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6.

0 INTRODUCTION
Both health and environment are two inseparable parts of human society. But, health
and environment are two different terminologies. The change of one can affect the
other.
Health refers to the general condition of the mind or body, which indicates to
soundness and vigor, soundness of body and mind freedom of diseases or ailment.
During the last few decades, it becomes clear that the right of the health care is far
from the reality. Inadequate funding, inefficiency and corruption are the main
problems in our health sector. The district health care centers are generally
overcrowded, not closer to home and medicine cost is high. As a result poor people
do not get the proper services from the ovt. health care centers. !ery few of them
can able themselves to get proper medication from private sources because they can
effort. "ome of them go to abroad to get the best health care facilities.
#nvironment is the aggregate of surround things, conditions, or influences especially
as affecting the e$istence or development of someone or something. "o environment
can be defined as% the sum total of all the physical and the biological components and
processes which ma&e up the surroundings of man. The term includes biophysical
components of the natural resources such as land, water and air, including all layers of
the atmosphere, fisheries, wetlands and wildlife and the physical and biological
factors and process which support these resources.
6.1 HEALTH
6.1.1 HEALTH CONDITION OF RAJIBPUR 1 :
The health condition of the 'a(ibpur ) is almost satisfactory . The people of 'a(ibpur
) are health conscious. *or the medical treatment the sic& people goes to local
pharmacy which is situated in the 'a(ibpur ba+aar or to ovt. health care center at
,ani&gan(,. Almost all of the villagers use tube%well water for all of their purposes.
Almost all of the villagers completed vaccination of their children. . Almost all of
the villagers are aware of family planning.
6.1.2 OBJECTIVE:
). Define the idea of the villagers about their health conditions.
-. Identify different health problems of the villagers.
.. To identify the health care facilities offered in the village.
/. The name of the common diseases in the area.
0. Identify the lac&ing of the health care facilities.
1. To reflect the state of health, immuni+ation and medical facilities available in
the village.
6.1.3 PROCEDURE:
To collect the data from the villagers of 'a(ibpur ) of 'a(ibpur village we used 2'A
method. 3e also used a structural questionnaire that is provided by the 4*# authority
of I5B.
6.1.4 IMMUNIZATION:
The #$panded 2rogram on Immuni+ation follows the international guidelines
recommended by the 3orld Health 6rgani+ation. The guidelines recommend that all
children receive four doses of polio vaccine, three doses of D2T vaccine for the
prevention of diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus and a vaccination against
measles. 3H6 recommends that children receive all of these vaccines before their
first birthday and that the vaccinations be recorded on a health card given to the
parents.
Tabl H !1: D"#$%"b&$"'( ') $* %#+'(,($# b- $*"% I..&("/a$"'( #$a$&#
Na. ') D"#a## 0#
N'. 1
2olio -0 )778
Diphtheria -7 978
3hooping :ough -7 978
,easles -7 978
Tetanus -7 978
IMMUNIZATION
25
20 20 20 20
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
1
Polio
Diphtheria
Whooping Cough
Measles
Tetanus
2icture; !accination :ard
A(al-#"#:
3e surveyed -0 households of 'a(ibpur ) of 'a(ibpur village. 3e consider the age
group was form 7 to )<. 3e considered this age group because vaccination program
started from mid )=97. *rom the above table we can find out that )778 of children
are 2olio vaccinated. If we consider the age group from 7 to < we find out that )778
children have ta&en this vaccine. This became possible because ovt. of Bangladesh
started >Ti&a Dibash? especially for 2olio from )==<. Their target was to remove
2olio within -777. Because of lots of campaign parents were aware to ta&e their
children to >Ti&a @endra?. This vaccine is given orally so that the children can ta&e it
easily. In case of Diphtheria and 3hooping cough vaccination rate is satisfactory
A978B. This rate is satisfactory because people are aware about these diseases. The
average Immuni+ation rate of 'a(ibpur ) is 9/8 . "o we can conclude that ovt.
program is successful in this area.
6.1.2 FAMIL0 PLANNIN3:
A4ARE5OFF NOT A4ARE5OFF
601 201
A(al-#"#:
Almost all of the people of 'a(ibpur ) are aware of family planning, but very few of
them use birth%control materials li&e%condoms, pills etc. The people of 'a(ibpur )
disli&e to purchase these type of unsought products.
6.1.6 DI7TRIBUTION OF THE RE7PONDENT7 B0 THEIR PREVALENCE OF
DI7EA7E
In medical anthropology there is a useful distinction between disease and illness.
