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Flow Control

RAN12.0
Feature Parameter Description


Issue 04
Date 2011-09-30

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. 2011. All rights reserved.
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WCDMA RAN
Flow Control Contents

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Contents
1 Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 1-1
1.1 Scope ............................................................................................................................................ 1-1
1.2 Intended Audience ........................................................................................................................ 1-1
1.3 Change History .............................................................................................................................. 1-1
2 Overview ..................................................................................................................................... 2-1
2.1 Definition ....................................................................................................................................... 2-1
2.2 Overall Picture of Flow Control ..................................................................................................... 2-1
3 Flow Control for Overloaded RNC Units............................................................................. 3-1
3.1 Principle ......................................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1.2 CPU Usage Monitoring ......................................................................................................... 3-2
3.1.3 Message Block Occupancy Rate Monitoring ........................................................................ 3-2
3.2 Whole Picture of Flow Control for Overloaded RNC Units ............................................................ 3-2
3.3 Flow Control Triggered by CPUS Overload .................................................................................. 3-5
3.3.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................... 3-5
3.3.2 CPUS Basic Flow Control..................................................................................................... 3-5
3.3.3 Access Control ...................................................................................................................... 3-6
3.3.4 Paging Control ...................................................................................................................... 3-8
3.3.5 RRC Flow Control ................................................................................................................. 3-9
3.3.6 Flow Control on Signaling Messages over the Iur Interface............................................... 3-10
3.3.7 CBS Flow Control ................................................................................................................3-11
3.3.8 Cell/URA Update Flow Control ............................................................................................3-11
3.3.9 Flow Control over the Iur-g Interface .................................................................................. 3-12
3.3.10 Queue-based RRC Shaping ............................................................................................. 3-13
3.4 Flow Control Triggered by MPU Overload .................................................................................. 3-14
3.4.1 Basic Flow Control for the MPU ......................................................................................... 3-14
3.4.2 MPU Overload Backpressure ............................................................................................. 3-15
3.5 Flow Control Triggered by INT Overload ..................................................................................... 3-17
3.5.1 INT Basic Flow Control ....................................................................................................... 3-17
3.5.2 Flow Control Triggered by INT Overload on the Control Plane .......................................... 3-17
3.5.3 Flow Control Triggered by Iub Interface Board Overload on the User Plane ..................... 3-18
3.6 Flow Control Triggered by DPU Overload ................................................................................... 3-18
3.6.1 DPU Basic Flow Control ..................................................................................................... 3-18
3.6.2 Flow Control Triggered by DSP CPU Overload .................................................................. 3-19
3.7 Flow Control Triggered by SCU Overload ................................................................................... 3-19
3.7.1 Principle .............................................................................................................................. 3-19
3.7.2 Overload Indication ............................................................................................................. 3-20
3.8 Flow Control Triggered by GCU Overload .................................................................................. 3-20
3.8.1 Principle .............................................................................................................................. 3-20
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3.8.2 Overload Indication ............................................................................................................. 3-20
4 Flow Control Triggered by NodeB/Cell Overload ............................................................. 4-1
4.1 CAPS Control ................................................................................................................................ 4-1
4.1.1 Principle ................................................................................................................................ 4-1
4.1.2 Overload Indication ............................................................................................................... 4-3
4.2 PCH Congestion Control ............................................................................................................... 4-3
4.2.1 Principle ................................................................................................................................ 4-3
4.2.2 Overload Indication ............................................................................................................... 4-4
4.3 FACH Congestion Control ............................................................................................................. 4-4
4.3.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................... 4-4
4.3.2 Flow Control Based on Limited Number of UEs in the CELL_FACH State .......................... 4-5
4.3.3 CCCH Flow Control .............................................................................................................. 4-7
4.3.4 DCCH Flow Control .............................................................................................................. 4-8
5 Flow Control over the Iu Interface ........................................................................................ 5-1
5.1 SCCP Flow Control ....................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.1.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................... 5-1
5.1.2 Flow Control Based on Iu Signaling Load ............................................................................ 5-2
5.1.3 Flow Control Based on SCCP Setup Success Rate ............................................................ 5-2
5.1.4 CN SCCP Congestion Control ............................................................................................. 5-3
5.2 Flow Control Triggered by CN RANAP Overload .......................................................................... 5-3
6 Service Flow Control ............................................................................................................... 6-1
7 Load Sharing .............................................................................................................................. 7-1
7.1 Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 7-1
7.2 Load Sharing on the Control Plane ............................................................................................... 7-2
7.2.1 Procedure for Load Sharing on the Control Plane ............................................................... 7-2
7.2.2 Service Request Processing by a CPUS ............................................................................. 7-4
7.3 Load Sharing on the User Plane ................................................................................................... 7-6
7.3.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................... 7-6
7.3.2 Procedure for Load Sharing on the User Plane ................................................................... 7-6
8 Engineering Guidelines ........................................................................................................... 8-1
8.1 Access Control and Domain-Specific Access Control ................................................................... 8-1
8.1.1 Factors That Affect Access control and Domain-Specific Access Control ............................ 8-1
8.1.2 Configuration Principles and Suggestions............................................................................ 8-1
8.1.3 Performance Optimization .................................................................................................... 8-2
8.1.4 Key Parameter Settings........................................................................................................ 8-2
8.2 Queue-based RRC Shaping ......................................................................................................... 8-2
8.2.1 Factors That Affect Queue-based RRC Shaping ................................................................. 8-2
8.2.2 Configuration Principles and Suggestions............................................................................ 8-2
8.3 CAPS Control ................................................................................................................................ 8-2
8.3.1 Factors That Affect CAPS Control ........................................................................................ 8-2
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8.3.2 Configuration Principles and Suggestions............................................................................ 8-2
8.3.3 Performance Optimization .................................................................................................... 8-3
9 Parameters ................................................................................................................................. 9-1
10 Counters ................................................................................................................................. 10-1
11 Glossary .................................................................................................................................. 11-1
12 References ............................................................................................................................. 12-1
13 Appendix: Flow Control Algorithms ................................................................................ 13-1
13.1 Switch Algorithm ........................................................................................................................ 13-1
13.2 Linear Algorithm ........................................................................................................................ 13-1
13.3 Hierarchical Algorithm ............................................................................................................... 13-2

WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 1 Introduction

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1 Introduction
1.1 Scope
This document concerns the feature WRFD-040100 Flow Control. It describes the functions and
principles of RNC flow control, as well as the overload indications.
This document describes flow control for overloaded RNC units, flow control triggered by NodeB/cell
overload, flow control over the Iu interface, and flow control on user services. The principles and
overload indications are presented for each type of flow control function.

This document describes the principles of flow control. If you need specific overload control measures for mass gathering
events, contact Huaweis professional service teams, who can provide tailored solutions.
1.2 Intended Audience
This document is intended for:

Personnel who have a good understanding of WCDMA principles

Personnel who need to learn about flow control

Personnel who work on Huawei products
1.3 Change History
This section describes the change history of this document. There are two types of changes:

Feature change: refers to a change in the flow control feature of a specific product version.

Editorial change: refers to a change in wording or the addition of the information that was not
described in the earlier version.
Document Issues
The document issues are as follows:

04 (2011-09-30)

03 (2010-10-15)

02 (2010-06-20)

01 (2010-03-30)

Draft (2009-12-05)
04 (2011-09-30)
Compared with issue 03 (2010-10-15) of RAN12.0, this issue incorporates the changes described in the
following table:
Change Type Change Description Parameter Change
Feature change Added the description about FACH congestion control. For
details, see 4.3 "FACH Congestion Control."
For changes in
parameters, see
related descriptions
in the chapters.
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Flow Control 1 Introduction

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Change Type Change Description Parameter Change
Editorial change Optimized the entire document and added the following
sections:

3.3.3 "Access Control"

3.3.4 "Paging Control"

3.3.5 "RRC Flow Control"

3.3.6 "Flow Control on Signaling Messages over the Iur
Interface"

3.3.7 "CBS Flow Control"

3.3.8 "Cell/URA Update Flow Control"

3.3.9 "Flow Control over the Iur-g Interface"

3.4 "Flow Control Triggered by MPU Overload"

3.5.2 "Flow Control Triggered by INT Overload on the
Control Plane"

3.6.2 "Flow Control Triggered by DSP CPU Overload"

4.2 "PCH Congestion Control"

8 "Engineering Guidelines"
For changes in
parameters, see
related descriptions
in the chapters.

03 (2010-10-15)
This is the third commercial release of RAN12.0.
Compared with the 02 (2010-06-20), this issue optimizes the description.
02 (2010-06-20)
This is the second commercial release of RAN12.0.
The CAPS control and RRC shaping and queuing functions are introduced in this issue of RAN12.0.
Descriptions of these features are added to section "CAPS Control" and "Queue-based RRC Shaping."
01 (2010-03-30)
This is the first commercial release of RAN12.0.
Compared with the draft (2009-12-05), this issue optimizes the description.
Draft (2009-12-05)
This is the draft of the document for RAN12.0.
Compared with issue 02 (2009-06-30) of RAN11.0, this issue optimizes the description
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 2 Overview

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2 Overview
2.1 Definition
Flow control is a protective measure for communications between the RNC and its peer equipment. Flow
control provides protection in the following ways:

It restricts incoming traffic to:
Protect equipment from overload, thereby maintaining system stability.
Ensure that equipment can properly process services even during heavy traffic.

It restricts outgoing traffic to reduce the load on the peer equipment.
2.2 Overall Picture of Flow Control
During mass gathering events, the amount of services surges, generating a significantly increased traffic
volume that exceeds the processing capabilities of the system. As a result, the system becomes
overloaded, which may lead to messages being randomly discarded and NE resetting, as well as
response failures, call drops, service access failures, and other unexpected events.
Resources in a WCDMA system are limited, so how they are used affects system performance. The
resources concerned here are:

Equipment system resources, including CPU resources and memory

Air interface resources, including channels, codes, and power

Transmission resources

Core network processing capabilities
To keep system stability and capabilities at the maximum possible level, Huawei RNCs perform flow
control at five points in the system, which are numbered in Figure 2-1.
Figure 2-1 Five points in flow control


Flow control involves discarding originating messages (such as RRC connection requests) that overload
the system when system resources are insufficient, refusing to process low-priority services, and
rejecting access requests for low-priority services.
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To address problems caused by limited RNC resources (labeled in Figure 2-1), the RNC performs
flow control for RNC units. The software of each RNC board monitors the system resource usage.
When necessary, the RNC starts basic flow control functions that suspend non-critical functions, such
as recording logs and printing to reduce the system load. Then, based on the system load and the
switch status of flow control functions, the RNC may perform other flow control functions to ensure
system stability. For details, see chapter 3 "Flow Control for Overloaded RNC Units."

To address problems caused by limited air interface resources (labeled in Figure 2-1), the RNC
performs CAPS control, PCH congestion control and FACH congestion control. When the NodeB or
cell is overloaded with services, RNC limits the number of RRC connection requests admitted to a cell
or NodeB each second. For details, see 4.1 "CAPS Control." When the paging channel is congested,
the RNC allows CS-domain paging messages to preempt PS-domain paging messages in order to
raise the paging success rate in the CS domain. For details, see section 4.2 "PCH Congestion
Control." When the FACH is congested, the RNC restricts message retransmissions on the logical
channels, rejects certain PS service requests, and triggers state transitions such as CELL_PCH to
CELL_DCH (P2D) and CELL_DCH to idle (D2Idle). This gives priority to access requests for
high-priority services such as CS services, keeps the cell update success rate high, and reduces call
drops. For details, see section 4.3 "FACH Congestion Control."
The RNC performs admission control, load reshuffling, and overload control on code and power
resources. For details about admission control, see the Call Admission Control Feature Parameter
Description. For details about load reshuffling and overload control, see the Load Control Feature
Parameter Description.

To address problems caused by limited signaling bandwidth over the Iu interface (labeled in Figure
2-1), the RNC works with the core network to perform flow control over the Iu interface. Based on link
congestion conditions detected at the local end and congestion indications reported from the peer end,
the RNC performs flow control on initial UE messages to reduce the signaling traffic over the Iu
interface. This prevents severe congestion on the signaling link between the RNC and the core
network and reduces the load on the core network when it is overloaded. For details, see chapter 5
"Flow Control over the Iu Interface."

To address problems caused by limited transmission resources over the Iub interface (labeled in
Figure 2-1), the RNC performs NodeB-level Call Attempts Per Second (CAPS) control to restrict the
number of RRC connection requests that arrive at the NodeB each second when the Network Control
Protocol (NCP) link is congested. This prevents signaling impacts from single NodeBs and maintains a
stable traffic volume within the system. For details, see 4.1 "CAPS Control." In addition, the RNC
supports user-plane congestion control over the Iub interface to restrict transmission rates when there
is transmission congestion over the Iub interface. This prevents packet loss and makes more efficient
use of the bandwidth. For details, see chapter 6 "Service Flow Control."
For access requests, the RNC supports load sharing within one subrack or between subracks on the
user plane and control plane. This achieves dynamic sharing of resources, balancing the load among
subracks and boards and improving service processing efficiency. For details, see chapter 7 "Load
Sharing."
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3 Flow Control for Overloaded RNC Units
3.1 Principle
3.1.1 Overview
Each RNC board monitors the following in real time to keep track of resource consumption:

CPU usage: The CPU resources of a board determine the processing capabilities of the board. All
functions running on the board use CPU resources.

