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Sindarin-English &

English-Sindarin Dictionary
Sindarin is a language originally created by J.R.R Tolkien, and the copyright/I o!
Sindarin belong to hi" and his estate. This dictionary is unauthorised, and I do not
clai" a#iliation $ith %iddle-Earth Enterprises/Saul &aent' or The Tolkien Estate(
ho$e)er none o! the $ork herein is li!ted directly !ro" any o! Tolkien*s $orks, and
any breach o! copyright in this $ork is co"pletely unintentional.
This "aterial "ay be distributed only sub+ect to the ter"s and conditions set !orth in
the ,reati)e ,o""ons -ttribution, .on-,o""ercial, Share--like /icense, )ersion
0.1 2http3//creati)eco""ons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/0.1/4.
5 0167 J-% ,arpenter. -ll rights reser)ed.
IS8. 9:;-6-096-7706<-0
2
-ckno$ledge"ents and e=planations
This dictionary started !ro" entries co"piled !ro"
>is$eloke*s Sindarin-English dictionary, $ithout $hose
original $ork this pro+ect $ould ha)e taken an a$!ul lot
longer.
?ords "arked $ith a @ ha)e been deduced 2attested only in
co"pounds or other $ords4.
?ords "arked $ith a A ha)e been nor"alised or
reconstructed !ro" .oldorin.
-ll $ords "arked $ith a ha)e been reconstructed by
either "ysel! or one o! a nu"ber o! other linguists 2I $ould
lo)e to gi)e credit to e)eryone $hose $ork appears in this
dictionary, ho$e)er I ha)e been unable to track do$n the
creators o! e)ery $ord4.
-ll reconstructions used in this dictionary co"e !ro" one
o! the !ollo$ing "ethods3
-dding an attested su#i= to an attested $ord such as
-as or -$eg
.egating an attested $ord to attain its opposite
"eaning
,hanging an attested Buenya $ord into Sindarin
using rules gleaned !ro" attested "aterial
,reating a co"pound $ord !ro" e=isting attested
$ords
,reating a $ord !ro" an attested root, and a su#i=
,hanging a $ord !ro" Coldogrin 2Cno"ish4 or Benya
into Sindarin. These are "uch "ore theoretical, and
as such, ha)e been "arked $ith a D be!ore the $ord
This dictionary does not contain regular plurals, or any
parts o! )erbs apart !ro" the ste" 2$ith one or t$o
e=ceptions !or irregulars4.
I ha)e co"piled the English-Sindarin dictionary to "ake
li!e easier !or students o! Sindarin, ho$e)er I ad)ise you to
cross-re!erence the Sindarin $ords back to their original

glosses in the Sindarin-English to ensure the $ord "eans
e=actly $hat you $ant it to.
4
/inguistic abbre)ations
abst. abstract
ad+. ad+ecti)e
ad). ad)erb
arch. archaic
aug". aug"ented
by e=t. by e=tension
card. cardinal
con+. con+unction
coll. collecti)e
di". di"inuti)e
!e". !e"inine
i"p. i"perati)e
inter+. inter+ection
"asc. "asculine
%il. %ilitary
n. noun
.. indicates an original .oldorin $ord that has been
nor"alised
nu". nu"ber
ord. ordinal
pl. plural
poet. poetic
pp. past participle
pre!. preE=
prep. preposition
pron. pronoun
rel. relati)e
sing. singular
). )erb

Fther abbre)iations
Ety The Ety"ologies
C/ Cno"ish /e=icon
/8 The /ays o! 8eleriand
/etters The /etters o! JRR Tolkien
/otR The /ord o! the Rings
%R %orgoth*s Ring
E ar"a Eldala"beron
% The eoples o! %iddle-Earth
R, The /ord o! the Rings3 - Reader*s ,o"panion
SD Sauron De!eated
GT GnEnished Tales
HT Hinyar Teng$ar
?J The ?ar o! the Je$els
?R The ?ar o! the Ring
6
Sindarin-English

A
a I 2adh/ah/ar be!ore a )o$el4 conj. and 2ar I E=ilic, ah I
Doriathrin, !or adh I see E/6: !or a discussion on
this4
a II interj. FJ See also ai I
ab- prep.pref. a!ter, later ?J/7;:
abarad n. to"orro$ 2the day a!ter4
ablad n. prohibition, re!usal 2with reference to the gesture
one makes with the hand4
abonnen pl. ebnnin n. and adj. 1. born later, born a!ter
2.as a noun, "an, one born later than the El)es, a
hu"an being 2elvish name for men4 ab-Konnen La!ter-
bornL
ach prep. but HT/M1 see also dan
achad n. neck 2properly referring only to the bony
vertebral part not including the throat4
achar- v. to a)enge 2E/6:4
acharn n. )engeance ?J/0MN, ?J/716
@achas n. dread, !ear Daerachas ?J/6;: This "ight
also be *gachas, "utated in co"position
ad- adv.pref. back, again, re-
ada n. masc. daddy dim. of adar
adab n. building, house
adan n. "an, the race o! %an
@adanadar n. "an, one o! the Oathers o! %en %R/7:7
adanath n. class plural of adan, all o! the "en
adaneth n. fem. 2"ortal4 $o"an 2o! the race o! %an4
adanK-eth
adar n. masc. !ather.
adbanna- v. to reEll 2ad- K panna-4
adbed- v. to rephrase 2E/6:4
adel prep. behind, in rear 2o!4
@adertha- v. to reunite
adh I prep. $ith, by
adh II conj. and see a
Aadlann 2atland N.4 adj. sloping, tilted
8
Aadlanna- 2@atlanna- N.4 v. to slope, slant
Aadlant 2atlant N.4 adj. obliPue, slanting
@adleg- arch.poet.v. to loose, let loose, release
adui adv. again 2adK-ui4 E/6:
aduial n. the e)ening, ti"e o! star-opening, Le)endi"L
ad K uial Lsecond t$ilightL
advr n. heirloo" 2E/6:4
aear n. sea Tolkien changed this $ord se)eral ti"es, see
gaear, aearon
aearon n.augm.of aear great sea, ocean Tolkien changed
this $ord se)eral ti"es, see gaearon
aearvr n. pearl, *sea +e$el*
D aeborn n. cherry tree
@aeg n. point aeglir, aeglos
Aaegas pl. Aaegais 2oeges N.4 n. abst. of aeg "ountain
peak Ety/7N9, Q/FE
aeglir n. range o! "ountain peaks aegKlRr
aeglos n. 1. sno$thorn, a plant like !ur'e 2gorse4, but
larger and $ith $hite So$ers 2. icicle aegKloss
Aael pl. aelin n. lake, pool, "ere
aen unkn. 2unkno$n "eaning4 SD/609-76 So"e
scholars belie)e this $ord to be cognate to Buenya nai
L"ay it beL. Fthers think that it is the pronoun LtheyL,
or the !uture conditional tense.
D aep n. cherry
aer I n. sea Tolkien changed this $ord se)eral ti"es, see
aear, gaear
aer II adj. holy HT/NN306,0N
aerlinn n. unsure "eaning, probably a holy song, a song
about the sea RCEF/:1, Q/.DN
aes n. cooked !ood, "eat
aew n. 2s"all4 bird
@aewen adj. o! birds
@agar n. blood
agarwaen, agarwen adj. bloodstained agarKg$aen
aglar n. great glory, brilliance, splendour 2robable that
this is a- intensi)e preE= K claur4 See also claur

aglareb adj. glorious
Aaglonn 2aglond N., aglon N.4 n. deEle, pass bet$een high
$alls
agor adj. narro$
ah prep. and conj. and. see also a I
ai I interj. ahJ
ai II pron. rel. !or those $ho
aith n. spearpoint
al- I pref. arch. no, not. This is Doriathrin, is the
pre!erred Sindarin !or later "aterials
al- II adv.pref. $ell
alae interj. beholdJ
alag adj. rushing, i"petuous
alagos n. stor" o! $ind
albeth n. $ord o! good o"en 2E/6:4
D alchor n. te"ple, shrine
alrin n. and adj. 1. i""ortal 2.as a noun, na"e o! a
So$er, bell-like and running through "any so!t and
gentle colours !.as a noun, also used !or another
s"all $hite So$er al-KErin
alph pl. eilph n. s$an
alu adj. $holeso"e 2E/6:4
alwed adj. prosperous, !ortunate 2E/6:4
a" prep. up, up$ards, upon
a"ar 2a"bar N.4 n. earth, the appointed ho"e o! El)es
and %en
a"arth n. !ate, doo"
a"arthan adj. !ated
a"ath n.Mil. shield
a"bas n.Mil. breastplate
a"benn 2a"bend N., a"ben N.4 adv, adj. 1. uphill,
sloping up$ards 2. a di#icult task 2an uphill struggle4
a"chaled adj. upli!ting 2a"Khaled4
a"dir n. hope based on reason %R/701 a"KtRr
Llooking upL
10
a"loth n.Mil. So$er or Soreate de)ice used as crest E=ed
to the point o! a tall hel"et ?J/76; a"Kloth
Luprising So$erL
a"lug n. dragon Ety/7N9, Ety/7:1
a""an interrogative. pron. $hyT 2*!or $hat*T4
a""en pron. 1st pl. o! us, !or us, to$ard us /otR/II3IH,
/8/7MN, HT/NN306,0: anK"en
a"on hill, steep-sided "ount Ety/7N;, /otR/E, R,/77N
a"r#n n. east, orient Ety/7N;, Ety/7;N, S/N7:, /otR/E
a"KrhUn Luprising, sunriseL
an prep. to, to$ards, !or /otR/II3IH, GT/79, SD/609-76
an- adv.pref. $ith, by Ety/7:N
anann adv. long, !or a long ti"e /otR/HI3IH, /etters/71;
anc n. +a$, ro$ o! teeth Ety/7N;, Ety/7:N
and adj. long Ety/7N;, S/N0:, Q/.D6
andaith n. long-"ark, sign used in $riting alphabetic
teng$ar o)er a )o$el, to indicate that it is lengthened.
/otR/E, Ety/796, Q/EI
Aandrann 2anrand N.4 n. cycle, age 21 !alian "ears4
Ety/7;0, Q/.DN
andreth n. patience 2E/6:4
an$ang pl. en$eng n. one o! the /ongbeards 2a tribe of
Dwarves4 Ety/7N;, Ety/7;:, ?J/700
an$angri" n.class pl.of an$ang the /ongbeards 2a tribe of
Dwarves4 ?J/700
ang n. iron Ety/7N;, S/N0;, %/7N:
angerthas n. runic alphabet, long rune-ro$s 2e#tended
version of the $erthas4 S/N0:, /otR/E
@anglenna- v. to approach anglennatha SD/609-76
angol n.%rch.&oet. deep lore, "agic Ety/7::
angren adj. o! iron Ety/7N;, S/N0;
angwedh n. chain Ety/79: angKg$edh Liron-bondL
ani" pron. 1st !or/to "ysel! /otR/-2)4 see also enni
anra- v. to desire, to $ant SD/609-76
ann-thennath n. pl. a )erse "ode, lit. Llong-shortsL
2alternance o! long and short )o$els, or rather
alternance o! long and short )erse units, possibly o!

"asculine and !e"inine rhy"es4 /otR/I3QI The
$ord is not translated by Tolkien. Re!er to 'olkien(s
)egendarium p. 66M !or a discussion o! its probable
"eaning
@anna- v. to gi)e Ety/7N; %nen irreg. past. tense. 1st
annabon n. elephant Ety/7:0, Q/.D0 andK@bond
Llong-snoutedL
annon n. augm. great door or gate Ety/7N;, S/N0;,
/otR/II3IH, T-I/6M1
annui adj. $estern SD/609-76
ann#n n. $est, sunset Ety/7:<, S/N0;, /otR/HI3IH,
/otR/E, /8/7MN, /etters/71;
annnaid n. the L?estronL language 2one of the names for
$ommon *peech4 %/76<
Anor n. sun Ety/7N;, R,/070
ant n. gi!t Ety/7N;
Aanu **.2anw N.4 adj. "ale Ety/7<1, Q/?
anuir n. !ore)er 2anKuir4
anwar n. a$e GT/N6;, HT/N0307
aphada- v. to !ollo$ ?J/7;:
aphadon n. 1. !ollo$er 2. by e#t. "an 2elvish name for
men4
aphadri" n. class pl. of aphadon !ollo$ers, "en 2elvish
name for men4
Aapharch 2a$arch N.4 adj. )ery dry, arid HT/NM3M, Q/>
a- 2intensi)e preE=4 K parch
&r n. king 2used of a lord or king of a speci+ed region4 See
aran
ar- pref. 1. %rch. beside 2.by e#t., $ithout Ety/7N9
ara- 2ar- *.4 pref. high, noble, royal S/N0; Reduced
!or" o! aran, ele"ent in the na"es o! the kings o!
-rnor and -rthedain
arad n. dayti"e, a day Ety/7N9
aran n. king 2used of a lord or king of a speci+ed region4
Ety/7<1, S/N0;, /otR/II3IH, /otR/HI3HII, SD/609-76,
/etters/N0<
12
Aran 'inior n. one o! the na"es gi)en to the Hala %an$V,
*elder king*
Aran (auron n. one o! the na"es gi)en to the Hala Fro"V,
*!orester king*
aras n. deer ?J/6M<-6M:
Araw n. one o! the na"es gi)en to the Hala Fro"V
ardh n. real", region Ety/7<1
ardhon n. augm. of ardh great region, pro)ince 2. by
e#t. $orld $alenardhon S/7;<, %/7N;
Aredhel n. noble El!, one o! the e=iled .oldor
arnad n. kingdo" HT3NN306,0M
arnediad 2arndiad *., N.4 adj. innu"erable, countless,
endless, $ithout reckoning, nu"berless Ety/7N9,
Ety/7:;, S/N0;, HT/N<3< ar-Knediad
arnen adj. 2T4 royal ,myn %rnen, )onnath-,rnin
/otR/H3I, ?R/09N, ?R/7:1
arod adj. noble %/7<7, HT/N639
arodas n.abst.of arod nobility 2arodK-as4
aronoded adj. innu"erable, countless, endless Ety/7:;
ar-gonoded. See also arnediad
arphen n. a noble ?J/7:<
@arth adj. 2unkno$n "eaning, perhaps 2T4 noble, lo!ty,
e=alted4 %rthedain /otR
@arwen n. fem. noble $o"an %rwen 2na"e4 /otR ar-
Kg$end
asg n. bone
asgar 2ascar N.4 adj. )iolent, rushing, i"petuous Ety/7;<
ast I n. dust Ety/7N9
ast II n. light or heat o! sun 2E/6:4
astor n. !aith, loyalty 2E/6:4
ath- I prep.pref. on both sides, across Ety/7N9
ath- II adv.pref. easily
atha- v. ease, assist 2athae, eitha-4
athal n. stranger 2E/6:4
athan prep. 1. beyond 2. preposition used in co"parati)e
sentences SD/<0
athaweg adj. help!ul 2athea K -$eg4

