8 and during his time there
were many independent 8ingdoms. 'here were 'ur8s in @ashmir, in engal
there were 'ur8s and then Afghans, in the south Afghan ahamani were
rulers, in !alwa 1ilarwar8han @hil<i (Afghan) was the ruler. +aru8hi rulers of
@handesh (#;&: to #D$$) called themselves descendents of the second
Caliph Emar +aru8h.=
4In #%.$, 'he ahamani 8ingdom disintegrated into five. *usuf Adilshah of
i<apur was a 'ur8 who had fled Constantinople (Istam"ul)
,ultan @uli @utu" (@utu"shah) of Aolconda was a 'ur8 who fled northern Iran
@asim erid (eridshah) of eedar was a 'ur8 from Aeorgia (,oviet Enion)
3i2amshah of 3agar was originally a Hindu rahmin 6 hairav"hat
Imadshah of erar was also originally a Hindu rahmin.=
(Also quoted in a!a Shivachhatra"ati "y ! 0urandare, #$&% edition, p;%)
4'here are other e5amples too. ,ultans of Au<arat were originally Ba<puts.
In engal a landlord named Ba<a Aanesh "ecame a @ing, "ut his sons
em"raced Islam and his 8ingdom lasted for two generations. ut there is 3(
EOA!0)E of a native Indian !uslim ever "ecoming a 8ing.=
47hen the 'ugluc8s were ruling 1elhi, 'imerlung invaded northern India and
committed atrocities. A ,u"edhar from a ,ayyad family ruled from 1elhi as
representative of 'imerlung. ut in #%D- an Afghan named ahalol )odi
ousted this ruler and gained the throne of 1elhi.
In #D/- a"ar, descendent of 'imurlung defeated I"rahim )odi and
esta"lished the !ughal rule in 1elhi. a"ar was a 'ur8.=
4 It is true that during this time many Hindus were "eing forced to accept Islam
"y terror, "ut they were always 8ept away from political power "y foreign
!uslim Bulers.=
4'he strange thing was that after two generations, descendents of foreign
!uslims would despise new incoming foreign !uslims. 'his led to many
factions, feuds, massacres and destruction of 8ingdoms.=
What was the #i!ture in the "outh?
4 1uring the days of ahamani rule (#;%& to #%.$) and thereafter, large
num"er of !uslims migrated from Iran and Iraq. @hwa<a !ahmud Aawan,
0rime minister of ahamani 8ing came from Ailan in 3orth Iran. Aeneral 9alaf
Hasan asari was an Iraqi. Auru of ahamanis, 3iyamatulla came from
@irman area of Iran, their general in elgaum, ,ardar Asad8han was an Irani.
9a2ir of i<apur, Bafiuddin ,hira<i was an Irani. ,ala"at8han and
Chengi28han, officers of 3agar were 'ur8s. Chief !inister of 3i2am of
Ahmednagar was !ali8 Am"ar (#-:D to #-/-), an A"yssinian (Ethiopian).
'he list is endless. "u!h immigrants were !alled Afafi, those who !ame
from a!ross the hori$on. )ater day history of the ahamani 8ingdom is full
of "lood"ath "etween the Afafis and the ,outh Indian !uslims. And thus
@wa<a !uhammad Aawan and 3i2am>ul>mul8 were 8illed.
In the 3i2amshahi of 3agar also this dispute led to "lood"aths. +amous
historian +arishta was an Afafi. He had to flee for his life.=
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
5
Rulers were Turs %&T %ati'e Indian Muslims.
7e find some e5amples, which support 0agdiGs statement.
c #D.- !aratha saint E8nath wrote>
Davalmalakachi "u!ita 'ada. -arshatuni "hakir hoti ekada. .a'a dola hota
thanda khati malida. Turkanche Kharakate
!eaning that people had "ecome so despondent that they accept leftovers
from dinners of 'ur8ish rulers at the time Id. E8nath has used the word 'ur8
correctly. He 8new that the rulers were 'ur8s and not Indian !uslims.
#-%.
,hahaa<i the father of Areat !aratha @ing ,hivaa<iGs was also a great warrior.
In #-%., ,hahaa<i was tric8ed and imprisoned "y !ustapha8han, Af2ul8han
and a<i Ahorapade on orders of Adilshah of i<apur. ,hivaa<i sought his
fatherGs release "y intrigues with ,hah<ahan. ut ,hahaa<i could not forget the
insult. He wrote to ,hivaa<i a"out a<i Ahorapade, 4S#adharmasadhanata
sodun yavan dushta turukanche krutyas anukul hovun da'aba!iche hunare
karun /a!ine vartan kele. Tyanche vedhe 'hyave.= In other words, 4!y son,
this a<i has <oined in the conspiracy of this vicious 'ur8 and "etrayed me. I
as8 you to see8 revenge.= ,hahaa<i has used the word 'ur8, not !uslim.
Clear indication that the ruler was a 'ur8.
!ustafa8han died shortly after "etraying ,haha<i. ,hiva<i 8illed Af2al8han in
3ovem"er #-D$ and a<i Ahorapade in an open fight in (cto"er #--%.
,hivaa<iGs contemporaries 0oet hushan and Chhatrasal, the undela 8ing
have also used the word 'ur8 to denote foreign !uslim rulers.
If we loo8 at the history of ,i8hs we find that their Aurus, "e it Auru 3ana8,
Auru 'eg"ahaddur or Auru Aovindsingh had used the word 'ur8s to denote
foreign !uslim rulers.
3ana8 wrote, )0eelbastar ke ka"ade "ahane, Tutuk, 1athani ammal bhaya.)
#-&D
,ome @ashmiri rahmins were "eing forced "y their !uslim governor to
em"race Islam. 'hey sought help from Auru 'eg"ahadur. He told the
rahmins >
Tum suna di!esu dhi' Turkesu im'abo
&k "eer hamara ,indu bhara bhaichara lakh"ao
,ai Te'bahadur !a'at u!a'ar ta a'ar Turk karo
Tis"achhe tabahi hum %ir sabahee bana hai Turak bhara.
(h rahmins, go and tell the tyrant 'EB@, that we Hindus have a great Auru
named 'eg"ahadur. +irst you try to convert him to Islam and if you succeed
then we will follow.
After this reply three disciples of 'eg"ahadur were tortured to death in 1elhi
and 'eg"ahadur was "eheaded.
#&:D
1uring his escape from 0un<a", Auru Aovindsingh had to wear a "lue dress
to disguise himself as a 0athan. (nce the danger was over he torn the
clothes and said, (0eel bastarake ka"ade "hate Turuk 1athani ammal Gaya.)
I have relieved from the rule of 'ur8s and 0athans.
6
#&$;
Aovindrao @ale, 0eshwaGs envoy at the court of 3i2am, wrote to 3ana
+adnavis, 4'his land from "eyond Attoc8 (near Bawalpindi) to the seas in the
,outh and ,outh>east ('he Indian (cean and ay of engal ) is the land of
the Hindus and 3(' of 'ur8s. C,e ,indunche sthan, Turuksthan navhe F=
CBef >,indutva "y 9eer ,avar8ar pp -.P-$F
'hus the !arathas were fighting against the 'ur8s who were the foreigner
rulers, not native Indian !uslims.
#.&$
Henry Aeorge @eeneGs "oo8 Turks in &ndia was pu"lished. He properly calls
!ughals as 'ur8s. @eene was an IC, officer who served in E.0 for more than
;: years.
