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The Back Purging and Welding Requirements

for
Fabrication of HASTELLOY

alloy Pipe Systems


BACKGROUND
Peri odi cal l y, f abri cat ors are requi red t o i nst al l pi pi ng syst ems where access t o t he
i nsi de of t he pi pe i s not possi bl e. I n such si t uat i ons, ei t her open-but t pi pe wel di ng
t echni ques or wel di ng t echni ques usi ng a consumabl e i nsert are empl oyed. Because
consumabl e i nsert s are not readi l y avai l abl e f or t he HASTELLOY al l oy product s, open-
but t wel di ng usi ng t he gas t ungst en arc wel di ng (GTAW) process i s normal l y empl oyed
i n maki ng such root -pass wel ds.
When t hese one-si ded wel di ng t echni ques are used, i t i s necessary t o prot ect t he root
si de of t he wel d j oi nt f rom oxi dat i on duri ng wel di ng wi t h an i nert shi el di ng gas (usual l y
wel di ng grade argon). The shi el di ng t echni que, whi ch prot ect s t he i nsi de of t he pi pe,
i s cal l ed "back purgi ng".
H-2065A
Lack of pr oper shi el di ng pr oduces a condi t i on whi ch i s of t en r ef er r ed t o as " sugar "
of t he r oot pass. An exampl e of such a r oot - pass wel d, made on an 8" di amet er
HASTELLOY C- 22

al l oy pi pe, i s shown i n Fi gur e 1. An unaccept abl e r oot pass i s


char act er i zed by a bl ack, cr ust y appear ance of t he wel d met al on t he i nsi de ( r oot )
of t he pi pe and an i r r egul ar r oot cr oss- sect i on.
Fi gure 1: Exampl e of root wel d made wi t h poor back purgi ng t echni que.
HIGH PERFORMANCE ALLOYS
Technical Information
When t hi s condi t i on occur s, t he mol t en wel d met al does not f l ow out and " wet " t he
base mat er i al . Thi s condi t i on makes wel di ng di f f i cul t and t he passi ng of a r adi o-
gr aphi c exami nat i on near l y i mpossi bl e. Common wel di ng def ect s whi ch f or m as a
r esul t of t hi s condi t i on i ncl ude i ncompl et e penet r at i on, l ack- of - f usi on, r oot - pass
cr acki ng and r oot - pass suck back. I t has been r epor t ed, by sever al Haynes I nt er -
nat i onal cust omer s, t hat t he ni ckel - base ( HASTELLOY) al l oys ar e mor e di f f i cul t t o
wel d, usi ng t hi s one- si ded t echni que, t han ar e t he st ai nl ess or car bon st eel s.
Labor at or y wor k was conduct ed t o det er mi ne back pur gi ng and wel di ng t echni ques
whi ch wi l l pr oduce accept abl e open- but t r oot - pass wel ds i n al l oys such as
HASTELLOY C- 22