atheg n. masc. dim. of adar, 1 play na"e !or the thu"b
"eaning Llittle !atherL HT/N;3<,6:
athelas n. Lkings!oilL, a healing herb brought to %iddle-
earth by the .W"enXreans /otR/H3HIII B athea
LbeneEcal, help!ulL K ,S las Llea!L
athgar adj. easy to do 2E/6:4
athgen adj. easily seen 2E/6:4
athol- v. to return 2adKtol-4
athra- I pref. across %thrabeth %R/709
athra- II v. to cross 2to and !ro4 E/6:
athrabeth n. debate, con)erse %R/709 athra-Kpeth
Lcross-talkL
athrad n. 2ri)er-4crossing, !ord, $ay Ety/7N9, Ety/7;7,
GT/N7:, HT/N03:
@athrada- v. to cross, tra)erse Ety/7;7 ath-Krada-
athragardh n. interaction 2E/6:4
aur n. a day, consisting o! calan and $uin Ety/7N9,
S/N79
auth I n. $ar, battle Ety/7<M, Ety/7:9, HT/NM307
auth II n. a di" shape, spectral or )ague apparition
HT/N039
authren n.abst.of auth I $ar-like 2authK-ren4
ava- v. to re!use.
avar n. 1. re!user 2. the -)ari, El)es $ho re!used the
in)itation o! the Halar ?J/7;1, HT/N:360 This plural
na"e $as kno$n to the lore"asters, but $ent out o!
daily use at the ti"e o! the E=ile see gavar
avo v. imp. of ava-, don*tJ ?J/7:6 Gsed as a negati)e
ad)erb be!ore an i"perati)e3 avo garo Ldon*t do itJL.
So"eti"es used as preE=3 avgaro
@avorn adj. staying, !ast .aravorn >a"!ast, SD/609-76
avras n. precipice 2E/6:4
awarth n. abandon"ent Ety/79:
awartha- v. to !orsake, abandon Ety/79:
14
)
bach 2"bach4 n. article 2for e#change4, $are, thing
Ety/7:0
bachor 2"bachor4 n. pedlar Ety/7:0
b&d n. beaten track, path$ay Ety/7M6
badh- v. to +udge
badhor n. +udge Ety/7M1. This is gender neutral, !or the
"asculine see badhron
badhron n. masc. +udge Ety/7M1
baen adj. !air-haired 2E/6:4
bahad 2"bahad4 n. "arket-place 2bachKsad4
bain adj. beauti!ul, !air Ety/7M6, Ety/7M9, Q/EI
bainas abst.n.of bain beauty
)alagerch n. the constellation kno$n as the Sickle 2Grsa
%a+or4
balan n. Hala, di)ine po$er, di)inity Ety/7M1, S/N79,
/etters/N0:, Q/EI
balch 2"balch4 n. adj. cruel Ety/7::
balchas 2"balchas4 n.abst.of balch cruelty
bal$aug adj. drunk 2to be thirsty in a bad $ay4 C/
balrog n. great de"on 2raug4
D balthand adj. obstinate 2bal- K thand, see C/ !or bal- 4
band 2"band4 n. duress, prison, custody, sa!e-keeping
Ety/7:6, S/N0;, %R/7M1, Q/.D6
banga- 2"banga4 v. to trade Ety/7:0
)annos n. one o! the na"es gi)en to the Hala %andos
)anwen n. one o! the na"es gi)en to the Hala HYna
bar 2"bar4 n. 1. d$elling, ho"e 2.by e#t., inhabited land
S/N0;, ?R/7:9-;1, SD/609-76
bara adj. 1. Eery 2. eager Ety/7M6
barad 2"barad4 I adj. doo"ed Ety/7:0
barad II n. to$er, !ortress Ety/7M6, S/N0;, /otR/8
baradh adj. steep Ety/7M6
baran adj. bro$n, s$art, dark bro$n, golden bro$n,
yello$ bro$n Ety/7M6, /otR/O, T,/6:9, R,/7N7

bardor n. ho"eland 2E/6:4
barn adj. sa!e 2barK-nZ4
@bartha- 2"bartha4 v. to doo" Ety/7:0
barthan n. large "asonry building, used as a d$elling
2E/6:4
bas- 2"bas-4 v. to bake 2E/6:4
basgorn 2"basgorn4 n. loa! 2of bread4 Ety/7:0, Ety/7<M
bastKcorn Lround breadL
@bass/bast 2"bass4 n. bread %/N1N-N1M, HT/NN306 In
the ,tymologies, the $ord !or LbreadL is gi)en as bast,
Buenya masta, but it see"s that Tolkien later changed
his "ind and updated the $ord to bass, as sho$n in
Buenya mass/nie, Sindarin bassoneth.
Abassoneth 2"bassoneth4 n. fem. bread-gi)er %/N1N-
N1M, Q/&
basta- 2"basta-4 v. to bake bread 2this "ay +ust be an
alternate !or" o! bas-4
@batha- v. to tra"ple Ety/7M0
baudh n. +udge"ent Ety/7M1
baug 2"baug4 adj. tyrannous, cruel, oppressi)e Ety/7:0
@baugla- 2"baugla4 v. to oppress Ety/7:0
bauglir 2"bauglir4 n. tyrant, oppressor Ety/7:0
baul 2"baul4 n. tor"ent Ety/7::
baur 2"baur4 n. need Ety/7:0
baw interj. no, don*tJ ?J/7:6
bedhwen adj. re!erring only to -ulV and [a)anna together
beleg adj. great, "ighty Ety/7M0, S/N0;
)elegol n. one o! the na"es gi)en to the Hala -ulV, *great
burden*
bellas n.abst.of belt, bodily strength Ety/7M0
belt adj. strong in body Ety/7M0, Teng$estie/0117601:
See also bellas .
beltha- v. to e=pand
ben prep. according to the, in the SD/609-76
benn n. masc. 1. "an, "ale 2. by e#t. husband 2but not
the nor"al $ord, see hervenn4 Ety/7M0, HT/NM39
bennas n. angle, corner Ety/7M0, Ety/7:M
16
beren adj. bold Ety/7M0
bereth n. fem. Pueen, spouse Ety/7M6, RCEF/:N
@beria- v. to protect Ety/7M6
@bertha- v. to dare Ety/7M0
bess n. fem. 1. 2young4 $o"an 2. by e#t. $i!e 2but not the
nor"al $ord, see hervess4 Ety/7M0, SD/609-76
Abessain 2"bessain4 n. fem. bread-gi)er %/N1N-N1M,
Q/& See bass !or a discussion regarding this $ord
best n. $edding, "arriage
besta- v. to $ed, "arry 2besK-tZ4
@blab- v. to beat, batter, Sap 2wings, etc.4 Ety/7;1
D blaud n. pride C/
D bladweg n. proud 2pride!ul4
D bless n. grace
bo prep. on HT/NN306,0<
boda- v. to ban, prohibit ?J/7:0
Aboe 2"boe, bui N.4 v. impers. to need. This )erb takes no
other !or". Ety/7:0, Q/&
b*r n. stead!ast, trusty "an, !aith!ul )assal Ety/7M7
)orgil n. -ldebaran, lit. *hot red star*
born adj. hot, red /etters/N0<-0:
D bost n. back 2!ro" shoulder to shoulder4 C/
both 2"both4n. puddle, s"all pool Ety/7:0
D bothil 2"bothil4 n. o)en C/
bragol adj. sudden S/N09
braig adj. $ild, Eerce Ety/7:7, HT/NM37N The !or"
brerg in the ,tymologies is a "isreading according to
HT/NM37N
brand 2brann N.4 adj. 1. lo!ty, noble, Ene 2. high 2in si0e4
Ety/7M6, T-I/6M1, Q/.D6
brannon n. masc. lord Ety/7M6
brass I n. $hite heat Ety/7M6
brass II n. great cli# 2E/6:4
brassen adj. $hite-hot Ety/7M6
brasta- v. loo", to$er up 2E/6:4
breged n. )iolence, suddenness Ety/7M0

bregol adj. )iolent, sudden, Eerce Ety/7M0, Ety/7:7 See
also bregolas
bregolas n.abst.of bregol, Eerceness Ety/7M0
@breitha- v. to break out suddenly Ety/7M0
@brenia- v. to endure Ety/7M7, HT/NM3: The !or"
bronio in the ,tymologies is a "isreading according to
HT/NM3:
brennil n. fem. lady Ety/7M6
brethil n. beech, beech-tree, sil)er birch Ety/7M0,
Ety/7:<, S/N09
brith n. gra)el Ety/7M7
br*g n. bear Ety/7:N
@brona- v. to last, to sur)i)e Ety/7M7
bronadui adj. enduring, lasting Ety/7M7
bronwe n. endurance, lasting Puality, !aith Ety/7M7,
SD/<0
@brui adj. loud, noisy .ruinen /otR/Inde=
br#n adj. old, that has long endured, or been established,
or in use Ety/7M7
D budh n. large Sy
@buia- v. to ser)e, to hold allegiance to Ety/7M7
bund 2"bund, bunn N.4 n. 1. snout, nose 2.by e#t. cape
2of land4 Ety/7:0, Q/.D0
Abr 2bior N., beor N.4 n. !ollo$er, )assal Ety/7M0, Q/IG
18
+
@cab- v. to leap cabed S/7;<, ?J/611
cabed ger. of cab-, 1. leap 2.by e#t., deep gorge S/7;<,
?J/611 E"ended by Tolkien !ro" earlier cabad. This
is our sole late e=a"ple that basic )erbs should perhaps
!or" their gerund in -ed, $hereas deri)ed )erbs are
$ell attested to use -ad
cabor n. !rog Ety/7<0
Acadu 2cadw N.4 adj. shaped, !or"ed Ety/7<0-7<7, Q/?
cadwor 2cadwar N.4 adj. shapely Ety/7<7
Acae I 2coe N.4 n. earth Ety/7<7, Q/FE This $ord is
indeclinable, according to the ,tymologies
cae II 2caen- in a co"pound4 adj. num. card. ten
E/6:39M
caeda- v. to lie do$n
cael n. lying in bed, sickness Ety/7<7
caeleb adj. bedridden, sick Ety/7<7
@caenen/caenui adj. num. ord. tenth nelchaenen
SD/609-676
caenthil n. decagon *ten points*
caew n. lair, resting-place Ety/7<7
ca$- v. to bo$
D cag n. +oke 2C/4
cai n. hedge GT/0;0
cail n. !ence or palisade o! spikes and sharp stakes
GT/0;0
cair n. ship Ety/7<M, /otR/-2i)4, Q/EI
calad n. light Ety/7<0, GT/<M
calan n. day, period o! actual daylight a/otR/D
-ttested in the Erst edition o! /otR, but o"itted !ro"
the second. See also aur, arad
calar n. 2portable4 la"p celerdain /otR/H3I, ?R/0;:,
R,/M07
calardan n. la"p$right /otR/H3I, ?R/0;:, R,/M07
calarKtZn

calben n. 1. El! o! the Creat Journey 2lit. Llight personL4
2. by e#t. all El)es but the -)ari ?J/7<0, ?J/7:<-7::,
?J/N1;-N19
calen adj. green Ety/7<0, S/N09, /etters/0;0, R,/7N9,
HT/N0369 Ety". Lbright-colouredL
callon n. hero Ety/7<0
Acalph 2cal$ N.4 n. $ater-)essel Ety/7<0, Q/>
ca" n. hand Ety/7<6, Ety/7:6, S/N09
Aca"lann n. pal" o! hand Ety/7<:, Q/.DN ca"Kland
can- v. to cry out, shout, call %/7<6-7<0
canad adj.num.card. !our Ety/7<0, HT/N030N,0M, HT/N;3<,
HT/N<37
canath n. LPuarterL, sil)er coin used in Condor, the !ourth
part o! a L"irianL %/NM see also "irian
Acand 2cann N.4 adj. bold Ety/7<0, Q/.D6
@cannas n.abst.of cant, shaping Dorgannas ?J/690,
?J/01<
cant n. outline, shape morchaint S/N70, Ety/7<0,
HT/N030; See also cannas
canthil n. Puadrilateral *!our points*
canthui adj.num.ord. !ourth HT/N0361, HT/N030M,0:
car 2cardh N.4 n. house, building Ety/7<0
@car- v. to do ?J/7:6, ?J/N6M This )erb takes the
irreg.pa.t. agor-
carab n. hat ?J/6;:
carach n. +a$, ro$ o! teeth S/N09, R,/<1:
@caraes n. +agged hedge o! spikes 1elcharaes Ety/7<0
carag n. spike, tooth o! rock Ety/7<0
caragpholg n. boar 2!ang-pig4
caran adj. red Ety/7<0, S/N09, /otR/E
caras n. 1. circular earth$all $ith dike 2. city 2built
above ground4 Ety/7<0, /otR/II3HII, R,/766
carch n. tooth, !ang Ety/7<0, S/N09
car$a- 2carva-4 v. to talk 2treated like car- in the past
tense4 E/6:
carnin adj. scarlet 2E/6:4
20
carth 2cardh N.4 n. deed, !eat Ety/7<0 ,!. garth
carweg adj. acti)e, busy 2E/6:4
D cas n. skull 2C/4
@cast n. cape, headland %ngast HT/N030;
cathrae n. tressure, net !or co"bining the hair HT/N0360
caul n. great burden, a\iction HT/79361
caun I n. outcry, cla"our %/7<6-7<0 see also conath
caun II n. )alour Ety/7<0
@caun III pl. conin n. prince, ruler /otR/HI3IH,
/etters/71; %S @kaun, B. cYno
cautha- v. to startle
caw n. top Ety/7<0
ceber n. stake, spike, stone ridge Ety/7<7, /otR/II3HIII,
S/N7:, R,/70:
ce$ pl. cei$ n. soil Ety/7<7
Ace$n 2cevn N.4 adj. earthen Ety/7<7, Q/&
ce$nas 2ce$nas N.4 n. earthern-$are, pottery HT/NM
D ce$or$ n. potato 2*soil apple*, !ro" grothor!, C/4
Acelair adj. brilliant Ety/7<0, Q/EI
celeb n. sil)er Ety/7<:, S/N09, /otR/E, /etters/N0<
celebren adj. like sil)er 2in hue or worth4 Ety/7<:,
S/N09, HT/NM30M
celeg adj. s$i!t, agile, hasty Ety/7<<, %/7M7, HT/N6361
celeth n. strea" HT/NM
celevon adj. o! sil)er Ety/7<:
@cell adj. 1. running 2.by e#t. So$ing 2of water4
$elduin /otR/%ap
celon n. ri)er $elon 2na"e4 Ety/7<7
Acelu n. spring, source Ety/7<7, Q/?
@cen- v. to see cenedril TI/6;N
cenedril n. looking-glass, "irror TI/6;N, RS/N<<
cenedKrill
cennan n. potter Ety/791 c]!KtZn
cerch n. sickle Ety/7<M
ceredir n.masc. doer, "aker Ety/7MN caredKdRr
cer$ n. spinning $heel