Message block occupancy rate: Message blocks are resources used to send and receive messages
within the RNC.
When the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate of a board is high, the board processing
capabilities may become insufficient. When this occurs, the board triggers flow control to ensure that
basic functions can continue to run properly. Flow control based on message block occupancy rate is
independent of flow control based on CPU usage. Related flow control functions will be triggered when
either the message block occupancy rate or the CPU usage is excessively high. Generally, it is rare to
run out of message blocks.
Figure 3-1 shows the flow control model that each board follows based on CPU usage and message
block occupancy rate.
Figure 3-1 Flow control model


The XPUs, interface boards (collectively known as INTs), DPUs, SCUs and GCUs mentioned in this
document are board types displayed on the LMT. An XPU comprises MPUs and CPUSs, which have the
following functions:

An MPU manages resources on the user plane, control plane, and transport plane, informs MPUs in
other subracks about the load on the current subrack, and makes decisions regarding load sharing.
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A CPUS processes services on the control plane.
For the detailed functions of each board, see the BSC6900 UMTS Hardware Description.
3.1.2 CPU Usage Monitoring
The system checks CPU usage in real time. If the CPU usage has reached the threshold for starting a
flow control function that is based on the CPU usage and currently enabled, this function is started.
To prevent frequent flow control triggered by CPU usage fluctuations, the system also calculates the
average CPU usage during a period of time that has just elapsed, and determines whether to perform
flow control based on this CPU usage. The CPU usage values used to calculate the average CPU
constitute a filter window, as shown in Figure 3-2.
Figure 3-2 Filter window for calculating the average CPU usage


3.1.3 Message Block Occupancy Rate Monitoring
Once it has allocated message blocks ten times, the system checks the message block occupancy rate.
If the message block occupancy rate has reached the threshold for starting a flow control function that is
based on the message block occupancy rate and currently enabled, this function is started.
To prevent frequent flow control triggered by message block occupancy rate fluctuations, the system
also calculates the average message block occupancy rate. The message block occupancy rate values
used to calculate the average message block occupancy rate constitutes a filter window, as shown in
Figure 3-3.
Figure 3-3 Filter window for calculate the average message block occupancy rate


3.2 Whole Picture of Flow Control for Overloaded RNC Units
Table 3-1 provides a whole picture of flow control for overloaded RNC units.
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Table 3-1 Whole picture of flow control for overloaded RNC units
Overload Source Flow Control
Function
Flow Control
Object
Impact
on
Services
Controlling
Command
CPUS High CPU
usage or
message
block
occupancy
rate
Printing flow
control
Printing No SET FCSW
Debugging flow
control
Debugging
Performance
monitoring flow
control
Performance
monitoring
Logging flow
control
Logging
Resource audit
flow control
Resource audit
Paging control Paging messages Yes SET FCSW
AC Users in AC0 to
AC9
SET FCSW
RRC flow control RRC connection
requests
None
High CPU
usage
Queue-based
RRC shaping
RRC connection
requests
SET
UCACALGOSWITC
H
High CPU
usage or
message
block
occupancy
rate
Flow control on
signaling
messages over the
Iur interface
Some signaling
messages over the
Iur interface
SET FCSW
Flow control over
the Iur-g interface
All messages over
the Iur-g interface
CBS flow control All broadcast
messages delivered
by the CBC
Cell/URA update
flow control
Some cell/URA
update messages
MPU High CPU
usage or
message
block
occupancy
rate
Printing flow
control
Printing None SET FCSW
Debugging flow
control
Debugging
Logging flow
control
Logging
High CPU
usage
MPU overload
backpressure
RRC connection
requests
Yes SET
RRCTRLSWITCH
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Overload Source Flow Control
Function
Flow Control
Object
Impact
on
Services
Controlling
Command
INT High CPU
usage or
message
block
occupancy
rate
Printing flow
control
Printing None SET FCSW
Debugging flow
control
Debugging
Logging flow
control
Logging
High CPU
usage
Flow control
triggered by INT
overload on the
control plane
RRC connection
requests
Yes SET TNSOFTPARA
Congestion in
queues at the
ports
Flow control
triggered by Iub
interface board
overload on the
user plane
BE service rates
DPU High CPU
usage or
message
block
occupancy
rate
Printing flow
control
Printing None SET FCSW
Debugging flow
control
Debugging
Logging flow
control
Logging
High DSP
CPU usage
Flow control
triggered by DSP
CPU overload
BE service rates Yes None
SCU High CPU
usage or
message
block
occupancy
rate
Printing flow
control
Printing None SET FCSW
Debugging flow
control
Debugging
Performance
monitoring flow
control
Performance
monitoring
Logging flow
control
Logging
GCU High CPU
usage or
message
block
occupancy
rate
Printing flow
control
Printing None SET FCSW
Debugging flow
control
Debugging
Logging flow
control
Logging
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The filter windows for flow control functions configured by the SET FCSW command are configurable.
The details are as follows:

For flow control decisions based on CPU usage, the SMWINDOW parameter of the SET FCCPUTHD
command is used to configure the filter window.

For flow control decisions based on message block occupancy rate, the SMWINDOW parameter of
the SET FCMSGQTHD command is used to configure the filter window.
For flow control functions configured by the SET FCSW command, the system also uses a fast judgment
window to prevent the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate from rapidly rising to a high level.
The details are as follows:

If all CPU usage values during this fast judgment window are greater than or equal to a critical
threshold, all currently enabled flow control functions based on CPU usage are started. The
FDWINDOW and CTHD parameters of the SET FCCPUTHD command are used to configure the fast
judgment window and critical threshold, respectively. The value of SMWINDOW should be at least
twice the value of FDWINDOW.

If the current message block occupancy rate value is greater than or equal to a critical threshold, all
currently enabled flow control functions based on message block occupancy rate are started. The size
of the fast judgment window for flow control based on the message block occupancy rate is 1. That is,
the critical threshold decision does not use the filter mechanism. The CTHD parameter of the SET
FCMSGQTHD command is used to configure the critical threshold.
When the FCSW parameter is set to OFF, all flow control functions configured by the SET FCSW
command are disabled.
3.3 Flow Control Triggered by CPUS Overload
3.3.1 Overview
The CPUS software monitors the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate of the CPUS in real
time. Upon detecting a high CPU usage or message block occupancy rate, the CPUS software starts
basic flow control, which is performed on non-critical functions, such as printing and logging. When the
CPU usage or message block occupancy rate reaches or exceeds their respective thresholds, the CPUS
software starts the following flow control functions if they are enabled:

Access control

RRC flow control

Flow control over the Iur interface

CBS flow control

Cell or URA update flow control

Flow control over the Iur-g interface
In addition, the CPUS software supports queue-based RRC shaping, which helps stabilize the CPU
usage.
3.3.2 CPUS Basic Flow Control
Principle
Basic flow control for a CPUS is performed on printing, debugging, performance monitoring, logging, and
resource auditing. The CPUS software monitors the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate of
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the CPUS in real time. Based on the monitored data, the CPUS software starts or stops all or some of
the basic flow control functions.

When the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate reaches the threshold, the CPUS software
starts flow control.

When the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate fall below their respective thresholds, the
CPUS software stops flow control.
The SET FCSW command is used to enable the basic flow control functions. By default, all basic flow
control functions are enabled.
The SET FCCPUTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based on CPU
usage, and the SET FCMSGQTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based
on message block occupancy rate.
Basic flow control for the CPUS has no impact on services.
Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for an XPU, check
the subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
EVT-22835 Flow Control is reported when a basic flow control function is started. To find out which basic
flow control function was started, check the flow control type in the event.
The following counters indicate the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate.
Counter Description
VS.XPU.CPULOAD.MEAN Average CPU usage of the XPU
VS.XPU.MSGLOAD.MEAN Average message block occupancy rate of the XPU

3.3.3 Access Control
Principle
When the network is heavily loaded, an access class (AC) identifies the access priority of specific UEs.
ACs are numbered from 0 to 15. If the CPU usage of a CPUS is higher than the preset threshold, the
CPUS software restricts the access of UEs of AC0 through AC9. This reduces the impact of traffic on the
network.
The RNC starts access control when the CPU usage of the CPUS exceeds the value of ACCTHD
configured with the SET FCCPUTHD command or the message block occupancy rate exceeds the value
of ACCTHD configured with the SET FCMSGQTHD command.

After the RNC starts access control for the CPUS, all cells under the CPUS are affected. The RNC first
starts access control for a random cell. After a period of time defined by AcIntervalOfCell, the RNC
starts access control for another random cell. This pattern continues until access control has been
started for all cells under the CPUS.

Users of certain ACs cannot access the access-controlled cell for each period of time defined by
AcRstrctIntervalLen. The number of ACs affected by access control in each period is 10 times the
value of AcRstrctPercent, and the ACs are chosen in turn. Assuming that the value of
AcRstrctPercent is 20%, AC0 and AC1 users cannot initiate RRC connections under the cell during
the first period of time defined by AcRstrctIntervalLen, and AC2 and AC3 users cannot initiate RRC
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connections under the cell during the second such period. This pattern continues under a cell this way
until access control is stopped for this cell, as shown in Figure 3-4.
Figure 3-4 Access control on users under a cell when the value of AcRstrctPercent is 20%


The RNC stops access control when the CPU usage of the CPUS falls below the value of ACRTHD
configured with the SET FCCPUTHD command and the message block occupancy rate of the CPUS
falls below the value of ACRTHD configured with the SET FCMSGQTHD command.
Whether access control yields noticeable effects depends on the following factors: how the operator
defines users. If SIM cards are evenly distributed among ACs before being sold, access control can yield
noticeable effects.
To determine whether AC is yielding notable effects, run the DSP UCELLACR command or check the
value of the counter VS.RRC.AttConnEstab.Msg. Assuming AcRstrctPercent is set to 20%, access
control is considered yielding noticeable effects if the value of this counter is 20% less than its value
before access control was enabled.
By default, access control is disabled. To enable it, set the values of ACSW and AcRstrctSwitch to ON.
Users making emergency calls are all put into AC10 and are not subject to access control.
The RNC can perform domain-specific access control (DSAC) to differentiate between the CS domain
and the PS domain. When one domain is overloaded or unavailable, DSAC keeps the other domain from
being negatively affected. This makes the network more resilient in the event of service interruption. For
more details about DSAC, see the DSAC Feature Parameter Description.
Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for an XPU, check
the subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
Access control uses system information to prevent users in certain ACs from accessing the network. To
determine access control effects on the RNC side, compare the values of the counter
VS.RRC.AttConnEstab.Msg before and after access control is enabled. This counter indicates the total
number of RRC connection requests that the RNC has received from UEs.
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3.3.4 Paging Control
Principle
Upon detecting that the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate of a CPUS is higher than the
preset threshold, the RNC starts paging control to reduce paging traffic and ensure high paging success
rates for high-priority services. The PAGESW parameter in the SET FCSW command is used to enable
paging control. By default, it is enabled.

When the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate exceeds the threshold, the RNC starts paging
control and discards paging messages.

When the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate fall below their respective thresholds, the
RNC stops paging control.
Paging control based on CPU usage varies by service. The SET FCCPUTHD command is used to
configure paging control thresholds for different services, as described in Table 3-2.
Table 3-2 Thresholds for paging control based on CPU usage
Service Types Threshold for Starting Paging
Control
Threshold for Stopping Paging
Control
Real-time services CPAGECTHD CPAGERTHD
BE services, supplementary
services, and location services
SLPAGECTHD SLPAGERTHD
SMS SMPAGECTHD SMPAGERTHD

To ensure a high paging success rate for high-priority services, such as CS services, the thresholds for
starting paging control should be ranked as follows:
CPAGECTHD > SLPAGECTHD > SMPAGECTHD
This way, when paging control is in progress, SMS paging messages are the first to be discarded.
Paging control applies to terminating UEs, and load sharing is not used for paging messages. As a result,
paging control for one CPUS affects all paging processes within the same RNC. The thresholds for
starting paging control should be higher than the thresholds for starting other flow control functions
triggered by CPUS overload.
Paging control based on message block occupancy rate does not vary by service. The necessary
thresholds are configured with the SET FCMSGQTHD command.
Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for an XPU, check
the subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
The following counters are related to paging control.
Counter Description
VS.Paging.FC.Disc.Num.CPU
S
Number of paging messages discarded because of paging control
VS.Paging.FC.Disc.Time.CPU Duration of paging control in a measurement period
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Counter Description
S
3.3.5 RRC Flow Control
Principle
Upon detecting that the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate of a CPUS is higher than the
preset threshold, the RNC starts rejecting or discarding RRC connection requests to avoid raising the
CPU load further. RRC Flow Control is enabled by default. It is started after load sharing fails for RRC
connection requests. For more details on load sharing for RRC connection requests, see chapter 7
"Load Sharing."
When the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate of the CPUS exceeds the threshold, the RNC
starts RRC flow control and rejects RRC connection requests. When the number of rejected RRC
connection requests exceeds the value of SysRrcRejNum configured with the SET
UCALLSHOCKCTRL command, the CPUS starts discarding subsequent RRC connection requests
messages, without responding with RRC CONNECTION REJECT messages. When the CPU usage and
message block occupancy rate fall below their respective thresholds, the RNC stops RRC flow control.
RRC flow control varies by service. The SET SHARETHD command is used to configure the necessary
thresholds for the different services, as shown in Table 3-3.
Table 3-3 Thresholds for RRC flow control
Service Type Threshold for
Starting RRC Flow
Control Based on
CPU Usage
Threshold for
Stopping RRC
Flow Control
Based on CPU
Usage
Threshold for
Starting RRC Flow
Control Based on
Message Block
Occupancy Rate
Threshold for
Stopping RRC Flow
Control Based on
Message Block
Occupancy Rate
Inter-RAT cell
reselection,
IMSI detach
procedure,
registration,
and incoming
voice calls
CRRCCONNCCPU
THD
CRRCCONNRC
PUTHD
CRRCCONNCMSG
THD
CRRCCONNRMSGT
HD
BE services
and
UE-originated
voice calls
LRRCCONNCCPU
THD
LRRCCONNRC
PUTHD
LRRCCONNCMSG
THD
LRRCCONNRMSGT
HD
SMS SMRRCCONNCCP
UTHD
SMRRCCONNR
CPUTHD
SMRRCCONNCMS
GTHD
SMRRCCONNRMS
GTHD

To ensure high-priority services such as CS services are processed first, the thresholds for starting RRC
flow control should be ranked as follows:
CRRCCONNCCPUTHD > LRRCCONNCCPUTHD > SMRRCCONNCCPUTHD
This way, when RRC flow control is in progress, RRC connection requests for SMS are the first to be
discarded.
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When the CPU usage of the CPUS exceeds 90%, the RNC starts discarding all RRC connection
requests except those for emergency calls.
Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for an XPU, check
the subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
The following counters indicate the number of RRC connection requests discarded because of RRC flow
control.
Counter Description
VS.LowPriRRC.FC.Disc.Num.CPUS Number of discarded RRC connection requests for SMS
because of RRC flow control based on CPU usage
VS.NormPriRRC.FC.Disc.Num.CPU
S
Number of discarded RRC connection requests for BE services
and outgoing voice services because of RRC flow control based
on CPU usage
VS.HighPriRRC.FC.Disc.Num.CPUS Number of discarded RRC connection requests for registration
and incoming voice services because of RRC flow control based
on CPU usage

3.3.6 Flow Control on Signaling Messages over the Iur Interface
Principle
Upon detecting that the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate of a CPUS is higher than the
preset threshold, the RNC starts flow control to reduce signaling traffic over the Iur interface so that the
CPU load does not rise further.

When the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate exceeds the threshold, the RNC starts flow
control over the Iur interface and discards signaling messages over the Iur interface.

When the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate fall below their respective thresholds, the
RNC stops flow control over the Iur interface.
Flow control on signaling messages over the Iur interface consists of uplink transmission flow control
over the Iur interface and downlink transmission flow control over the Iur interface, as described in Table
3-4.
Table 3-4 Flow control over the Iur interface
Flow Control Function Flow Control Objects Switch
Uplink transmission flow control over
the Iur interface
UPLINK SIGNALLING TRANSFER INDICATION
messages
IURULSW
Downlink transmission flow control
over the Iur interface

RADIO LINK SETUP REQUEST messages

PAGING REQUEST messages

COMMON TRANSPORT CHANNEL
RESOURCES REQUEST messages
IURDLSW

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The SET FCCPUTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based on CPU
usage, and the SET FCMSGQTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based
on message block occupancy rate.
Flow control over the Iur interface affects cell updates, handovers, and paging over the Iur interface. In
addition, It affects ongoing service procedures because signaling messages are discarded. This may
increase call drop rates.
Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for an XPU, check
the subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
3.3.7 CBS Flow Control
Principle
In cases where the UTRAN uses an external cell broadcast center (CBC) to provide the cell broadcast
service (CBS), the RNC starts CBS flow control upon detecting that the CPU usage or message block
occupancy rate of a CPUS is higher than the preset threshold. This reduces signaling traffic over the
Iu-BC interface and thereby prevents the CPU load from rising further. The CBSSW parameter in the
SET FCSW command is used to enable CBS flow control. By default, it is enabled.

When the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate exceeds the threshold, the RNC starts CBS
flow control and discards all CBC broadcast messages.

When the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate fall below their respective thresholds, the
RNC stops CBS flow control.
The SET FCCPUTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based on CPU
usage, and the SET FCMSGQTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based
on message block occupancy rate.
CBS flow control affects cell broadcast services.
Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for an XPU, check
the subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
The following counters are related to CBS flow control.
Counter Description
VS.CBS.FC.Disc.Num.CPUS Number of broadcast messages discarded because of CBS flow
control
VS.CBS.FC.Disc.Time.CPUS Duration of CBS flow control in a measurement period

3.3.8 Cell/URA Update Flow Control
Principle
Upon detecting that the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate of a CPUS is higher than the
preset threshold, the RNC starts cell/URA update flow control to reduce the number of cell/URA update
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messages so that the CPU load does not rise further. The CELLURASW parameter in the SET FCSW
command is used to enable cell/URA update flow control. By default, it is enabled.