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
Muslim rulers ne'er regarded themsel'es as Indian
!r 0agdi continues >
!ughals
4In course of time, !ongols and 'ur8s intermarried and there arose a race
called Chagtai 'ur8s or !ughals. ut in the early days they were despised "y
other !uslims. In 1elhi, Allauddin @hil<i even massacred them in #;#D. 4
4a"ar was a 'ur8 from +argana province of Central Asia (E2"e8istan). His
mother tongue was 'ur8ish. His "iography is in 'ur8ish. He addresses all
communities in India (including !uslims) as Hindusthanis. a"arGs grandson
was A8"ar whose mother was Hamida"anu, an Irani. A8"ar anne5ed
8ingdoms of @ashmir, ,indh, !alwa, Au<arat, engal and @handesh even
though the rulers were !uslims. In a similar manner, ,hah<ahan anne5ed
8ingdom of 3agar (in !ahaaraashtra). Aurang2e" anne5ed 8ingdoms of
i<apur and Aolconda.=
4!ughals were foreigners, 'ur8s. Even the 8ings of i<apur and Aolconda
considered !ughals as foreigners. A8"ar was "orn in Amar8ot, ,indhJ
Hahangir in +atehpur ,i8ri near Agra, ,hah<ahan in )ahore and Aurang2e" in
1ohad, Au<arat. ut they all still regarded themselves as 'ur8s. 'hey called
themselves as Emperors of Hindusthan. 'hey never called themselves as
Hindusthanis. Addressing Indian !uslims they used to say, 47e are 'ur8s,
you are Hindusthanis.= Aurang2e" had used these words on several
occasions. ,hah<ahan wasted millions of rupees to gain territories in Central
Asia (al8h and adasha8han) "ecause he considered that part to "e his
homelandNN=
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
!anucci the Italian adventurer tells us, 4Education of !ughal 0rinces.
'eachers are appointed to princes from the age of five. 'hey are taught
'ur8ish language as it is considered their original language or
!other>tongue.=
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
7
0agdi continues,
Wa'e of migrants !ontinued.
4'he language of Indian !uslims was 3(' +arsi (0ersian) "ut Hindusthani >
pre>runner of present day Erdu. !ughals carried out state affairs in +arsi.
Entil the fall of !ughals, Hindusthani remained a spo8en language.
1uring the !ughal period thousands of 'ur8s from Central Asia continued to
flood India. And in addition Iranis added to this influ5 CIn #D%:, after defeat "y
,hershah, Humayun travelled to Iran and sought help. @ing of Iran sent his
troops with Humayun who regained power in 1elhi in #DDDF. ,o, once again,
Afghans were in control for #D years. After return of Humayun, however we
had ministers, regional governors, military officers and men in positions of
authorities as 'ur8s or Iranis.4
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
C,her ,hahGs grandfather had come to India in search of employment in the
time of ahlol )odi, Afghan 8ing of 1elhi.
7hat a"out the army of ,her ,hah? He invited Afghan soldiers from every
part of the country and gave them highest posts in the army. Afghan
contingents often consisted of a single clan or tri"e. 'he result was that their
natural loyalty was to the tri"al leaders rather than to sovereign.
2e% 3 .u'hal ule in &ndia by - D .aha!an, 1456 "47 8
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
0agdi continues >
43oor<ahanGs father Aias"eg came from Iran and "ecame HahangirGs 0rime
!inister. 3oor<ahanGs "rother Asaf8han "ecame ,hah<ahanGs 0rime !inister,
her niece !umta2>ul>2amani was wife of ,hah<ahan, another niece was wife
of !uhammad Hafar, another 0rime !inister, her third niece was married to
Aurang2e"Gs 0rime !inister Asad8han. At one time 3oor<ahanGs relations
controlled half the !ughal territory.=
Q In the court of Aurang2e" more than &D percent of officers were either first or
second generation 'ur8s or Iranis.
Q +irst 3i2am 6 3i2am>ul>mul8 (#-&#>#&%.) came from u8hara in Central
Asia (E2"e8istan) along with his father Aa2iuddin +iro2<ang in the days of
Aurang2e". He "ecame ,u"hadar of the 1eccan in #&#;, <ust - years after
death of Aurang2e". 1istance "etween u8hara and 1elhi is more than #,:::
miles (#,-:: @m)
Q +irst man in the family of 3awa"s of )uc8now, ,adat8han came from
!ashahad in East Iran.
Q 3awa" of engal Alivardi8han (grandfather of ,ira<>uddaula who was
defeated at the "attle of 0lassey in #&D&) came from Iran.
Q +orefathers of ,ir ,ayyad Ahmad 8han came from Hirat in Afghanistan.
Q 0oet Aali"Gs grandfather was a 'ur8 from Cenrtal Asia.
Q +orefathers of Ra8ir Hussein, ;
rd
0resident of India were teachers who
migrated into India from Afghanistan in #&#/, "ut "y that time the !ughal
Empire was rapidly losing its power.
!r 0agdi has given more information in some of his other articles.
Q 7hile descri"ing some of Aurang2e"Gs campaigns in the 1eccan (southern
India) during #-./>#&:&, !r 0agdi tells us > ,iege of 9ishalgarh
Aurang2e"Gs 8nights were >
8
!atla"8han 6 a relation of Aurang2e"Gs wife 1ilras"anu.
!uhammad Amin @han 6 a 'ur8 of D,::: horse. He came to India from
u8hara in #-.-. His cousin Aa2iuddin 0hiro2<ung was a Aeneral of the
!ughals.
'ar"iyat8han, a relation of 1ilras"anu.
+atehulla8han @hosti, a 'ur8 from ad8hshan in Central Asia
(1iwali issue of 9okasatta, #$&&)
Q In #$&% !r 0agdi visited the "attlefield of 0anipat. 7riting on that occasion
he tells us >
4!ughals and 0athans were "itter enemies. However, Aurang2e" went south
to crush the !arathas and had to stay there for a long time (#-./>#&:&).
!arathas ultimately triumphed. ut as a result there was no chec8 on
activities of 0athans who settled in thousands in 1oa" (vast area "etween the
rivers Aanga and *amuna). 'his gave rise to various lords, such as Hafi2
Bahmat8han of aireley, Inde8han of 0ili"hit, Ali !ahammad @han,
!ahammad angash of +aru8ha"ad, and most dangerous of all 3a<i"8han of
3a<i"gad. It was the last one who invited Ahmadshah A"dalli of @a"ul to
invade 1elhi. 'his eventually led to "attle of 0anipat in #&-#.
!arathas supported the 3awa" of (udh and ,hu<auddaula of )uc8now.
!aratha Aeneral ,adashivrao hau wrote, 4'hese 0athans despise Indian
!uslims more than they despise Hindus.=
(Sobat wee8ly, #% Hune #$&&)
7hile doing research on true origins of 'a< !ahal, I (Aod"ole) found some
interesting information >
%ati'e Muslims under Alien Muslim Rulers
Tra'ellers( a!!ounts
It is a great fallacy that Indian !uslim ruled India "efore the !arathas and the
ritish. 3ot only the !uslim rulers and ruling class was alien to India, "ut they
also despised native !uslims.
Ta'ernier
'avernier, the +rench <ewel merchant, famous for his sentence 4/:,::: men
wor8ed on 'a< !ahal for // years.= tells us 6
4!oreover the chiefs are generally fugitives from 0ersia, people of no "irth
and of little heart, who attach themselves to those who give most. 4
(Travels in &ndia by : / Tavernier 6 Edited "y 1r 9 all, #..$, 9olume I p/;/)
In 9olume II pages #&->#&& he says 6
4I have elsewhere remar8ed that of the native !uhammadan su"<ects of the
Areat !ogul there are "ut few in position of commandJ this is the cause why
many 0ersians go to see8 fortune in India. eing clever they are successful in
finding means to advance themselves in (the profession) of arms, so that in
the Empire of the Areat !ogol, as well as, in the 8ingdom of Aolconda and
i<apur, the 0ersians are in possession of the highest posts. S.=
Bernier
ernier, the +rench doctor, who stayed at Aurang2e"Gs court for eight years
(#-D.>#--D) tells us 6
9
4'he ma<ority of his (Areat !ogolGs) courtiers are 0ersians. S.!oreover, the
)reat Mogol is a foreigner in Hindoustan S. 'he court itself does now
consist as originally, of real !ogols, "ut a medley of Es"ec8s, 0ersians, Ara"s
and 'ur8s or descendents from all these peopleL 8nown as I said "efore, "y
the general appellation of !ogols. It should "e added however that children of
third and fourth generation, who have the "rown comple5ion, and the languid
manner of this country of their nativity are held in much less respect than new
comers, and are seldom invested with official situationsJ they consider
themselves happy, if permitted to serve as private soldiers in the infantry or
cavalry. (,o what chance did the Indian !uslims have?) If the (mrahGs life
were sufficiently prolonged he may o"tain the advancement of his children "y
royal favour, particularly if their persons were well formed, and their
comple5ions sufficiently fair to ena"le them to pass for genuine !ogolsS.. 4
(Travels in .u'hal +m"ire by ; /ernier edited "y 9 ,mith #$#% pp /:$>/#/)
&ther sour!es also !onfirm our findings
Encyclopaedia ritannica (#$&& edition) tells us 6
A8"arGs administration (#DD- to #-:D)
'he army 6 !ostly foreign in personnel, A8"arGs army was originally
composed of !ogols, 0ersians, 'ur8s, E2"e8s and Afghans
(7here were the native Indian !uslims?)