cerin n. 1. circular enclosure 2.by e#t., "ound 2,erin
-"roth4 Ety/7<M, S/N09
certh pl. cirth n. rune ?J/79<, /otR/E Ety".
LcuttingL See also certhas.
certhas n.abst.of certh runic alphabet, rune-ro$s
/otR/E certhK-as
cerveth n. July 2"onth4 /otR/D
ceven n. Earth HT/NN306,0:
cidinn adj. s"all 2E/6:4
cil- v. to choose
cl I n. cle!t, pass bet$een hills, gorge Ety/7<M
cl II n. 2T4 rene$al HT/N;3;
D cingra- v. to plait 2C/4
cinnog adj. s"all 2E/6:4
cra" n. anchor
cr adj. rene$ed HT/N;3:-;
Acrbann n. ha)en Ety/7;1, Q/.DN cairKpand
crdan 2cirdan N., ceirdan N.4 n. shipbuilder, ship$right
Ety/7<M, Ety/791, /otR/HI3IQ, R,/0; cairKtZn
@cirion n.masc. ship"an, sailor $irion 2na"e4
cirith n. cle!t, high cli"bing pass, narro$ passage cut
through earth or rock, ra)ine, deEle S/7;:, GT/N0<,
T,/6;6, R,/77N-77M
cw adj. !resh, ne$ HT/N;3:-;
claur n.poet. splendour, glory Ety/7<0 See also aglar
c*$ n. bay HT/N036M
co$n adj. e"pty, )oid Ety/7<<
c*l n. gold 2"etal4 Ety/7<M Oor the colour, see "alt,
"allen
coll I adj. 2golden4 red Ety/7<M
coll II adj. hollo$ ?J/N6N
@coll III n. cloak, "antle 'hingol S/N06, %R/7;M
D colost n. cucu"ber 2C/4
conath n. coll. of caun II, 1. "any )oices 2.by e#t.,
la"entation %/7<6-7<0
condir n. masc. "ayor SD/609-76 caunKdRr
22
@conui adj. co""anding, 2T4 ruling %rgonui /otR/-2ii4
caunK-ui
corch n. cro$ Ety/7<0
cordo$ n. pippin 2seed of certain fruits, or more probably
small red apple4 SD/609-76
cor$ n. ring
corn adj. round, globed Ety/7<M
coron n. 1. globe, ball 2..by e#t. "ound Ety/7<M, S/N09
Acoru 2corw N.4 adj. cunning, $ily Ety/7<<, Q/?
cost n. Puarrel, dispute 2not a Puarrel o! bolts4 Ety/7<M
D cot n. nut, seed
coth n. 1. en"ity 2. ene"y Ety/7<M
cova- v. to "eet, to co"e together
@craban n. kind o! cro$ o! large si'e, ra)en /otR/II3III
cra" n. cake o! co"pressed Sour or "eal 2often
containing honey and milk4 Ety/7<M, /otR/II3HIII
crann adj. ruddy 2of face4 Ety/7<0
D crinth adj. pink 2C/4
criss n. cle!t, cut, slash Ety/7<M, HT/NM307
crist n.Mil. clea)er, s$ord Ety/7<M
@critha- v. to reap Ety/7<M
cro" n. le!t Ety/7<<
cru" n. le!t hand Ety/7<<
cru"ui adj. le!t-handed Ety/7<<
c# n. 1. arch, crescent 2.Mil.by e#t. bo$ Ety/7<M,
S/N09
cugu n. do)e Ety/7<M
@cuia- v. to li)e cuio /otR/HI3IH, /etters/71;
cuil n. li!e Ety/7<<
cuin adj. ali)e Ety/7<<
@cuina- v. to be ali)e Ety/7<<
c#l n. load $2l !eleg, $2l .3n R,/M7<
cul$ n. orange 2!ruit4
cull adj. orange 2colour4
cu" 2cu"b N.4 n. "ound, heap Ety/7<M

c#n adj. bo$ed, bo$-shaped, bent Ety/7<M
Acund n.arch. prince Ety/7<<, HT/NM30N, Q/.D6 See also
caun III
D cur n. cheese
D cura- v. to turn "ilk 2C/4
Acron n. the crescent %oon Ety/7<M, Q/& cUKraun
curu n. cra!t, skill Ety/7<<, Q/?
curunr n. masc. "an o! cra!t, $i'ard, Saru"an Ety/7<<,
/otR/III3HIII, /otR/8, HT/NM30N curuKdRr L"an o!
skillL
@c,ll n. bearer 'aengyl, 'engyl %R/7;M
c-ron n. ne$ "oon HT/N;3:
24
.
dad adv. do$n, do$n$ards Ety/7MN
dadbenn adv. 1. do$nhill, inclined 2. by e#t. easy to
achie)e Ety/7MN, Ety/7;1, HT/N<3;, Q/.DN
dadKpend
dae 2ndae4 n. shado$ Ety/7MN, S/N71
daebeth n. blasphe"y 2E/6:4
daedelu n. canopy Ety/796 daeKtelu
daen 2ndaen4 n. corpse Ety/7:M
daer I *. adj. great GT/NM1, ?J/6;:, ?J/77M, HT/N0366
Adaer II 2ndaer, doer N.4 n. bridegroo" Ety/7:M,
HT/NM39, Q/FE
daetha- v. to praise
da$- v. to allo$, per"it
d&$ n. per"ission Ety/7M7
@dag- 2ndag4 v. to slay Ety/7:M, HT/NM37:
dagnir 2ndagnir4 n. 1. slayer 2.by e#t., bane S/N71
dag-KdRr
dagor 2ndagor4 n. battle Ety/7:M, S/N71 dagorath *.
n. coll.
dagorath n. coll. of dagor, all the battles GT/79M-79<
@dagra- 2ndagra4 v. to battle Ety/7:M
da" 2nda"4 n. ha""er Ety/7:M
da""a- 2nda""a4 v. to ha""er Ety/7:M, HT/NM37:
dan 2ndan4 prep. 1. but, yet, against 2. back
/otR/II3IH
dananna- 2ndananna-4 v. to gi)e back, return
2danKanna-4
dangar- v. to undo 2E/6:4
dangweth 2ndangweth4 n. ans$er, reply gi)ing ne$
in!or"ation %/79M FS @ndanag$et^a Lback
reportL
The $ord da"beth $as re+ected by Tolkien in !a)our o!
this $ord.
Adanna- v. to !all Ety/7MN, Q/& ?ritten dant- in the
,tymologies

dannen n. ebb, lo$ tide HT/N;30<
dant n. !all %R/7:7
danwaith 2ndanwaith4 n.pl. the .andor 2a tribe of ,lves4
?J/7;M danKg$aith
danwedh 2ndanwedh4 n. ranso" S/7;N danKg$edh
@dar- v. to stay, $ait, stop, re"ain Ety/7M7
dartha- v. to $ait, stay, last, endure, re"ain Ety/7M7,
HT/NM3;
dath n. hole, pit, steep !all, abyss Ety/7MN, HT/NM3;
daug 2ndaug4 n. $arrior, soldier 2chie4y used of 5rcs4
Ety/7:M
daur n. 1. pause, stop 2.by e#t., league 2about 6 miles4
GT/0:9, GT/0;M
daw n. night-ti"e, gloo" Ety/7MN
de$- v. to try 2E/6:4
deil adj. delicate, beauti!ul and slender E/6:
del n. !ear, disgust, loathing, horror Ety/7MM
deleb adj. horrible, abo"inable, loathso"e Ety/7MM
delia- v. to conceal Ety/7MM
delos 2deloth N.4 n. abhorrence, detestation, loathing
Ety/7MM delKgos
Adelu adj. hate!ul, deadly, !ell Ety/7MM, Q/?
de" adj. sad, gloo"y Ety/7MN .o language indication
in the ,tymologies, but .oldorin !ro" conte=t and
phonological e)idence
denwaith n.pl. the .andor 2a tribe of ,lves4, the people o!
Den$e ?J/7;M Den2$e4Kg$aith
dess 2ndess4 n. fem. young $o"an Ety/7:M
dew- v. to !ail, "iss 2E/6:4
d 2nd4 n.poet.fem. $o"an, lady Ety/7M0, Ety/7MN
di- pref. beneath, under di-nguruthos /otR/IH3Q,
RCEF/:0, /etters/0:;, HT/NM37: The only kno$n
usage o! this $ord is as preE=, but HT/NM37: lists it as a
unitary $ord di
dhena- v. to !orgi)e 2with matter forgiven as object74
HT/NN309 See also gohena-
dl n. stopper, stopping, stu#ing Ety/7MN
26
@dilia- v. to stop up Ety/7MN, HT/NM39
dn I n. silence S/N71, /8/7MN -d+ecti)al use see"s to
be attested in se)eral place na"es 2%mon D8n LSilent
>illL, etc.4, though an ad+ecti)e dnen I is also attested
29ath D8nen LSilent StreetL4. ?hen co"pared $ith
other topony"s $here lenition does occur 2'aur-na-
$hardh3n LOorest o! the Southern SilenceL in
?J/6;M,697 and Dor Dh8nen in ?J/777,77;4, the !or"s
d3n and d8nen clearly see" to be un"utated. -bsence o!
lenition in these e=a"ples !ro" /otR $as there!ore
tentati)ely e=plained by resistance to "utation 2as in
Nan 'athren, ,red Mithrin4. >o$e)er, Tolkien
apparently changed his "ind in his unEnished inde= o!
na"es !ro" /otR, $here he e=plains both $ords as
"utated ad+ecti)es $hose unlenited !or"s are
respecti)ely tn II and tnen. Such hesitations bet$een
"utated and un"utated !or"s is not unusual, !or
instance a si"ilar issue is "et $ith gaear and aear. F!
course, 'aur-na-$hardh3n and Dor Dh8nen $ould hardly
be e=plainable in that alternate scenario
dn II n. opening, gap, pass in "ountains Ety/7MN
dnen adj. silent S/N71, ?J/69N See also dn I !or a
discussion regarding this $ord
dineth 2ndineth4 n. bride Ety/7::-7:; dRKneth
dr 2ndr/ n.masc.arch. "an, re!erring to an adult "ale
:elf, mortal, or of any other speaking race; Ety/7MN,
Ety/7M0
dirbedui adj. di#icult to pronounce 2E/6:4
drnaith 2nrnaith/ n.Mil. a "ilitary $edge-!or"ation
launched o)er a short distance against an ene"y
"assing but not yet arrayed, or against a de!ensi)e
!or"ation on open ground GT/0;0 dRrKnaith L"an
spearheadL
ds 2ds4 n. fem. bride Ety/7M0, Ety/7:M See also dineth
do$n adj. gloo"y Ety/7MM
d*l n. 1. head 2.by e#t. hill or "ountain Ety/7:<,
S/N71, R,/0<;
doll 2ndoll, dolt N.4 adj. dark, dusky, obscure Ety/7MM,
Ety/7:<, Teng$estie/0117601:

dolt n. round knob, boss Ety/7:<
doltha- v. to conceal Ety/7MM
dond n. Est, hand 2especially in punching4 HT/N:307
donn adj. s$art, s$arthy Ety/7MM, Q/.D6
d*r 2nd*r4 n. land, d$elling-place, region $here certain
people li)e Ety/7:<, S/N71, ?J/N67, /etters/N6:,
HT/NM37;, R,/7;N The !or" dor in the ,tymologies is
a "isreading, see HT/NM. In co"position and in
topony"s, the $ord is ne)ertheless reduced to Dor
dor-rod,n n. Halinor 2/and o! the -inur4
dorn adj. sti#, tough ?J/N67
dornhabar n. _ha'ad-DU" 2E/6:4
dornhoth n.class pl. of dorn the D$ar)es, lit. Lthe Thra$n
OolkL ?J/7;; dornKhoth
doron pl. deren n. oak Ety/7MM, HT/NM366
@dortha- 2ndortha4 v. to d$ell, stay Ety/7:<
dosta- v. to burn
@dra$- v. to he$ Ety/7MN, HT/NM3;
dra$n n. he$n log Ety/7MN
Adra" n. hea)y stroke, a blo$ 2of a#e, etc.4 Ety/7MN,
Q/%8
dra"bor n. 1. clenched Est 2.by e#t., blo$ 2with +st4
Ety/7MN dra"Kpaur
draug n. $ol! Ety/7MN, S/N71 see also gara$
drautha- v. to tire, beco"e $eary
drava- v. to beat
@drega- v. to See Fnly the i"perati)e drego is attested.
There!ore, the )erb "ay also be dreg- 2in!. dregi4
@dring n. ha""er <lamdring >, Ety/7MM
@dringa- v. to beat 2with a hammer, etc.4 Ety/7MM
dr# pl. drin n. $ild "an, ?ose, Wkel-%an GT/7;M In
E/66376, an older Cno"ish $ord dr2, drui "eant
L$ood, !orestL, and in E/6736N0, the early .oldorin
$ord dr= $as assigned the "eaning LdarkL. Dr2 pl.
Dr=in later ca"e to be used !or the na"e o! the ?oses,
$ith other deri)ati)es 2Dr=adan, etc.4. L?oseL is
actually the "oderni'ation o! an -nglo-Sa=on $ord
28
wasa only !ound in the co"pound wudu-wasa L$ild "an
o! the $oodsL, c!. GT/7;M sP. In the dra!ts o! the LRide
o! the Rohirri"L in ?R/7N7-7N<, the ?oses Erst
appeared as Lthe dark "en o! EilenachL. Though
internally said to deri)e !ro" drughu in their o$n
tongue, Tolkien*s choice !or the Sindarin na"e o! the
?oses $as apparently inSuenced by earlier "eanings
assigned to this $ord
dradan pl. dredain n. $ild "an, one o! the ?oses
GT/7;M drUKadan
drath n. coll. of dr# the people o! the DrU, the ?oses
GT/7;M
drnos n. a !a"ily o! the DrU-!olk GT/7;M drUKnos2s4
drwaith n. class pl. of dr#, the $ilderness o! the DrU-"en
2P.).4 GT/7;M drUKg$aith
d# n. night!all, late e)ening, night, di"ness Ety/7MN,
S/N71, HT/NM39 dath *., N. n. coll.
dath n. coll. of d#, 1. darkness, shado$ 2. nightshade
Ety/7MN, S/N71 Either the collecti)e plural o! d2, or a
co"pound d2>gwath Lnight shadeL 2hence d=wath4
duin n. 2long and large4 ri)er 2having strong current4
S/N71, /otR/O, T,/6:9, HT/N;30N
duinen n. Sood, high tide HT/N;30<
duirro n. ri)er-bank HT/N<361
dlinn n. nightingale Ety/7MN, Ety/7<9, S/N71, Q/.DN
dUKlind Ldusk singerL
d#n 2nd#n4 n. $est Ety/7:<, S/N0;, /otR/E-O
dnadan 2ndnadan4 n. %an o! the $est, .W"enXrean
/otR/I3QII, ?J/7:;, S/791 dUnKadan
@dnedhel 2ndnedhel4 n. El! o! the ?est, El! o! 8eleriand
2including Noldor and *indar4 ?J/7:; dUnKedhel,
FS @ndUnedelo
d#r adj. dark, so"bre Ety/7MN, S/N71, GT/N7N
duru$uin n. na"e. log night, [ule
dven 2ndven4 adj. sunken 2this $ord $as pre)iously
"isread as *southern*4
dl n. "istake 2E/6:4
dr adj. "istaken 2E/6:4