When the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate exceeds the threshold, the RNC starts
cell/URA update flow control. During cell/URA update flow control, the RNC discards cell or URA
update requests originated by a UE in the CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state that involves a P2P
transition (CELL_PCH to URA_PCH or URA_PCH to CELL_PCH) or a P2F transition (CELL_PCH or
URA_PCH to CELL_FACH).

When the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate fall below the threshold, the RNC stops
cell/URA update flow control.
The SET FCCPUTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based on CPU
usage, and the SET FCMSGQTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based
on message block occupancy rate.
Cell/URA update flow control lowers the cell update success rate and affects uplink data transmission. In
addition, UE locations recorded by the RNC may not be accurate because cell update messages are
discarded. This may affect paging.
For more details about UE state transitions, see the State Transition Feature Parameter Description.
Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for an XPU, check
the subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
The following counters are related to cell/URA update flow control.
Counter Description
VS.CU.FC.Disc.Num.CPUS Number of cell update requests discarded because of cell/URA update
flow control
VS.CU.FC.Disc.Time.CPUS Duration of cell/URA update flow control in a measurement period

3.3.9 Flow Control over the Iur-g Interface
Principle
Upon detecting that the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate of a CPUS is higher than the
preset threshold, the RNC starts Iur-g flow control to reduce signaling traffic over the Iur-g interface so
that the CPU load does not rise further. The IURGSW parameter in the SET FCSW command is used to
enable flow control over the Iur-g interface. By default, it is disabled.

When the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate exceeds the threshold, the RNC starts flow
control and discards all messages sent over the Iur-g interface.

When the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate fall below their respective thresholds, the
RNC stops flow control over the Iur-g interface.
The SET FCCPUTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based on CPU
usage, and the SET FCMSGQTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based
on message block occupancy rate.
When flow control over the Iur-g interface is started, the RNC is not informed of real-time information
about the GSM network load. This may cause the following problems:
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When the GSM network load is heavy, inter-RAT handovers initiated by the RNC fail.

When the GSM network load is light, the RNC does not initiate inter-RAT handovers, service
distribution cannot be performed for UMTS services, and load sharing cannot be achieved between
the UMTS and GSM networks.
For more details about load-based handovers, service distribution, and load balancing over the Iur-g
interface, see the Common Radio Resource Management Feature Parameter Description.
Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold, ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out
whether the alarm was reported for an XPU, check the subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
3.3.10 Queue-based RRC Shaping
Principle
When new service attempts generate a traffic volume that exceeds the maximum processing capability
of the CPU in a CPUS, the CPU usage rises to a high level. When a large number of service setup
attempts are made in a short period of time, the CPU usage fluctuates sharply. To address these
problems, the RNC adopts a token- and queue-based shaping solution, which performs flow control on
RRC connection requests. This solution stabilizes the CPU usage and increase RRC and RAB setup
success rates when traffic is heavy.
Tokens are permits to use the CPU resources of the CPUS. When an RRC connection request arrives, it
applies for a token. RRC connection processing can proceed only after being granted a token. If the
RRC connection request fails to obtain a token, it attempts to enter a specific queue and remains there
until a token is available. If the queue is full, the RRC connection request is discarded. Figure 3-5 shows
how queue-based RRC shaping works.
Figure 3-5 Queue-based RRC shaping


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By default, queue-based RRC shaping is disabled. To enable it, run the SET UCACALGOSWITCH
command with the RsvdPara1 parameter set to RSVDBIT14-1.
When an RRC connection request arrives, if the CPU usage of a CPUS is higher than 90%, the CPUS
discards all RRC connection requests that are not from emergency calls. If the CPU usage is not higher
than 90%, the CPUS checks whether the CPU load meets the conditions for load sharing. If so, the
CPUS forwards the RRC connection request to the MPU for load sharing. If not, RNC performs
queue-based RRC shaping. For details about load sharing, see chapter 7 "Load Sharing." Queue-based
RRC shaping is as follows:
1. The RRC connection request applies for a token.
If the request manages to obtain a token, the request is processed and this procedure ends.
If the request fails to obtain a token and the queue is not full, the request enters the queue. Step 2
starts.
If the request fails to obtain a token and the queue is full, the request is discarded and this procedure
ends.
2. The RRC connection request enters the queue.
3. The RRC connection request leaves the queue.
The CPUS periodically scans the queues. If the RRC connection request has remained in a queue for
longer than half of the value of T300, the CPUS discards the message.
If a token is available for the request, the request leaves the queue and is processed. Step 4 starts.
The CPUS first processes RRC connection requests from emergency calls and terminated voice calls.
4. The CPUS processes the RRC connection request.
The RNC does not perform flow control on emergency calls, and emergency calls do not enter queues.
Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for an XPU, check
the subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
The counter VS.RRC.FC.Disc.Num.RRCQueue.CPUS indicates the number of RRC connection
requests discarded because of queue-based RRC shaping.
3.4 Flow Control Triggered by MPU Overload
3.4.1 Basic Flow Control for the MPU
Principle
Basic flow control for an MPU is performed on printing, debugging, and logging. The MPU software
monitors the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate of the MPU in real time. Based on the
monitored data, the MPU software starts or stops all or some of the basic flow control functions.

When the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate reaches the threshold, the MPU software
starts flow control.

When the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate fall below the threshold, the MPU software
stops flow control.
The SET FCCPUTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based on CPU
usage, and the SET FCMSGQTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based
on message block occupancy rate.
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The SET FCSW command is used to enable the basic flow control functions. By default, all basic flow
control functions are enabled. Basic flow control for the MPU has no impact on services.
Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for an XPU, check
the subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
EVT-22835 Flow Control is reported when a basic flow control function is started. To find out which basic
flow control function was started, check the flow control type in the event.
The following counters indicate the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate.
Counter Description
VS.XPU.CPULOAD.MEAN Average CPU usage of the XPU
VS.XPU.MSGLOAD.MEAN Average message block occupancy rate of the XPU

3.4.2 MPU Overload Backpressure
Principle
Under heavy traffic, the CPU of the MPU may be overloaded and fail to process services properly as a
result. The RNC adopts an overload backpressure function. With this function, CPUSs work with MPUs
to perform flow control on RRC CONNECTION REQUEST messages to alleviate the impact of heavy
traffic on MPUs.
Congestion detection is performed based on the instantaneous CPU usage of the MPU. When the CPU
usage of the MPU reaches 80% (this percentage is unconfigurable) or higher, the MPU sends a
congestion message to the CPUS bound to it, as shown in Figure 3-6.
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Figure 3-6 Flow control based on MPU overload


Upon receipt of the congestion message from the MPU, the CPUS adjusts the flow control level. The
RNC adjusts the number of RRC connection requests that can be admitted on the CPUS each second
according to the flow control level change. Flow control for the CPUS is performed on a scale of 30
levels. A higher flow control level means fewer RRC connection requests admitted each second.
The CPUS adjusts the flow control level by using two timers, one with a value of 2.2 seconds, the other
with a value of 0.8 seconds.

Upon receiving a congestion message from the MPU, the CPUS increases the flow control level by
one and starts the two timers.

If MPU congestion messages are received before the 0.8-second timer expires, the CPUS does not
take any actions.

If MPU congestion messages are received after the 0.8-second timer expires but before the
2.2-second timer expires, the CPUS increases the flow control level by one and restarts the two timers.
After the 2.2-second timer expires, the CPUS decreases the flow control level by one.
When the RsvdPara1 parameter in the SET URRCTRLSWITCH command is set to
RSVDBIT1_BIT19-1, MPU overload backpressure is enabled. By default, it is enabled.
Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for an XPU, check
the subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
The counter VS.RRC.FC.Disc.Num.MPU.CPUS indicates the number of RRC connection requests
discarded because of MPU overload backpressure.
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3.5 Flow Control Triggered by INT Overload
3.5.1 INT Basic Flow Control
Principle
When an interface board (INT) is heavily loaded, it starts basic flow control. Basic flow control for an INT
is performed on printing, debugging, and logging. The INT software monitors the CPU usage and
message block occupancy rate of the INT in real time. Based on the monitored data, the INT software
starts or stops all or some of the basic flow control functions.

When the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate reaches the threshold, the INT software starts
flow control.

When the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate fall below the threshold, the INT software
stops flow control.
The SET FCCPUTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based on CPU
usage, and the SET FCMSGQTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based
on message block occupancy rate. Basic flow control for the INT has no impact on services.
The SET FCSW command is used to enable the basic flow control functions. By default, all basic flow
control functions are enabled.
Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for an INT, check the
subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
EVT-22835 Flow Control is reported when a basic flow control function is started. To find out which basic
flow control function was started, check the flow control type in the event.
The counter VS.INT.CPULOAD.MEAN indicates the CPU usage.
3.5.2 Flow Control Triggered by INT Overload on the Control Plane
Principle
After a UE initiates an RRC connection request and obtains transmission resources on the MPU, the
CPUS sends a session setup request to the interface board. When a large number of service setup
requests are made in a short period of time, the interface board needs to process a large number of
session setup requests and may be overloaded. The MPU adopts a flow control process based on
service priorities and the instantaneous CPU usage of the interface board. This type of flow control
improves the RAB setup success rate when the interface board is heavily loaded.
The interface board reports its CPU usage to the MPU each second, as shown in Figure 3-7. Based on
the CPU usage of the interface board, the MPU adjusts the maximum number of session setup requests
admitted by the interface board. If the number of RRC connection requests already admitted is larger
than the maximum number allowed, the RNC only processes RRC connection requests from emergency
calls and high-priority services. The switch parameter for this function is SwitchParameter1 in the SET
SS7PATCHSWITCH command. When SwitchParameter1 is set to OFF, this function is enabled. It is
enabled by default and applies to Iub, Iu, and Iur interface boards. The maximum number of session
setup requests allowed determines the signaling processing capability of the interface board.
High-priority services involved in this type of flow control refer to incoming and outgoing voice calls,
inter-RAT cell reselection, and registration.
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Figure 3-7 Flow control triggered by INT overload


When the CPU usage of the interface board exceeds 90%, the MPU starts discarding RRC connection
requests from all UEs.
Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for an INT, check the
subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
3.5.3 Flow Control Triggered by Iub Interface Board Overload on the
User Plane
When the amount of user-plane data sent from the DPU to the interface board exceeds the processing
capability of the interface board, the interface board throughput decreases and the packet loss rate
increases. To address this problem, the RNC adopts backpressure-based downlink congestion control.
For more details, see the Transmission Resource Management Feature Parameter Description.
3.6 Flow Control Triggered by DPU Overload
3.6.1 DPU Basic Flow Control
Principle
When a DPU is heavily loaded, it starts basic flow control. Basic flow control for a DPU is performed on
printing, debugging, and logging. The DPU software monitors the CPU usage and message block
occupancy rate of the DPU in real time. Based on the monitored data, the DPU software starts or stops
all or some of the basic flow control functions.
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When the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate reaches the threshold, the DPU software
starts flow control.

When the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate fall below the threshold, the DPU software
stops flow control.
The SET FCCPUTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based on CPU
usage, and the SET FCMSGQTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based
on message block occupancy rate. Basic flow control for the DPU has no impact on services.
The SET FCSW command is used to enable the basic flow control functions. By default, all basic flow
control functions are enabled.
Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for a DPU, check the
subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
EVT-22835 Flow Control is reported when a basic flow control function is started. To find out which basic
flow control function was started, check the flow control type in the event.
3.6.2 Flow Control Triggered by DSP CPU Overload
Principle
To ensure admission of CS services and quality of ongoing CS services, the RNC lowers the rates of BE
services when the CPU of a DSP is heavily loaded. By default, this type of flow control is enabled.
Each DSP of the DPU periodically monitors its own CPU usage.

When the CPU usage is between SSDSPAVEUSAGEALMTHD and SSDSPMAXUSAGEALMTHD,
the RNC lowers the rates of BE services.

When the CPU usage is lower than the threshold SSDSPAVEUSAGEALMTHD, the RNC raises the
rates of BE services.

To prevent the DSP from crashing, if the CPU usage is higher than 90% during a monitoring period,
the RNC further lowers BE service rates and discards some packets of BE services and AMR
services.
When the RNC raises or lowers service rates, the current monitoring period is ended. To prevent
frequent changes in service rates, the RNC waits a period of time before starting the next monitoring
period. During this period, the RNC does not increase or decrease rates of BE services.
Overload Indication
There are no indications when the CPU of a DSP is overloaded.
3.7 Flow Control Triggered by SCU Overload
3.7.1 Principle
When an SCU is heavily loaded, it starts basic flow control. Basic flow control for an SCU is performed
on printing, debugging, performance monitoring, and logging. The SCU software monitors the CPU
usage and message block occupancy rate of the SCU in real time. Based on the monitored data, the
SCU software starts or stops all or some of the basic flow control functions.

When the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate reaches the threshold, the SCU software
starts flow control.
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When the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate fall below the threshold, the SCU software
stops flow control.
The SET FCCPUTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based on CPU
usage, and the SET FCMSGQTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based
on message block occupancy rate. Basic flow control for the SCU has no impact on services.
The SET FCSW command is used to enable the basic flow control functions. By default, all basic flow
control functions are enabled.
3.7.2 Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for an SCU, check
the subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
EVT-22835 Flow Control is reported when a basic flow control function is started. To find out which basic
flow control function was started, check the flow control type in the event.
The counter VS.SCU.CPULOAD.MEAN indicates the CPU usage.
3.8 Flow Control Triggered by GCU Overload
3.8.1 Principle
When a GCU is heavily loaded, it starts basic flow control. Basic flow control for a GCU is performed on
printing, debugging, and logging. The GCU software monitors the CPU usage and message block
occupancy rate of the GCU in real time. Based on the monitored data, the GCU software starts or stops
all or some of the basic flow control functions.

When the CPU usage or message block occupancy rate reaches the threshold, the GCU software
starts flow control.

When the CPU usage and message block occupancy rate fall below the threshold, the GCU software
stops flow control.
The SET FCCPUTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based on CPU
usage, and the SET FCMSGQTHD command is used to configure the thresholds for flow control based
on message block occupancy rate. Basic flow control for the GCU has no impact on services.
The SET FCSW command is used to enable the basic flow control functions. By default, all basic flow
control functions are enabled.
3.8.2 Overload Indication
When the CPU usage reaches the preset threshold (configured by the SET CPUTHD command),
ALM-20256 CPU Overload is reported. To find out whether the alarm was reported for a GCU, check the
subrack number and slot number in the alarm.
EVT-22835 Flow Control is reported when a basic flow control function is started. To find out which basic
flow control function was started, check the flow control type in the event.
The counter VS. GCU.CPULOAD.MEAN indicates the CPU usage.
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4 Flow Control Triggered by NodeB/Cell Overload
4.1 CAPS Control
4.1.1 Principle
When the number of calls in a cell or NodeB sharply increases, most system resources (mainly radio
resources) are consumed processing the enormous amount of RRC connection setup requests.
Therefore, the remaining resources are insufficient for processing subsequent RAB assignment requests,
resulting in call failures.
To solve this problem, the RNC implements the CAPS control function. This function limits the number of
RRC connection requests admitted to a cell or NodeB each second. By preventing the traffic of a single
cell or NodeB from surging, CAPS control helps maintain a stable traffic volume on the network. Figure
4-1 shows the procedure for CAPS control.
Figure 4-1 Procedure for CAPS control


By default, CAPS control is disabled.