C!acropaedia 9olume $ p;.#F
,istorian Sir <adunath Sarkar tells us 3
Q Aias eg a 0ersian came to India in the last days of A8"ar. His daughter
!ehrunnisa (3ur Hahan) was married to Hahangir. His son Asaf @han "ecame
0rime !inister of Hahangir and continued in that position under ,hah<ahan.
His second son Itiquad @han was ,u"edar of 1elhi in #-;;.
Q Asaf @hanGs son ,haista @han (whose fingers were cut in #--; during a
daring attac8 "y ,hiva<i) held various high offices under ,hah Hahan and
Aurang2e".
Q ,haista @hanGs son u2urg Emmed @han was ,u"edar of ihar (#-.; to
#-$/)
Q !ir ,hiha"uddin was one of high ran8ing generals of Aurang2e". He came
from ,amar8and to see8 his fortune at the court of 1elhi 6 (cto"er #--$.
Q !ir2a !iu2a a 0ersian of !ashahad was married to a sister of Aurang2e"Gs
wife. He was created !usai @han and 1iwan of the 0ay (ffice in ,eptem"er
#-.. and 1ivan of 1eccan in Hune #-.$.
Q !uhammad Amu @han came to India from u8hara in #-.&. He rose to the
position of ,adr in #-$., Chin ahadur in #&:- and a Commander of %,:::
horse in #&:&.
Q !ir Humla was a similar adventurer. He "ecame 0rime !inister of Aolconda.
)ater he "etrayed the @ing of Aolconda and <oined the !ughals in last days of
,hah<ahan. His son !uhammad Amin @han Hafi2 was made !ir a8shi
10
(Chief of all cavalry) "y Aurang2e"J and was later made Aovernor of Au<arat
#-&/>#-./.
(Anecdotes o% Auran'=eb and ,istorical +ssays "y *adunath ,ar8ar,
pu"lished "y ! C ,ar8ar and sons #$#/)
3iccolao !anucci, the Italian adventurer who lived in India during #-D; to
#&:. tells us 6 Administration of !ughals
,ome !uslim communities >. 0athans.
4'hey live "eyond ,indhu river (i.e. on the west or north). !ughals are
cautious a"out 0athans who "elieve that they were once rulers in 1elhi.
'herefore !ughals and 0athans do not get on with each other and do not
intermarry. (f course there are divisions among 0athans too.=
In his "oo8 0e# ,istory o% the .arathas, 1447, Historian !r ,ardesai tells us
Q 3i2am AliGs minister Ahulam ,aiyad @han, called !ushir>ul>mul8 came from
0ersia and secured service under ,ala"at Hang (3i2amGs Chief !inister)
around #&D% and "ecame the first minister in #&&D.
(9ol III pp /.#>/..)
Q Aliwardi @han, a 'ur8 came to India in #&/-, "ecame principal military officer
and was awarded the title !aha"at Hang "y the !ughal Emperor.
Q !ir Ha"i" was a clever 0ersian of ,hira2. He rose to deputy governorship of
(rissa (c #&%:).
( 9ol II p//#)
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
0agdi continues,
47hen the native !uslims were in such hopeless position the wor8 of
preventing onslaught of +oreign !uslim invasion was carried out "y Ba<puts in
the north and the @ings of 9i<ayanagar in the south.=
Mis!on!e#tions
4'hus the Indian !uslims had nothing to do with the foreign !uslim
adventurers who came to rule and administer Indian provinces on "ehalf of
+oreign !uslim rulers. 'hey only had one thing in common 6 Islam. ut Indian
(native) !uslims never en<oyed positions of authority or power (military or
civil). (n the contrary even the !ughal Emperors despised Indian !uslims.=
*It would be absurd for Indian +hristians to boast that they ruled India
for hundred and fifty years during the British Ra, or that they ruled o'er
)oa for more than four !enturies. In a similar manner it is absurd for
Indian Muslims to boast that they ruled India for a thousand years.
Rulers were Turs -not from #resent day Turey.. 'heir period can "e
called 'ur8ish Era. In the histories of Iran, Russia and +hina, historians
do use the term Turish /ra, but they ne'er !all it a Muslim /ra. C*ou may
call 'ur8ish !uslim EraF ut in India the English caused havoc "y calling the
'ur8ish Era as !uslim Era. It also created an un<ustified ego and am"ition in
the minds of Indian !uslims. Indian !uslims re<oiced at the atrocities of
!uhammad of Aha2ni and Aurang2e" and feel sorry for death of Af2ul8han at
the hands of ,hiva<i.=
11
4It is very important that the Indian !uslims need to "e educated and
awa8ened to historical reality. 'hey need to "e proud of Bana 0ratap, ,hiva<i
and the @ings of 9i<ayanagar Empire. Indian !uslims got no respect or
positions of authority during the 'ur8ish Era and have no reason to praise that
era.=
4In this conte5t one needs to study the uprising of angladeshis against the
rule 7est 0a8istanis (#$&#), ,indhis are trying to preserve their identity M
mother tongue from onslaught of 0un<a"i and Erdu. !uslims in ,indh have
now started to consider Hindu @ing 1ahir as their ancestor and hate
!uhammad "in @asim as an aggressor.=
Another fantasy
4ritish rulers created yet another fantasy. 'hey said that they too8 over rule
from hands of !uslims. 3othing can "e farther from truth. 'hey had to wage
"loody "attles with !arathas, ,i8hs and Aur8has. ut the fantasy created "y
the ritish echoes in the thoughts of li8es of ,ir ,ayyad Ahmad @han.=
>>>>>>>>>>>>
'he ritish rulers had to offer political reforms to respond to pressures from
the revolutionaries and militants. In #$:$ when the !orley 6 !into reforms
were announced, some Indian !uslims complained that they got nothing,
even though they were granted separate electorates. Times (of )ondon) and
+venin' 0e#s (of )ondon) commented, 47e had conquered India from the
!uslims. 7e should try to 8eep them happy.=
(,avar8arGs newsletter dated #/ +e"ruary #$:$)
,istory o% &ndia as told by its o#n ,istorians 6 'his wor8s in eight volumes "y
Elliot and 1owson was pu"lished during#.-& to #.&&. It covers the period
from &## to #.D& (invasion of ,indh to last !ughal Emperor). ut the title is
very misleading. 'he authors only deal with various !uslim rulers in India.
'hus creating an impression that India had no history "efore the !uslim rulers
and of course the ritish too8 over from !uslim rulers.
British #ro#aganda
'he ritish started to tell Hindus that if the ritish depart, !uslims would rule
over them as in the past. 'o the !uslims they said, 4If we leave Hindus would
revenge the past !uslim rule.= And thus they created a picture of
straightforward, "rave !uslim "ut timid and "usinessman Hindu who is only
interested in ma8ing money and has no honour. (ne can sense this in
histories written "y English authors, their "iographies, storey "oo8s and
novels. +or e5ample, .other &ndia, -erdict on &ndia.
'his impasse must end. !uslims must feel part and parcel of Indian society.
'he distance "etween Hindus and !uslims must end. 'his wor8 of
enlightenment is difficult "ut not impossi"le. 'rue history must "e taught.
!uslims share the same history as Hindus. 'hat truth must "e emphasised all
the time. 'hat will reduce the sense of alienation among !uslims.