'
e imp.pron.6rd he/she/it SD/609-76
ech n. spine Ety/7MM, HT/NM360 The ,tymologies as
published gloss this $ord as LspearL, but the correct
reading is pro)ided in HT/NM
echad n. ca"p GT/N76
@echad- v. to !ashion, "ake Ety/7<7, /otR/II3IH
echil n. 1. !ollo$er 2. by e#t. hu"an being ?J/069
echor n. outer circle, encircling, outer ring /otR/H3I,
/otR/Inde=, S/N71
echui n. a$akening Ety/7<<, S/N09
echuia- v. to a$aken
echuir n. a season, the beginning o! spring /otR/D,
SD/609-76 Ety". LstirringL
ecthel n. point 2of spear4 Ety/7;; ]gKthela Lthorn-
pointL
ed- pref. !orth, out Ety/7M<
edaid adj. num. ?uant. double HT/N030<-0:
D edeleda- v. to deli)er 2!ro" e)il4
eden adj. ne$, begun again Ety/7N9
edhel n. El! Ety/7M<, S/N71, ?J/7<7-7<N
edhelharn n. el!-stone SD/60;-609 edhelKsarn
edhellen adj. el)ish, o! the El)es /otR/II3IH, RS/N<7
edhelK-ren
Aedinor n. anni)ersary day Ety/N11, Q/& adKRnKaur
Aedledhia- v. to go into e=ile Ety/7<;, HT/NM30:, Q/T/
Aedledhron n. e=ile 2person who is e#iled4 Ety/7<;, Q/T/
Aedlenn 2eglenn N.4 adj. e=iled Ety/7<;, Q/T/
@edlothia- v. to blosso", So$er edlothiand ?R/097,
Q/T/ The sentence !ro" ?R/097 is hardly legible and
is not translated, but this $ord is ho$e)er a plausible
!or"
edonna- v. to gi)e birth Ety/7:9 edK@onna-
@edra- v. to open
Aedrain 2edrein N.4 n. border Ety/7;7, Q/EI edKrain
edraith n. sa)ing /otR/II3IH, TI/6:M
30
edregol adv. in especial, especially SD/609-76
edwen adj. num. ord. second SD/609-76
0g n. thorn Ety/7MM
egladhri" n. class pl. of eglan LThe OorsakenL, El)es o!
the Oalathri" ?J/6;9, ?J/7<M, ?J/7:9 eglanKri"
eglan n. and adj. 1. !orsaken 2. as a noun, an El! o! the
Oalathri" ?J/7<M, ?J/7:9-7;1
eglath n. coll. of egol LThe OorsakenL, El)es o! the
Oalathri" ?J/6;9, ?J/7NN see also egladhri"
@egleria- v. to glori!y, to praise /otR/HI3IH, /etters/71;
egnas n. 1. sharp point 2. by e#t., peak HT/NM360
ego interj. be o#J be goneJ This is a strong insult ?J/7<M
@egol n. so"eone !orsaken, an El! o! the Oalathri"
,glath ?J/6;9, ?J/7NN
egor conj. or SD/609-76
eichia- v. to change
eil n. sky 2eiliant, eilKiant4
Aeiliant n. rainbo$ Ety/7<1, Ety/N11 Lsky-bridgeL see
also ninniach
einior adj. elder %/7M; anKiaur 2T4 L)ery, e=tre"ely
oldL
eirien n. daisy 2So$er4 SD/609-76 B -rien Lday-
"aidenL 2-S64
eitha- v. 1. to prick $ith a sharp point, to stab 2.by e#t.,
to treat $ith scorn, insult ?J/7<M
eithel n. issue o! $ater, spring, $ell Ety/7<7, S/N71,
S/N77, ?J/;M, T,/6;:
eithro adv. also 2HT/M14
0l pl. elin n.%rch.&oet. star 2little used e#cept in verses4
?J/7<7, %R/7:7, RCEF/:7, /etters/0;6 See also
elenath
elanor n. a So$er, a kind o! enlarged pi"pernel bearing
golden and sil)er So$ers /otR/HI3IQ, GT/N70,
/etters/N10 ]lKanor Lstar-sunL
elenath n.coll.of 0l, starry host, all the host o! the stars o!
hea)en /otR/II3I, RCEF/:7-:M, ?J/7<7

'lbereth n. one o! the na"es gi)en to the Hala Harda, *star
Pueen*
elia- v. to rain
elleth n.fem. el!-"aid ?J/6N;, ?J/0M<, ?J/7<7-7<N
ellon n.masc. el! ?J/7<7-7<N
elloth n.sing.of loth, 2single4 So$er HT/N036; er- K
loth
elo interj. an e=cla"ation o! $onder, ad"iration, delight
?J/7<0
Aelu 2elw N.4 adj. 2pale4 blue Ety/7<1, Q/?
@elvellon n. el!-!riend ?J/N60
e"el/e"il 2e""el *.4 n. fem. "other ,meldir S/6MM,
HT/N;36: See naneth !or the usual $ord
e"ig n.fem.dim. of e"el, lay na"e !or the inde= Enger
"eaning Llittle "otherL HT/N;3<,6:
e"lin 2e""elin N., e"elin N.4 n. yello$ bird, Lyello$
ha""erL Ety/7;<
e"" n. picture, i"age 2inde""4
D elvennui adj. $ondrous, "ar)ellous
en art. o! the 2genitival article4 /otR/HI3IH, /etters/71;
iKna 2T4
enchui 2enegui %rch. encui *.4 adj. num. ord. si=th
HT/N0361,0M,0;
ened 2enedh N.4 n. core, centre, "iddle Ety/7M<,
Ety/7:<, GT/NM1, /etters/00N, HT/N6360,6< ?hile the
$ord is $ritten enedh in the ,tymologies, it see"s that
Tolkien considered and reconsidered its !or"
throughout his li!e. /ate rough +ottings 2c. 69<;4, as
$ell as the te=t o! letter no. 6<; and the !act that the
topony" Ened$aith $as ne)er changed on the /otR
"ap, see" to i"ply that ened is the 2"ost4 deEniti)e
!or". See also the possibly related preposition ned,
$hich has so"eti"es been suggested to "ean LinL
2$hile again a preE= nedh- is seen in the ,tymologies4
enedhor n. noon 2enedKaur4
eneg adj. num. card. si= Ety/7M<, HT/N030M,76, HT/N;3<,;
eneth n. na"e HT/NN306,0N see also ess
enethil n. he=agon *si= points*
32
eng prep. e=cept, sa)e
D enn n. "ead
ennas adv. there, in that place SD/609-76
enner n. one o! the na"es gi)en to the Hala Tulkas
enni pron. 1st to "e HT/N6366 anKni see also ani"
ennin n. Halian year Ety/N11 andKRn Llong yearL
ennor n. central land, "iddle-earth /otR/E, Q/.D0 See
also ennorath
ennorath n.coll. of ennor, central lands, "iddle-earth
/otR/E, /otR/II3I, RCEF/:0-:M
ephel n. outer !ence, encircling !ence S/N7<, /otR/E
etKp]l
ephola- v. to preser)e, hold in "e"ory, re"e"ber 2HT/M14
er adj. single HT/N;3<
er- pref. alone, one HT/N0369
erch n. prickle Ety/7M<
@ercha- v. to prick Ety/7M<
ercha"ion/ercha""ui adj. one-handed ?J/M6, ?J/076,
Ety/7<6, Q/&
Aercha""on n.masc. one-handed "an HT/N:3:, Q/&
@erchion der.pl. of orch %nnerchion TI/66N ,rch is the
usual plural o! orch
ereb adj. isolated, lonely Ety/7M<, S/N76, GT/N00,
HT/N0361
eredh n. seed, ger" Ety/7M<
ereg n. holly-tree, thorn Ety/7M<, S/N76
eregdos n. holly, holly-tree Ety/7M<, Ety/7:9, Ety/79M
eregKtoss
eregion der.pl. of ereg the land o! holly ,region
Ety/7M<, /otR, GT
@eria- v. to rise Ety/7:9, HT/N<3:
erin prep. on the SD/609-76 orKi, %S @`rin
ernil n. prince /otR/HI3IH, /etters/71;, GT/N0;,
RCEF/:M
ero adv. alone 2HT/M14
@ertha- v. to unite %derthad S/N19 See also adertha

eru n. $aste, desert Ety/7M<
erui adj. 1. single, alone 2. by e#t., Erst 2incorrect use by
the <ondorians4 TI/760, ?R/N7<, HT/N0361 The
proper $ord !or +rst in Sindarin $as "inui
er,n n. $ood GT/N7<, /otR/8 FS @oroni- 2T4, LtreesL,
plural noun, used as a singular.
esbin n. thin thread 2E/6:4
esg n. reed, sedge HT/NM
esgal n. )eil, screen, co)er that hides S/N76
esgar n. shore HT/N<36N
ess n. na"e see also eneth
@esta- v. to na"e estathar SD/609-76
estel n. hope, trust, a te"per o! "ind, steady E=ed in
purpose, and di#icult to dissuade and unlikely to !all
into despair or abandon its purpose ?J/76;-769,
/otR/-2)4, %R/701
estelia- v. to trust
estent adj. 2)eryT4 short GT/6N<, ?J/766, ?J/76M The
slash sign in minlamad thent@estent "ight indicate
either )ariant !or"s o! an ad+ecti)e, or a sePuence o!
t$o short )erse units, possibly o! alliterating hal!-lines,
see 'olkien(s )egendarium p. 600 see also then, thent
estolad n. enca"p"ent GT/::, S/79<
ethad- v. to di)ide, share
D ethil n. i)y
ethir I n. "outh 2of a river4, estuary /otR/II3Q, Ety/7M<,
R,/7M1 edKsRr LoutSo$L
ethir II n. spy S/7:9, GT/N6; edKtirn Lout-$atcherL
ethiria- v. to So$ out 2edKsiria-4
ethog- v. to lead out 2edKtog-4
ethol- v. to co"e !orth 2eKtol-4
ethuil n. season o! spring /otR/D, SD/609-76
34
1
$adhu 2$adhw4 n. parch"ent
$adra- v. to sate
$ae n. a spirit d$elling $ithin a body, the soul
A$aeg 2$oeg N.4 adj. "ean, poor, bad Ety/7;:, Q/FE
$ael I adj. !air "inded, +ust, generous %/7M0 Ety".
Lha)ing a good !VaL
@$ael II n. glea"ing brilliance 2of the sun4 Aaelivrin
/8/7:<, S/019-061
$aelas n.abst.of $ael I +ustice, "ercy, generosity
A$aen 2$oen N.4 adj. radiant, $hite Ety/7;6, Q/FE
$aer n. spirit %R/7N9
$ain 2$ein N.4 n. and adj. 1. $hite 2. as a noun, cloud
Ety/7;:, ?R/0;;, R,/0<;, HT/N<36M, Q/EI See also
$aun, $&n
A$air I n. "ortal Ety/7;6, ?J/7;:, Q/EI B Erya
A$air II 2$eir N., $ir N.4 n. right 2hand4 Ety/7;0,
HT/N<361
$alas n. 1. beach, $a)e-beaten shore, line o! sur! 2..as a
proper noun, the $estern coast o! 8eleriand Ety/7;6,
S/N76, R,/6;, Q/EI
$alathren n.and adj. 1. o! the shore 2.as a noun, Shore-
language 2one of the names for $ommon *peech4
Ety/7;6, %/70, %/MM
$alathri" n.class pl. of $alas, people o! the Oalas ?J/7:;
!alasKri"
@$alch n. deep cle!t, ra)ine 5rfalch ,chor GT/N<;
$al$ n. !oa", breaker Ety/7;6
$aloth n. large $a)e 2E/6:4
@$altha- v. to !oa" Ety/7;6
$&n n. 1. )eil 2. by e#t., cloud 2applied to clouds, 4oating
as veils over the blue sky or the sun or moon, or resting
on hills4 RCEF/:N See also $ain, $aun
$ang n. beard Ety/7;:
$annil n.Mil. sta#

1annor n. na"e gi)en to the OVanturi, %andos and /Xrien
together
$anui adj. cloudy RCEF/:N, R,/0<;
1anuilos n. one o! the na"es gi)en to the Hala Harda
$ar adj. or adv. su#icient, enough, Puite Ety/7;6
@$ara- v. to hunt Ety/7;:
$aradri" n. class pl. of $eredir, hunters Ety/7;:
!aradKri"
$aras n.abst.of $ara-, hunting Ety/7;:
$ar$ n. carpet
$arn adj. or adv. enough Ety/7;6
@$aron n.masc. hunter ,lfaron Ety/7;:
$aroth n. 2T4 hunter, 2T4 group o! hunters 'aur-en-Aaroth
S/N76, Ety/7;:
$ast n. shaggy hair Ety/7;6
D $ath n. tassel
$aug adj. thirsty Ety/7;6
$aun n. cloud Ety/7;:, HT/N<36M See also $ain, $&n
$aur n. beach, shore HT/N<36M See also $alas
$eira- v. to su#ice HT/N<39
$el- v. to !eel e"otion
$ela pl. li N. n. ca)e Ety/7;6
$el$ n. e"otion, i"pulse
$en 2$end N., $enn N.4 n. door, threshold Ety/7;6,
/otR/H3IH, ?R/7N6, R,/MM1, Q/.D6 see also $ennas
$ennas n.abst.of $en, door$ay, gate$ay /otR/II3IH,
RS/N<7, RCEF/:M
$0r pl. $erin n. beech-tree Ety/7M0, Ety/7;6
$ergenol adj. sharp-sighted $ith the "ind 2E/6:4
$eria- v. to "ake ready 2E/6:4
$eredir n. hunter Ety/7;: !aradKdRr $aradri" n.
class pl.
$ern n. and adj. 1. dead 2of mortals4 2. as a noun, dead
person Ety/7;6
$erui adj. ready to hand 2E/6:4
leg n. s"all bird Ety/7;6 See also ligod
36
ligod n.sing.of leg, 5rn. s"all bird Ety/7;6
@" adj. sli", slender Aimbrethil /otR/Inde=
n- v. to be ni"ble 2E/6:4
$n 2nd *., nn- *.4 n. a tress %/7<6-7<0
ng n. lock o! hair Ainglas L/eaSockL R,/7;<
nnel 2ndel N.4 n. 2braided4 hair Ety/7;:, Q/.D0
r- v. to die 2!or "ortals4
$reb adj. "ortal ?J/7;: !airK-eb
ren n. hu"an Ety/7;6 !airK-en 2>IR4
riath n. coll. of $air I, "ortals, hu"an beings ?J/069,
?J/7;:
$riel n. fem. "ortal "aid Ety/7;0, %/69M, %/070
rieth n. fem. "ortal $o"an ?J/7;: !airK-eth 2>IR4
rion n. masc. "ortal "an ?J/7;:
rith n. season o! !ading /otR/D
@2&d n. skin Aladrif /otR/E, T,/6<9, T,/6:7
$orga" adj. right-handed Ety/7;0 !arKca"
$orn n. right, north Ety/7;0, GT/N0<, S/N76
$orod n. north Ety/7;0, S/N76, /otR/E $orodri" N. n.
class pl. $orodwaith N. n. class pl.
$orodren adj. northern Ety/7;0 !orodK-ren 2>FR4
$orodri" n. class pl. of $orod .orth"en Ety/790
!orodKri"
$orodwaith n.class pl. of $orod, 1. .orth"en 2.by e#t.
the lands o! the .orth Ety/7;0, Ety/79;, Q/EI
!orodKg$aith
$orven n. north Ety/7;0 !arK"]n See also $orod
$orvo n. 1. right hand 2.by e#t., right side HT/N:3<
!or-)a$, !arK"a$
$ui n. 2unkno$n "eaning4 B9aith CD Aui (Ngorthrim
R,/M0<
@$uia- v. to !eel disgust at, abhor Ety/7;6
$uiol adj. disgusting
$uin n. night, dead o! night, gloo", darkness Ety/7MN,
Ety/7;0, S/N76
$uir adj. north HT/N0301