To enable cell-level CAPS control:
Set the CallShockCtrlSwitch parameter to SYS_LEVEL-0&NODEB_LEVEL-0&CELL_LEVEL-1;
and
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Set the RsvdPara1 parameter (by running the ADD UCELLALGOSWITCH command) to
RSVDBIT4-1.

To enable NodeB-level CAPS control:
Set the CallShockCtrlSwitch parameter to SYS_LEVEL-0&NODEB_LEVEL-1&CELL_LEVEL-0;
and
Set the RsvdPara1 parameter (by running the ADD UNODEBALGOPARA command) to
RSVDBIT1-1.

To enable both cell-level and NodeB-level CAPS control:
Set the CallShockCtrlSwitch parameter to SYS_LEVEL-0&NODEB_LEVEL-1&CELL_LEVEL-1;
and
Set the RsvdPara1 parameter (by running the ADD UCELLALGOSWITCH command) to
RSVDBIT4-1. Set the RsvdPara1 parameter (by running the ADD UNODEBALGOPARA command)
to RSVDBIT1-1.
The CallShockCtrlSwitch parameter is for the RNC. To enable cell- or NodeB-level CAPS control, you
need to set the associated parameter for the cell or NodeB. The SYS_LEVEL field of the
CallShockCtrlSwitch parameter is used to enable CPUS-level CAPS control, which is no longer
applicable.
After CAPS control is enabled, the RNC periodically checks the total number of RRC connection
requests received by a cell or NodeB. When this number exceeds the preset threshold, the RNC triggers
the cell- or NodeB-level flow control. The check period is set with the CallShockJudgePeriod parameter.
Table 4-1 describes the conditions for triggering the cell- and NodeB-level flow control.
Table 4-1 Conditions for triggering the cell- and NodeB-level flow control
Flow Control Level Triggering Condition
Cell The total number of RRC connection requests received by a cell during a
specified period exceeds the value of CellTotalRrcNumThd.
NodeB

The total number of RRC connection requests received by a NodeB during
a specified period exceeds the value of NBTotalRrcNumThd; or

NCP link congestion over the Iub interface is detected.

Table 4-2 describes the flow control policy for different services.
Table 4-2 Flow control policy
Service Flow Control Policy
PS BE services (interactive
service and background
service), streaming
service, short message
service (SMS), and
inter-RAT cell change
The RNC rejects the access requests of these services.
AMR service

Cell-level flow control:
The number of RRC connection requests admitted for AMR services in a
cell each second must not exceed the value of the CellAmrRrcNum
parameter. Once the limit is reached, the RNC rejects all subsequent
requests.
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Service Flow Control Policy

NodeB-level flow control:
The number of RRC connection requests admitted for AMR services in a
NodeB each second must not exceed the value of the NBAmrRrcNum
parameter. Once the limit is reached, the RNC rejects all subsequent
requests.
Registration and inter-RAT
cell reselection
When the RegByFachSwitch parameter is set to ON, the RNC forcibly
sets up the RRC connection of registrations on the FACH.

Cell-level flow control:
The number of RRC connection requests for registrations and inter-RAT
cell reselections in a cell each second must not exceed the value of the
CellHighPriRrcNum parameter. Once the limit is reached, the RNC
rejects all subsequent requests.

NodeB-level flow control:
The number of RRC connection requests for registrations and inter-RAT
cell reselections in a NodeB each second must not exceed the value of the
NBHighPriRrcNum parameter. Once the limit is reached, the RNC rejects
all subsequent requests.
Emergency call Flow control is not applied to emergency calls.

To prevent a UE from frequently retransmitting the RRC connection requests, the RNC adds an IE "wait
time" to the RRC connection reject message sent to the UE. The UE waits for the length of time specified
by RrcConnRejWaitTmr and then retransmits the RRC connection request. In this way, network
congestion will not be aggravated. The UE needs to support the processing associated with "wait time."
4.1.2 Overload Indication
The counter VS.RRC.FC.Disc.Num.CallShock.CPUS indicates the number of RRC connection requests
discarded on the CPUS because of CAPS control.
4.2 PCH Congestion Control
4.2.1 Principle
Because PS services are growing so rapidly, the number of paging messages consuming a large
amount of paging resources is also increasing rapidly. As a result, the paging success rate of CS
services may be affected. To address this issue, the RNC implements PCH congestion control. With
PCH congestion control, CS services are allowed to preempt the paging resources of PS services in the
event of PCH congestion, increasing the paging success rate of CS services.
When the number of transmitted paging messages in a transmission time interval (TTI) reaches the
maximum (known as PCH congestion), push to talk (PTT) services and conversational services can start
preempting the paging resources of other services. If preemption fails, the paging message for a PTT or
conversational service is discarded. The rules for PCH congestion control are as follows:

PTT services can preempt the paging resources of other services but its resources cannot be
preempted by other services.

Conversational services can preempt the paging resources of non-conversational services.
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The paging messages of other services (except PTT services and conversational services) are
discarded.
By default, PCH congestion control is disabled. To enable PCH congestion control and allow the
conversational services to preempt the paging resources of non-conversational services, run the SET
UDPUCFGDATA command to set PAGINGSWITCH to ON.
If the value of the counter VS.RRC.Paging1.Loss.PCHCong.Cell is not 0, the PCH is congested. If this
happens, enable PCH congestion control and do not disable it once it is enabled.
4.2.2 Overload Indication
When the PCH is congested, the paging messages are discarded. The counter
VS.RRC.Paging1.Loss.PCHCong.Cell indicates the number of discarded paging messages.
When the PCH congestion control function is enabled, CS services can preempt the paging resources of
PS services. The counter VS.RRC.Paging1.PCHCong.CSPreemptAtt indicates the number of paging
preemptions by CS services in a cell due to PCH congestion.
4.3 FACH Congestion Control
4.3.1 Overview
The Forward Access Channel (FACH) is a downlink common transport channel that carries control
messages to a UE during initial access and state transition. The FACH may also carry a small quantity of
user-plane data. FACH congestion may block information exchange between UEs and the network,
affecting service provisioning. To address this issue, the RNC implements FACH congestion control.
FACH congestion may be due to the fact that the number of UEs in the CELL_FACH state is limited, or
the fact that the resources of the logical channels (CCCH/DCCH) on the FACH are congested. Table 4-3
describes how flow control is implemented in different scenarios where FACH congestion is the problem.
Table 4-3 FACH flow control
Cause of FACH
Congestion
Flow Control Actions
Limited number of UEs
in the CELL_FACH
state
The P2D transitions is triggered.
The D2Idle transitions of PS BE services is triggered.
CCCH congestion Message retransmission for PS BE services is stopped.
New PS BE services are rejected.
DCCH congestion The P2D transitions of CS services is triggered.

When there is CCCH/DCCH congestion on the FACH, the RNC performs flow control based on the
congestion level. The congestion level is determined by comparing the channel buffer size and the
preset thresholds, as described in Table 4-4.
Table 4-4 Determination on CCCH/DCCH congestion level
Congestion
Level
Determining Condition Parameter for CCCH Parameter for
DCCH
Non-congestion Channel buffer size less than the
congestion clearance threshold
RsvdPara14 None
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Congestion
Level
Determining Condition Parameter for CCCH Parameter for
DCCH
Minor congestion Channel buffer size greater than or
equal to the congestion threshold
RsvdPara3 None
Major congestion Channel buffer size greater than or
equal to the discard threshold
None None

The congestion and congestion clearance thresholds for CCCH are set by using the SET
UDPUCFGDATA command. Keep the default values (60 for the congestion threshold and 30 for the
congestion clearance threshold). If you need to modify the parameter settings, consult Huawei technical
support because the modification affects flow control. The congestion and congestion clearance
thresholds for DCCH are not configurable. The default value for the congestion threshold is 60, and the
default value for the congestion clearance threshold is 10.
For details about WCDMA channels, see the Radio Bearers Feature Parameter Description. For details
about state transitions, see the State Transition Feature Parameter Description.
4.3.2 Flow Control Based on Limited Number of UEs in the
CELL_FACH State
Principle
Generally, a state transition from CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH (referred to as a D2F transition) shall occur
if Event 4B is triggered, as indicated by procedure in Figure 4-2. Event 4B is triggered when the
traffic volume of the UE is low for some time. If a UE in the CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state needs to
transmit data or respond to a paging message, it initiates a cell update message to enter the
CELL_FACH state, as shown in procedure in Figure 4-2.
The number of UEs on the FACH (UEs in the CELL_FACH state) is limited in a cell. The two types of
state transition previously mentioned may fail if the number of UEs in the CELL_FACH state reaches the
limit. As a result, UEs in the CELL_DCH state, having little or no data to transmit, may continuously
occupy the dedicated channels and cell resource utilization may decrease as a result. UEs in the
CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state may also fail to perform data transmission or respond to paging
messages and finally enter the idle state, leading to PS service drops. The maximum number of UEs in
the CELL_FACH state is 30.
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Figure 4-2 UE state transitions


The RNC allows D2Idle transitions (procedure in Figure 4-2) and P2D transitions (procedure in
Figure 4-2), when the number of UEs in the CELL_FACH state has reached the upper limit. Table 4-5
describes the triggering conditions for these state transitions.
Table 4-5 Triggering conditions for a D2Idle transition and a P2D transition
UE State State
Transition
Triggering Condition Switch
CELL_DCH D2Idle

Event 4B triggers a D2F state transition.

The D2F state transition fails two consecutive
times because of the limit to the number of
UEs in the CELL_FACH state.
The ReservedSwitch0
parameter is set to
RESERVED_SWITCH_
0_BIT16-1.
CELL_PCH/
URA_PCH
P2D

The cause of a cell update is "uplink data
transmission" or "paging response", triggering
a P2F transition.

The P2F transition fails because the number
of UEs in the CELL_FACH state has reached
the upper limit.
The RsvdPara1
parameter is set to
RSVDBIT1_BIT20-1.


The D2Idle transition function is disabled by default, and can be enabled by running the SET
UCORRMALGOSWITCH command. After a UE moves to the idle state, the RNC releases the
dedicated channel for the UE in order to improve the cell resource utilization.

The P2D transition function is disabled by default, and can be enabled by running the SET
URRCTRLSWITCH command. During a P2D transition, the RNC delivers the UE a cell update confirm
message on the CCCH, which prevents call drops because the delivery does not use up resources
designated for UEs in the CELL_FACH state. The initial access rate of a PS service is 8 kbit/s after the
UE has entered the CELL_DCH state.
The rate of PS BE services (non-PTT services) can be limited to 8 kbit/s to prevent excess usage of
the DCH resources. This function can be enabled by running the SET UCORRMALGOSWITCH
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command with the ReservedSwitch1 parameter set to RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT6-1. This
function is enabled by default.
If the number of UEs in the CELL_FACH state reaches the upper limit, cell updates may fail, including
those triggered by radio link setup failures. As a result, call drops may occur. To prevent this, you can
reserve some UEs in the CELL_FACH state for cell updates. To set the number of reserved users, run
the SET UCORRMALGOSWITCH command and modify the ReservedU32Para1 parameter.
If the number of reserved UEs in the CELL_FACH state is 5, the D2F transition shown in Figure 4-2 will
not be implemented when the number of UEs in the CELL_FACH state reaches 25. Instead, the D2Idle
transition may be triggered. The resources for reserved UEs are for the users who send cell update
messages.
If the value of the counter VS.CellFACHUEs (the number of UEs in the CELL_FACH state) is greater
than or equal to 25, enable the P2D transition and the D2Idle transition.
For details about UE state transition in normal cases, see the State Transition Feature Parameter
Description.
Overload Indication
The counter VS.CellFACHUEs indicates the number of UEs in the CELL_FACH state.
4.3.3 CCCH Flow Control
Principle
The common control channel (CCCH) is a logical channel that transmits control messages, such as RRC
messages and cell update confirm messages, between the RNC and UEs. The CCCH processes the
received messages in its buffer in sequence. The CCCH processes the following messages:

RRC CONNECTION SETUP

RRC CONNECTION REJECT

RRC CONNECTION RELEASE

CELL/URA UPDATE CONFIRM (used during a P2D transition for cell update)
The CCCH may be congested in either of the following situations:

UEs with PS services frequently send RRC connection requests.

A large number of UE registrations (including 2G/3G cell reselections) occur within a short period.
CCCH congestion may become severer in either of the following situations:

The RNC repeatedly sends a UE the RRC connection setup message within the time specified by
T381, aiming to increase the success rate of the UE receiving the RRC connection setup message.

A UE repeatedly sends the RRC connection request to the RNC if the UE does not receive the RRC
connection setup message within T300. This is because the RRC connection setup message sent by
the RNC the first time may have been discarded if the CCCH is congested.
To guarantee the success rate of RRC connection setup in case of CCCH congestion, the RNC
implements CCCH flow control.
The RNC performs CCCH flow control differentiating the RRC connection requests according to the
CCCH congestion level. The CCCH congestion level is determined by comparing the CCCH buffer size
and the preset thresholds, as described in Table 4-4. Figure 4-3 shows CCCH flow control.
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Figure 4-3 CCCH flow control



In the event of minor CCCH congestion, the RNC performs flow control as follows:
For PS BE service requests, the RNC discards the retransmitted RRC connection requests after T300
expires. This means that the RNC only handles the RRC connection request transmitted for the first
time. In addition, the RNC stops T381.

In the event of major CCCH congestion, the RNC performs flow control as follows:
The RNC discards RRC connection requests for new PS BE services.
CCCH flow control stops once the CCCH is no longer congested.
CCCH flow control is disabled by default. To enable it, run the MOD UCELLALGOSWITCH command
and set the RsvdPara1 parameter to RSVDBIT5-1. Enable CCCH flow control in mass gathering events,
in which case the traffic volume surges. Keep CCCH flow control enabled to increase the success rate of
RRC connection setup when the CCCH is congested.
If CCCH congestion and Uu-interface resource (code/power/CE) congestion are detected, the RNC
adds an IE "wait time" to the RRC connection reject message sent to the UE. The UE waits for the length
of time specified by this IE and then retransmits an RRC connection request. When the FACH is
congested, the RNC automatically sets the RrcConnRejWaitTmr parameter to 15.
Overload Indication
None
4.3.4 DCCH Flow Control
Principle
The dedicated control channel (DCCH) is a logical channel that transmits dedicated control messages,
such as reconfiguration messages and cell update confirm messages, between a UE and the RNC. The
DCCH processes the received messages in its buffer in sequence. The DCCH processes the following
messages:

RADIO BEARER RECONFIGURATION (F2D/F2P transitions)

CELL/URA UPDATE CONFIRM (P2F cell updates)
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DOWNLINK DIRECT TRANSFER/SECURITY MODE COMMAND
The DCCH may be congested if:

UEs in the CELL_PCH state frequently initiate the PS service access requests, triggering the frequent
transitions from P2F to F2D to D2F to F2P.

UEs in the CELL_PCH state frequently receive the paging messages from the CN, triggering the
frequent transitions from P2F to F2D to D2F to F2P.