Disease means bodily disfunction, while illness means individual e$perience of
disease. In our surveyed area of 'a(ibpur ) in ,ani&gan(, we have found that most
of the respondents are aware of diseases. Because of unsatisfactory financial condition
they usually ignore small &ind of diseases. The following table will show the name of
the diseases villagers are suffered by;

Tabl H52: D"#$%"b&$"'(# ') $* R#+'(,($# b- $*"% +%8al(9 ') ,"#a##
P%8al(9 ') ,"#a## N&.b% P%9($a:
*ever -/ =18
astric -. =-8
Diarrhea )1 1/8
:ough )0 178
Caundice
)- /98
Acne 9 .-8
2neumonia . )-8
Heart disease . )-8
:holera - 98
6phthalmia ) /8
DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS BY THEIR
PREVALENCE OF DISEASE
24
23
16
15
12
8
3 3
2
1
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
1
Fever
Gastri
Diarrhea
Cough
!aun"ie
#ne
Pneu$onia
%eart "isease
Cholera
&phthal$ia
A(al-#"#:
3e surveyed -0 households of 'a(ibpur ) of 'a(ibpur village. *rom the above table
we can find out that most of the respondents A=18B suffered from fever. And another
concerning thing for the villagers is that most of them suffer from gastric. It is
because the farmers are using a huge amount of pesticides and insecticides in the
vegetable and crop field which is consumed by the villagers and it results gastric to
most of the people. "ome respondents suffer from Diarrhea, cough, Caundice. A larger
number of respondents A.-8B suffered by other &ind of diseases li&e "&in disease,
)-8 of the villagers are suffered by pneumonia and heart disease. A very few of the
villagers are suffered by cholera and 6phthalmia. 3e found that the villagers usually
go to ovt. health care center in case of ma(or health problem li&e diarrhea, heart
disease etc. The villagers go to local pharmacy which is situated at the 'a(ibpur
village for diseases li&e fever, cough etc.
1.).< TD2#" 6* H#A4TH :A'# :#ET#' '#"26ED#ET"
5"5A44D !I"IT
The following table will show the village peopleFs attitude towards various &inds of
treatment facilities they get;
Tabl H ! 3: D"#$%"b&$"'( ') $* R#+'(,($# a99'%,"(: $' $* $-+ ') *al$* 9a%
9($% $*- 8"#"$ ;*( $*- #&))% )%'. ,"#a##
Pla9 ') $%a$.($ N&.b%
P%9($a:
2ublic health care center in
,ani&gan(
. )-8
4ocal public health wor&er %%% %%%
4ocal E6 health wor&er %%% %%%
4ocal pharmacy -. =-8
4ocal priest Ahu(urB 0 -78
Homeopath ) /8
TUPES OF HEALTH CARE CENTER RESPONDENTS
USUALLY VISIT
3
23
1
5
0
5
10
15
20
25
1
Pu'li health are
(ailities in Mani)gan*
+oal phar$a,
%o$eopath
%u*ur
A(al-#"#:
3e surveyed -0 households of 'a(ibpur ) of 'a(ibpur village. *rom the above table
and the pie chart we find out that, =-8 of the villagers go to the local pharmacy, when
they suffer from diseases. They thin& that it will be enough for them to cure. 2eople
usually do not go to the ovt. health care center. The doctors who are wor&ing in
ovt. health care center are more interested to wor& in different private clinics rather
than wor& in ovt. health care center. The villagers of 'a(ibpur ) goes to local
pharmacy which is situated at the 'a(ibpur village for treatment and medicine. -78 of
the villagers go to hu(ur when they suffer from diseases li&e fever, Gbish bethaF etc.
6.1.6 PROBLEM7 RELATED TO 3OVT. HEALTH CARE 7ERVICE7:
Distribution of the 'espondents according to the problems related to the overnment
Health care service.