$ur- v. to lie, to conceal the truth
38
3
gach n. "ilk co$
gad- v. to catch Ety/7M;
gadas n.abst.of gad- trap
gador n. prison, dungeon Ety/7M;
gadoras adj. i"prison, cage
gadorphen n. prisoner 2gadorKpen4
gae n. dread Ety/7M;
gaear/gaer 2oear N.4 n. sea Ety/7N9, %/7<7, RCEF/:7
See also aear
gaearon n.augm.of gaear, great sea, ocean %/7<7,
%/7N;, RCEF/:0-:7 See also aearon
gael adj. pale, gli""ering Ety/7M;
gaer I adj. dread!ul Ety/7M;
Agaer II 2goer N.4 adj. red, copper-coloured, ruddy
Ety/7M;, Q/FE
Agaeruil n. sea$eed gaer %/7<7, Ety/79< gaerKuil
gail n. bright light Ety/7<0
D gais n. steel
D gaithren adj. o! steel 2gaisKren4
D gaiw n. pregnant
gal- pref. light, radiance galvorn, etc.
@gala- v. to gro$ Ety/7M:
galad n. light, radiance, glittering, reSection 2from jewels,
glass or polished metal, or water4 HT/NM367, %/7N:,
/etters/N0M
galadh n. large tree 2such as oak and beech4, thicker,
denser and $ith "ore branches than a tree described
as being orn Ety/7M:, S/N0:, /otR/E, /8/7MN,
RCEF/:7, /etters/N0< see also orn
@galadhad n. dual pl. of galadh, 'heo. the T$o Trees o!
Halinor 5rgaladhad /otR/D
galadhon der.pl. of galadh $aras <aladhon /otR/II3HII,
/otR/O, GT/N0M
@galadhre""en adj. tree-$o)en, tree-tangled /otR/E,
/otR/II3I, RCEF/:0 galadhKre""en

galadhri" n.class pl. of galadh El)es o! /othlXrien /otR
galadhKri" Lpeople o! the treesL
galas n.abst.of gala-, gro$th, plant Ety/7M:
galenas n. pipe-$eed 2lea!4 or L$est"ans$eedL, a )ariety
o! .icotiana /otR/H3HIII
Agalu 2galw N.4 n. 2T4 blessings, 2T4 blessedness, 2T4 good
!ortune 2meaning not entirely clear4 Ety/7M:, Q/?
galvorn n. a black "etal de)ised by the dark el! Eol
?J/700-707, S/79; gal-K"orn
ga""as n.abst.of ga"p, )ing. s-sign 2special sign used to
mark a +nal -s in 'engwar4 b HT/NM36N
ga"p n. hook, cla$, crook Ety/7M:, HT/N:301
@ganna- 2nganna4 v. to play a harp Ety/7:: See also
gannada-
@gannada- 2ngannada4 v. to play a harp Ety/7:: See
also ganna-
gannel 2ngannel, gandel N.4 n. harp Ety/7::, Q/.D0
@gar- v. to hold, ha)e Ety/7<1
gara$ 2ngara$4 n. $ol! Ety/7:: See also draug
gardh n. 1. bounded or deEned region 2. by e#t. $orld
?J/N10
garn n. o$n, property Ety/7<1
garth n. !ort, !ortress Ety/7<1
gartha- v. to de!end
gas n. hole, gap Ety/7M:
gasdil n. LstopgapL, na"e o! a diacritic sign used to
indicate that g had been lenited to 'ero Ety/7MN,
Ety/7M: gasKdRl
gath n. ca)ern Ety/7M;
gathrod n. ca)e Ety/7M; gathKgrad 2C-T2>44
gaud n. de)ice, contri)ance, "achine Ety/7M;
gaul 2ngaul4 n. $ol!-ho$l Ety/7::
gaur 2ngaur4 n. $ere$ol! Ety/7:: c See also gaurhoth,
gaurwaith
gaurhoth 2ngaurhoth4 n. class pl. of gaur, group o!
$ere$ol)es /otR/II3IH gaurKhoth L$ol!-host
40
gaurwaith 2ngaurwaith4 n. class pl. of gaur, $ol!-"en
GT/;M, GT/91 gaurKg$aith
gavar n. an -)ar, one o! the -)ari E/6:
gaw n. )oid Ety/7M;
gaw- 2ngaw4 v. to ho$l Ety/7::, Q/&
gawa- v. to disguise, !alsi!y 2E/6:4
4geil pl. gl n. star, bright spark Ety/7M;, HT/NM36M See
also gil
gelia- 2ngelia-4 v. to learn
gelir n. "erry, happy, gay person SD/609-76
gell n. +oy, triu"ph Ety/7M9
gella- v. to re+oice
gella" n. +ubilation Ety/7M9 gellKgla" 2CJE/4
gellui adj. triu"phant Ety/7M9
gellweg adj. +oy!ul
ge" 2ge"b N.4 adj. sickly Ety/7M;
@genedia- v. to reckon genediad SD/609-76
genediad ger. of genedia-, 1. reckoning 2.by e#t.,
calendar SD/609-76
gern adj. $orn, old, decrepit 2used of things only4
Ety/7<1
gil n. star, bright spark /otR/E, S/N76, RCEF/:7 c In
'he ,tymologies 2Ety/7M;, corrected by HT/NM36M4, this
$ord $as gi)en as geil, plural g3l. >o$e)er, later in
/otR/E and RCEF/:7, Tolkien see"s to consider gil as a
singular 2$ith no hints in the sources o! $hat the plural
$ould be, besides the collecti)e plural giliath
gildin n. sil)er spark Ety/797
gilgalad n. starlight Ety/7M;
giliath n. coll. of gil/geil, all the host o! stars Ety/7M;,
R,/070
@gilion der.pl. of gil !ound in Frgilion 5rgilion /otR/D
3ilthoniel n. one o! the na"es gi)en to the Hala Harda,
*star kindler*
@gir- v. to shudder Ety/7M;
gr n. yesterday

girith n. shuddering, horror Ety/7M;, S/N76
girithron n. Dece"ber 2"onth4 /otR/D
glad n. $ood Methed-en-<lad GT/NM0
gladh- v. to laugh gladh- %/7M9
glae n. grass
glaer n. long lay, narrati)e poe" Ety/7M9, HT/NM36M c
?ritten glEr 2$ith ae-ligature4 in the ,tymologies,
rectiEed here according to HT/NM36M
glaew n. sal)e Ety/7<9
gla" 2gla"" N., gla"b N.4 n. 1. barbarous speech,
shouting, con!used noise 2. din, uproar, the con!used
yelling and bello$ing o! beasts !.by e#t.,as a coll.
noun, any body o! Frcs Ety/7M;, Ety/7::, ?J/791,
?J/N6<
gla"hoth n. class pl. of gla", barbaric host o! Frcs
Ety/7M;, Ety/7<N, Ety/7::, GT/79, GT/MN, ?J/791
gla"Khoth Lthe dinhorde, the yelling hordeL
gla"og n.sing.of gla" an Frc, La yelling oneL ?J/791
gla"or 2gla"br N.4 n. echo Ety/7M;
gla"ren adj. echoing Ety/7M;
@gl&n I adj. bright, shining $hite $urun8r ()Fn GT/791 c
The $ord is deduced !ro" its "utated !or", but it is
$orth "entioning that a ste" C-/d. LbrightL, $ith
glan LdaylightL 2and later LclearL4 as deri)ati)e, is listed
in the ,tymologies 2not included in the published te=t,
but see HT/NM3674. %ost o! the $ords "eaning L$hiteL
in the Indo-Eureopean languages co"e !ro" the
original notion o! LbrightnessL, e.g. Creek leukGs
L$hiteL is cognate $ith /atin lucere Lto shineL, lu#
LlightL. This association o! sense is also !ound in
Cno"ish, E/66379 2glan Lclean, pureL, !ro" LbrightL
originally4 and in Early .oldorin 2E/6736NN, glann
LcleanL4. The si"ilarity $ith ?elsh glan 2$here the
)o$el, incidentally, is also long, though this is
concealed by ?elsh orthographic con)ention4 is also
striking
gl&n II n. he", border 2of te#tile and other hand-made
things4 HT/N03;
glanas n.abst.of gl&n I purity, by e#t. innocence
42
gland 2glann *.4 n. boundary <landuin, <lanh8r GT/0<N,
GT/76;, GT/NN6, HT/N03;, Q/.D6
glandagol n. boundary "ark HT/N03;,0; glandKtagol
glass n. +oy Ety/7M:
D glast n. "arble
glaur n. golden light 2of the golden tree )aurelin4
Ety/7M;, Ety/7<;
@glavra- v. to babble Ety/7M;
glavrol part. of glavra-, babbling Ety/7M;
glaw n. radiance Ety/7<0
glawar n. sunlight, radiance 2of the golden tree )aurelin4
Ety/7<;, HT/NM36M
gleina- v. to bound, enclose, li"it HT/N03;, HT/N030; c
This entry should perhaps read gleinia-, c!. HT/N030;,
note 67
gl n. honey Ety/7<9
gln 2glnn *.4 n. glea", glint 2usually of +ne slender but
bright shafts of light, particularly applied to light of
eyes4 ?J/77:, S/N76
gling n. "usic
glinga- v. to hang, dangle Ety/7M9, Ety/7<9, HT/NM36M,0:
glinnel n. El!, one o! the Teleri ?J/7:;, ?J/7;M
glind2LteleriL4Kel
glintha- v. to glance at ?J/77:
D glinui n. honey-bee 2glR-nui4
glr n. song, poe", lay Ety/7M9
glir- v. to sing, trill, to recite a poe" Ety/7M9, Ety/7<9,
HT/NM36M c The !or" glin in the ,tymologies is a
"isreading according to HT/NM36M
glist n. sugar
glithui adj. 2unkno$n "eaning4 GT/NN;, ?J/6;0, ?J/6;<
gloss adj. sno$-$hite, da''ling-$hite Ety/7M9, RCEF/:1,
HT/N036;
gl#dh n. soap Ety/7<9
go- 5N. gwa-/ pref. together Ety/799, ?J/7<:
gobel n. $alled house or )illage, to$n Ety/7;1

gobennas n. history Ety/7<< go-Kpennas
gobennathren adj. historical Ety/7<< gobennathK-
ren
gobeth n. sentence 2goKpeth, a $ord collection4
g%dhel n. LDeep El!L or LCno"eL, one o! the ?ise Oolk
?J/7<N, ?J/7:9 go2lodh4KXdhel, or FS @$edelo
g%dhelli" n. class pl. of g%dhel LDeep El)esL or
LCno"esL, the ?ise Oolk ?J/7<N gXdhelKri"
Agodre$ 2godrebh N.4 adv. through together T-I/6M1
go-Ktre-Kbe, FS @$otrebe, ,E @$o-tere-be 2T4
goe n. terror, great !ear %/7<7
goeol adj. dread!ul, terri!ying %/7<7
gohena- v. to !orgi)e 2with person forgiven as object74
HT/NN309 See also dihena-
golas n. !oliage, collection o! lea)es
gol$ n. branch 2o! a tree, or plant4 Ety/7M9
goll 2ngoll4 adj. $ise Ety/7::
gollor 2ngollor4 n. "agician Ety/7::
golodh 2ngolodh4 n. sage, lore-"aster. In older Sindarin
this re!erred to a LDeep El!L or LCno"eL, one o! the
?ise Oolk 2.oldor4 Ety/7::, S/N76, ?J/7<N
golodhri" 2ngolodhri"4 n.class pl. of golodh Deep
El)es, Cno"es Ety/7::, ?J/707 golodhKri"
goloth 2N. gwaloth4 n. inSorescence, a head o! s"all
So$ers HT/N036;
golovir 2ngolovir, golodhvir N.4 n. Sil"aril Ety/7:7
golodhK"Rr Lfoldo-+e$elL see also silevril, "irion
goltha- 2ngoltha-4 v. to teach
golwen 2ngolwen4 adj. $ise, learned in deep arts
Ety/7::
gonathra- v. to entangle, en"esh Ety/7:M
gonathras n.abst of gonathra-, entangle"ent Ety/7:M
gond 2gonn N.4 n. great stone, rock Ety/7M9, S/N76,
Q/.D6
gondra$n/gondra" n. he$n stone Ety/7MN
@gondren adj. 2"ade4 o! stone 'oll-ondren TI/0<;,
TI/0;:
44
gonod- v. to count, count up, reckon, su" up Ety/7:;,
Ety/799, HT/N<3<
gonodlaeras n. "athe"atics 2gonod-KlaerKas4
gor- v. to $arn, counsel
gorbedui adj. only to be said $ith horror 2E/6:4
gor$ n. i"petus, )igour Ety/7M9
gorgor 2ngorgor4 n. e=tre"e horror, terror, haunting !ear
?J/N6M, R,/77N-77M
gorn adj. i"petuous Ety/7M9
gorog 2ngorog4 n. horror ?J/N6M
goroth 2ngoroth4 n. horror Ety/7::
gorth 2ngorth4 I n. horror ?J/N6M
@gorth II n. a dead person B9aith CD Aui (Ngorthrim
R,/M0<, gyrth /etters/N6:
gorthad 2ngorthad4 n. barro$ /otR/-2iii4, %/69N
gorthK-sad Lplace o! the deadL
gortheb 2ngortheb4 adj. horrible ?J/N6M
@gorthri" n. class pl. of gorth II, the dead B9aith CD
Aui (Ngorthrim R,/M0<
gost n. dread Ety/7M9
gosta- v. to !ear e=ceedingly Ety/7M9
gowest n. contract, co"pact, treaty Ety/79:, Ety/799
go-Kg$est
graw n. bear HT/N:360 See also brog
groga- v. to !eel terror ?J/N6M
grond n.Mil. club Ety/7;N, Q/.D6
groth 2ngroth4 n. 1. ca)e, tunnel, large e=ca)ation 2.
del)ing, underground d$elling ?J/N6M, S/N76,
HT/N<360
gruin adj. ruddy Ety/7;N
gruitha- v. to terri!y ?J/N6M
@g#d 2ng#d4 n. !oe 'huringud ?J/0M<
g#l 2g#l4 n. 1. "agic lore, long study 2being used mostly of
secret knowledge, especially such as possessed by
arti+cers who made wonderful things4 2.by e#t.,
per)erted or e)il kno$ledge, sorcery, necro"ancy
Ety/7::, S/N70, %R/7M1, ?J/7;7