When a UE in unacknowledged mode (UM) initiates a F2D/F2P/P2F transition, the RNC periodically
retransmits the radio bearer reconfiguration messages on the DCCH, resulting in severer DCCH
congestion.
When there is minor or major congestion on the DCCH, the RNC enables P2D transitions for CS service
to guarantee the CS service access. The function of P2D transition for CS service access is disabled by
default. To enable it, run the SET URRCTRLSWITCH command with the RsvdPara1 parameter set to
RSVDBIT1_BIT20-1.
DCCH flow control stops once the DCCH is no longer congested. The DCCH congestion level is
determined by comparing the DCCH buffer size and the preset thresholds, as described in Table 4-4.
If the value of the counter VS.FACH.DCCH.CONG.TIME is not 0, the DCCH is congested. If this
happens, enable DCCH congestion control and do not disable it once it is enabled.
Figure 4-4 shows the UE state transition when DCCH flow control is enabled.
Figure 4-4 UE state transition when DCCH flow control is enabled


For details about UE state transition in normal cases, see the State Transition Feature Parameter
Description.
Overload Indication
The counter VS.FACH.DCCH.CONG.TIME indicates the duration of DCCH congestion.
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5 Flow Control over the Iu Interface
5.1 SCCP Flow Control
5.1.1 Overview
In cases where the bandwidth configured for signaling links over the Iu interface is insufficient or some
signaling links over the Iu interface are faulty, signaling link congestion will occur when there are a large
number of calls, location updates, or group short messages. Signaling link congestion must be quickly
alleviated. Otherwise, it will lead to extended delays or even timeouts in signaling exchanges between
UEs and the core network. Severe congestion may cause services to break down. To address these
problems, the RNC supports Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP) flow control, which prevents
severe congestion on the signaling link between the RNC and the core network. By default, SCCP flow
control is enabled.
The RNC uses a scale of 13 levels (0 to 12) to perform SCCP flow control based on service type. When
the flow control level changes, the RNC adjusts the signaling traffic over the Iu interface. The higher the
flow control level, the more initial UE messages will be discarded. At Level 0, flow control is not
performed. The RNC performs SCCP flow control on short message services, paging, location updates
and registrations. Of these, short message service has the lowest priority, and location updates and
registrations have the highest priority. At a particular flow control level, the RNC proportionally discards
the initial UE messages of these services. The proportion is based on service priorities and is not
configurable. Of all the messages discarded during flow control, initial UE messages for lower-priority
services account for the largest proportions. Assuming that 30 initial UE messages are to be discarded
and the proportion of SMS messages discarded to paging messages discarded to location updates
discarded is 3:2:1, the numbers of initial UE messages for different services to be discarded are
calculated as follows:
SMS: 30 x 3/(3 + 2 + 1) = 15
Paging: 30 x 2/(3 + 2 + 1) = 10
Location registrations: 30 x 1/(3 + 2 + 1) = 5
SCCP flow control includes:

Flow control based on Iu signaling load

Flow control based on the SCCP setup success rate

CN SCCP congestion control
These three flow control functions have their own flow control levels, and the RNC performs SCCP flow
control according to the highest among them. Table 5-1 provides details about SCCP flow control.
Table 5-1 SCCP flow control
Flow Control Method Switch Criteria for Adjusting Flow Control Levels
Flow control based on Iu
signaling load
IUFCSW The SCCP receives an unsolicited SCCP-SSC message
from the core network.
The SCTP link (in the case of IP transmission) or the
SAAL/MTP3 link (in the case of ATM transmission)
becomes congested.
Flow control based on the
SCCP setup success rate
None The ratio of the sum of CC and CREF to CR changes.
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Flow Control Method Switch Criteria for Adjusting Flow Control Levels
CN SCCP congestion
control
None The RNC receives a CN CREF congestion indication
after sending a CR.

5.1.2 Flow Control Based on Iu Signaling Load
Principle
When the CN SCCP is congested, the RNC receives an SCCP Subsystem-Congested (SCCP-SSC)
message from the CN. This message carries the CN SCCP congestion level. The RNC maps the CN
SCCP congestion level to an RNC SCCP flow control level.
In addition, the RNC monitors the load on the SCTP, SAAL, or MTP3 link in real time and adjusts the flow
control level based on the congestion status.
Overload Indication
When a signaling link over the Iu interface is congested, the following alarms and counters are reported:
Transmission Mode
over the Iu Interface
Alarms Counters
IP transmission ALM-21542 SCTP Link Congestion

VS.SCTP.CONGESTION.INTE
RVAL

OS.M3UA.Lnk.Cong.Dur
ATM transmission

ALM-21501 MTP3 Signaling Link
Congestion

ALM-21502 MTP3 DSP Congestion

ALM-21532 SAAL Link Congestion

OS.MTP3.Lnk.Cong.Dur

OS.MTP3.Lnk.ConG

VS.SAAL.LnkErr.BufferLoss

The following counters indicate the number of initial UE messages discarded because of flow control
over the Iu interface.
Counter Description
VS.IU.FlowCtrl.DiscInitDT.
CS
Number of initial UE messages in the CS domain that are discarded
because of flow control over the Iu interface
VS.IU.FlowCtrl.Disc.InitD
T.PS
Number of initial UE messages in the PS domain that are discarded
because of flow control over the Iu interface

5.1.3 Flow Control Based on SCCP Setup Success Rate
Principle
In each flow control period, the RNC SCCP checks the number of connection requests (CRs) sent to the
CN and the total number of Connection Confirm (CC) and Connection Refused (CREF) messages
received from the CN. Each period is 5 seconds long.
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Based on the changes in the ratio of the number of CCs plus the number of CREFs to the number of
CRs, the RNC SCCP adjusts the flow control level to ensure that the number of messages received by
the CN does not exceed its capabilities.
The flow control level is adjusted based on the following criteria:

When (CC+CREF)/CR shows an increasing trend in a flow control period:
Flow control is lowered by one level if it is weaker than the previous period.
Flow control is raised by one level if it is stronger than the previous period.

If (CC+CREF)/CR shows a decreasing trend in a flow control period:
Flow control is raised by one level if it is weaker than the previous period.
Flow control is lowered by one level if it is stronger than the previous period.
If the number of CRs sent to the CN from the RNC increases, flow control weakens. If the number of
CRs sent from the RNC decreases, flow control strengthens.
Overload Indication
There are no indications when the CN is overloaded by CRs sent from the RNC.
5.1.4 CN SCCP Congestion Control
Principle
When the CN SCCP is congested, the RNC receives a CREF message carrying a congestion indication
after sending a CR. The RNC SCCP periodically checks whether it has received CREF messages
carrying congestion indications. When it does, it raises the flow control level by one. Otherwise, the RNC
lowers the flow control level by one.
Overload Indication
The following counters indicate the number of initial UE messages discarded because of CN SCCP
congestion control.
Counter Description
VS.IU.FlowCtrl.DiscInitDT.CS Number of initial UE messages in the CS domain that are discarded
because of flow control over the Iu interface
VS.IU.FlowCtrl.Disc.InitDT.PS Number of initial UE messages in the PS domain that are discarded
because of flow control over the Iu interface

5.2 Flow Control Triggered by CN RANAP Overload
Principle
When the CN RANAP is overloaded (CPU overload, for example), it sends a RANAP OVERLOAD
message to the RNC. Upon receipt of this message, the RNC adjusts the traffic level to the CN over the
Iu interface in order to decrease the load on the CN. The IUCTHD parameter in the SET FCSW command
is used to configure the percentage of the total traffic the RNC is restricted from sending to the CN. The
default value of this parameter is 70, which means the RNC can only send 30% of the total traffic to the
CN.
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Flow control triggered by CN RANAP overload is performed on a scale of 21 levels (0 to 20). The lower
the level, the more initial UE messages are discarded. The RNC uses two timers when adjusting the flow
control level: IntrTmr and IgorTmr, as shown in Figure 5-1.
Figure 5-1 Adjusting the flow control level


1. When IgorTmr was not started and the RNC receives an overload message from the CN, the RNC
lowers the flow control level by one and starts IntrTmr and IgorTmr, as shown in Figure 5-1.
The CN tells the RNC how many levels to lower the flow control according to the information element
Number of Steps in the RANAP OVERLOAD message.
2. If the RNC receives more overload messages from the CN before IgorTmr expires, the RNC does
not adjust the flow control level again.
3. If the RNC receives an overload message from the CN when IgorTmr has expired but IntrTmr has
not, the RNC lowers the flow control level by one unless the flow control level is already 0.
4. If the RNC has not received an overload message from the CN by the time IntrTmr expires, the RNC
raises the flow control level by one. If the flow control level is below 20, the RNC restarts IntrTmr.
The RNC repeats these operations until the flow control level reaches level 20. If the RNC receives
an overload message from the CN while IntrTmr is running, the procedure returns to step 1.
By default, this type of flow control is enabled.
Overload Indication
When the CN is overloaded, ALM-22301 UMTS CN Overload is reported.
The following counters indicate the number of initial UE messages discarded because of flow control
over the Iu interface.
Counter Description
VS.IU.FlowCtrl.DiscInitDT.CS Number of initial UE messages in the CS domain that are discarded
because of flow control over the Iu interface
VS.IU.FlowCtrl.Disc.InitDT.PS Number of initial UE messages in the PS domain that are discarded
because of flow control over the Iu interface
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Flow Control 6 Service Flow Control

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6 Service Flow Control
The RNC and NodeB adopt congestion control algorithms on the user plane over the Iub interface to
perform flow control on BE services. This restricts user transmission rates, prevents congestion and
packet loss, and optimizes bandwidth utilization over the Iub interface. For more details, see the
Transmission Resource Management Feature Parameter Description.
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Flow Control 7 Load Sharing

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7 Load Sharing
7.1 Overview
Load sharing is performed on both the control plane and the user plane. CPUSs, DSPs, and other
boards can be bound to an MPU to form a logical subrack. The subracks mentioned in this chapter are
all logical subracks.
Each CPUS controls some NodeBs and their cells. The CPUS performs signaling processing for service
requests from the UEs under these cells, and the UEs are admitted to the CPUS.
The MPU in each subrack keeps a record of the user-plane load on the current subrack and shares this
information with the MPUs in other subracks. When a service request arrives and the controlling CPUS
is heavily loaded, the CPUS forwards the request to the MPU in the current subrack. The MPU selects
the CPUS with the lightest load for signaling processing. The selected CPUS may be in the current
subrack or another subrack. Figure 7-1 shows how load sharing works between two subracks.
Figure 7-1 Load sharing between two subracks


When a UE attempts to access the network and user-plane resources need to be allocated to the UE,
the controlling CPUS sends a resource request to the MPU in the current subrack. The MPU attempts to
allocate the user-plane resources of the current subrack to the UE. If this attempt fails, the MPU forwards
the resource request to the MPU in the subrack with the lightest load.
Figure 7-2 shows resource management on the user plane.
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Flow Control 7 Load Sharing

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Figure 7-2 Resource management on the user plane


If the CPU usage of a CPUS is 90% or higher, the CPUS discards all service requests except those for
emergency calls. Load sharing does not work for the CPUS.
When the CPU usage of an MPU is 95% or higher, the MPU discards the following requests to avoid
resetting:

Resource requests from each UE, for example, requests for DSP resources and transmission
resources

Load sharing requests
When this occurs, load sharing does not work.
7.2 Load Sharing on the Control Plane
7.2.1 Procedure for Load Sharing on the Control Plane
When a CPUS receives a service request, the controlling CPUS determines whether to perform load
sharing. If so, the CPUS follows the procedure described in Figure 7-3.
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Flow Control 7 Load Sharing

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Figure 7-3 Load sharing on the control plane


Details are as follows:
Step 1 The CPUS receives a service request.
Step 2 Based on the current load, the CPUS determines whether to perform load sharing. For more
details, see section 7.2.2 "Service Request Processing by a CPUS."
If load sharing is to be performed, Step 3 starts.
If load sharing is not to be performed, the CPUS processes the request, and the procedure ends.
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Flow Control 7 Load Sharing

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7-4

Step 3 The CPUS forwards the request to the MPU in the current subrack.
Step 4 Upon receipt of the load sharing request from the CPUS, the MPU checks the control-plane load
on all subracks in the RNC.

If the control-plane load on the current subrack minus CtrlPlnSharingOutOffset is higher than the
control-plane load on any other subrack, load sharing is performed between subracks.
The MPU forwards the request to the MPU in the subrack with the lightest load on the control plane,
which is known as the target MPU. Following the criteria described in Table 7-1, the target MPU
searches for all CPUSs that can take up the request.
If the target MPU can find such CPUSs, it selects a CPUS with the lightest CPU load to process the
request.
If the target MPU cannot find such a CPUS, load sharing is performed within the current subrack.

If the control-plane load on the current subrack minus CtrlPlnSharingOutOffset is lower than or equal
to the control-plane load on any other subrack, load sharing is performed within the current subrack.
Following the criteria described in Table 7-1, the MPU in the current subrack attempts to find CPUSs
that can take up the request from within the current subrack.
If the target MPU can find such CPUSs, it selects a CPUS with the lightest CPU load to process the
request.
If the MPU cannot find such a CPUS, service access is rejected.
The control-plane load on a subrack is the average CPU usage of the CPUSs managed by the MPU.
Load sharing is yielding noticeable effects if the load is balanced across the CPUs of the CPUSs. To
check the CPU load of the CPUSs, run the DSP CPUUSAGE command. If the load is not balanced,
consult Huawei engineers to adjust the thresholds for load sharing or adjust the configuration of XPUs in
the subracks.
7.2.2 Service Request Processing by a CPUS
Generally, CPUSs are not heavily loaded. When a user initiates a service request, the controlling CPUS
processes it. If the controlling CPUS is heavily loaded, load sharing is performed and the request is
forwarded to a lightly loaded CPUS. Service requests cannot be forwarded to an overloaded CPUS. The
CPUS load is indicated by the CPU load (CPU usage) and CAPS. The RNC considers a CPUS
overloaded when any of the following conditions is met:

The CPU load is low and the CAPS is high.

The CPU load is high and the CAPS is low.

The CPU load is greater than or equal to the CPU overload threshold, which cannot be configured.
Based on the CPUS load, the RNC defines three CPUS states, as shown in Figure 7-4.
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Flow Control 7 Load Sharing

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Figure 7-4 CPUS load and states


The state of a CPUS determines how it processes service requests, as described in Table 7-1.
Table 7-1 Service request processing by CPUS state
CPUS State Definition Processing
State I The CPUS is lightly loaded. The CPUS load is
considered light when both the following are true:

CPU load CtrlPlnSharingOutThd

CAPS MaxCAPSLowLoad
The CPUS directly processes new
and forwarded requests.
State II The CPUS is heavily loaded. The CPUS load is
considered heavy when both the following are
true:

CtrlPlnSharingOutThd < CPU load < CPU
overload threshold

CAPS MaxCAPSMidLoad
The CPUS forwards all new
requests to the MPU for load
sharing.
The MPUs can forward requests to
the CPUS.
State III The CPUS is overloaded. The CPUS is
considered overloaded when any of the following
is true:

CPU overload threshold < CPU load

CPU load <= CtrlPlnSharingOutThd, and
MaxCAPSLowLoad < CAPS

CtrlPlnSharingOutThd < CPU load < CPU
overload threshold, and MaxCAPSMidLoad <
CAPS
The CPUS forwards all new
requests to the MPU for load
sharing.
The MPUs cannot forward requests
to the CPUS.