al l oy pi pe. The f ol l owi ng sect i ons document t he r esul t s of t hat


l abor at or y wor k.
BACK- PURGI NG TECHNI QUES
Two common met hods ar e used t o back pur ge a pi pe r oot - pass wel d zone. Pur gi ng
t he ent i r e vol ume of a l ong pi pe r un i s of t en suggest ed. Tabl es have been pub-
l i shed concer ni ng pur ge t i mes f or var i ous pi pe di amet er s and l engt hs of pi pe r un.
( 1)
Local pur gi ng of t he i mmedi at e vol ume ar ound t he wel d zone i s an al t er nat i ve
met hod of back pur gi ng and i s gener al l y t he pr ef er r ed t echni que. Var i ous met hods
of f or mi ng t he cl osur e dams ar e r epor t ed i n t he l i t er at ur e. They i ncl ude wat er
sol ubl e dams, i nf l at abl e bl adder dams, col l apsi bl e di sc dams and t her mal l y di spos-
abl e dams.
( 1, 2, 3)
Ther e ar e many compani es whi ch manuf act ur e equi pment and
pr oduct s t o accompl i sh such a l ocal pur ge. A par t i al l i st of suppl i er s of back-
pur gi ng equi pment i s pr esent ed at t he end of t hi s r epor t .
Back pur gi ng i s accompl i shed i n t wo st eps. Fi r st , t he dams must be i nst al l ed and
t he wel d zone vol ume pur ged wi t h ar gon t o accept abl e l evel s. Secondl y, pur gi ng
must cont i nue and accompany t he act ual wel di ng oper at i ons.
I n t he wor k r epor t ed i n t hi s document , *onl y wat er - sol ubl e dams wer e used. As a
way t o ensur e t hat t he pur ge gas ent er ed t he encl osed wel d zone wi t h a mi ni mum
of gas- f l ow t ur bul ence, t hus al l owi ng t he shor t est pur ge t i me,
( 5)
a di f f usi ng devi ce
was manuf act ur ed and secur ed at t he bot t om of one of t he pur ge dams. The l ocal
wel d zone was pur ged at about 40 cubi c f eet per hour ( CFH) of gas- f l ow r at e.
Such f l ow r at es al l owed pur gi ng of an 8" di amet er pi pe sect i on t o about 5000- ppm
oxygen cont ent i n l ess t han 5 mi nut es. Regar dl ess of t he l engt h of t i me of pur gi ng
af t er t he i ni t i al 5 mi nut es, i t was not possi bl e t o consi st ent l y obt ai n oxygen con-
t ent s bel ow t he 5000- ppm oxygen l evel . The 5000- ppm oxygen l evel was, however ,
det er mi ned t o be accept abl e f or wel di ng t he ni ckel - base al l oys.
The wel di ng l i t er at ur e
( 1, 3, 4)
r ecommends t hat t he back pur ge f l ow r at es be l ow
( " bar el y det ect abl e at t he gas exi t por t " ) and makes no r ef er ence t o t he wel di ng
t or ch f l ow r at es at al l . I n t hi s wor k, i t was det er mi ned t hat t he sel ect i on of shi el d-
i ng gas f l ow r at es f or bot h t he back pur ge and t he wel di ng t or ch ar e cr i t i cal i n t he
maki ng of sound r oot - pass wel ds.
Speci f i cal l y, i t was det er mi ned t hat a r at i o of appr oxi mat el y 4 t o 1, bet ween t he
back pur ge f l ow r at e and t he wel di ng t or ch f l ow r at e, i s necessar y t o make a sound
r oot - pass wel d. The f l ow r at es whi ch ar e now r ecommended f or wel di ng
*Pat ent pendi ng
2
HASTELLOY al l oy pi pe ar e 40 CFH f or t he back pur ge and 10 CFH f or t he wel di ng
t or ch. Fi gur e 2 i s i ncl uded t o show t he cr i t i cal i t y of t hose r el at i ve f l ow r at es on
act ual r oot - pass wel ds.
I t shoul d be not ed t hat t he wel d zone vol ume was pur ged t o t he 5000- ppm oxygen
l evel pr i or t o t he st ar t of wel di ng. The " accept abl e" r oot - pass wel d was made f i r st .