Tabl H54: P%'bl.# %la$, $' 3'8$. Hal$* Ca% 7%8"9#:
2roblem Eo. 8
Eot close to home -- 998
Transport are not available ) /8
Timing of the clinic is not suitable 0 -78
"taffHservices are not good )0 178
*acility is not clean 0 -78
3aiting hours are too long )) //8
,edicine are not available )) 0-8
,edicine cost is high ). 0-8
6ffers no 2rivacy ) /8
6thers 7 78
PROBLEMS OF GOVT. HEALTH CARE
CENTER
22
1
5
15
5
11 11
13
1
0
0
5
10
15
20
25
1
-ot lose to ho$e
Transport are not availa'le
Ti$ing o( the lini is not
suita'le
.ta((/servies are not goo"
Failit, is not lean
Waiting hours are too long
Me"iine are not availa'le
Me"iine ost is high
&((ers no Priva,
&thers
A(al-#"#:
3e surveyed -0 households of 'a(ibpur ) of 'a(ibpur village. *rom the above table
and figure we found, which data are collected by the people of 'a(ibpur ) that the
main problems they face which is related to the ovt. health care services are not
closer to the home A998B, transport facilities are not available A/8B, staffH services are
not good A178B, *acility is not clean A-78B, and waiting hours are too long A//8B.
6thers problems, which the people faces that are medicine are not available A0-8B,
medicine cost is high A0-8B, timing of the clinic is not suitable A-78B, and offers no
privacy A/8B. They face others problems also which are not that much serious. *rom
the above information we said that, the people of the 'a(ibpur ) face lots of problem
in health care facilities. "o ovt. has to ta&e care about it.
6.1.< FINDIN37 AND IMPLICATION7:
Beyond questionnaire survey we also do some qualitative survey in our selected
'a(ibpur ). 3e mention these findings and implications as bellows;
). Almost all of the villagers completed polio and other vaccination of their
childrens because they are conscious about their childrenFs health.
-. ,ost of the villagers are aware%off family planning, but few of them use birth%
control materials.
.. Almost all of the villagers use ring slab for sanitation. 6nly - households use
ring%less latrine A "lab is over the latrineB because they donFt have enough
money. "o most of the time it is open and the flies carry the germs that are
harmful to health.
/. Although the people of this village are health conscious but they are not
interested to go to the health care center because they try to avoid small
diseases.
0. Though the medicine cost is high the villagers prefer local pharmacy rather
than ovt. health care center because they want better medical treatment.
6.2 ENVIRONMENT
6.2.1 ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION OF RAJIBPUR 1:
The environmental condition of the 'a(ibpur ) is also satisfactory. 2eople of 'a(ibpur
) are aware about their environmental situation. ,ost of the people use 'ing "lab
toilets. Although they are using firewood for coo&ing purpose but they &now that
burning firewood is bad for the environment. They &now that this burning of wood is
affecting their health but they are using such in absence of as. The environmental
condition is very good with a huge amount of trees and herbs. And the tree plantation
program is getting momentum here with the assistance of E6Fs. ,ost of the houses
are having good number of fruit producing trees. "o, it is identical that the peoples of
this village are quite environment conscious.
6.2.2 OBJECTIVE:
To get the real picture of the present environmental condition of the village, li&e
source of water supply, toilet facilities, and &ind of fuel they used.
6.2.3 PROCEDURE:
To collect the from the villagers of 'a(ibpur ) of 'a(ibpur village we used 2'A
method. 3e also used a structural questionnaire that is provided by the 4*# authority
of I5B.
6.2.4 U7E7 OF 4ATER FROM DIFFERENT 7OURCE:
Tabl E51: D"#$%"b&$"'( ') %#+'(,($# b- $* $-+ ') ;a$% #'&%9# $*- &# )'%
,"))%($ +&%+'##.
P&%+'##
7'&%9#
P"+,
4a$%
T&b54ll 4ll
4a$%
P'(, O$*%#
=R"8%>
N'. 1 N'. 1 N'. 1 N'. 1 N'. 1
Drin&ing -0 )778
Bathing -- 998 . )-8
3ashing -0 )778
:oo&ing -0 )778
USES OF TUBEWELL WATER IN DIFFERENT
PURPOSES
25
22
25 25
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
1
Drin)ing
0athing
Washing
Coo)ing
2icture; Tube well
A(al-#"#:
3e surveyed -0 households of 'a(ibpur ) of 'a(ibpur village. 3e found that )778 of
the household use tube well water for all of their purposes e$cept bathing, which is a
very good sign for country li&e Bangladesh. As the Dhaleshari river flows besides the
village some villagers go their for bathing. Eone of the household use piped water,
well water, pond water.
6.2.2 T0PE7 OF TOILET FACILITIE7 AND EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT:
Tabl E52:D"#$%"b&$"'( ') $* %#+'(,($# b- $* $-+ ') T'"l$ )a9"l"$"# $*- &#.