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Flow Control 7 Load Sharing

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7.3 Load Sharing on the User Plane
7.3.1 Overview
The RNC measures the following aspects of the DSP processing capability:

GBR capability of the DSP (DSP resources used for service access procedures are measured as
GBRs for each service)

Processing capability of the DSP CPU
Accordingly, the RNC measures the user-plane load of a subrack with the following:

Total GBRs consumed by admitted services on the DSPs (GBR consumption)

Average CPU usage of all DSP CPUs in a subrack (CPU load)
The remaining GBRs of a subrack refer to the total DSP GBR capabilities of the subrack minus GBR
consumption in the subrack. The remaining CPU processing capability of a subrack is the average CPU
processing capability of all DSPs in the subrack minus the CPU load.
7.3.2 Procedure for Load Sharing on the User Plane
When user-plane resources need to be allocated to a new user, the MPU in the current subrack
determines whether to allocate resources in the current subrack or forward the resource request to
another subrack based on the GBR consumption and CPU load. Figure 7-5 shows the procedure for
load sharing on the user plane.
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Flow Control 7 Load Sharing

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Figure 7-5 Load sharing on the user plane


Step 1 The MPU receives a resource allocation request from the CPUS.
Step 2 The MPU uses the user-plane load on the current subrack to determine whether to perform load
sharing.
If GBR consumption in the current subrack is equal to or lower than UserPlnSharingOutThd and the
CPU load on the current subrack is less than or equal to UserPlnCpuSharingOutThd, the MPU in
the current subrack attempts to allocate user-plane resources to the user in the current subrack.
Substep 1 starts.
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Flow Control 7 Load Sharing

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7-8

Otherwise, the MPU forwards the request to the MPU in the subrack with the lightest load, known as
the target subrack. The MPU of this subrack will determine whether load sharing can be performed.
Step 3 starts.
1. The MPU in the current subrack determines whether resources can be allocated.
If... Then...
The MPU finds in the current subrack the DSP with the
lowest GBR consumption that also has a CPU load below
DSPRestrainCpuThd
The MPU selects this DSP as the target
DSP, and substep 2 starts.
The MPU cannot find such a DSP The RNC rejects the service access.

2. The target DSP allocates user-plane resources to the user.
Step 3 The target MPU determines whether load sharing can be performed.
1. If either of the following conditions is met, substep 2 starts:
GBR consumption in the current subrack > UserPlnSharingOutThd, and remaining GBRs in the
current subrack x (1 + UserPlnSharingOutOffset) < remaining GBRs in the target subrack
CPU load in the current subrack > UserPlnCpuSharingOutThd, and the remaining CPU processing
capability in the current subrack x (1 + UserPlnCpuSharingOutOffset) < remaining CPU processing
capability in the target subrack.
If neither of these conditions is met, load sharing fails, and the MPU in the current subrack selects a
DSP from the current subrack for resource allocation.
2. The MPU in the target subrack determines whether resources can be allocated.
If... Then...
The MPU in the target subrack finds in the target subrack
a DSP whose GBR consumption is the lowest and whose
CPU load is lower than DSPRestrainCpuThd
This DSP is selected as the target DSP,
and substep 3 starts.
The MPU in the target subrack cannot find such a DSP The RNC rejects the service access.

3. The target DSP allocates user-plane resources to the user.
The SET UUSERPLNSHAREPARA command configures thresholds for load sharing on the user plane.
Load sharing is considered yielding noticeable effects if the load is balanced across the CPUs of the
MPUs. To check the CPU load on an MPU, run the DSP CPUUSAGE command. If the load is not
balanced, consult Huawei engineers to adjust the thresholds for load sharing or adjust the configuration
of DPUs in the subracks.
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Flow Control 8 Engineering Guidelines

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8 Engineering Guidelines
8.1 Access Control and Domain-Specific Access Control
8.1.1 Factors That Affect Access control and Domain-Specific
Access Control
Whether access control or DSAC yields noticeable effects depends on the following factors:

How the operator defines users
If SIM cards are evenly distributed among ACs before being sold, access control or DSAC can yield
noticeable effects. If SIM cards are unevenly or incorrectly distributed among ACs, do not enable
access control or DSAC because it may fail to yield noticeable effects.

UE compliance
DSAC is applicable only to UEs that comply with 3GPP Release 6 or later. Access control is applicable
to all UEs.
After access control or DSAC is enabled, run the DSP UCELLACR or DSP UCELLDSAC command,
respectively, to check the running status. To find out whether access control is creating noticeable effects,
check the value of the counter VS.RRC.AttConnEstab.Msg. Assuming AcRstrctPercent is set to 20%,
access control is yielding noticeable effects if the value of this counter is 20% less than its value before
access control was enabled.
8.1.2 Configuration Principles and Suggestions

Enable DSAC PS ahead of mass gatherings and disable it afterwards.

Enable access control or DSAC PS according to the values of the related counters.
Check the RRC setup success rate of the cell. If the value of this KPI is significantly lower than it was
on the same day last week, check the value of VS.RRC.FailConnEstab.NoReply.
RRC setup success rate = RRC.SuccConnEstab.sum/VS.RRC.AttConnEstab.Sum
If VS.RRC.FailConnEstab.NoReply is significantly higher than it was on the same day last week,
check the value of VS.MeanRTWP.
If VS.MeanRTWP is significantly higher than it was on the same day last week, check the value of
VS.RRC.AttConnEstab.Sum.
If VS.RRC.AttConnEstab.Sum is significantly higher than it was the same day last week, the low
RRC setup success rate has been caused by heavy traffic. In this case, enable DSAC PS to alleviate
the traffic impact.
If the RRC setup success rate is still low, enable access control.
To enable DSAC PS, set PsRestriction to TRUE and AcRestriction to the number of ACs on which
DSAC is performed.
To enable access control, set AcRstrctSwitch to ON and AcRstrctPercent to the number of ACs on
which access control is performed.
After access control or DSAC PS is enabled, observe the value of VS.RRC.AttConnEstab.Sum, which
indicates the number of RRC setup attempts. If the value of this counter keeps decreasing, the network
is not subject to traffic impacts anymore and you can disable access control and DSAC PS.
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8.1.3 Performance Optimization
If access control or DSAC fails to yield the expected effects, change the number of ACs on which access
control or DSAC is performed. It is recommended that this value be adjusted in steps of 10%.
8.1.4 Key Parameter Settings
Increasing the number of ACs on which access control or DSAC is performed decreases the number of
RRC setup requests and increases the RRC setup success rate. Decreasing the number of ACs on
which access control or DSAC is performed increases the number of RRC setup requests and
decreases the RRC setup success rate.
8.2 Queue-based RRC Shaping
8.2.1 Factors That Affect Queue-based RRC Shaping
During mass gatherings, CPU usage soars and fluctuates with changes in traffic volume. When CPU
usage exceeds the critical threshold (90%), the RRC and RAB setup success rates decrease. In this
case, enable queue-based RRC shaping, which stabilizes the influx of RRC connection requests into the
system. This stabilizes the CPU usage and increases RRC and RAC setup success rates.
Once queue-based RRC shaping is enabled, the load-sharing threshold and the parameters for other
flow control functions that affect the CPU usage (such as CAPS control) need to be adjusted.
8.2.2 Configuration Principles and Suggestions
Enable queue-based RRC shaping ahead of mass gatherings. At the same time, increase the values of
the parameters for flow control functions that affect the CPU usage. Contact Huawei technical support to
determine a detailed plan.
8.3 CAPS Control
8.3.1 Factors That Affect CAPS Control
The effect of CAPS control depends on the accuracy of the estimation of the allowed number of RRC
connection requests in the cell. If the allowed number of RRC connection requests is too large, CAPS
control cannot yield noticeable effects. If the allowed number of RRC connection requests is too small,
resources may not be fully utilized. The SET UCALLSHOCKCTRL command configures the allowed
number of RRC connection requests per second in a cell. Contact Huawei technical support to adjust
this number.
8.3.2 Configuration Principles and Suggestions
Check the value of VS.RRC.AttConnEstab.Sum. If the value is significantly higher than it was on the
same day last week and the service setup success rate is low, it is recommended that CAPS control be
enabled.
CS service setup success rate = (VS.RAB.SuccEstabCS.Conv +
VS.RAB.SuccEstabCS.Str)/(VS.RAB.AttEstabCS.Conv + VS.RAB.AttEstabCS.Str)
PS service setup success rate = (VS.RAB.SuccEstabPS.Conv + VS.RAB.SuccEstabPS.Str +
VS.RAB.SuccEstabPS.Int + VS.RAB.SuccEstabPS.Bkg)/(VS.RAB.AttEstabPS.Conv +
VS.RAB.AttEstabPS.Str + VS.RAB.AttEstabPS.Int + VS.RAB.AttEstabPS.Bkg)
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8.3.3 Performance Optimization
Check the service setup success rate of the cell. If the service-setup success rate is low, run the SET
UCALLSHOCKCTRL command to reduce the allowed number of RRC connection requests per second
in the cell. The minimum number is 2. If the service-setup success rate is high, run the SET
UCALLSHOCKCTRL command.
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Flow Control 9 Parameters

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9 Parameters
Table 9-1 Parameter description
Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
SMWINDOW BSC6900 SET FCMSGQTHD(Optional) Meaning: Number of message block
occupancy rate samples involved in the
calculation of the average CPU usage in the
sliding window

GUI Value Range: 2~2000
Actual Value Range: 2~2000
Unit: None
Default Value: 10
CTHD BSC6900 SET FCMSGQTHD(Optional) Meaning: Critical threshold of packet queue
usage. When the packet queue usage
reaches or exceeds the threshold, all active
flow control functions are implemented.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 95
ACCTHD BSC6900 SET FCMSGQTHD(Optional) Meaning: Access packet recovery threshold.
When the average packet queue usage of
sliding windows is lower than the threshold,
AC flow control is stopped.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 70
ACRTHD BSC6900 SET FCMSGQTHD(Optional) Meaning: Access packet recovery threshold.
When the average packet queue usage of
sliding windows is lower than the threshold,
AC flow control is stopped.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 70
PAGESW BSC6900 SET FCSW(Optional) Meaning: Whether to control paging flow

GUI Value Range: ON, OFF
Actual Value Range: ON, OFF
Unit: None
Default Value: ON
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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
RsvdPara14 BSC6900 SET
UDPUCFGDATA(Optional)
Meaning: This parameter is saved for the
coming usage.

GUI Value Range: 0~4294967295
Actual Value Range: 0~4294967295
Unit: None
Default Value: 0
RsvdPara3 BSC6900 SET
UDPUCFGDATA(Optional)
Meaning: This parameter is saved for the
coming usage.

GUI Value Range: 0~4294967295
Actual Value Range: 0~4294967295
Unit: None
Default Value: 0
SMWINDOW BSC6900 SET FCCPUTHD(Optional) Meaning: Number of CPU usage samples
involved in the calculation of the average
CPU usage in the sliding window

GUI Value Range: 2~2000
Actual Value Range: 2~2000
Unit: None
Default Value: 10
FDWINDOW BSC6900 SET FCCPUTHD(Optional) Meaning: Number of CPU usage sampling
times for fast judgment. The value of this
parameter must be of half size of "Filter
window" or smaller.

GUI Value Range: 1~1000
Actual Value Range: 1~1000
Unit: None
Default Value: 4
CTHD BSC6900 SET FCCPUTHD(Optional) Meaning: Critical threshold of CPU usage.
When the CPU usage in "Fast judgement
window" reaches or exceeds the threshold,
all active flow control functions are
implemented. Otherwise, the corresponding
flow control mechanism is used.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 95
FCSW BSC6900 SET FCSW(Mandatory) Meaning: Flow control switch. Other
switches are valid only when "Flow control
switch" is "ON".

GUI Value Range: ON, OFF
Actual Value Range: ON, OFF
Unit: None
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Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
Default Value: ON
ACCTHD BSC6900 SET FCCPUTHD(Optional) Meaning: Access flow control threshold.
When the average CPU usage of sliding
windows exceeds the threshold, AC flow
control is triggered.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 80
AcIntervalOfC
ell
BSC6900 SET UACALGO(Mandatory) Meaning: Interval of automatic access
classes restriction between cells. When a
subsystem of an RNC performs access
classes restriction on cells managed by this
subsystem, it selects the first cell at random.
After waiting for the time specified in this
parameter, the subsystem selects the
second cell and the first cell is still with
access classes restriction. The process
lasts until all the cells are going through
access classes restriction. For detailed
information of this parameter, refer to 3GPP
TS 22.011.

GUI Value Range: 1~36000
Actual Value Range: 10~360000, step:10
Unit: ms
Default Value: 50
AcRstrctInterv
alLen
BSC6900 SET UACALGO(Mandatory) Meaning: Interval of access classes
restriction. When a cell performs access
classes restriction, it selects some access
classes and after the restriction on these
access classes lasts for the time specified in
this parameter, the access classes
restriction is released and the cell selects
other access classes for restriction.

GUI Value Range: 6~3600
Actual Value Range: 6~3600
Unit: s
Default Value: 10
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Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
AcRstrctPerce
nt
BSC6900 SET UACALGO(Mandatory) Meaning: Access restriction ratio. When a
cell performs access classes restriction, you
can select some access classes from AC0
to AC9 based on the ratio specified in this
parameter and perform access classes
restriction on the selected access classes.
After access classes restriction goes on for
AcRstrctIntervalLen, the original access
classes restriction is released and other
access classes of the local cell are selected
for access classes restriction based on the
ratio specified in this parameter.

GUI Value Range: 1~10
Actual Value Range: 0.1~1, step:0.1
Unit: %
Default Value: 2
ACRTHD BSC6900 SET FCCPUTHD(Optional) Meaning: Access flow control recovery
threshold. When the average CPU usage of
sliding windows is lower than the threshold,
AC flow control is stopped.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 70
ACSW BSC6900 SET FCSW(Optional) Meaning: Whether to control AC flow

GUI Value Range: ON, OFF
Actual Value Range: ON, OFF
Unit: None
Default Value: ON
AcRstrctSwitc
h
BSC6900 SET UACALGO(Optional) Meaning: OFF indicates that the AC
algorithm is automatically disabled. ON
indicates that the AC algorithm is
automatically enabled.

GUI Value Range: OFF, ON
Actual Value Range: OFF, ON
Unit: None
Default Value: OFF
PAGESW BSC6900 SET FCSW(Optional) Meaning: Whether to control paging flow

GUI Value Range: ON, OFF
Actual Value Range: ON, OFF
Unit: None
Default Value: ON
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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
CPAGECTHD BSC6900 SET FCCPUTHD(Optional) Meaning: CPU usage threshold for paging
flow control over real-time services. BE
services uses the same paging flow control
thresholds as SS and LCS to ensure the
paging success rate of real-time services.
When the average CPU usage within
several sliding windows reaches or exceeds
"Call page restore threshold", the linear
paging flow control on real-time services is
started. When the average CPU usage
within several sliding windows reaches or
exceeds "Call page control threshold", the
100% paging flow control on real-time
services is started.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 90
SLPAGECTH
D
BSC6900 SET FCCPUTHD(Optional) Meaning: CPU usage threshold for paging
flow control over best effort (BE) services,
supplementary services (SS), and the
location service (LCS). BE services uses the
same paging flow control thresholds as SS
and LCS to ensure the paging success rate
of real-time services. When the average
CPU usage within several sliding windows
reaches or exceeds "SS and LCS page
restore threshold", the linear paging flow
control on BE services, SS, and LCS is
started. When the average CPU usage
within several sliding windows reaches or
exceeds "SS and LCS page control
threshold", the 100% paging flow control on
BE services, SS, and LCS is started.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 80
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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
SMPAGECTH
D
BSC6900 SET FCCPUTHD(Optional) Meaning: CPU usage threshold for paging
flow control over the short message service
(SMS). When the average CPU usage
within several sliding windows reaches or
exceeds "SMS page restore threshold", the
linear paging flow control on SMS is started.
When the average CPU usage within
several sliding windows reaches or exceeds
the "SMS page control threshold", the 100%
paging flow control on SMS is started.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 70
CPAGERTHD BSC6900 SET FCCPUTHD(Optional) Meaning: CPU usage threshold for paging
control over real-time services. BE services
uses the same paging flow control
thresholds as SS and LCS to ensure the
paging success rate of real-time services.
When the average CPU usage within
several sliding windows reaches or exceeds
"Call page restore threshold", the linear
paging flow control on real-time services is
started. When the average CPU usage
within several sliding windows is lower than
"Call page restore threshold", paging control
over real-time services is stopped.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 75
SLPAGERTH
D
BSC6900 SET FCCPUTHD(Optional) Meaning: CPU usage threshold for paging
flow control over best effort (BE) services,
supplementary services (SS), and location
service (LCS). BE services uses the same
paging flow control thresholds as SS and
LCS to ensure the paging success rate of
real-time services. When the average CPU
usage within several sliding windows
reaches or exceeds "SS and LCS page
restore threshold", the linear paging flow
control on BE services, SS, and LCS is
started. When the average CPU usage
within several sliding windows is lower than
the "SS and LCS page restore threshold",
paging flow control over BE services, SS,
and LCS is stopped.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
Unit: %
Default Value: 70
SMPAGERTH
D
BSC6900 SET FCCPUTHD(Optional) Meaning: CPU usage threshold for paging
flow control over the short message service
(SMS). When the average CPU usage
within several sliding windows reaches or
exceeds "SMS page restore threshold", the
linear paging flow control on SMS is started.
When the average CPU usage within
several sliding windows is lower than "SMS
page restore threshold", the flow control on
SMS is stopped.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 60
SysRrcRejNu
m
BSC6900 SET
UCALLSHOCKCTRL(Optional)
Meaning: The parameter specifies the
maximum number of RRC Connection
Reject messages per second from SPU
subsystem to UE. When the SPU
subsystem is in flow control state, the
system will respond RRC Connection Reject
message to UE. If the number of RRC
Connection Reject messages exceeds the
value of the parameter, RNC will discard the
RRC connection request.