Then t he f l ow r at es wer e r ever sed and t he " unaccept abl e" r oot - pass wel d was
made. Thi s i s an i ndi cat i on t hat t he pur i t y of t he back pur ge gas was accept abl e
at t he st ar t of t he " unaccept abl e" wel d and t hat t he di f f er ence i n wel d qual i t y i s a
r esul t of t he f l ow r at es onl y.
The sel ect i on of t he f l ow r at e ( 10 CFH) f or t he t or ch shi el di ng gas i s somewhat l ow
based upon st andar d r ecommendat i ons f or wel di ng t he HASTELLOY ni ckel - base
al l oys.
( 6)
Thi s l ow wel di ng t or ch f l ow r at e does not , however , af f ect t he t or ch si de
shi el di ng as i ndi cat ed by br i ght , shi ny beads whi ch ar e pr esent usi ng ei t her shi el d-
i ng t echni que.
3
Unacceptabl e root wel d
Fl ow rates: Back purge - 10 CFH, wel di ng torch 30 CFH
Acceptabl e root wel d
Fl ow rates: Back purge - 40 CFH, wel di ng torch 10 CFH
Fi gure 2: Act ual root pass wel di ng resul t s.
WELDI NG TECHNI QUES
The pur gi ng and wel di ng of a pi pi ng j oi nt gener al l y i nvol ves si x oper at i ons.
Those oper at i ons i ncl ude:
1. Pr epar at i on of pi pe ends.
2. I nst al l at i on of pur ge dams.
3. Fi t - up of pi pe sect i ons.
4. Pur ge pi pe wel d zone .
5. Tack wel d pi pe sect i ons.
6. Cl osur e wel di ng.
1. Pr epar at i on of t he pi pe ends i s consi der ed a ver y i mpor t ant st ep i n t hi s wel d-
i ng oper at i on. A di agr am of a t ypi cal wel d pr epar at i on det ai l i s shown i n
Fi gur e 3. I t i s r ecommended t hat a wel d angl e of about 35 degr ees be
machi ned ont o t he pi pe ends.
Fur t her , i t i s r ecommended t hat bot h t he I D and OD be cl eaned t o br i ght ,
shi ny met al f or a di st ance of about 1" f r om t he wel d pr epar at i on edge and
t hat a l and be machi ned or gr ound per t he di mensi ons shown i n Fi gur e 3.
Af t er al l machi ni ng and gr i ndi ng oper at i ons ar e compl et ed, t hor ough cl eani ng
and degr easi ng of t he ent i r e ar ea i s r equi r ed.
I t shoul d be r ecogni zed t hat t he pi pe wi l l have some oval i t y whi ch can make
f or a mi smat ch i n t he I D dur i ng f i t - up and wel di ng ( see Fi gur e 3) , i t may be
necessar y t o count er - bor e t he I D of t he pi pe sect i ons i n or der t o obt ai n an
accept abl e mat ch ar ound t he i nsi de di amet er of t he pi pe.
2. Any of t he pur gi ng syst ems di scussed above, except t her mal l y di sposabl e
dams, ar e consi der ed accept abl e f or HASTELLOY al l oy pi pe syst ems. As a way
t o i nsur e t hat t he pur ge gas ent er s t he encl osed wel d zone wi t h a mi ni mum of
gas f l ow t ur bul ence, a gas di f f usi ng devi ce i s r ecommended. Fi gur e 4 shows
one possi bl e desi gn, f or use wi t h l ar ge di amet er pi pes, whi ch can be f abr i -
cat ed i n t he f i el d. Modi f i cat i ons t o such a gener al desi gn wi l l cer t ai nl y be
r equi r ed t o meet ot her speci f i c j ob r equi r ement s. The pur ge dams must be
i nst al l ed deep enough i n t he pi pe sect i on so t hat t he heat of wel di ng wi l l not
cause damage t o t he dams.
3. Fi t - up of t he pi pe sect i ons r equi r es car e so as t o est abl i sh pr oper r oot - gap
t ol er ance bet ween t he t wo pi pe sect i ons. I t i s gener al l y r ecommended t hat
t he r oot gap be at l east 1/ 32" l ar ger t han t he di amet er of wel di ng f i l l er wi r e