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
)et us now loo8 at some other facts >
12
British nourish Muslim arrogan!e
(#) (ne should remem"er that during the ritish Ba<, &:T of soldiers were
!uslims, giving them a false sense of pride that "efore the ritish, !uslims
were indeed the rulers of India. 'his ritish policy of recruitment did not
change even in #$/:s after they faced the real danger of Amir of Afghanistan
invading India as per invitation "y Aandhi and the Ali "rothers openly
advocating !uslim soldiers not to oppose the AmirN
'here is also an important point of note. 'he !uslim soldiers were e5clusively
from 0un<a" and the 3orthwest +rontier 0rovince. !uslims from other
provinces were never recruited. ut even this point was not e5ploited "y
Hindu politicians.
(/) Archaeological ,urvey of India (A,I) may sound li8e an innocent
department. ut they played a mischief in #$#:. It was divided into two circles
(divisions), namely !uhammadan and ritish monumentsJ A31 Hindu and
uddhist !onuments. 'hus equating !uslims with ritish 6 leading to an
inflated feeling among !uslims that they were at par with the ritish. It was
natural therefore that if ritish were to leave !uslims should ta8e over and
rule India once again.
(;) ,avar8ar, while in internment in Batnagiri gave a startling news. (n //
Huly #$/% 0e# <ork Times pu"lished an article "y one !r Arthur Havtar. 'he
author prophesised that though in India !uslims are only one fifth of the
population they are very strong and powerful. If at any time the English were
to a"andon their rule in India in a hurry !uslims would ta8e over power.
(ne can imagine what effect this news would have had on minds of Indian
!uslims and how widely they would have spread this news among their
people.
(%) #$$& mar8ed D:
th
anniversary of Indian independence. (n that occasion
on #%
th
August #$$&, +venin' Standard of )ondon wrote in its editorial >
A "irthday cele"ration
4I31IA and 0a8istan cele"rate the D:th anniversary of their independence at
midnight tonight. Curiously, however, they are not mar8ing the occasion with
anything li8e the enthusiasm with which it is "eing remem"ered here. In 1elhi
and @arachi the party mood has "een muted and the media coverage slight.
Here, the newspapers and '9 screens have for the past wee8 "een filled with
Ba< nostalgia and whither>the>su">continent speculation. 'he anniversary
means far more to ritain, where it evo8es such deep feelings a"out the lost
Empire and the end of a glorious era, than it does to India. 3ot all that this
introspection says a"out us is healthy. 7e might "enefit from more honesty
a"out our colonial past, unsure as we are a"out our present and future as a
medium>si2ed European power. *et on this day we have every right to loo8
"ac8 with pride at our dealings with the su">continent and the legacy we left
"ehind.=
43otwithstanding all its vast pro"lems India, too, should "e proud of its
achievements as a secular state in the last D: years. If hoopla is a"sent in the
anniversary cele"rations, that is more to do with the way Indians loo8 at time
13
U what the great Hawaharlal 3ehru descri"ed in #$%& as the idea of India
travelling on a road for Vtrac8less generationsV U than any lac8 of confidence.
'hat a country of a "illion people, with %: languages and a do2en ethnic
groups which have a history of violent rivalry, can wor8 as a democracy is
e5traordinary. 'here is e5treme poverty, "ut in the last /D years the country
has "ecome self>sufficient in food. Corruption in pu"lic life is endemic U
spawning the popular <o8e a"out the Indian theory of relativity defined as
Veverything is for the relativesV. *et the country is sta"le. 'he caste system
that has caused such misery for millions is changing U !ahatma AandhiWs
dream that one day a 1alit, or Vuntoucha"leV, would lead the country came
true last year when @B 3arayanan "ecame president.=
*0aistan is less of a su!!ess story. +or more than half its "rief history it
has "een a military dictatorship and it has never had a government that was
voted, rather than summarily forced, out of office. 0o'erty is in!reasing and
the e!onomy is stagnant. 1et its existen!e has almost !ertainly sa'ed
the li'es of millions of #eo#le who fa!ed a real ris of massa!re in inter
!ommunal 'iolen!e if British India had not been #artitioned. The three
wars on the sub2!ontinent ha'e been !ostly3 but not as !ostly and
disastrous as might ha'e been.4
C'hese words clearly shows the ritish mentality. 'he paper cleverly hides the
fact that @ B 3arayan was a Christian ta8ing orders from the 0ope.F
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
Reality of Indian history during mediae'al times was e'ident by the
existen!e of +aste "ystem among the Muslims of India. This has been a
taboo sub,e!t. Hindus are totally ignorant a"out it and !uslims always 8eep
quiet a"out it. )et us e5amine it in detail.
7e are only interested in foreign sounding named castes. Here is the
summary
+aste among Indian Muslims
ritish administrators carried out Census in India every #: years. It had "een
their unwritten policy to depict Hindus as a community divided into thousands
of sections "ut !uslims as a homogenous people. 'hey therefore did not
divide !uslims even into ,unnis and ,hias.
'here were no !uslim castes in the #..# Census, whereas information in
#.&/ and #.$# Census was very incomplete. 7e find full information in #$:#
Census.
+rom the information compiled under the ritish administration we find ;:$
castes, which are common to "oth Hindus and !uslims.
'here are #// castes who are only !uslims. 'he reason may "e that all
Hindus of that caste were converted to Islam for whatever reason.
9ery roughly, in #$:#
14
'otal population of
!uslims in ritish India
(including the princely
states)
-/,%D.,:::
!uslims who shared
same castes as Hindus
were
(or ;;..%T of !uslims) /#,#;%,.//
!uslims of other castes
'his includes > Ara"s
> !oghul
> 0athans
> ,ayyads
> ,he8hs
(ther !uslims (trades)
(:.%$T of !uslim population)
(:.D.T of !uslim population)
(D.%DT of !uslim population)
(/.#DT of !uslim population)
(%D.$&T of !uslim population)
(#&.%;T !uslim population )
%#,;/;,#&.
;:&,$/:
;D.,..D
;,%:%,&:-
#,;;$,&;%
/.,&:.,&:-
&,/:;,//&
It is therefore interesting who these ,he8hs are 6
+ensus of Bengal 5675
(3ote 6 It should "e remem"ered that engal included ihar and (rissa also)

'he ,uperintendent for the 0rovince of engal says >
0age %;$
Conventional division of ,he8h, ,aiad, !oghul and 0athan has very little
application to the province. In the proper sense of the words the ,he8hs
should "e Ara"s, ,aiads the descendents of Ali (!uhammadGs son>in>law)
/ut in /en'al both 'rou"s include a 'reat number o% "ersons o% "urely local
ori'in. This is es"ecially the case #ith Shekh, #hich in many "arts, instead o%
connotin' a %orei'ner, does e*actly the reverse, and raises the "resum"tion
that the "ersons #ho so describe themselves are converts o% &ndian ori'in.
+ensus of Bombay 0ro'in!e 5675
0/:/
'he caste figures for the !usalmans in 'a"le OIII such as attari, 8asai or
chappar"and, must "e received with great caution. As already e*"lained the
ma!ority o% &ndian converts to &slam have a %ondness %or returnin' themselves
as Sheikhs o% the Kureshi stock, or even as Sayads, and nearly one million o%
the total .usalman "o"ulation #ill be %ound under the tribal name o% Sheikh
(3o. .%&). It is, therefore, more than pro"a"le that the figures given opposite
the caste entries fall very short of the correct total for the !usalmans following
the occupation that the caste name suggests.
15
0/:%
.. /ut the term Sheikh is one used no#3a3days by almost all ,indu converts to
&slam. The total number o% Sheikhs enumerated in the 1residency at this
>ensus #as 47?,000. @nly a minute section o% this collection could be Arabs.
+ensus of 8ashmir state 5675
0.%
,hei8hs
This is a very numerous class and re"resents the descendents o% the ori'inal
,indus #ho #ere converted to &slam by .usalman conAuerors. 'heir Karm or
tri"e name usually resem"les those of the Hindus, "ut they appear to have
lost all traces of the old customs, which they inherited from their Hindu
ancestors.
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
7e would find similar remar8s a"out ,he8hs in other provinces. As a matter
of interest let us see where the ,he8hs were located in #..#.
ABEA 3um"ers T of total ,he8hs
A<mer ;#,$&/ ::.##
Andamans /,/#; :.::.