GUI Value Range: 1~500
Actual Value Range: 1~500
Unit: None
Default Value: 100
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
CRRCCONNC
CPUTHD
BSC6900 SET SHARETHD(Optional) Meaning: CPU usage threshold for stopping
load sharing on call service RRC connection
setup requests. When the CPU usage of an
XPU subsystem reaches this threshold or
CtrlPlnSharingOutThd, whichever is smaller,
later call service RRC connection setup
requests will be carried by other XPU
subsystems. CtrlPlnSharingOutThd is set by
using the command "SET
UCTRLPLNSHAREPARA". If the CPU
usage of all candidate XPU subsystems
exceeds this threshold, flow control on call
service RRC connection setup requests is
triggered.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 85
CRRCCONNR
CPUTHD
BSC6900 SET SHARETHD(Optional) Meaning: CPU usage threshold for
recoverying load sharing on call service
RRC connection setup requests. If the CPU
usage of an XPU subsystem is lower than
this threshold, this XPU subsystem is the
candidate subsystem for the load sharing on
call service RRC connection setup requests.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 75
CRRCCONNC
MSGTHD
BSC6900 SET SHARETHD(Optional) Meaning: Packet usage threshold for
stopping load sharing on call service RRC
connection setup requests. When the
packet usage of an XPU subsystem reaches
this threshold, later call service packets will
be carried by other XPU subsystems. If the
packet usage of all candidate XPU
subsystems exceeds this threshold, flow
control on call service RRC connection
setup request packets is triggered.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 75
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
CRRCCONNR
MSGTHD
BSC6900 SET SHARETHD(Optional) Meaning: Packet usage threshold for
recoverying load sharing on call service
RRC connection setup requests. When the
packet usage of an XPU subsystem is lower
than this threshold, this XPU subsystem is a
candidate subsystem for load sharing on
call service RRC connection setup requests.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 65
LRRCCONNC
CPUTHD
BSC6900 SET SHARETHD(Optional) Meaning: CPU usage threshold for stopping
load sharing on location service RRC
connection setup requests. When the CPU
usage of an XPU subsystem reaches this
threshold or CtrlPlnSharingOutThd,
whichever is smaller, later location service
RRC connection setup requests will be
carried by other XPU subsystems.
CtrlPlnSharingOutThd is set by using the
command "SET UCTRLPLNSHAREPARA".
If the CPU usage of all candidate XPU
subsystems exceeds this threshold, flow
control on location service RRC connection
setup requests is triggered.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 90
LRRCCONNR
CPUTHD
BSC6900 SET SHARETHD(Optional) Meaning: CPU usage threshold for
recoverying load sharing on location service
RRC connection setup requests. If the CPU
usage of an XPU subsystem is lower than
this threshold, this XPU subsystem is the
candidate subsystem for load sharing on
location service RRC connection setup
requests.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 80
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
LRRCCONNC
MSGTHD
BSC6900 SET SHARETHD(Optional) Meaning: Packet usage threshold for
stopping load sharing on location service
RRC connection setup requests. When the
packet usage of an XPU subsystem reaches
this threshold, later call service packets will
be carried by other XPU subsystems. If the
packet usage of all candidate XPU
subsystems exceeds this threshold, flow
control on location service RRC connection
setup request packets is triggered.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 75
LRRCCONNR
MSGTHD
BSC6900 SET SHARETHD(Optional) Meaning: Packet usage threshold for
recoverying load sharing on location service
RRC connection setup requests. When the
packet usage of an XPU subsystem is lower
than this threshold, this XPU subsystem is a
candidate subsystem for load sharing on
location service RRC connection setup
requests.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 65
SMRRCCONN
CCPUTHD
BSC6900 SET SHARETHD(Optional) Meaning: CPU usage threshold for stopping
load sharing on SMS RRC connection setup
requests. When the CPU usage of an XPU
subsystem reaches this threshold or
CtrlPlnSharingOutThd, whichever is smaller,
later SMS RRC connection setup requests
will be carried by other XPU subsystems.
CtrlPlnSharingOutThd is set by using the
command "SET UCTRLPLNSHAREPARA".
If the CPU usage of all candidate XPU
subsystems exceeds this threshold, flow
control on SMS RRC connection setup
requests is triggered.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 70
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
SMRRCCONN
RCPUTHD
BSC6900 SET SHARETHD(Optional) Meaning: CPU usage threshold for
recoverying load sharing on SMS RRC
connection setup requests. If the CPU
usage of an XPU subsystem is lower than
this threshold, this XPU subsystem is a
candidate subsystem for the load sharing on
SMS RRC connection setup requests.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 60
SMRRCCONN
CMSGTHD
BSC6900 SET SHARETHD(Optional) Meaning: Packet usage threshold for
stopping load sharing on SMS RRC
connection setup requests. When the
packet usage of an XPU subsystem reaches
this threshold, later SMS packets will be
carried by other XPU subsystems. If the
packet usage of all candidate XPU
subsystems exceeds this threshold, flow
control on SMS RRC connection setup
request packets is triggered.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 75
SMRRCCONN
RMSGTHD
BSC6900 SET SHARETHD(Optional) Meaning: Packet usage threshold for
recoverying load sharing on SMS RRC
connection setup requests. When the
packet usage of an XPU subsystem is lower
than this threshold, this XPU subsystem is a
candidate subsystem for load sharing on
SMS RRC connection setup requests.

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 65
IURULSW BSC6900 SET FCSW(Optional) Meaning: Whether to control the traffic on
the Iur uplink

GUI Value Range: ON, OFF
Actual Value Range: ON, OFF
Unit: None
Default Value: ON
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
IURDLSW BSC6900 SET FCSW(Optional) Meaning: Whether to control the traffic on
the Iur downlink

GUI Value Range: ON, OFF
Actual Value Range: ON, OFF
Unit: None
Default Value: ON
CBSSW BSC6900 SET FCSW(Optional) Meaning: Whether to control CBS flow

GUI Value Range: ON, OFF
Actual Value Range: ON, OFF
Unit: None
Default Value: ON
CELLURASW BSC6900 SET FCSW(Optional) Meaning: Whether to control cell updates

GUI Value Range: ON, OFF
Actual Value Range: ON, OFF
Unit: None
Default Value: ON
IURGSW BSC6900 SET FCSW(Optional) Meaning: Whether to control traffic on the
Iur-g interface

GUI Value Range: ON, OFF
Actual Value Range: ON, OFF
Unit: None
Default Value: ON
RSVDPARA1 BSC6900 SET
TRANSPATCHPARA(Optional)
Meaning: Parameter 1 reserved for future
use.

GUI Value Range: OFF(OFF), ON(ON)
Actual Value Range: OFF, ON
Unit: None
Default Value: None
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
RsvdPara1 BSC6900 SET
UCACALGOSWITCH(Optional)
Meaning: Reserved Parameter1.

GUI Value Range: RSVDBIT1(Reserved
Switch 1), RSVDBIT2(Reserved Switch 2),
RSVDBIT3(Reserved Switch 3),
RSVDBIT4(Reserved Switch 4),
RSVDBIT5(Reserved Switch 5),
RSVDBIT6(Reserved Switch 6),
RSVDBIT7(Reserved Switch 7),
RSVDBIT8(Reserved Switch 8),
RSVDBIT9(Reserved Switch 9),
RSVDBIT10(Reserved Switch 10),
RSVDBIT11(Reserved Switch 11),
RSVDBIT12(Reserved Switch 12),
RSVDBIT13(Reserved Switch 13),
RSVDBIT14(Reserved Switch 14),
RSVDBIT15(Reserved Switch 15),
RSVDBIT16(Reserved Switch 16)
Actual Value Range: RSVDBIT1,
RSVDBIT2, RSVDBIT3, RSVDBIT4,
RSVDBIT5, RSVDBIT6, RSVDBIT7,
RSVDBIT8, RSVDBIT9, RSVDBIT10,
RSVDBIT11, RSVDBIT12, RSVDBIT13,
RSVDBIT14, RSVDBIT15, RSVDBIT16
Unit: None
Default Value: None
RsvdPara1 BSC6900 ADD UCNNODE(Optional)
MOD UCNNODE(Optional)
Meaning: Reserved parameter 1.

GUI Value Range: RSVDBIT1_BIT1,
RSVDBIT1_BIT2, RSVDBIT1_BIT3,
RSVDBIT1_BIT4, RSVDBIT1_BIT5,
RSVDBIT1_BIT6, RSVDBIT1_BIT7,
RSVDBIT1_BIT8, RSVDBIT1_BIT9,
RSVDBIT1_BIT10, RSVDBIT1_BIT11,
RSVDBIT1_BIT12, RSVDBIT1_BIT13,
RSVDBIT1_BIT14, RSVDBIT1_BIT15,
RSVDBIT1_BIT16, RSVDBIT1_BIT17,
RSVDBIT1_BIT18, RSVDBIT1_BIT19,
RSVDBIT1_BIT20, RSVDBIT1_BIT21,
RSVDBIT1_BIT22, RSVDBIT1_BIT23,
RSVDBIT1_BIT24, RSVDBIT1_BIT25,
RSVDBIT1_BIT26, RSVDBIT1_BIT27,
RSVDBIT1_BIT28, RSVDBIT1_BIT29,
RSVDBIT1_BIT30, RSVDBIT1_BIT31,
RSVDBIT1_BIT32
Actual Value Range: Each bit can be set ON
or OFF
Unit: None
Default Value: None
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
RsvdPara1 BSC6900 SET
UDPUCFGDATA(Optional)
Meaning: This parameter is saved for the
coming usage.

GUI Value Range: 0~4294967295
Actual Value Range: 0~4294967295
Unit: None
Default Value: 0
RsvdPara1 BSC6900 ADD UNRNC(Optional)
MOD UNRNC(Optional)
Meaning: Reserved parameter 1.

GUI Value Range: RSVDBIT1_BIT1,
RSVDBIT1_BIT2, RSVDBIT1_BIT3,
RSVDBIT1_BIT4, RSVDBIT1_BIT5,
RSVDBIT1_BIT6, RSVDBIT1_BIT7,
RSVDBIT1_BIT8, RSVDBIT1_BIT9,
RSVDBIT1_BIT10, RSVDBIT1_BIT11,
RSVDBIT1_BIT12, RSVDBIT1_BIT13,
RSVDBIT1_BIT14, RSVDBIT1_BIT15,
RSVDBIT1_BIT16, RSVDBIT1_BIT17,
RSVDBIT1_BIT18, RSVDBIT1_BIT19,
RSVDBIT1_BIT20, RSVDBIT1_BIT21,
RSVDBIT1_BIT22, RSVDBIT1_BIT23,
RSVDBIT1_BIT24, RSVDBIT1_BIT25,
RSVDBIT1_BIT26, RSVDBIT1_BIT27,
RSVDBIT1_BIT28, RSVDBIT1_BIT29,
RSVDBIT1_BIT30, RSVDBIT1_BIT31,
RSVDBIT1_BIT32
Actual Value Range: This parameter is set
to 0 or 1 according to the related domains.
Unit: None
Default Value: None
T300 BSC6900 SET
UIDLEMODETIMER(Optional)
Meaning: T300 is started when UE sends
the RRC CONNECTION REQUEST
message. It is stopped when UE receives
the RRC CONNECTION SETUP message.
RRC CONNECTION REQUEST will be
resent upon the expiry of the timer if V300 is
lower than or equal to N300, else enter idle
mode.

GUI Value Range: D100, D200, D400,
D600, D800, D1000, D1200, D1400, D1600,
D1800, D2000, D3000, D4000, D6000,
D8000
Actual Value Range: 100, 200, 400, 600,
800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600, 1800, 2000,
3000, 4000, 6000, 8000
Unit: ms
Default Value: D2000
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
SwitchParame
ter1
BSC6900 SET
SS7PATCHSWITCH(Optional)
Meaning: Set patch switch parameter1

GUI Value Range: OFF(OFF), ON(ON)
Actual Value Range: OFF, ON
Unit: None
Default Value: OFF
SSDSPAVEU
SAGEALMTH
D
BSC6900 SET CPUTHD(Optional) Meaning: DSP usage alarm clearance
threshold. When the DSP usage is lower
than the threshold, the DSP usage alarm is
cleared. "DSP occupancy alarm clearance
threshold" must be smaller than "DSP
occupancy alarm threshold".

GUI Value Range: 20~99
Actual Value Range: 20~99
Unit: %
Default Value: 80
SSDSPMAXU
SAGEALMTH
D
BSC6900 SET CPUTHD(Optional) Meaning: DSP usage alarm threshold.
When the DSP usage exceeds the
threshold, a DSP usage alarm is reported.
"DSP occupancy alarm clearance threshold"
must be smaller than "DSP occupancy
alarm threshold".

GUI Value Range: 30~100
Actual Value Range: 30~100
Unit: %
Default Value: 85
RrcConnRejW
aitTmr
BSC6900 SET USTATETIMER(Optional) Meaning: Wait time in RRC connection
reject message, the time period the UE has
to wait before repeating the rejected
procedure of RRC connection

GUI Value Range: 0~15
Actual Value Range: 0~15
Unit: s
Default Value: 4
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
CallShockCtrl
Switch
BSC6900 SET
UCALLSHOCKCTRL(Optional)
Meaning: The parameter specifies whether
to perform Call Attempt Per Second (CAPS)
control for the number of RRC connection
establishments at SPU subsystem level,
NodeB level, or cell level.
SYS_LEVEL indicates that the RNC will
perform flow control for the RRC connection
requests at SPU subsystem level.
NODEB_LEVEL indicates that the RNC will
perform flow control for the RRC connection
requests at NodeB level.
CELL_LEVEL indicates that the RNC will
perform flow control for the RRC connection
requests at cell level.

