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DIGITAL BASEBAND COMMUNICATIONS

PULSE MODULATION
ANALOG DIGITAL
PCM DM PAM PWM/PDM PPM
Communication is the transmission of information
Pulse Carrier
Carrier:
A train of identical
pulses regularly
spaced in time
Pulse-Amplitude Modulation
(PAM)
Modulation in which
the amplitude of
pulses is varied in
accordance with the
modulating signal.
Used e.g. in telephone
switching equipment
such as a private
branch exchange
(PBX)
Natural Sampling PAM
Flat-top Sampling PAM
Pulse-Duration Modulation
(PDM)
Modulation in which
the duration of
pulses is varied in
accordance with
the modulating
signal.
Deprecated synonyms:
pulse-length modulation,
pulse-width modulation.
Used e.g. in telephone switching
equipment such as a private
branch exchange (PBX)
Pulse-Position Modulation (PPM)
Modulation in which
the temporal
positions of the
pulses are varied in
accordance with
some characteristic
of the modulating
signal.
DIGITAL PULSE MODULATION
PULSE CODE MODULATION (PCM)
SAMPLING
QUANTIZATION
CODING
DELTA MODULATION (DM)
Digital Communications Transceiver
Data
Encryption
Encoder
Source
Encoder
Error
Control
Encoder
Channel/
Line
Encoder
Modulator
M
U
X
Source
Decoder
Data
Encryption
Decoder
Error
Control
Decoder
Equalization /
Decision
Circuits
Demod-
ulator
D
E
M
U
X
Reconstruction/
DAC
ADC
CODEC
MODEM
Analog o/p
M
u
l
t
i
p
l
e

a
c
c
e
s
s

c
h
a
n
n
e
l
Analog i/p
Sampling
Quantization
Anti-
aliasing
Filter
Audio
Amp
PULSE CODE MODULATION (PCM)
The most common technique for representing an analog signal by a
digital world.
Standard for all digital communications
Sample &
Hold
Quantize Encode
Analog
Signal
Digital
Bit stream
PCM
PAM
Sampling
The sample frequency = the Nyquist Rate (f
s
)
The sample frequency must at least twice the
maximum input frequency.
Based on sampling theorem
max
2 f f
s

SAMPLING THEOREM
x(t) is a bandlimited analog signal with bandwidth (f
h
).
A signal is preconditioned to be bandlimited by Low Pass Filtering
(LPF).
Fourier spectrum is X(f)
p(t) is a sampling signal with pulses at intervals T
s
= 1/f
s
Fourier Series of a Periodic Impulse Train is:
t f j
n
n
s
e P t p
2
) (

=
=

0 T
s
-T
s
p(t)
t
SAMPLING THEOREM (CONT)
|X(f)|
f
h
1
Hz
-f
h
0
Baseband Spectrum of the Band limited Analog Signal
SAMPLING THEOREM (CONT)
Sampled signal
Gives repeated and scaled versions of the signal
spectrum
repeated every multiple of f
s
t f j
n
n s
s
e t x P t p t x t x
2
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