guldur 2nguldur4 n. 2dark4 sorcery gUlKdUr
g#r I n. heart 2in the moral sense4, counsel HT/N6366,6M
g#r 2ng#r4 II n. death Ety/7::
guren n. "y heart HT/N6366 c -pparently the $ord g#r
I $ith a su#i=ed possessi)e. See la""en !or a si"ilar
!or" gUrK-en
3ur$annor n. one o! the na"es gi)en to the Hala %andos
gurth/guruth 2ngurth, nguruth4 n. death S/N70,
GT/79, GT/MN Ety/7::
@guruthos 2nguruthos4 n. the shado$ o! death, death-
horror di-nguruthos /otR/IH3Q, RCEF/:0, /etters/0:;
Agwachaedir 2gwahaedir N.4 n. seeing-stone, palantgr
<wahaedir %/6;< g$a-KhaeKtirn
gwador pl. gwedeir n.masc. brother 2especially used of
those not brothers by blood, but sworn brothers or
associates4 Ety/79N
@gwaeda- v. to en!old HT/N<306
gwaedh n. bond, troth, co"pact, oath Ety/79:
gwael n. gull ?J/N6; see also "aen, "l
gw&n adj. !air and pale 2E/6:4 see also bain
@gwaen adj. stained %garwaen S/7:;
gwaeren adj. $indy HT/N036M C$ae$K-ren
gwaeron n. %arch 2"onth4 /otR/D
gwaew n. $ind Ety/7;:
@gwain pl. @gwn adj. ne$ Narwain :NarvinyH; /otR/D,
,!. Ety/799
gwaith 2gweith N.4 n. 1. "anhood 2.by e#t., "an po$er,
troop o! able-bodied "en, host, regi"ent, people !.by
e#t., region, $ilderness Ety/79;, HT/N<306, Q/E6
gwaloth n. blosso", collection o! So$ers Ety/7:1,
HT/NM309 c This !or" replaced deleted goloth in the
"anuscript o! 'he ,tymologies, see HT/NM309. The
deleted !or" is ho$e)er also later attested in HT/N036;
?e "ust also consider that go- replaced gwa-. See
goloth
gwanath n. death 2act of dying, not death as a state or
abstract4 Ety/79:
46
gwann adj. departed, dead Ety/79:
@gwanna- v. to depart, !ade, die 2!or El)es4 Ety/79: See
also r-
gwanod n. tale, nu"ber Ety/7:;
Agwanu 2gwanw N.4 n. death 2act of dying, not death as a
state or abstract4 Ety/79:, Q/?
gwan#n n. a pair o! t$ins ?J/7<: See also gwanunig
gwanunig n.sing. of gwan#n, a t$in 2one of a pair of
twins4 ?J/7<:
gwanur n. 1. a pair o! t$ins 2. brother or kins"an,
kins$o"an Ety/7:;, Ety/790, HT/N<3<, /otR/-2i)4
gwarth n. betrayer Ety/79:
gwass n. stain Ety/79:
gwastar n. hu""ock Ety/7;;, Ety/799 g$a-KthZr
gwath n. 1. shade, shado$, di" light 2. stain Ety/79:,
S/N70c.
@gwatha- v. to soil, stain Ety/79:
gwathel n. fem. sister, associate Ety/790
gwathra- v. to o)ershado$, di", )eil, obscure HT/N039
gwathren adj. shado$y, di" ,red Iethrin S/N70,
HT/N039
@gwathui adj. shado$y <wathuirim %/771
gwathuiri" n.class pl. of gwathui The Dunlendings or
eople o! Dunland %/771 g$athuiKri" Lshado$y
peopleL
gwaun n. goose Ety/79:, Q/&
gwaur adj. soiled, dirty Ety/79:
gwedh n. bond Ety/79:
@gwedh- v. to bind Ety/79:, Q/.D6
D gwe$ n. louse
Agwelu 2gwelw N.4 n. air 2as substance4 Ety/79;, Q/?
gwelwen n. air, lo$er air 2distinct from the upper air of the
stars, or the outer4 Ety/79; g$eluK"en
gwend I n. bond, !riendship Ety/79:-79;, Q/.D6
gwend II 2gwenn N.4 n. f. "aiden Ety/79;, Q/.D6
gweneth n. )irginity Ety/79;

gwen,n n. pl. t$ins %/7M7, %/7<M See also gwan#n
@gweria- v. to betray, cheat Ety/79:
gwest n. oath Ety/79:
@gwesta- v. to s$ear Ety/79:
@gwethion der.pl. of gwath ,redwethion TI/7NM,
Ety/7:9, Ety/79:
gw n. net, $eb Ety/79;
D gwb n. penis
gwilith n. air 2as a region4 Ety/79;
gwilwileth n. 1. butterSy 2. the constellation ,assiopeia
Ety/79;
@gwn n. $ine, )ine Dorwinion /otR/%ap,
/8/66,0<,6:,660, /R/77N,77;, >/IQ c The $ine o! Dor-
?inion occurs in the )ay of the children of 1=rin and a
place located either in the Lburning SouthL in the Erst
)ersion, or probably east o! the 8lue %ountains in the
second. Then $e ha)e Dorwinion as a "eado$-land in
Tol EressVa at the end o! the Juenta *ilmarillion. It
reappears in 'he 1obbit, and $as Enally placed .orth-
?est o! the Sea o! RhUn in the decorated "ap by
auline 8aynes 2see >//66M-66: !or discussion4. The
"eaning o! this na"e is unkno$n and has been largely
discussed. ?hat do $e ha)e indeed in this L?inionL, or
rather gwinion since the initial $- "ust co"e !ro"
lenitionT -ccording to ,hristopher Tolkien, the )ay $as
begun c. 696; and $as co"posed during his !ather*s
stay at /eeds, a date "eaning that the $ord can be
Cno"ish, possibly Early .oldorin, or in an indigenous
language o! 8eleriand. In Cno"ish and later in
Doriathrin and Ilkorin, there is a geniti)e plural ending
-ion $hich "ay )ery $ell be contained in this $ord.
Then $e $ould seg"ent gwin-ion Lo! gwinL. The conte=t
calls !or L$ineL, L)ineL or so"ething si"ilar. It can
hardly be a coincidence that gwin is precisely the ?elsh
$ord !or L$ineL, a loan !ro" the /atin vinum, as the
English L$ineL itsel!c @gwinion *., N. der.pl.
gwing n. 1. spindri!t, Sying spray 2. !oa" 2properly a
4ying spume or spindrift blown oK wavetops4
Ety/79;, %/790
48
gwinig n.dim. Llittle babyL, play na"e o! the little Enger
HT/N;3<,6<-6:
@gwinion /and o! $ine Dorwinion /otR/%ap,
/8/66,0<,6:,660, /R/77N,77;, >/IQ
gwirith n. -pril 2"onth4 /otR/D, SD/609-76
D gwista- v. to be ignorant

6
ha N. pl. hain Doriathrin pron. 6rd it Ety/7;M, /otR/II3IH,
Q/EI
hab- v. to clothe Ety/7<7
habad n. shoe Ety/7;<, HT/Errata, Q/EI c The "eaning
LshoreL in Ety/7;< should actually read LshoeL, see
HT/Errata and /a"bengol"or/:7M.
D hach n. ha"s, buttocks
@had- v. to hurl Ety/7<7
h&dh n.%rch.&oet. 2T4 clea)er Ety/7;9
hadhod n. D$ar! ?J/7;;, ?J/N6N
hadhodri" n. class pl. of hadhod the D$ar)es 2as a race4
?J/7;; hadhodKri"
hadlath 2haglath N.4 n.Mil. sling Ety/7<7, Ety/7<;, Q/T/
hador n.Mil. thro$er 2of spears and darts4 Ety/7<7,
?J/07N
hadron n.masc.Mil. thro$er 2of spears and darts4
Ety/7<7
hae adj. !ar, re"ote, distant <wahaedir %/6;<,
HT/NM306
6aerast n. the Oar Shore, the east coast o! -"an E/6:
haered n. re"ote distance, the re"ote na-chaered
/otR/II3I, RCEF/:0c chaered *. soft mut.
haeron adj. !ar, re"ote, distant %/0:7
haew n. custo", habit Ety/7<N, HT/NM300
ha$- v. to sit HT/NM301
Ahair n. and adj. le!t 2hand4 Ety/7<M, Q/EI
h&l n. Esh HT/NM301 See also li" III
@hal- v. to li!t HT/NM301
hal$ n. seashell Ety/7;9
hall I adj. e=alted, high Ety/7<7
hall II adj. )eiled, hidden, shado$ed, shady Ety/7;<
hallas n.abst.of hall I height
haltha- v. to screen Ety/7;<
ha" n. chair HT/NM301
50
ha""a- v. to clothe Ety/7<7, HT/NM306 c The !or"
hamnia- in the ,tymologies is a "isreading according to
HT/NM306
ha""ad n. clothing 2gerund o! ha""a-4
ha"p n. gar"ent Ety/7<7
hanar n.masc.%rch. brother HT/N:36N
hand adj. intelligent Ety/7<7, Q/.D6
hanna- v. to thank
hannas n. abst. of hand, understanding, intelligence
Ety/7<7
hannweg adj. thank!ul
harad n. south Ety/7<M, S/N70, /otR/E
haradren adj. southern Ety/7<M
haradri" n. class pl. of harad, southerners, LSouthronsL
/otR haradKri"
D haran n.num.card. one hundred 2to the Condorians4
harga" n. le!t-handed Ety/7<M
harn I adj. southern Ety/7<M
harn II adj. $ounded Ety/7;<
harn III n.Mil. hel"et HT/NM306
@harna- v. to $ound Ety/7;<
@hartha- v. to hope 1arthad SD/<0
Aharu 2harw N.4 n. $ound Ety/7;<, Q/?
harvo n. 1. le!t hand 2.by e#t., le!t side HT/N:3< har-
)a$, har-K"a$
hast n. a=e-stroke Ety/7;9
@hasta- v. to hack through Ety/7;9
hathol 2hathel N., @hathal N.4 n. 1.Mil. broads$ord-blade,
a=e-blade 2.Mil.by e#t., a=e Ety/7;9, ?J/07N,
GT/NNN, /R/N77
haudh n. 2burial4 "ound, gra)e, to"b Ety/7<7-7<N,
S/N70, /otR/-2i)4
haust n. bed Ety/7<N LrestingL
hawn n. masc.%rch. brother HT/N:36N.
he N. pl. hn N. Doriathrin.pron. 6rd f. she Ety/7;M

@heb- v. to retain, keep, do not gi)e a$ay or release, keep
hold o! *khep HT/N63<
@hebin v. pres. 1st of heb-, I keep, I ha)e kept =-chebin
/otR/-2)4, HT/N63< c 8ecause o! the "utation triggered
by the Erst person prono"inal ending, it is i"possible
to guess $hether the ste" o! this should be heb-, *hab-
or *hob-. The root L1,& listed in HT/N63< apparently
i"plies that heb- is the correct !or"
hel- v. to !ree'e 2E/6:4
helch n. bitter cold Ety/7<N
heledh n. glass S/N77
heledir n. kingEsher 2bird4 Ety/7<7, Ety/7;<, Ety/79N
LEsh-$atcherL
heleg n. ice Ety/7<N
helegren adj. icy 2helegK-ren4
heleth n. !ur, !ur-coat Ety/7;<
hel$ n. !ur Ety/7;<
D helin n. pansy
D helinil n. )iolet
hell adj. naked Ety/7;<
6elluin n. Sirius, a blue star
heltha- v. to strip Ety/7;<, HT/N<36N c The !or" helta- in
the ,tymologies is a "isreading according to HT/N<36N
h0n I pl. hn n. child 2mostly used as a pre+# in
patronymics or metronymics4 ?J/N17
hen II pl. Ahin n. eye Ety/7<N, /otR/II3IQ, ?R/60;,
Q/.D6 c See also hent
@heneb adj. o! eye, eyed, ha)ing eyes maecheneb
Lsharp-eyedL, ?J/77:
@henia- v. to understand Ety/7<7
henna- v. to read 2silently, to onesel!4 see also tengwa-
henneth n. $indo$ S/N0;
hent n.dual pl. of hen II, the t$o eyes 2referring to one
person(s eyes4 HT/NM300
her- v. to pray
@herdir n. masc. "aster i-$herdir SD/609-76 hRrKdRr
52
@heria- v. to begin suddenly and )igorously Ety/7<N,
HT/NM300 c The !or"s heno, hMno in the ,tymologies
are "isreadings according to HT/NM300
heron n. masc. "aster HT/NM300
herth n.Mil. household, troop under a LhRrL 2"aster, lord4
Ety/7<N
hervenn 2herven N.4 n. masc. husband Ety/7M0,
Ety/7<N, Q/.DN hRrKbenn
hervess 2herves N.4 n. fem. $i!e Ety/7M0, Ety/7<N
hRrKbess
@her,n n. fem. lady 9oheryn S/N7< hRrKdR
hest n. captain
Ahethu 2hethw N.4 adj. !oggy, obscure, )ague Ety/7<N,
Q/?
@hl n. heir ,luch8l %/7<9
hi" I adj. 1. stead!ast, abiding 2.as an adverb,
continually Ety/7<N
hi" II adj. cool S/N70
hir- v. to End
hr n. masc. "aster, lord Ety/7<N, S/N70, SD/609-76,
/etters/7;0, /8/7MN, HT/NM300
hiril n. fem. lady Ety/7<N
hth 2hith N.4 n. "ist, !og Ety/7<N, S/N70
hithlain n. "ist-thread 2a substance used by the ,lves of
)othlGrien to make strong ropes4 /otR/II3HIII,
/otR/Inde= hRthKlain
Ahithu 2hithw N.4 n. !og Ety/7<N, Q/?
hithui n. and adj. 1. !oggy, "isty 2.$al.as a noun, the
"onth o! .o)e"ber /otR/D
hw adj. sticky, )iscous Ety/7<N
ho pl. Ah,n Doriathrin pron. 6rd m. he Ety/7;M, Q/&
D h* n. o$l
hobas n. harbourage Ety/7<N abst. of h#b
hol- v. to close
hollen pp. closed Aen 1ollen /otR/H3IH, R,/MM1