GUI Value Range:
SYS_LEVEL(SYS_LEVEL),
NODEB_LEVEL(NODEB_LEVEL),
CELL_LEVEL(CELL_LEVEL)
Actual Value Range: SYS_LEVEL,
NODEB_LEVEL, CELL_LEVEL
Unit: None
Default Value: None
CallShockJudg
ePeriod
BSC6900 SET
UCALLSHOCKCTRL(Optional)
Meaning: The parameter specifies the
period of entering flow control at SPU
subsystem level, NodeB level, or cell level.
In the period, if the number of RRC
connection requests that the SPU
subsystem, NodeB, or cell receives exceed
relative trigger threshold (the threshold can
be set by "SysTotalRrcNumThd",
"NBTotalRrcNumThd", or
"CellTotalRrcNumThd"), RNC will perform
flow control for the RRC establishment
request.

GUI Value Range: 1~5
Actual Value Range: 1~5
Unit: s
Default Value: 3
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
CellTotalRrcN
umThd
BSC6900 SET
UCALLSHOCKCTRL(Optional)
Meaning: The parameter specifies the
threshold of entering flow control for RRC
connection requests at cell level.

During the call shock judgment period
(CallShockJudgePeriod), when the number
of RRC connection requests exceed the
value of the parameter, RNC will perform
flow control.
The flow control strategies for RRC
connection requests are as follows:
If the originating interactive call, originating
background call, or originating streaming
call causes the RRC connection requests,
RNC will perform flow control directly.
If the number of admitted RRC connection
requests for registration and inter-RAT cell
reselection exceeds the value of
"CellHighPriRrcNum", RNC will perform flow
control.
If the number of admitted RRC connection
requests for AMR exceeds the value of
"CellAmrRrcNum", RNC will perform flow
control.
If other services cause RRC connection
requests, RNC will not perform flow control.

GUI Value Range: 1~100
Actual Value Range: 1~100
Unit: None
Default Value: 45
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
NBTotalRrcNu
mThd
BSC6900 SET
UCALLSHOCKCTRL(Optional)
Meaning: The parameter specifies the
threshold of entering flow control for RRC
connection requests at NodeB level.

During the call shock judgment period
(CallShockJudgePeriod), when the number
of RRC connection requests exceed the
value of the parameter, RNC will perform
flow control.
The flow control strategies for RRC
connection requests are as follows:
If the originating interactive call, originating
background call, or originating streaming
call causes the RRC connection requests,
RNC will perform flow control directly.
If the number of admitted RRC connection
requests for registration and inter-RAT cell
reselection exceeds the value of
"NBHighPriRrcNum", RNC will perform flow
control.
If the number of admitted RRC connection
requests for AMR exceeds the value of
"NBAmrRrcNum", RNC will perform flow
control.
If other services cause RRC connection
requests, RNC will not perform flow control.

GUI Value Range: 1~200
Actual Value Range: 1~200
Unit: None
Default Value: 60
CellAmrRrcNu
m
BSC6900 SET
UCALLSHOCKCTRL(Optional)
Meaning: The parameter specifies the
number of RRC connection requests per
second for originating conversational call at
cell level.

GUI Value Range: 1~100
Actual Value Range: 1~100
Unit: None
Default Value: 15
NBAmrRrcNu
m
BSC6900 SET
UCALLSHOCKCTRL(Optional)
Meaning: The parameter specifies the
number of RRC connection requests per
second for originating conversational call at
NodeB level.

GUI Value Range: 1~200
Actual Value Range: 1~200
Unit: None
Default Value: 20
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
RegByFachSw
itch
BSC6900 SET
UCALLSHOCKCTRL(Optional)
Meaning: The parameter specifies whether
to set up RRC connection for registration on
the FACH instead of on the DCH in the call
shock.
When ON is selected, RNC will perform flow
control at cell level or NodeB level, the RRC
connection for registration is set up on the
FACH instead of on the DCH.
When OFF is selected, the channel setup
strategy of RRC connection request for
registration can be set by running the SET
URRCESTCAUSE command.

GUI Value Range: OFF, ON
Actual Value Range: OFF, ON
Unit: None
Default Value: ON
CellHighPriRrc
Num
BSC6900 SET
UCALLSHOCKCTRL(Optional)
Meaning: The parameter specifies the
number of RRC connection requests per
second for registration and inter-RAT cell
reselection at cell level.

GUI Value Range: 1~100
Actual Value Range: 1~100
Unit: None
Default Value: 15
NBHighPriRrc
Num
BSC6900 SET
UCALLSHOCKCTRL(Optional)
Meaning: The parameter specifies the
number of RRC connection requests per
second for registration and inter-RAT cell
reselection at NodeB level.

GUI Value Range: 1~200
Actual Value Range: 1~200
Unit: None
Default Value: 20
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
ReservedSwitc
h0
BSC6900 SET
UCORRMALGOSWITCH(Optio
nal)
Meaning: CORRM algorithm reserved
switch 0. The switch is reserved for further
change request use.

GUI Value Range:
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT1,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT2,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT3,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT4,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT5,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT6,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT7,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT8,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT9,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT10,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT11,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT12,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT13,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT14,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT15,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT16,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT17,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT18,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT19,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT20,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT21,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT22,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT23,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT24,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT25,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT26,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT27,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT28,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT29,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT30,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT31,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT32
Actual Value Range:
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT1,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT2,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT3,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT4,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT5,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT6,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT7,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT8,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT9,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT10,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT11,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT12,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT13,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT14,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT15,
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT16,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT17,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT18,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT19,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT20,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT21,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT22,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT23,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT24,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT25,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT26,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT27,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT28,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT29,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT30,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT31,
RESERVED_SWITCH_0_BIT32
Unit: None
Default Value: None
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
ReservedSwitc
h1
BSC6900 SET
UCORRMALGOSWITCH(Optio
nal)
Meaning: CORRM algorithm reserved
switch 1. The switch is reserved for further
change request use.

GUI Value Range:
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT1,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT2,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT3,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT4,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT5,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT6,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT7,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT8,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT9,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT10,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT11,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT12,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT13,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT14,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT15,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT16,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT17,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT18,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT19,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT20,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT21,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT22,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT23,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT24,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT25,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT26,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT27,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT28,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT29,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT30,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT31,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT32
Actual Value Range:
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT1,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT2,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT3,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT4,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT5,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT6,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT7,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT8,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT9,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT10,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT11,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT12,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT13,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT14,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT15,
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT16,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT17,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT18,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT19,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT20,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT21,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT22,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT23,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT24,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT25,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT26,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT27,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT28,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT29,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT30,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT31,
RESERVED_SWITCH_1_BIT32
Unit: None
Default Value: None
ReservedU32
Para1
BSC6900 SET
UCORRMALGOSWITCH(Optio
nal)
Meaning: CORRM algorithm reserved U32
para 1. The para of 32 bits is reserved for
further change request use.

GUI Value Range: 0~4294967295
Actual Value Range: 0~4294967295
Unit: None
Default Value: 4294967295
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
T381 BSC6900 SET
UCONNMODETIMER(Optional
)
Meaning: T381 is started after the RNC
send message "RRC CONNECTION
SETUP"(or "CELL UPDATE CONFIRM"). If
T381 expire and RNC does not receive
"RRC CONNECTION SETUP
COMPLETE"(or the response of "ELL
UPDATE CONFIRM") and V381 is smaller
than N381, RNC resend "RRC
CONNECTION SETUP"(or "CELL UPDATE
CONFIRM") and restart timer T381 and
increase V381. If RNC receive "RRC
CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE"(or the
response of "CELL UPDATE CONFIRM"),
T381 will be stopped. Default value is
600ms.

GUI Value Range: D0, D100, D200, D300,
D400, D500, D600, D700, D800, D900,
D1000, D1200, D1500, D2000
Actual Value Range: 0, 100, 200, 300, 400,
500, 600, 700, 800, 900, 1000, 1200, 1500,
2000
Unit: ms
Default Value: D600
IUFCSW BSC6900 SET FCSW(Optional) Meaning: Whether to control signaling traffic
on the IU interface

GUI Value Range: ON, OFF
Actual Value Range: ON, OFF
Unit: None
Default Value: ON
IntrTmr BSC6900 SET
UIUTIMERANDNUM(Optional)
Meaning: CN flow control timer (long). If the
OVERLOAD message is not received in this
period, the traffic volume will be increased
by a degree.

GUI Value Range: 15000~120000
Actual Value Range: 15000~120000
Unit: ms
Default Value: 60000
IgorTmr BSC6900 SET
UIUTIMERANDNUM(Optional)
Meaning: CN flow control timer (short). The
OVERLOAD message received repeatedly
in this period will be discarded.

GUI Value Range: 5000~30000
Actual Value Range: 5000~30000
Unit: ms
Default Value: 20000
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
IUCTHD BSC6900 SET FCSW(Optional) Meaning: Maximum traffic rate for restriction
in the case of congestion on the IU
interface. This parameter is valid only when
"Board Class" is "XPU".

GUI Value Range: 0~100
Actual Value Range: 0~100
Unit: None
Default Value: 70
CtrlPlnSharing
OutOffset
BSC6900 SET
UCTRLPLNSHAREPARA(Opti
onal)
Meaning: The sharing offset should be
added to the target subrack or subsystem.
This parameter is used for preferable
selection of the homing subrack and homing
subsystem during call forwarding.

GUI Value Range: 1~10
Actual Value Range: 0.01~0.1, step:0.01
Unit: %
Default Value: 5
CtrlPlnSharing
OutThd
BSC6900 SET
UCTRLPLNSHAREPARA(Opti
onal)
Meaning: Forwarding threshold of control
plane load sharing. When the CPU usage is
between the sharing threshold and overload
threshold, and call number in each second
reaches "Sharing out capability middle
load", new arrival call attempts will be
shared out to other SPU subsystem.

GUI Value Range: 0~100
Actual Value Range: 0~1, step:0.01
Unit: %
Default Value: 50
MaxCAPSLow
Load
BSC6900 SET
UCTRLPLNSHAREPARA(Opti
onal)
Meaning: Maximum numbers of incoming
calls in one second when the load is lower
than the forwarding threshold. When the
CPU usage is lower than the sharing out
threshold and overload threshold, and call
numbers in each second reach the
threshold, new arrival call attempts will be
shared out to other SPU subsystem and
none will be shared in this SPU subsystem.

GUI Value Range: 0~255
Actual Value Range: 0~255
Unit: None
Default Value: 150
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
MaxCAPSMid
Load
BSC6900 SET
UCTRLPLNSHAREPARA(Opti
onal)
Meaning: Maximum numbers of incoming
calls in one second when the load exceeds
the forwarding threshold. When the CPU
usage is between the sharing out threshold
and overload threshold, and call number in
one second reaches the threshold, new
arrival call attempts will be shared out to
other SPU subsystem and none will be
shared in this SPU subsystem.

GUI Value Range: 0~255
Actual Value Range: 0~255
Unit: None
Default Value: 100
UserPlnSharin
gOutThd
BSC6900 SET
UUSERPLNSHAREPARA(Opti
onal)
Meaning: Percentage of User Plane Sharing
Out threshold.The range of this threshold is
changed from {50~100} to {0~100} to
facilitate load balancing between subracks.
Because when this threshold is lower than
50, load sharing is easier to be triggered
between subracks.

GUI Value Range: 0~100
Actual Value Range: 0~100
Unit: None
Default Value: 90
UserPlnCpuSh
aringOutThd
BSC6900 SET
UUSERPLNSHAREPARA(Opti
onal)
Meaning: The parameter is added to trigger
the load sharing when the DSP CPU usage
exceeds this threshold, thus achieving load
balance between subracks.

GUI Value Range: 0~100
Actual Value Range: {0~100}
Unit: %
Default Value: 100
UserPlnCpuSh
aringOutOffset
BSC6900 SET
UUSERPLNSHAREPARA(Opti
onal)
Meaning: The parameter is added to avoid
ping-pong handovers during the load
sharing triggered by DSP CPU usage.

GUI Value Range: 5~20
Actual Value Range: 5~20
Unit: %
Default Value: 5
DSPRestrainC
puThd
BSC6900 SET
UUSERPLNSHAREPARA(Opti
onal)
Meaning: The parameter is added to stop
CPUS from assigning users to a DSP whose
CPU usage has exceeded this threshold.

GUI Value Range: 0~100
Actual Value Range: 0~100
Unit: %
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 9 Parameters

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Parameter ID NE MML Command Description
Default Value: 0
PsRestriction BSC6900 ADD
UCELLDSACMANUALPARA(M
andatory)
MOD
UCELLDSACMANUALPARA(O
ptional)
Meaning: Specifies whether to impose the
access restriction on the PS domain.

GUI Value Range: FALSE, TRUE
Actual Value Range: FALSE, TRUE
Unit: None
Default Value: None
FRTRJT NodeB SET CONGCTRLPARA Meaning: Control Plane Congestion First
Reject Threshold

GUI Value Range: 80~90
Actual Value Range: 80~90
Unit: %
Default Value: 90

WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 10 Counters

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10-1

10 Counters
For details, see the BSC6900 UMTS Performance Counter Reference.
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 11 Glossary

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11-1

11 Glossary
For terms that appear in this document, see Glossary.
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 12 References

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Copyright Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd
12-1

12 References
[1] Load Control Feature Parameter Description
[2] Call Admission Control Feature Parameter Description
[3] DSAC Feature Parameter Description
[4] Common Radio Resource Management Feature Parameter Description
[5] Transmission Resource Management Feature Parameter Description
[6] Radio Bearers Feature Parameter Description
[7] State Transition Feature Parameter Description
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 13 Appendix: Flow Control Algorithms

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13-1

13 Appendix: Flow Control Algorithms
The RNC uses three flow control algorithms for overloaded RNC units: the switch algorithm, linear
algorithm, and hierarchical algorithm. Different algorithms are used for different services. These
algorithms cannot be set on the LMT.
13.1 Switch Algorithm
The principles of the switch algorithm are as follows:

When the resource usage, such as the CPU usage or message block usage, exceeds the control
threshold of a flow control item, flow control is performed.

When the resource usage is lower than the restoration threshold, flow control is not performed.
Figure 13-1 Switch algorithm


The following flow control functions use the switch algorithm: printing flow control, debugging flow control,
performance monitoring flow control, logging flow control, resource audit flow control, access control,
paging control, RRC flow control based on the CPU usage and message block, Iur flow control, CBS
flow control, cell/URA update flow control, Iur-g flow control, and MR flow control.
13.2 Linear Algorithm
The principles of the linear algorithm are as follows:

When the resource usage is higher than the control threshold of a flow control item, flow control is
performed.

When the resource usage is lower than the restore threshold of a flow control item, flow control is not
performed.

When the resource usage is between the restoration threshold and the control threshold of a flow
control item, the flow control level changes linearly with the resource usage.
WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 13 Appendix: Flow Control Algorithms

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Figure 13-2 Linear algorithm


The flow control level of the linear algorithm, that is, the probability (P) of performing flow control, is
calculated as follows:
P = (resource usage restoration threshold) x 100% / (control threshold restoration threshold)
Flow Control triggered by DSP CPU overload uses the liner algorithm.
13.3 Hierarchical Algorithm
The principles of the hierarchical algorithm are as follows:

When the resource usage is higher than the control threshold of a flow control item, flow control is
performed.

When the resource usage is lower than the restoration threshold of a flow control item, flow control is
not performed.

When resource usage is between the restoration threshold and the control threshold of a flow control
item, the flow control level changes hierarchically with the resource usage.
Figure 13-3 Hierarchical algorithm


WCDMA RAN
Flow Control 13 Appendix: Flow Control Algorithms

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13-3

The flow control level of the hierarchical algorithm is calculated as follows:
Flow control level = [(resource usage restoration threshold) x total number of flow control grades for
the flow control item / (control threshold restoration threshold)]

The [ ] symbol indicates an integer value.
The total flow control grades for each flow control item are specified in the system software and cannot
be set on the LMT. They vary according to the flow control items.
MPU overload backpressure uses the hierarchical algorithm.