T-+ N'. 1
'ing slabH2it latrine -- 998
"eptic tan& ) /8
Hanging 4atrine
2it 4atrine - 98
TYPES OF TOILET FACILITIES AND EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT
881
41
81
2ing sla'/Pit latrine
.epti tan)
%anging +atrine
Pit +atrine
2icture; 'ing "lab 2icture; "eptic Tan& 2icture; 2it 4atrine
A(al-#"#:
3e surveyed -0 households of 'a(ibpur ) of 'a(ibpur village. *rom the above table it
is clear that 998 of them use ring slab and 98 of them use 2it 4atrine. 3hich is a
good sign reflecting the health consciousness of the poor people.
6.2.6 EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT B0 DIFFERENT T0PE OF COO?IN3
PLACE:
Tabl E53: D"#$%"b&$"'( ') %#+'(,($# b- $*% 9''@"(: +la9#
C''@"(: Pla9 N'. 1
In the @itchen )- /98
Inside the living room .
)-8
6utside the room )7 /78
EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT BY DIFFERENT TYPE OF COOKING PLACE
481
121
401
3n the 4ithen
3nsi"e the living roo$
&utsi"e the roo$
2ic; :oo&ing inside the house 2ic; :oo&ing outside the house
A(al-#"#:
3e surveyed -0 households of 'a(ibpur ) of 'a(ibpur village. The health
awareness of the village people is again clearly visible from the above table as /98 of
the households coo& in the &itchen, /78 of the households coo& outside the room, and
only )-8 of the households coo& inside the living room, which is harmful for the
environment of the living room.
6.2.A EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT PLACE OF DUMPIN3 4A7TE:
Tabl E54:D"#$%"b&$"'( ') %#+'(,($# b- $*"% +la9 ') ,&.+"(: ;a#$
Pla9# N'. 1
In a hole beside the house )< 198
In a nearby ditch 1 -/8
In a specific place - 98
Eo specific place
EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT PLACE OF DUMPING
WASTE
681
241
81
3n a hole 'esi"e the
house
3n a near', "ith
3n a spei(i plae
-o spei(i plae
A(al-#"#:
Disposal of house holds waste is a very important activity for the betterment of
environment. 3e surveyed -0 households of 'a(ibpur ) of 'A(ibpur village. The
above table clearly reflects that 198 of households use a hole to dump waste, -/8 of
households use nearby ditch. This pollutes water. They should deposit wastes in a
fi$ed space and cover it. ,ore over 98 people throw out their wastes in a specific
place.
6.2.6 DI7TRIBUTION OF THE RE7PONDENT7 B0 THE T0PE OF FUEL
THE0 U7E.
Tabl E52: D"#$%"b&$"'( ') $* %#+'(,($# b- $* $-+ ') )&l $*- &#.
*uel type *uel use Health effect #nvironment effect
@erosene
*ire wood -0 )/ 9
4eaves and twigs 1 / .
as
:ow Dung - 7 7
"traw < - .
6thers A Bio asB ) 7 7
2icture; Bio gas 2lant 2ic; :oo&ing by Bio as
A(al-#"#:
*rom our survey we found out that most of the people use firewood, -/8 leaves and
twigs, 98 of the people use cow dung and -98 of the people use straw for coo&ing
purpose. And one ama+ing thing is that in 'a(ibpur ) we have found a bio gas plant
which is the only one in the whole village. 6nly 078 of the respondents are aware of
the health effects of using cow dung, firewood, straw and leaves and twigs etc. The
other 078 of the respondents are not educated enough to figure out health effect
although they are suffering. The ma(or impact on health we have found is eyes
irritation. Beside that only .08 of the respondents are aware about environmental
impact of using these types of fuel. The ma(or impact they identified is air pollution
6.2.< FINDIN37 AND IMPLICATION7:
). ,ost of the villagers use tube%well water for all of their purposes.
-. 3e found that 998 people are using ring slab which is a good sign for the
environment. 6n the other hand two households are using ring less A "lab is
over the latrine, which spreads many diseases. "o they polluted the
environment.
.. 3e found that 198 households deposit their waste in a hole beside the house.
This is a very positive impression for the betterment of environment.
/. The villagers mainly use firewood, leaves and twigs, straws, cow dung etc. for
their coo&ing purpose. Tress are cut so frequently and leaves are also ta&en
away. 3hen we loo& through the type of fuel they use almost all villagers are
using firewood for their coo&ing purpose.
0. 2eople are now aware of the environmental pollution. 3e have got the proof
when we have tal&ed with the village people and saw the bio gas plant.