Assam #,%$%,:#$ :D./:
aluchistan %,.-% ::.#&
engal /#,&#;,#&/ &D.-;
erar #;:,D.; ::.%-
om"ay $-&,.-/ :;.;&
urma /-$,:// ::.$%
Central 0rovince >>>
Coorg %,%:; ::.#D
!adras &.-,DD- :/.&%
0un<a" ;%:,:-; :#.#$
E.0. #,;-D,D;- :%.&-
0BI3CE)* ,'A'E,
aroda D-,&;- ::./:
Central India /:#,..% ::.&:
Cochin ;#& ::.::#
Hydera"ad .%.,-$. :/.$-
@ashmir --,$D$ ::./;
!ysore #&.,-/D ::.-/
Ba<putana /%/,:%- ::..%
'ravancore ;,#D- ::.:##
3ote 6 urma was part of ritish Indian Empire till #$;D
A"ove distri"ution shows how hollow the claims of Indian !uslims to "e
different from Hindus are. urma was never conquered "y any !uslim 8ing.
How can it have any ,he8hs? 'he same goes for Assam
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
3e5t are 0athans > only D.%DT of !uslim population.
16
'hen come ,ayyads, "ut they only amount to /.#DT of the !uslim population.
!oreover they are the priestly class (li8e rahmins) and could never claim to
have ruled any part of India in the past.
!oghuls are :.-.T of !uslim population
Ara"s are :.%$T of !uslim population
It is very strange that only %D,#D/ !uslims regarded themselves as 'ur8sN
And thus not e'en a tiny se!tion of Muslims !ould ha'e !laimed to be
des!endents of former rulers of -#arts of. India. 9nfortunately this
reality of life was ignored by Hindus and Muslims with disastrous
!onse:uen!es.
7e should remem"er that the a"ove information was collected "y !uslim
enumerators and compiled "y ritish officers. It must "e said in all fairness
that these Census Beports were availa"le through well 8nown "oo8sellers in
India. Enfortunately Hindus did not study them.
In #$#. (; Hanuary) 'wo or three 8ho<as were present at a pu"lic meeting of
Aandhi in !um"ai. 'hey said, 47e are Hindus (satpanthis).= Instead of ta8ing
advantage of this information Aandhi retorted, 4Aga @han was 0resident of
!uslim )eague. How can you "e called Hindus?=
(Aandhi 6 A detailed chronology "y 1alal, pu"lished #$&# "y haratiya 9idya
havan, p #-)
!r 0agdi tells us >
4In the recent past we 8now of many !uslims who had Hindu ancestors. +or
e5ample>
Erdu poet !usaphi (original Ba<put)
Historian ,hi"ali 3emani (Ba<put)
7ell>8nown Erdu poet ,ir !uhammad Iq"al (@ashmiri rahmin)
,ir 0hiro28han 3oon 6 (Ba<put)
Rulphi8har Ali hutto 6 (Ba<put)
0rime !inister of Hydera"ad state the 3awa" of Chhatari > (Ba<put)
0oet )aureate of 0a8istan Hafi2 Halandhari (Chauhan 6 Ba<put)
0rime !inister of Hydera"ad ,ir A8"ar Hyderi (Hindu from Au<arat)
)a"our minister who recently died, A"id Ali Haphar"hai (Hindu from @utch)
Bevolutionary and writer, E"edulla ,indhi (,i8h)
Bevolutionary A"dul8arim ("rother of Acharya @ripalani)
oharis and !omins of Au<rat, ma<ority of !uslims of @ashmir, Hats in western
0un<a", ma<ority of !uslims of angladesh were undou"tedly descendents of
Hindus. (ne can ta8e a clue from the titles 0andit, hat, Hutshi (astrologer)
among @ashmiri !uslims, @itchlu and other surnames give away their origin.=
CIn the old om"ay 0rovince, @ho<as and !emons of @utchh were Hindu
converts. 'hey followed inheritance as per Hindu )aw till #$/:.F
17
4'hese are without dou"t !uslims who can "e called Indian. 'hat does not
mean the rest are not Indians. 'oday all !uslims must regard themselves as
Indians whatever their forefathers were.4
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
(ne can add >
!uhammad Ali Hinnah M 0oet Iq"al had Hindu grandfathers. Aandhi himself
had pointed out in #$%: that ,ir ,i8andar Hiyat @hanGs forefathers were Hindu
rahmins. +a2ul Huq, the Chief !inister of engal had Hindu forefathers.
How !ould they, all of a sudden start to say that, they, the Muslims are
different from Hindus, ha'e their own history, !ulture, 'alues, language
and identity?? 3o one as8ed this question.
Hinnah declared that Erdu was the language of !uslims, "ut he himself could
not spea8 a single word in Erdu. He used to spea8 in English and some one
would translate it into Erdu for the audience. ut no one laughed at this. Even
the fanatical !oplas of @erala regarded !alyalam as their mother tongue, not
Erdu.
)et us see now turn to the disastrous consequences of this falsified history.
+irst the @hilafat !ovement. Hindu politicians led "y Aandhi were o"sessed
with ma8ing concessions to !uslims. 'his led to the @hilafat !ovement in the
#$/:s.
Q 8HA;I<AT M&=/M/%T
'he +irst 7orld 7ar ended on ## 3ovem"er #$#.. 'ur8ey, the ally of
Aermany was defeated and it was o"vious that ritain and +rance would
disintegrate the (ttoman 'ur8ish Empire. Its ,ultan was @halifa. As 0rophet
!ohammed was "oth a political and religious leader, his successors also had
"oth roles. (f course, there were many feuds and many @halifs "ut the ,ultan
of 'ur8ey was @halif since #D#&. He was also the ruler of the vast (ttoman
Empire.
Ara"s resented 'ur8ish rulers. 1uring 7orld 7ar I, Ara"s, with the help of the
ritish, threw yo8e of ,ultan of 'ur8ey. (Bemem"er the film )awrence of
Ara"ia?)
7hy were these events in a far off land of interest to Indian !uslims? ut as
they were "rought up to thin8 that they were foreigners and once rulers of
India, they got into their heads that the ,ultan of 'ur8ey must remain as
@halifa, their temporal and spiritual leader. And Aandhi was so o"sessed with
see8ing co>operation of Indian !uslims that he immediately supported the
@hilafat movement. ,trangely Hinnah had opposed this movement saying 6 it
is li8e going to stone ages.
3o Congressman as8ed, 4'here are millions of !uslims in 3orth Africa in
countries such as 3igeria, 'unisia, Algeria and )i"ya. ut they are not
agitating for the ,ultan of 'ur8ey. !illions of Iranians who are ,hias never
accepted any authority of the ,ultan of 'ur8ey as @halifa. ,o, why should
Indian !uslims feel affinity to him?= 'hey of course, did not put that question
to li8es of !ohammed Ali and ,hau8at Ali.
18
After the end of 7orld 7ar I the principle of right of self>determination of
nations was "eing put forward as 8ey to new formation of Europe. 'his was
the ma<or principle of the 0eace Conference. In #$#$,'ila8, while in )ondon,
wrote to 'he +rench 0rime !inister ! Clemenceau and American 0resident
7oodrow 7ilson that li8e European countries, India too must have right of
self>determination.
It was astonishing therefore that Aandhi, 3ehru and ose were flagrantly
denying that right to Ara"s who did not want to "e ruled "y 'ur8s. And as a
result even Indian !uslims were moc8ed, ridiculed and despised "y Ara"s.
!onstrous am"itions of Indian !uslims was aroused "y the @hilafat
movement leading to most horrific atrocities committed "y !oplas on Hindus
of @erala in #$/#. In the end the ritish had to send in the Army to crush the
!oplas.
'his was followed "y !uslim riots in Aul"urga, 3agpur, )uc8now,
,ha<ahanpur, Ha"alpur, @ohat and many other places in India.
> We !an go ba! to our !ountry
(n ## !ay #$;., !aulana ,hau8atali met ,avar8ar and told him,= If tomorrow
there is a catastrophe in India we !uslims will go "ac8 to our countries, "ut
you Hindus have nowhere else to go.=
(pu"lic speech at A<mer, /: !ay #$;., , , 9 %, p;%.)