honeg n.masc. dim. of hawn, 1. Llitte brotherL, play na"e
gi)en to the "iddle Enger HT/N;3<,6<-6: c Ci)en as
honig in HT/N:36N, but see HT/N;36: n. 67 !or discussion
horn adj. dri)en under co"pulsion, i"pelled Ety/7<N
hortha- v. to urge on, speed Ety/7<N
host n. gross 26NN4 Ety/7<N
hoth n. host, cro$d, horde 2nearly always in a bad sense4
Ety/7<N, S/N70
h# n. dog Ety/7<N
h#b n. ha)en, harbour, s"all land-locked bay Ety/7<Nc
hobas N. n. abst.
h#d n. asse"bly Ety/7<N
huia- v. to urge on
D huith n. se= 2intercourse4
h#l n. cry o! encourage"ent in battle Ety/7;<
h#n n. heart 2physical4 Ety/7<N
huorn n. tree, $ith a spirit or heart
h#r n. readiness !or action, )igour, Eery spirit Ety/7<N
hw7 n. bree'e 2E/6:4
hwand 2chwand N., chwann N.4 n. sponge, !ungus
Ety/7;;, Q/.D6, Q/>?
Ahwest 2chwest N.4 n. pu#, breath, bree'e Ety/7;;,
Q/>?
Ahwn 2chwn N.4 n. giddiness, !aintness Ety/7;;, Q/>?
Ahwind 2chwind N., chwinn N.4 adj. t$irling, $hirling
Ety/7;;, Q/.D6, Q/>?
Ahwinia- v. to t$irl, $hirl, eddy Ety/7;;
Ahwiniol part. of hwinia-, $hirling, giddy, !antastic
Ety/7;;
54
I
i pl. in art. and pron. rel. 1. the 2. $ho/that/$hich/$ho"
Ety/7<6, SD/609-76, /etters/71;, /etters/N6:
i& 2ia N.4 n. 1. gul! 2. abyss, )oid Ety/N11, S/N70,
/etters/7;7
@iach n. !ord, crossing %rossiach S/7;0, .rithiach S/0;<,
$irith Ninniach S/7;:
iaeth n. neck Ety/N11
iaew n. "ocking, scorn Ety/N11
ia$ n. !ruit
iag- v. to ya$n, gape 2E/6:4
ial n. 2T4 a call, 2T4 a cry HT/N<300
ialla- v. to call HT/N<300
iant n. bridge Ety/N11, S/N70
Aianu **. 2ianw N.4 n. 2T4 yoke Ety/N11, Q/? c It
originally "eant LbridgeL in the ,tymologies, but $as
apparently s$itched $ith iant
i&r N. n. blood Ety/N11 See also sereg
iarwain adj. old-young :that is old, but yet still very
vigorous; /otR/II3II, R,/60; c El)ish na"e o! To"
8o"badil, rendered as LoldestL in /otR, $hich "ade
so"e people interpret this $ord as a superlati)e !or"
2o! iaur4. >o$e)er this theory $as later contro)ersed.
?hile no other superlati)es in *-wain are kno$n,
einior, attested in %/7M; 2$here it is rendered as
LeldestL4, "akes a "uch better candidate !or a
superlati)e construct 2concei)ably built !ro" the
intensi)e preE= an- and iaur shortened in Enal position4.
%oreo)er, co"paring iarwain to narwain, 8ertrand
8ellet noted in /a"bengol"or/<N0 that iarwain could
as $ell be interpreted as an old co"pound construct, o!
the pri"iti)e *jFra 2B. y/ra, S. iaur4 and *winjF 2B.
vinya, S. gwain4. >e thus suggested that iarwain could
actually "ean Lold-ne$L. This analysis $as a!ter$ards
conEr"ed by R,/60;, Puoting a 2yet4 unpublished dra!t
letter !ro" Tolkien dated !ro" 69<;, $hich states3
LIar$ain I old-young, presu"ably as !ar as anybody

re"e"bered, he had al$ays looked "uch the sa"e, old
but )ery )igorousL iaurK@g$ain
ias conj. $here
i&th 2iath *.4 n. !ence S/N77, ?J/7:1, ?J/7:;
iathri" n.class pl. of i&th, El)es o! Doriath ?J/7:;
iZthKri"
iau I pl. iui n. corn Ety/799c see also iavas
iau II n. ra)ine, cle!t, gul! Ety/N11, HT/N<300
iaul n. cat
iaun n. holy place, !ane, sanctuary Ety/N11 B yYna
iaur adj. 1. ancient, old, original 2. older, !or"er
Ety/7M;, Ety/799, S/N77, GT/7;N
iavas n.abst of iau I, season o! autu"n /otR/D
d adj. rare 2E/6:4
idh n. s"all Sy
dh n. rest, repose ?J/N17
Aidhor n. thought!ulness Ety/7<6, Q/&
idhra- v. to ponder
dhra- v. to desire 2E/6:4
idhren adj. pondering, $ise, thought!ul Ety/7<6
Aidhrinn 2idhrind N., idhrin N.4 n. year Ety/7;7,
Ety/N11, Q/.DN RnKrind
D idra- v. to )alue, pri'e
iell n.fem. 1. daughter 2. girl, "aid Ety/7;M, Ety/N11 c
Stated to be an alteration o! sell, re"odelled a!ter ion
LsonL 2FS @+ondo4. It $as La change assisted by the loss
o! s in co"pounds and patrony"icsL, hence the ending
-iel in se)eral !e"inine $ords
iest n. $ish Ety/N11
iesta- v. to $ish
ilaurui adj. daily HT/NN306,0;
i" I imperative. re4e#ive. pron. 1st I, "ysel! /otR/II3IH,
/8/7MN, HT/N:36N,7:-7; c In late $ritings 2see esp.
HT/N:37:-7;4, Tolkien reinterpreted this !or" as a
reSe=i)e pronoun 2I Lsel!L4.
56
i" II 2i"" N., i"b N.4 n.%rch. dell, deep )ale imlad,
imloth, imrath, imrad, HT/NM36;, HT/N:36N c This $ord
only sur)i)ed in co"pounds 2due to the clash $ith i" I4
i"lad n. deep )alley, narro$ )alley $ith steep sides 2but a
4at habitable bottom4 S/N77, /otR/Inde=, HT/NM36;,
HT/N:36N, R,/07N,N;0 i"Klad
i"ladris n. Ri)endell, *cle!t-)alley*, the ho"e o! Elrond
i"loth n. So$er-)alley, So$ery )ale /otR/H3HIII,
HT/N036;, R,/M;0 c This $ord only occurs in the place
na"e Nmloth Melui, a )ale $here roses gre$ i"Kloth
i"p adj. num. card. t$el)e E/6:39M
i"rad n. a path or pass 2between mountains, hills or
trackless forest4 HT/N:36N i"KrZd
i"rath n. long narro$ )alley $ith a road or $atercourse
running through it length$ise GT/N<M, R,/MM;
i"Krath
i"u adj. sa"e, identical 2i"K-ya4
n I adj. poss. re4e#ive o$n 2referring to the subject4
SD/609-76
n II n. year Ety/N11c nias N. n. abst.
inc n. guess, idea, notion Ety/7<6
ind 2inn N.4 n. inner thought, "eaning, heart Ety/7<6,
Q/.D6 See also innas
inde"" n. )ision 2"ind picture4 indKe"" 2E/6:4
ing n. i"agination
inge" adj. old 2of person, in mortal senseO decrepit,
suKering from old age4 Ety/7M;, Ety/799, Ety/N11 c
.e$ $ord coined by the El)es a!ter "eeting $ith %en
RnKge" Lyear-sickL
D ingwil n. eel
nias n.abst.of n II, annals Ety/N11
inil n. lily
innas n.abst.of ind, $ill HT/NN306,0<
Ainu 2inw N.4 adj. !e"ale Ety/7<6, Q/? %S @in$
2re!or"ed a!ter ,S anu, %S @an$4
io 2ia N.4 adv. ago Ety/799
D iol n. la"b

@i*l n. $ash, Sood-$ater 5nodiPl R,/77N, HT/N;377
ion/i*n 2Aiond **., ionn N.4 n. m. 1. son 2.by e#t., scion,
"ale descendant Ety/N11, %R/7:7, Q/.D6, Q/.D0 c
Oor the second "eaning, c!. 1adorion, a >Wrin*s epithet
in ?J/09N, 1urinionath re!erring to the house o! >Wrin
the Ste$ard in %/010-7,06;, and Cil-Calad*s epithet
,reinion, c!. also the gloss o! the old Benya cognate
yondo Ldescendant o!L in E/60361<, or the use o! the
sa"e su#i= in later Buenya na"es such as Nsildurioni
and %n/rioni L>eirs o! Isildur 2resp. -nYrion4L in
%/690,69<
ionnath n.coll.of ion, all the sons SD/609-76
Aiphant 2i$ant N.4 adj. aged, ha)ing li)ed long, old 2with no
connotation of weakness4 Ety/7M;, Ety/N11,
HT/N<307, Q/> RnKpant Lyear-!ullL
ir conj. $hen/$hile /8/7MN c This $ord is not translated
by Tolkien
r n. se=ual desire HT/N<307
rui adj. desirable
ist n. lore, kno$ledge Ety/7<6
@ista- v. to ha)e kno$ledge Ety/7<6, HT/NM36; This )erb
has an irregular past tense
istui adj. learned Ety/7<6
ithil n. the 2!ull4 %oon, lit. *The Sheen* Ety/7<6, Ety/7;M,
Ety/790, /otR/E, /8/7MN, R,/070
ithildin n. a sil)er-colored substance, $hich "irrors only
starlight and "oonlight /otR/II3IH ithilKtinu
L"oon-starL
ithron n. $i'ard GT/NN;, /etters/NN;
iuith n. use Ety/N11
@iuitha- v. to e"ploy, to use Ety/N11, HT/N<307 c The
gloss $as hardly legible and ,hristopher Tolkien read
Lto en+oyL in Ety/N11, but the "eaning Lto e"ployL,
"uch "ore probable 2,!. iuith4, $as later conEr"ed in
HT/NM307
i#l n. e"bers Ety/N11 c The $ord is classed as Fld
.oldorin 2F.4 in the ,tymologies, but rather see"s to
be .oldorin
58
ivann n. a Sindarin !or" o! the na"e o! the Hala [a)anna
ivanneth n. Septe"ber 2"onth4 /otR/D
@ivor n. 2T4 crystal Nvorwen /otR/-2)4 2T4 %S @ir, FS
@i"re 2I-%IR, aug"ented !or" o! "Rr L+e$elL4
@ivren adj. 2T4 o! crystal, crystalline S/790, ?J/;M c The
reading ,ithel Nvrin in S/790 see"s erroneous and
should probably be corrected into the plural ,ithil Nvrin
as in ?J/;M, unless Nvrin is actually a proper noun
2,ithil Nvrin is also rendered as LI)rin*s ?ellL, see
?J/6794. The "eaning is interpolated !ro" the
description o! this place in )arious sources3 *crystal
!ountains* 2)ay of 1=rin, )erse 6M0<4, *reSecting their
pallid !aces* 2ibid., )erse 06::4, *glassy pools* 2)ay of
)eithian, )erses 6970-69N14 FS @i"rinh 2T4 2i-%IR4

8
@laba- v. to hop )abadal GT/<1 c This entry is
interpolated !ro" Sador*s nickna"e, )abadal, $hich is
rendered as L>opa!ootL in the te=t
laboth n. hare, rabbit
D labu" n. dru"
Alach 2lhach N.4 n. 2leaping4 Sa"e S/N77, Q//>
@lacha- v. to Sa"e c lacho *. v. imp.
Alachenn n. Deep El! 2*indarin name for the Qoldor4
?J/7;N, Q/.DN lachKhend LSa"e-eyedL
lad n. plain, )alley S/N77
Aladen 2lhaden N.4 adj. open, cleared Ety/7<;, Q//>
Alae 2lhae N.4 n. great nu"ber HT/NM30:, Q//>
Alaeb 2lhaeb N., lhoeb N.4 adj. !resh Ety/7<;, HT/NM30<,
Q/FE, Q//>
Alaeg I 2lhaeg N., lhoeg N.4 adj. keen, sharp, acute
Ety/7<:, HT/NM30M, Q/FE, Q//>
laeg II adj. L)iridisL, !resh and green /etters/0;0,
/etters/7;0 c Seldo" used 2replaced by calen4
laegnas n.abst.of laeg I sharpness, keenness
laegel n. a Creen El! ?J/7;M laegK-el
laegri" n. class pl. of laegel, the people o! the Creen
El)es ?J/7;M laegelKri"
laer I n. season o! su""er /otR/D
laer II 2lhaer N.4 n. song, long lay )aer $= .eleg S/N1<,
HT/NM30;, Q//>
Alaes 2lhaes N.4 n. baby Ety/7<:, Q//>
Alaew 2lhaew N.4 adj. !rePuent, "any HT/NM30:, Q//>
Alagor 2lhagr N.4pl.Alegrin **. 2lhegrin N.4 adj. s$i!t,
rapid Ety/7<:, HT/NM30M, Teng$estie/011M176;, Q//>
c The !or" lhegin in the published ,tymologies "ight
be a "isreading !or lhegrin, see HT/NM30M. -s noted by
8ertrand 8ellet, the t$o !or"s are listed side by side,
and they "ay si"ply be doublets, but it is also possible
that $e ha)e here a singular !ollo$ed by its plural.
Alain I 2lhein N., lhain N.4 adj. !ree, !reed Ety/7<;,
Q//>
60
@lain II n. thread hithlain /otR/II3HIII, /otR/Inde=
lalaith n. laughter S/N1< %S @lalei, B lala- LlaughL
lal$ pl. lel$ n. el"-tree Ety/7N;
Alalorn n. el"-tree Ety/7<:, Q//> lal!Korn
lalven n. el"-tree Ety/7N;
Alalwen 2lhalwen N.4 n. el"-tree Ety/7<:, Q//>
la" I 2lha"b N., lha" N.4 n. physical tongue Ety/7<:,
?J/79N, Q//>
la" II n. language ?J/79Nc la""as *. n. abst.
la"ath n.coll. of la" I, echoing )oices %/7N9
la""ad n. )oice
la""as 2lha""as N.4 n. abst. of la" II, account o!
tongues /R/6<:, ?J/01<, ?J/797, Q//>
la""en n. "y tongue /otR/II3IH c There $as a long
contro)erse bet$een linguists, as to kno$ $hether this
!or" $as an ad+ecti)e 2Lo! the tongue, related to the
tongueL4 or the $ord la" I $ith a su#i=ed possessi)e
2L"yL4. See guren !or a si"ilar !or"
lanc I n. naked GT/N6;
Alanc II 2lhanc N.4 n. throat Ety/7<:, Q//>
lanc III n. sharp edge 2not of tools4, sudden end 2as a cliK-
edge, or the clean edge of things made by hand or built4
HT/N03;
Aland I 2lhand N.4 adj. open space, le)el Ety/7<;, Q//>,
Q/.D6
land II 2lhand N., lhann N.4 adj. $ide, broad )androval
/otR/HI3IH, Ety/7<:, Q//>, Q/.D6
Alang 2lhang N.4 n.Mil. cutlass, s$ord Ety/7<:, Q//>
Alant I 2lhant N.4 n. clearing in !orest Ety/7<;, Q//>
@lant II. n. !all )anthir S/N1<, %/7N9 B lanta
lanthir n. $ater!all S/N1<, %/7N9 lantKsRr L!alling
strea"L
D lar n. !at, grease
lar- v. to hear
Alasbelin 2lhasbelin N.4 n. season o! autu"n Ety/7<<-
7<:, Q//> lassKpelin Llea! $itheringL