t o be used. Thi s wi l l al l ow f or mani pul at i on of t he f i l l er wi r e even when some
shr i nkage occur s dur i ng t ack wel di ng and cl osur e wel di ng.
4. Pur gi ng of t he wel d zone i s done at about 40 CFH. The wel d j oi nt shoul d be
seal ed ar ound t he ci r cumf er ence of t he pi pe except f or a smal l openi ng at
t he t op posi t i on of t he pi pe. The i nt ent i on i s t o have t he shi el di ng gas ent er
at t he bot t om of t he wel d zone and exi t at t he t op. I f pi pe wel di ng i s bei ng
per f or med i n t he ver t i cal ( 2G) posi t i on, t he gas shoul d ent er at t he bot t om
pur ge dam and exi t t hr ough a smal l hol e i n t he t op pur ge dam. Nor mal l y,
f l ow r at es and t i mes ar e sel ect ed so t hat a mi ni mum of 5 t o 6 shi el di ng gas
vol ume changes t ake pl ace pr i or t o wel di ng.
( 1)
4
5. Tack wel di ng i s necessar y t o ensur e t hat t he t wo pi pe sect i ons do not move
dur i ng subsequent cl osur e wel di ng. The t ack wel ds must be l ar ge enough and
pl aced of t en enough ar ound t he j oi nt ci r cumf er ence so t hat t he r oot gap r e-
mai ns open and wi der t han t he wel di ng f i l l er wi r e di amet er . Gener al l y, t he
wel d j oi nt i s kept seal ed except i n t he ar ea wer e wel di ng i s bei ng conduct ed.
I t i s r ecommended t hat t he t ack wel ds be gr ound t o a f eat her edge. Thi s wi l l
hel p ensur e t hat t he cl osur e wel ds wi l l t i e i nt o t he t ack wel ds and not l eave
smal l def ect s whi ch mi ght be det ect ed dur i ng r adi ogr aphi c exami nat i on.
The shi el di ng gas f l ow r at es used dur i ng t ack wel di ng, and dur i ng subsequent
cl osur e wel di ng, shoul d be about 40 CFH f or t he back pur ge and about 10
CFH f or t he wel di ng t or ch. Ot her wel di ng par amet er s ar e document ed i n
Tabl e 1.
Tor ch posi t i on and f i l l er wi r e posi t i on ar e cr i t i cal t o t he success of r oot - pass
wel di ng. A di agr am showi ng t he posi t i ons of t he GTAW t or ch body and wel d-
i ng f i l l er wi r e r el at i ve t o t he pi pe ar e shown i n Fi gur e 5.
( 1)
Tor ch and f i l l er wi r e mani pul at i on consi st of t or ch movement f r om si dewal l t o
si dewal l whi ch f or ms a " keyhol e" . Two dr ops of f i l l er mat er i al ar e mel t ed i nt o
each si dewal l wi t h each back and f or t h mot i on of t he wel di ng t or ch. The
f i l l er met al i s gener al l y posi t i oned i n t he r oot - gap openi ng. I f t he r oot gap
" cl oses- up" , not al l owi ng t he f i l l er wi r e t o be pl aced i n t he r oot - gap openi ng,
t he amount of wel d r ei nf or cement at t he r oot wi l l be l i mi t ed.
6. The cl osur e wel di ng i s per f or med much l i ke t he t ack wel di ng. Agai n, t he j oi nt
i s kept seal ed except i n t he ar ea wer e wel di ng i s bei ng per f or med. Dur i ng
t he l ast por t i on of t he cl osur e wel d, t he gas pur ge f l ow r at e may have t o be
l ower ed so t hat t he dams wi l l not be damaged due t o pur ge gas pr essur e
i ncr ease. I t i s gener al l y r ecommended t hat back pur ge gas be mai nt ai ned
f or t he f i r st t wo f i l l pass wel ds. Thi s wi l l hel p ensur e t hat t he r oot pass i s not
heavi l y oxi di zed dur i ng t hese subsequent wel d passes.
The sel ect i on of wel di ng pr ocess f or t he f i l l passes i s l ef t up t o t he di scr et i on