Arrogan!e of Muslims
0agdi tells us, 47e see a 8ind of arrogance in the writings of ,ir ,ayyad
Ahmad, 0oet )atif Hussein Hali, <ournalist 9ahi"uddin ,alim. 'hey say, 47e
came to Hindusthan and we ruled.= 9ahi"uddin ,alim in his poem says >
(h Indians, racially we are different to you, "ut you honoured us, gave us
everything, positions of power, respect and honour. How can we than8 you?=
Garche hamame milti!ulti teri komiyat na thee. ,amame atha ,indosita 'o
buye &nsinayat na thee.
Tune lekin a"ani akhon"ar liya hamako bitha.
A"ani akhano"ar bithakar tune i!!at kee hame
Tune a"ane hukmdano"ar %a!eelat do hame
Tune rahat dee, %amarat dee hame
Tune sarabat dee, hukumad dee, riyasad dee hame
Shukra kis kis miharbanika kare to ada
'he family of poet Altaf Hussein Ali, stayed in India for hundreds of years. ,till
he echoes the same sentiments as a"ove. ,ame applies to thoughts of ,ir
,ayyad Ahmad. 'hey may "e true in a few cases. ut vast ma<ority of Indian
19
!uslims are descendents of converted Hindus. 'hey cannot share a"ove
thoughts.
X 0agdi tells of his own e5perience. He was appearing for e5amination for
entry into land revenue service under the 3i2am in #$;;. He came across a
!uslim named A"u 'ura". 0agdi did favour to him and "y copying 0agdiGs
paper A"u 'ura" passed the qualifying e5amination. 'hey met again a few
years later. A"u 'ura" was transferred to !arathawada (a !arathi spea8ing
area). 0agdi said, 4*ou "etter learn some !arathi to ma8e your life easy and
understand the issues you have to deal with, in the same way as we learn
Erdu and +arsee.=
A"u 'ura" replied, 4'here is no need for us (!uslims) to learn your mother
tongue. It is you (Hindus) who need to understand us (!uslims).=
In #$-; 0agdi wrote, 4,o arrogant were the remar8s of A"u 'ara" that even
after /D years I cannot forget them. 'hat reminds me of the cinema enhur.
enhur was Hew and his childhood friend named !asala, a Boman was sent
to 0alestine as Aovernor. 7elcoming !asala, enhur said, 4It is good that
you are appointed as Aovernor, I welcome you as someone who 8nows the
Hews well.= !asala replied, 47hat is the necessity of we Bomans to 8now the
Hews? It is they (Hews) who need to understand us.= A"u 'ara" and !uslims
in Hydera"ad har"oured and e5pressed same arrogance.
(-ida ran'ato asa, "y 0agdi. #$-;, pp-DP--)
B Dr / Ambedkar "rovides an e*am"le in his book Thou'hts on 1akistan
"ublished in 1447 C"" $0$D$04E.
In a manifesto on Hindu>!uslim relations issued in #$/. @hwa<a Hasan
3a2ami declared L
4 !usalmans are separate from HindusJ they cannot unite with the Hindus.
After bloody wars the Musalmans !on:uered India, and the /nglish too
India from them. 'he !usalmans are one united nation and they alone will
"e masters of India. 'hey will never give up their individuality. They ha'e
ruled India for Hundreds of years, and hen!e they ha'e a #res!ri#ti'e
right o'er the !ountry. 'he Hindus are a minor community in the world. 'hey
are never free from internecine quarrelsJ they "elieve in Aandhi and worship
the cowJ they are polluted "y ta8ing other peopleGs water. 'he Hindus do not
care for self>governmentJ they squa""le. 7hat capacity have they for ruling
over men? The Musalmans did rule, and the Musulmans will rule.=
(Times o% &ndia #% !arch #$/.)
B Dr / Ambedkar "rovides yet another e*am"le in his book Thou'hts on
1akistan "ublished in 1447 C"" $0$D$04E.
+ar from rendering o"edience to Hindus, the !uslims seem to "e ready to try
conclusions with the Hindus again. In #$/- there arose a controversy as to
who really won the third "attle of 0anipat, fought in #&-#. It was contended for
the !uslims that it was a great victory for them "ecause Ahmad ,hah A"dalli
had # la8h of soldiers while the !ahrattas had % to - la8hs. 'he Hindus
replied that a victory to them 6 a victory to the vanquished 6 "ecause it
20
stemmed the tide of !uslim invasions. 'he !uslims were not prepared to
admit defeat at the hands of Hindus and claimed that they will always prove
superior to the Hindus. 'o prove the eternal superiority of !uslims over
Hindus it was proposed "y one !aulana A8"ar ,hah @han of 3a<i"a"ad in all
seriousness, that the Hindus and !uslims should fight, under test conditions,
fourth "attle on the same fateful plain of 0anipat. 'he !aulana accordingly
issued a challenge to 0andit !adan !ohan !alaviya in the following terms L
4If you !alaviya<i, are ma8ing efforts to falsify the result at 0anipat, I shall
show you an easy and e5cellent way (of testing it). Ese your well>8nown
influence and induce the ritish Aovernment to permit the fourth "attle of
0anipat to "e fought without hindrance from the authorities. I am ready to
provide S a comparative test of the valour and fighting spirit of Hindus and
the !usalmans. S As there are seven crores of !uslims in India, I shall arrive
on a fi5ed date on the plain of 0anipat with &:: !usalmans representing the
seven crores of !uslims in India and as there are // crores of Hindus I allow
you to come with /,/:: Hindus. 'he proper thing is not to use cannons,
machineguns or "om"sJ only swords and <avelins and spears, "ows and
arrows and daggers should "e used. If you cannot accept the post of
generalissimo of the Hindu host, you may give it to any descendents of
,adashivarao or 9ishwasrao so that their scions may have an opportunity to
avenge the defeat of their ancestors in #&-#. ut any way do come as a
spectatorJ for on seeing the result of this "attle you will have to change your
views, and I hope there will "e end of the present discord and fighting in the
country. S. In conclusion I "eg to add that among the &:: men that I shall
"ring there will "e no 0athans or Afghans as you are mortally afraid of them.
,o, I shall "ring with me only Indian !usalmans of good family who are
staunch adherents of ,hariat.= (Times o% &ndia /: Hune #$/-)
'he a"ove e5ample does show arrogance of !uslims, "ut it also illustrates
inferiority comple5 of Hindus.
Am"ed8ar was so o"sessed with anti>Hindu pho"ia that he too8 for granted
the !uslim "oasts. 7hat a pity that his own caste !ahars, though formerly
treated as untoucha"les, are warriors and the Indian Army even had a !ahar
Begiment. /,/:: !ahars (who are also covered "y the term !arhatta) could
have easily called "luff of !uslims. ut Am"ed8ar did not do that.
'he much pu"licised !uslim riot of om"ay in #$/$ had given answer to
arrogance of !uslims. efore the riot, !uslims "oasted that one !uslim is
superior to /$ Hindus, and that too ordinary Indian !uslim. A 0athan would
easily overpower #:: Hindus. And what happened? At the very outset it was
0athans who were running away and pleading that the riot should stopNN
(,.,.9 part %, #$-D, pp/#;>/#&). ut Am"ed8ar does not quote this e5ample.
As for the "attle of 0anipat, one should only remem"er that <ust four days
after the "attle, the victorious Ahmad ,hah A"dalli sent a letter to the !aratha
0eshwa ala<i a<irao, as8ing for a re>conciliationNN 7hy would a victor do
that? 'he answer is simple. He 8new at heart that !arathas would see8
revenge and were quite capa"le of avenging their defeat. A few months after
the "attle ala<i a<irao died and when his #- year old son !adhavrao
"ecame a 0eshwa (Huly #&-#), same Ahmad ,hah A"dalli paid his respects
21
and sent presents to !adhavrao. Am"ed8ar easily forgets this history, may "e
"ecause he too only read the history as written "y English. ut we have to
remem"er that after the "attle of 0anipat, A"dalli himself had e5pressed
astonishment at "ravery of !arathas and admitted that such a "attle was
unprecedented.
ut Am"ed8ar did not want to 8nowNN
0er'erted history still haunts
hutto "ecame 0rime !inister of 0a8istan, after freedom struggle of
angladesh in 1ecem"er #$&#. His mother was Hindu. ut her conversion to
Islam put fantastic ideas into head of hutto and he said that he would wage a
war with India for a thousand years.