=
= =
|X
s
(f)|
P
0
P
1
P
-1
f Hz
0 T -f
h
f
h
T
s
- f
h
T
s
+ f
h
-T
s
s
Example
Q1. A CD audio laser disk has a frequency
bandwidth of 20Hz to 20kHz. What is the
minimum sample rate required to satisfy the
Nyquist sampling rate? [ 40kHz]
Q2. What is the sample rate used in telephony
for a maximum audio frequency of 3.4kHz?
[8kHz]
QUANTIZATION
The spectrum of the original signal is recoverable for:
f
s
> 2* f
max
, sampling rate twice the highest
frequency of the signal
The original analog signal is recovered from the
samples by low- pass filtering
Quantization of the sampled values (using bit
codes) adds noise that is not recoverable (more
levels, bits, gives better resolution of the original
signal).
Quantization is the process of segmenting a sampled
signal in PCM into different voltage levels.
(CONT)
Digital signals utilize discrete (quantized) values
over discrete time.
The number of levels depends on the number of
bit used to express the sample value.
N = 2
m
Where N = number of levels; m = number of bits per
sample.
Eg. Calculate the number of levels if the number of bits
per sample is 16. [65,536]
The dynamic range of a system (DR);
SNR for digitizing system;
Signal-to-quantization noise level (S/N)q;
Data Rate;
Where m = the number of bits used
L = number of quantization levels.
m
V
V
DR 2
min
max
= =
m
dB
V
V
DR 2 log 20 log 20
min
max
= =
) 02 . 6 76 . 1 ( ) ( m dB DR + =
2
3 log 10 ) / ( L N S
q
=
m f D
s
=
E.g.1 Find the maximum dynamic range for PCM system using
16 bit quantizing. [98.08dB]
E.g.2 A digitizing system specipies 55dB of DR. How many bits
are required to satisfy the DR specification? What is SNR
for the system? What is (S/N)
q
for the system? [10,
61.96dB, 64.97dB]
E.g.3 Calculate the minimum data rate needed to transmit audio
with sampling rate of 40kHz and 14 bits per
sample.[560kb/s]
3 bits Quantization
3 bits Quantization with increase sample rate
QUANTIZATION
Uniform Non-Uniform
Mid-rise Mid-tread -LAW A-Law
Quantization
nonlinear quantizer
Input uniform quantizer Output
Input compressor (inverse of pdf) unifrorm quantizer expander
(Inverse of compander) output
- law compander (US)
A- law compander (Europe)
Typical value of = 255, A=87.6
Typically use look- up table.
24 =255 256
D2
24 =100 128
D1
30 A=87.6 256
CEPT 32
24 A=87.6 128
UK 24
CHANNEL
COMPRESSION-
COMPANDING
m SYSTEM
Coding
Data are codes (symbols) that can contain
information.
Codec (coder/Decoder) takes the analog
signal samples it, compresses it, and produces 7
or 8 bit signed numbers.
Each analog sample is assigned a binary code
The digital signal consists of block of n bits,
where each n-bit number is the amplitude of a
PCM pulse
Virtues, Limitations, and Modification of PCM
Advantages of PCM
Robustness to channel noise and interference
Efficient regeneration (repeater)
Efficient exchange of increased channel bandwidth for improved SNR
(exponential law)
Uniform format easy to integrate with other sources in a common
network
Secure communication
These advantages are attained at the cost of increased system
complexity and channel BW.
VLSI technology enables us to use the sophisticated data compression
technique.
System complexity is traded off for a reduced bit rate (reduced BW).
Ever increasing transmission techniques (fiber optics, networks, etc)
also enables us to use wide BW for data transmission.
Wakarimashita!
Understand!!??
Ok chottoo matte kudasai
Do this exercise to test
your understanding..now
Exercise
Q1. Describe the differences between Pulse Modulation and
Analog Modulation.
Q2. A broadcast TV channel has a bandwidth of 6MHz. Calculate
the maximum data rate that could be carried in a TV channel
using 16 level code.[48Mb/s]
Q3. An information signal frequency has changed between 1kHz to
6kHz. Determine the sampling frequency which can sampled
that signal.
Q4. A composite video signal with baseband frequency range from
DC to 4MHz is transmitted by PCM, using eights bits per
sample and a sampling rate of 10MHz. How many quantization
levels? Calculate the bit rate. [256, 80Mb/s]
Delta Modulation
Analog input is approximated by a
staircase function
Move up or down one level () at each
sample interval
Binary behavior
Function moves up or down at each sample
interval
DM EXAMPLE
Staircase approximation
1-bit PCM
Oversampling needed
Two important parameters
Size of step assigned to each binary digit,.
Sampling rate
Accuracy improved by increasing sampling
rate but this increase the data rate.
Advantages of DM over PCM is the
simplicity of its implementation.
Disadvantage of delta modulation
DM may be viewed as an approximation to
the derivative of incoming message signal.
Noise results in an accumulative error.
The drawback can be overcome by using
the integrated message signal.
The low-frequency content of the input signal
is pre-emphasized.
Correlation between adjacent samples of DM
input is increased.
Design of the receiver is simplified.
DM Performance
Good voice reproduction
PCM - 128 levels (7 bit)
Voice bandwidth 4khz
Should be 8000 x 7 = 56kbps for PCM
Data compression can improve on this
e.g. Interframe coding techniques for video
DIGITAL TRANSMISSION
Advantages
Low error rate, non- cumulative, reliable
Allows multiplexing (interleaving) data over on line
(channel)
Higher datarates over existing analog lines
Lower cost of implementatation (microelectronics)
Analog signals can be integrated into the data stream
TIME DIVISION MULTIPLEXING
Message 1
Message 2
Message N
Channel
Decode
Quantize
&
Encode
Message 1 LPF
Message 2
LPF
Message N
LPF
Exercise (PCM)
Refer to Haykin, Communication System
page number 242.
Do problem
3.16
3.18
3.21
3.22
Answer refer to Portal
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