of t he f i el d wel di ng engi neer .
5
REFERENCES
1. " Recommended Pr act i ces f or Root Pass Wel di ng of Pi pe Wi t hout Backi ng" ,
ANSI / AWS D10. 11- 87, publ i shed by t he Amer i can Wel di ng Soci et y, Mi ami , FL
33135.
2. " Pur gi ng Pr act i ce f or Nucl ear Pi pe Wel di ng" , Er i c Hol by, Wel di ng Engi neer ,
Januar y, 1973.
3. " Power - pl ant pi pe must be l eak- f r ee" , Er i c R. Hol by, Wel di ng Desi gn &
Fabr i cat i on, Mar ch 1986.
4. " Recommended Pr act i ces f or Wel di ng Aust eni t i c Chr omi um- Ni ckel St ai nl ess
St eel Pi pi ng and Tubi ng" , AWS D10. 4- 79, publ i shed by t he Amer i can Wel di ng
Soci et y, Mi ami , FL 33135.
5. ASM Handbook Vol ume 6, Wel di ng and Br azi ng, 9t h Edi t i on, page 199,
publ i shed by ASM I nt er nat i onal , Met al s Par k, OH 44073
6. Fabr i cat i on of HASTELLOY Cor r osi on- Resi st ant Al l oys, H- 2010C, page 11,
publ i shed by Haynes I nt er nat i onal , I nc. , Kokomo, I N 46902
PARTI AL LI ST OF SUPPLI ERS
1. Di ssol vo Pr oduct s, Gi l br et h I nt er nat i onal Cor por at i on, 3300 St at e Road,
PO Box 779, Bensal em, PA 19020
2. Emer son Hal l enbeck Cone Pur ge Uni t Company, 2934 Shor el and Avenue,
Tol edo, OH 43611
3. Sl oan Pur ge Pr oduct s, I nc. , 3112 Ant oni no Avenue, Baker sf i el d, CA 93308
4. Saf et y Mai n St opper Co. , I nc. , PO Box 170287, Ti mes Pl aza St at i on, Br ookl yn,
NY 11217
HASTELLOY i s a r egi st er ed t r ademar k of Haynes I nt er nat i onal , I nc
6
TABLE 1
SUGGESTED WELDI NG PARAMETERS
f or
Root - Pass Open- But t
Gas Tungst en Arc Wel di ng ( GTAW) of Pi pe
Joi nt desi gn: 70 degr ee i ncl uded angl e per Fi gur e 3
Base mat er i al : Var i ous HASTELLOY al l oys
Base mat er i al t hi ckness: up t o 1/ 2"
Fi l l er mat er i al : Var i ous HASTELLOY al l oy f i l l er mat er i al s
Fi l l er mat er i al di amet er : 3/ 32" ( 1/ 8" di amet er can be used wi t h
modi f i cat i on t o t he r oot gap di mensi on)
Pr eheat t emper at ur e: Room t emper at ur e
I nt er pass t emper at ur e: 200F maxi mum
Shi el di ng gas: 100% wel di ng gr ade ar gon
Fl ow r at e 10 CFH
Backi ng gas: 100% wel di ng gr ade ar gon
Fl ow r at e 40 CFH
El ect r i cal char act er i st i cs: DCSP ( el ect r ode - )
Amper age: 50 - 125 amps
Vol t age: 11 - 12 vol t s
Tr avel speed: 2 - 4 i nch per mi nut e
Wel di ng t echni que: Tor ch and f i l l er wi r e posi t i oni ng per Fi gur e 5
Feat her gr i nd al l st ar t s and st ops ( bot h t ack wel ds and
cl osur e wel ds)
Cl eani ng: St ai nl ess st eel wi r e br ush
7
Fi gure 3: Suggest ed Wel d Angl e Preparat i on and Fi t -up.
8
Fi gure 4: Exampl e of Di f f user Devi ce Capabl e of Bei ng
Manuf act ured i n t he Fi el d.
9
Fi gure 5: Suggest ed Wel di ng Torch and Fi l l er Wi re Pl acement .
10
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B-2, B-3

, C-4, C-22

, C-276, C-2000

, D-205

, G-3, G-30

, G-50

, and N
Corrosion-Wear Resistant Alloy
ULTIMET

25, R-41, 75, HR-120

, HR-160

, 188, 214

, 230

, 230-W

, 242

, 263, 556

, 617, 625, 65SQ

, 718,
X-750, MULTIMET

, and Waspaloy
Wear-Resistant Alloy
Ti-3Al-2.5V
HASTELLOY Family of Heat-Resistant Alloys
HASTELLOY

Family of Corrosion-Resistant Alloys


S, W, and X
HAYNES

Family of Heat-Resistant Alloys


6B
HAYNES

Titanium Alloy Tubular
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