'hings have not changed even in the year /:#/. 7e have received following
E !ail
'oL mediaYmonitorDZyahoogroups.com
+romL shadi8atyalZyahoo.com
1ateL 'ue, #; !ar /:#/ #$L%%L/- >:&::
,u"<ectL BeL CmediaYmonitorDF !yth of Aryan Invasion
0a8istan tried to tell the world that they are Ara"s and started teaching even
Ara"ic in schools "ut ,audi and other Aulf nations o"<ected and told them that
they are not for their stoc8.
,hadi
'his <ust shows how deep the effects of wor8s of ritish Historians have "een.
/ffe!t on minds of Hindus in the ?7th !entury
> The name Hindusthan
0oet Iq"al composed the famous poem Sare :ahanse Achha ,indoostan
,amara
'here are many lands on earth, "ut only our Hindoostan is dear to us.
And yet same Iq"al demanded 0a8istan in #$;: on the "asis that !uslims
were different people from HindusNN
As 0agdi remar8ed earlier even !ughal Emperors used to say that they were
rulers of Hindusthan. ,urprisingly enough even a map printed in )ondon in
#.:. clearly shows (so called) India as Hindoosthan, its western "oundary is
with Iran (I do have a copy of such a map). And the same name is used on
many maps of Alo"e. ut once the ritish started to use the meaningless
word India, Hindus loved it "ecause it removes the word Hindu. Even after the
partition in #$%& Hindus were not prepared to call their land as Hindusthan,
3ehru suggested the name harat and yet even that name was never
adopted. Have you ever heard of an Em"assy of harat anywhere? ,o
shameless have we "ecome that even while spea8ing in our mother tongues,
"e it !arathi, Au<arati, engali or whatever Hindus continue to use the word
IndiaNN
22
> Thousand years of sla'ery
In +e"ruary #$;& 1r Am"ed8ar was to address the conference in 0un<a"
arranged "y Hatpat 'oda8 !andal (,ociety for a"olishing of the caste system)
of )ahore. Conference was cancelled "ut he had printed his speech in
English. In it he said, 4'he HindusG has "een a life of a continuous defeat. It is
a mode of survival of which every Hindu will feel ashamed.= ,avar8ar replied
to such senseless remar8s and later, in #$D/ he delivered his famous series
of speeches 6 Si* Glorious +"ochs o% &ndian ,istory, which are availa"le in
"oo8 form.
(ne can say that 1r Am"ed8ar was pre<udiced, having declared on #;
(cto"er #$;D that he would not die as a Hindu. ut his sentiments were
echoed -: years earlier even "y Aopalrao Agar8ar, 'ila8Gs contemporary.
Agar8ar was "orn in poverty "ut still studied and passed ! A. e5amination. He
however refused to accept service under the ritish Administration. He started
his movements for social reforms, which he "elieved to "e necessary "efore
fight for political independence could "e started. He was a staunch Hindu, "ut
he still wrote in #..:, 4How can we say that we had a golden past when we
were ruled "y !uslims for more than &:: years and now the ritish have "een
ruling over us for more than #:: years.=
In #$-. 0rof 0 3 (a8 of 3ew 1elhi proved that 'a< !ahal was an ancient
Ba<put 'emple 0alace and not a !ausoleum "uilt "y ,hah<ahan. His research
indicated the e5tent to which Indian history has "een falsified. And yet many
of !r (a8Gs followers still use the phrase 4'housand year slavery of Hindus=
without thin8ing. It has "een a thousand year of struggle to 8eep the identity
and freedom of the Hindu people. 'he struggle could have "een won over
much shorter period if only Hindus had learnt from their history.
Muslims were on!e the rulers of India -?.
Accessin' ,induism "y Helen @anit8ar and 1uncan !acpherson was
pu"lished in #$$$. Helen was a 7elshwoman married to my friend Hemant
@anit8ar of )ondon.
In !odule +our L 'he !odern Historical Conte5t the authors say on pp/.P/$ 6
Hinduism and Islam
4S 7hen !uslims ceased to rule India, however, they found it difficult to
reconcile themselves to the prospect of "eing a minority out of power.=
/x!e#tions to the rule
"a'arar
Q 7e must remem"er that there were some leaders who were aware of the
truth. 9eer ,avar8ar was such a person. In #$#: he was sentenced to
'ransportation for )ife twice to Andaman Islands, some #::: miles from
Chennai. He narrates his e5periences during 7orld 7ar I
I (,avar8ar) said to fellow prisoners. 41onGt get carried away "y emotions. 7e
have to see how we can use this war to our advantage. It is natural that we
sympathise with Aermans (and her allies li8e 'ur8ey). ut we must "e careful.
7e do not want to change one ruler (English) for another (Aerman). !ost
23
accepted my argument. I also said 6 what good would it "e for us if 'ur8ish
,ultan or Amir of Afghanistan was to "ecome ruler of India?
!uslim prisoners o"<ected to that. 'he ,ultan of 'ur8ey was a Aod to them.
How many stories and legends had grown around him as the @halifa in their
sacred writingsN 'hey were taught in their cradle to worship the name of that
,ultan with feelings of sanctity and reverence. 'hat personage was to invade
India and I said that his rule will "ring no good to India. 7hat a "lasphemy to
say so. That the rule o% the Sultan over &ndia #ould be a %orei'n rule #as a
"ro"osition beyond their understandin'. If among the prisoners there was a
!aulavi or a !uslim with some education who 8new something of history, I
would tell him of the atrocities committed "y Ara"s on Iranians, "y 'ur8s on
Ara"s, "y 0athans and Iranians on each other and finally "y all these and
!ughals on Indian !uslims. Even though the !aulavi or little educated
!uslim accepted the historical truth of my arguments he would still say 6 K It is
in IndiaGs interest that ,ultan of 'ur8ey should invade India and esta"lish a
!uslim rule there.G !uslim prisoners were devoid of any national self>respect.
Added to that was their religious fanaticism and utter ignorance of world
affairs. 'heir "loating 8new no "ounds.
'he !uslim prisoners started to preach, KAermany was sure to "eat England
and conquer India. 'he ,ultan of 'ur8ey would personally crown the Aerman
@aiser as the Emperor of India, and !uslims would get high positions and "ig
<o"s in the Indian Empire. 'hose who would not "e !uslims then, were going
to "e severely punished.G ,avar8ar of course effectively countered this !uslim
propaganda.
,avar8ar continues, 4'he fact of 'ur8ey entering the war on the side of
Aermany against England, fired the imagination of the !uslimsJ and man,
woman and child "egan to dream of !uslim Ba< in India. And when
occasionally they came to hear that the Amir of Afghanistan had made a
common cause with the Aermans and the 'ur8s, their enthusiasm 8new no
"ounds. 'he 0athans were so entrapped "y the prospect that their tongues
"egan to wag li8e the croa8ing of frogs in a pool of water "efore the advent of
the monsoon. If one 0athan raised one rumour, another multiplied it tenfold,
and so long as Anvar eg was in the field, he was reported to have decimated
thousands of ritish regiments or ta8en the city of asra. A"out the Amir of
Afghanistan, the reports were still more e5travagant. It was not enough for
him to cross the Indus (,indhu), "ut he must 8noc8 today at the door of
)ahore, and march another day on to ,irhind. 'he petty officers, moving in
and out of prison, "rought in fantastic news that produced convulsion among
the prisonersSS ut "ehind the ridiculous "ehaviour of the 0athans there
was one quality, which I never failed to impress upon those who simply
laughed at them. I always as8ed my Hindu "rethren not to forget how
enthused they were, to a man, over the prospect of !uslim Ba< in India or
over the invasion of India "y a !uslim power. 'his pride of race and religion
was a virtue worthy of emulation, and it was this pride that would instantly
translate itself into action at the right moment and with the right opportunity.
The Hindus la!ed this #ride, this fer'our, this unity of a!tion, and
therefore, they had suffered.4
24
4'his was a matter of compliment for the 0athans "ut was full of menace to
the Hindus, and the Hindus must "e ever vigilant a"out it. Eternal vigilance
was the price of li"erty. Also they had to "ear it well in mind that the
!usulman im"i"ed this religious fervour and this spirit of 0an>Islamism with
their motherGs mil8. In every !uslim household he was taught from his
childhood to love his religion and to stand "y the !uslim Ba<. 7hat had the
Hindus to show in comparison with this fervour, with this ardent, "urning
passion? 3ot one in ten thousand Hindus 8new or cared to 8now what was
Hindusthan, what was Hindu power, Hindu Ba<, or the meaning of the term
Hindu. 7hat then of a common "ond of sympathy among them?=
(.y Trans"ortation %or 9i%e, pp ;%$P;D%)
In #$/# ,avar8ar was sent "ac8 to mainland India and "eing 8ept in various
prisons for another three years, was released from prison "ut had to live in
internment in Batnagiri. He moved to other places on some occasions with the
permission of the Aovernor of om"ay 0rovince.
Q In 3ovem"er #$/%, in !um"ai, ,avar8ar met the !uslim leader !aulana
,hau8at Ali. 'he !aulana told ,avar8ar, 4 *ou see things are quite different
for Hindus and !uslims. Historically we !uslims have always "eaten you
Hindus (we have hit you with shoes). 'herefore you Hindus can only rise if
you co>operate with !uslims.=
,avar8ar was of course not going to accept such remar8s. He retorted, 4It is
true that we Hindus suffered defeats at the hands of !uslims, "ut we had
avenged our defeats and defeated you !uslims on every "attlefield from
Attoc8 (near Bawalpindi) to Bameshwar.=
'he ritish therefore always despised ,avar8ar and praised Aandhi who was
perfectly happy to live under a !uslim Bule, whether he was the Amir of
Afghanistan or 3i2am or Hinnah.
@r Mun,e
1r !un<e of 3agpur was another such person. (nce one !uslim student
came met !un<e. He started the conversation very politely and then suddenly
said, 47e !uslims ruled over India for &:: years.= 1octor intervened,=*ou are
mista8en. *ou are a Hindusthani !uslim. 'he !uslim rulers were foreigners
such as Afghans and !ughals. At present the English are ruling over us,
would you say that the Anglo>Indians or Indian Christians are the rulers?=
'he !uslim understood what 1r !un<e had stated
(1r !un<eGs "iography, part II "y !rs 9eena Hardas, #$.#, p%/D)
ut Hindus considered ,avar8ar and 1r !un<e as Hindu e5tremists and
followed Aandhi and 3ehru.
/ffe!t on minds of Hindus in the ?5
st
!entury
25
It is astonishing that today, even staunch Hindus do not 8now the true history.
'a8e for e5ample the "oo8 Architects o% SS "y 1r 9 B @arandi8ar, former
Head of !arathi 1epartment, +ergusson College, 0une, India, pu"lished in
/::;. (n pages ;# and ;/ we find 6
4 The .uslims came to &ndia as invaders . 'he English also occupied this
country as rulers. 'hey had no involvement with this nationGs earlier history
and heritage. In fact, as conquerors they wanted to wipe it out. Even during
the struggle for independence, the .uslims ever %elt "roud o% havin' once
established a mi'hty em"ire in this country. (ne can understand this, as the
.uslim rule #as a "art o% the history o% mediaeval "eriod. 'he Hindus do not
feel any need of denying it. How can history "e disowned? ut, then, the
Hindus are also aware that their history stretches more than two thousand
years "eyond the Muslim and +hristian !on:uests of Bharat. In their new
awa8ening of self>respect they also 8new that they could overthrow the
English rule and "e free to re>esta"lish the old glory of their country. (n the
contrary, .uslims could never %or'et that they #ere the absolute rulers here,
and therefore they did not feel it necessary to develop a feeling of fraternity
with the earlier people in this country. 'he English rulers saw great advantage
in this aggressive mentality of the !uslims and they in fact, encouraged it.
(ne cannot "ut admire the courage, am"ition, and confidence of these two
societies. ut then the safety and the future of this country was also a sincere
concern of the Hindus who cared for the same.=
'he author was "orn in around #$#.. Hust loo8 at the "lunders he has
repeated. Even the ritish rulers did not descri"e their conquest as Christian
conquestNN.
(ne can "ut feel astonished at how the falsified history has moulded the
thin8ing of even staunch Hindus.
Q Becently I came across a "oo8let in !arathi entitled, 47hy the Congress
does not li8e ,avar8ar?=
It has "een written "y Arvind 9itthal @ul8arni. ,econd edition was pu"lished in
Hanuary /::D. 'he author, a staunch supporter of ,avar8ar uses the phrase,
4Hindus had developed certain pho"ias due to #,::: years of slavery.=
Q In 1ecem"er /::D a large gathering of Hindus was held in 0andharpur,
!aharashtra. (n that occasion the monthly maga2ine ,indubodh of 0une
wrote on page D > Beservation for Christians and !uslims
Item ; > Hust /:: years ago !uslims were the rulers. How can they now say
that they are economically "ac8ward?
'errorism
Item ; > In India !uslims ruled for #,::: years "ut still they could not wipe out
Hindu 1harma.
Where do we go from here?
In #$&& ,etu !adhavrao 0agdi was invited to attend ,hiva<ayanti ("irthday of
,hiva<i) function in hivandi, which has a large !uslim population. !uslims
were invited for the cele"rations and did attend. 0agdi e5plained the theme of
26
this article. 'he reaction of !uslims was encouraging. After his lecture 0agdi
too8 tea with !r Aafud ,aid, a well>8nown resident. He said, 4It would have
"een much "etter if such lectures had ta8en places in the past.=
0agdi therefore remar8ed, 4Enlightenment on this su"<ect is difficult, "ut
possi"le. *es, it can "e done.=
7e do not 8now if 0agdi delivered series of lectures, "ut he had shown the
way.
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
i"liography
I3 E3A)I,H
Am"ed8ar 1r B Thou'hts on 1akistan, 1447
ernier + Travels in .u'hal +m"ire edited "y 9 ,mith #$#%
Census of India of #$:#, Aovernment of India pu"lication
Encyclopaedia ritannica #$&&
@ane 0 9, ,istory o% Dharmashastras 9ol II
@anit8ar Helen and !acpherson 1uncan
Accessin' ,induism, .elisende, 9ondon 1444.
@arandi8ar 1r 9.B > Architects o% SS, /::;
!aha<an 9 1 .u'hal ule in &ndia, 1456
,ardesai 0e# ,istory o% .arathas, 1447
,ar8ar, ,ir *adunath Anecdotes o% Auran'=eb and ,istorical +ssays,
pu"lished "y ! C ,ar8ar and sons #$#/
,avar8ar 9 1 ,indutva 1467
,avar8ar 9.1 > .y Trans"ortation %or 9i%e, 6
nd
edition 1454.
> Si* Glorious +"ochs o% &ndian ,istory, 6
nd
edition 1455.
'avernier H Travels in &ndia 6 Edited "y 1r 9 all, #..$
I3 I'A)IA3
!anucci 3iccolao, Storia Do .o'or
I3 !ABA'HI
Hardas !rs 9eena > 1r !un<eGs "iography, part II, #$.#
27
@ul8arni.Arvind 9itthal > Congressla ,avar8ar na8ot, @aran, /::D
0agdi, ,etumadhavrao,
F Amhala khotach itihas shikaval !ato kaG (Kirloskar maga2ine, 3ov #$&%)
F -ida ran'ato asa, #$-;,
F Ashi hee Shiva!ayanti (Sobat wee8ly #; !ay #$&&)
F 1ani"atachi mati (Sobat wee8ly, #% Hune #$&&)
F -ishal'adacha vedha (1iwali isue of 9okasatta, #$&&)
0urandare ! a!a Shivachhatra"ati (in !arathi) #$&-
,amagra ,aavar8ar 9angmaya part %, #$-D
,aavar8ar, alarao 6 iography of 9eer ,aavar8ar, Batnagiri Era, #$&/
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>
0repared "y 1r 9 , Aod"ole on /& Hanuary /::%, revised . and /D +e"ruary,
/D and ;# Huly /::%, . Huly and #- (cto"er /::D, ;# Hanuary and #& !arch
/:#/.
28