lass 2lhass N.4 n. lea! Ety/7<:, /etters/0;0, T,/6<9,
Q//>
@lasta- v. to listen
Alath 2lhath N.4 n. 2T4 thong o! leather Ety/7<;, Q//>
Alathra- 2@lhathra- N.4 v. to listen in, ea)esdrop Ety/7<;,
Q//>
Alathrada- 2lhathrada- N.4 v. to listen in, ea)esdrop
Ety/7<;, Q//>
Alathron 2lhathron N.4 n. hearer, listener, ea)esdropper
Ety/7<;, Q//>
laub n. shirt, tunic
Alaug 2lhaug N.4 adj. $ar" Ety/7<;, Q//>
lausta- v. to "ake a rushing, roaring noise 2generally o!
$ind4
Alav- 2@lha$- N.4 v. to lick Ety/7<:, Q//>
lavan n. ani"al 2usually applied to four-footed beasts, and
never to reptiles or birds4 ?J/7;;, ?J/N6<
Alaws 2lhaws N.4 n. hair ringlet Ety/7:1, Q//>
le pron. Rnd to thee 2reverential4 /otR/II3I, /otR/IH3Q,
RCEF/:0-:7, /etters/0:;, /8/7MN
lebdas n. inde= Enger HT/N;3M
leben 2lheben N.4 adj. num. card. E)e Ety/7<;, T-I/6M1,
HT/N030N-0M, HT/N:361, HT/N:30N, HT/N;3<, Q//>
lebenedh n. "iddle Enger HT/N;3M
lebent n. ring Enger HT/N;3M
leber n. Enger HT/N:361,07-0N, HT/N;3M Replaced lebed
lebethron n. a tree - a black Condorian hard-$ood 2gro$n
in Ithilien4 that $as used by the $ood$rights o! Condor
/otR/IH3HII, /otR/HI3H, ?R/6:< c In the original
"anuscript, one o! the earlier 2re+ected4 !or" o! this
na"e $as lebendron. Didier ?illis proposed the
ety"ology lebedKdoron LEnger-oakL, actually a real
tree na"e 2Oinger Fak or Juercus digitata4
lebig n.dim. little Enger HT/N;3M,6M
lebthil n. pentagon *E)e points*
ledh- v. to tra)el, +ourney
62
Ale$nar 2lhevnar N.4 n. $eek 2of +ve days4 HT/NM30:,
Q//>, Q/&
le$nui/le"ui adj. num. ord. E!th ?R/N7<, HT/N030M,
TI/760
leithia- v. to release Ety/7<;, Q//>
leithian 2lheithian N.4 n. release, !reeing, release !ro"
bondage Ety/7<;, S/N1<, Q//>
le"bas n. +ourney bread "ade by the El)es %/N1N,
/otR/II3HIII lendKbass
@lend I n. +ourney lenn-mbas %/N1N, Q/.D6
Alend II 2lhend N.4 adj. tune!ul, s$eet Ety/7<9, Q//>,
Q/.D6
lendren adj. tune!ully, s$eetly 2lendK-ren4
lest n. girdle ?J/777, ?J/00M, ?J/00;
Alethril 2lhethril N.4 n. fem. hearer, listener, ea)esdropper
HT/NM30<, Q//>
leutha- v. to pick up or out 2with the +ngers4
HT/N:361,07
leweg n. $or" 2!ro" the garden4 2E/6:4
Alhaew II 2thlaew N., thloew N., 2aew N.4 adj. sickly,
sick, ill Ety/7;<, Q/FE, Q//>
Alhain 2thlein N.4 adj. lean, thin, "eagre Ety/7;<, Q//>
lhaw n.pl. ears 2referring to one person(s pair of ears only4
Ety/7<;, /otR/II3IQ FS See also lhewig
Alh0 2thl0 N.4 n. Ene thread, spider Ela"ent Ety/7;<,
Q//>
lhewig n.sing. of lhaw, ear Ety/7<;, /otR/II3IQ lha$K-
ig
lhewigor$ n. earring, *lhe$igKcor!*
Alhind 2thlind N., thlinn N.4 adj. Ene, slender Ety/7;<,
Q//>, Q/.D6
Alhing 2thling N.4 n. spider, spider*s $eb, cob$eb
Ety/7;<, Q//>
Alhingril 2thlingril N.4 n. spider Ety/7;<, Q//>
Alhw 22iw N., thliw N.4 n. sickness Ety/7;<, Q//>
lhoer n. )eno" 2E/6:4

Alhoss 22oss N., thloss N.4 n. $hisper or rustling sound
Ety/7;<, Q//>
lh#g n. snake, serpent Ety/7:1, S/N7N
lh#n adj. 2unkno$n "eaning4 Ety/7:1, HT/N;30N-09 c
This $ord, $hich also appears on the "ap o! %iddle-
earth in /otR, is glossed as LblueL in 'he ,tymologies,
but Tolkien later re+ected this "eaning 2as luin $as
already used in that sense4. >e then proposed se)eral
e=planations !or it, including the possible adaptation o!
a D$ar)ish na"e into Sindarin, but he apparently ne)er
reached a deEniti)e solution.
lhussa- v. to $hisper 2S/GS, B lussa-4
@li$ n. link molif Lhand-linkL HT/N:3<
lig"ae n. candle
lilth n. dance
liltha- v. to dance
li" I adv. s$i!t, s$i!tly noro lim /otR/I3QII, RS/69<,
R,/69M c Gntranslated in /otR, but $ritten nora-lim
and rendered as Lride onL in RS/69< 2not a literal
translation4 and later translated as Lrun s$i!tL in
R,/69M. 8e!ore the latter $as published 2conEr"ing the
e=act translation o! this ad)erb4, >elios de Rosario
%artine' had pro)ided a thorough analysis o! this $ord
in his article L%usings on )imlightL
2Teng$estie/011M161:4
li" II adj. clear, sparkling, light ?J/77:
Ali" III 2lhi" N., lhi"b N.4 n. Esh Ety/7<9, Q//> See
also h&l
Ali"lug 2lhi"lug N.4 n. Esh-dragon, sea-serpent
Ety/7:1, Q//> li"KlhUg
Ali""ida- v. to "oisten Ety/7<9, Q//>
Ali"p 2lhi"p N.4 adj. $et Ety/7<9, Q//>
li"raedor n. Esher"an
ln I adj. poss. Rnd thy 2reverential4 HT/NN306,0N
Aln II 2lhn N.4 n. pool Ety/7<9, Q//>
Alind 2lhind N., lhinn N.4 n. air, tune Ety/7<9, Q//>,
Q/.D6
D ling adj. purple
64
D lingui n. hyacinth
@liniath n. coll. of ln, pools 1ithliniath ?J/69N
@linna- v. to sing linnathon /otR/II3I
linnod n. 1. 2T4 a single )erse used as a "a=i" 2. 2T4 a
chant o! a certain "etrical type, $here each 2hal!-4)erse
is co"posed o! se)en syllables /otR/-2i)4 c The $ord
is not translated by Tolkien. The Erst "eaning assu"es
that -od is a singulati)e a#i= 2c!. ligod4. The second
"eaning is proposed by ,arl >ostetter and atrick
?ynne in 'olkien(s )egendarium p. 670, based on the
"etrical characteristics o! Cilraen*s linnod FST
@lindot- 2singulati)e4 or lind 2linn4 K od2og4 Lchant o!
se)enL
Alr I 2lhr N.4 n. ro$, range Ety/7<9, Q//>
Alr II 2lhr N.4 n. song, poe", lay HT/NM30;, Q//> It is
probable this is a "utated )ersion o! glr
@liria- v. to sing HT/NM30; see also linna-
lith n. ash, sand, dust Ety/7<9, S/N7N, T,/6:;
lithui adj. ashen, ashy, o! ash, ash-coloured, dusty
S/N7N, GT/N7M, RCEF/:N, T,/6:;, HT/N0361
l* n. shallo$ lake, !enland GT/0<7, HT/N03;-61
lobor n. horse, !or $orking HT/NM30; see also roch
Aloch 2lhoch N.4 n. ringlet Ety/7:1, Q//>
Aloda- 2lhoda- N.4 v. to Soat Ety/7:1, Q//>
loeg n. pool S/N1:, GT/NM1, /otR/%ap
loen adj. soaking $et, s$a"ped HT/N0361
Alo" 2lho" N.4 adj. $eary HT/NM309, Q//>
lond n. 1. narro$ path or strait 2. by e#t., entrance to
harbour, land-locked ha)en Ety/7N;, Ety/7:1, S/N7N,
GT/NM1, HT/N0361, Q//>, Q/.D6
Along 2lhong N.4 adj. hea)y Ety/7:1, Q//>
lonnath n. coll. of lond, ha)ens ?R/09N, ?R/7:1
Alorn 2lhorn N.4 n. 1. Puiet $ater 2. by e#t., anchorage,
harbour HT/NM309, Q//>
loss n. sno$ 2especially fallen or long-lying snow4 S/N7N,
HT/N036;, RCEF/:1
lossen adj. sno$y RCEF/:1

lossivor n. sno$Sake 2sno$-crystal4
8ossoth n. class pl. of loss, the Sno$"en /otR/-,
RCEF/:1 lossKhoth
Alost 2lhost N.4 adj. e"pty Ety/7:1, Q//>
losta- v. to sleep
loth 2lhoth N.4 n. So$er, inSorescence, a head o! s"all
So$ers Ety/7:1, /8/7MN, HT/N036;, Q//> c The noun
is collecti)e, a single So$er being lotheg
lotheg n.sing. of loth, 2single4 So$er HT/N036; loth K
-eg
D lothlas n. petal 2So$er-lea!4
lothod 2lhothod N.4 n. alt. sing. of loth, 2single4 So$er
HT/NM309, Q//> See lotheg
lothron n. the "onth o! %ay /otR/D
Al# 2lh# N.4 n. a ti"e, occasion Ety/7:1, Q//>
lguil n. li!eti"e 2lUKcuil4
8uien n. one o! the na"es gi)en to the Hala /Xrien
luin adj. blue /otR 2"isc.4, S/N7N, GT/791, Ety/7:1,
HT/N;30N
@luithia- v. to Puench uluithiad SD/<0
D l#l n. sapphire
Alu" 2lhu" N.4 n. shade Ety/7:1, Q//>
Alu"ren 2lhu"ren N.4 adj. shady Ety/7:1, Q//>
Alunt 2lhunt N.4 n. boat Ety/7:1, Q//>
Al#th 2lh#th N.4 n. spell, char" Ety/7:1, Q//>
Altha- 2lhtha- N.4 v. to enchant Ety/7:1, Q//>
lg n. snake /otR/E
66
9
"a interj. good
"&b n. a hand-!ull, co"plete hand 2with all +ve +ngers4
Ety/7:6, HT/NM370, HT/N:3<-:
"ab- v. to grasp
"aba- v. to take
@"ad- v. to eat Ety/7:6
D "adh n. "ud
"adweg adj. gluttonous 2E/6:4
"ae adv. $ell /otR/I3QII, /etters/71;
"aecheneb adj. sharp-eyed ?J/77: "aegKheneb
"aed I adj. shapely %/7<<, HT/N6361
"aed II 2"oed N.4 adj. handy, skilled, skil!ul Ety/7:6,
HT/N:3<, Q/FE
"aeda- v. to !eed 2%-IT-4
"aeg adj. sharp, piercing, penetrating, going deep in
so"ething S/N7N, ?J/77:
"aega- v. to knead, so!ten
"ael I 2h"ael N.4 n. and adj. 1. stain 2. stained
Ety/7;<
"ael II 2"oel N.4 n. lust Ety/7:7, Q/FE
"aelui 2"oelui N.4 adj. lust!ul Ety/7:7, Q/FE
"aen adj. skilled, cle)er Ety/7:6c "aenas N. n. abst.
"aenas n.abst.of "aen, cra!t Ety/7:6
"aer adj. use!ul, Et, good 2of things4 Ety/7:6
"aeras n.abst.of "aer goodness, use!ulness
"aeron n. "aker, a poet
"aeth n. battle, Eght 2not of general host but of two or a
few4 Ety/7:6
"aetha- I v. to Eght Ety/7:6
"aetha- II v. to handle, $ield, "anage, deal $ith
HT/N:3<
"aethor n. $arrior Ety/7:6
"aew n. gull Ety/7:7 see also gwael, "l
"&$ n. pile, "ass o! rock or earth 2E/6:4

"agol 2"agl N.4 n.Mil. s$ord Ety/7:6
"agor n.Mil. s$ords"an Menelvagor /otR/E, ?J/07N
"aidh 2"eidh N.4 adj. pale, !allo$, !a$n Ety/7:6, Q/EI
"ain adj. num. ord. Erst, 2only in the sense of4 pri"e,
chie!, pre-e"inent HT/N0361, HT/N030M
"&l 2"eil N., "el, N.4 n. pollen, yello$ po$der
Ety/7;<, Q/EI
"alen adj. yello$ Ety/7;<
"allen 2%rch. "althen N.4 adj. o! gold, golden Ety/7;<,
R,/<0M, HT/N<36N, Teng$estie/0117601:
D "aligon n. a"ber
"allorn 2%rch. "alhorn *., %rch. "althorn *.4 n. golden
tree o! /othlXrien S/N7M, /otR/II3IH, HT/N030:,
Teng$estie/0117601: "altKorn Ltree o! goldL
"allos n. a golden So$er GT/NM6, /etters/0N;
"altKlos LSo$er o! goldL
"aloglin n. da#odil 2E/6:4
"alt n. gold 2as metal4 Ety/7;<, HT/N<36N, HT/N030:,
Teng$estie/0117601:
A"alu 2"alw N.4 adj. !allo$, pale Ety/7;<, Q/?
"an interrogative. pron. $hatT T//06319
"&n n. departed spirit Ety/7:6
"anadh n. 1. doo", Enal end, !ate, !ortune 2.by e#t.
Enal bliss Ety/7:6
"anen interrogative. pron. ho$T
D "ang n. butter
"ann n. !ood HT/NM
"ar interrogative pron. $henT
"as interrogative. pron. $hereT
@"atha- v. to stroke, !eel, handle Ety/7:6
"auda- v. to rape, ra)ish
"aur n. gloo" Ety/7:7
"aw I n.%rch. hand HT/N:3<
"aw II 2h"aw N.4 n. soil, stain Ety/7;<, HT/N<36N
A"edli 2"egli N.4 n.Sool. bear Ety/7<9, Ety/7:6, Q/D/
"ad-KglR Lhoney-eaterL
68
A"edlin 2"eglin N.4 adj. honey-eater, bear-like Ety/7<9,
Q/D/
@"edui adj. last na vedui, %rvedui /otR/I3QII, /otR/-2i)4
"egil n.Mil. s$ord Ety/7:6 c The $ord $as struck out
in the ,tymologies, but is $ell attested in late
co"pounds such as Mormegil or %rvegil 2$ith regular
"utation4. It is concei)ably the Sindarini'ed !or" o!
Buenya makil, coe=isting $ith "agol 2see tegil and
tegol !or a si"ilar case4
@"egor adj. sharp-pointed *megr ?J/77:
"ela- v. to lo)e HT/NM37N
"elch adj. greedy Ety/7:7
"eldir n. masc. !riend Ety/7:0 "ellKdRr
"eldis n. fem. !riend Ety/7:0 "ellKdRs
"eleth n. lo)e Ety/7:0
"elethor n. lo)er
"elethril n. fem. lo)er Ety/7:0
"elethron n. masc. lo)er Ety/7:0
"ell adj. dear Ety/7:0
"ellon n. !riend Ety/7:0, /otR/II3IH, SD/609-76,
/etters/N0N
D "elph n. gooseberry
"eltha- v. to seduce
"elui adj. lo)ely, s$eet /otR/H3HIII, HT/N036;, R,/M;0 c
This $ord only occurs in the place na"e Nmloth Melui, a
)ale $here roses gre$
"e pron. 1st pl. us ammen /otR/II3IH, /8/7MN, tiro men
HT/NM37:
"en I n. $ay, road GT/0;6
"en- II v. to go
"eneg adj. num. card. thousand. Ci)en the El)en
duodeci"al syste" this properly "eans 6,:0;
Menegroth Lthousand ca)esL S/N19
"enel n. sky, high hea)en, Er"a"ent, the region o! the
stars /otR/II3I, /otR/IH3Q, /8/7MN, RCEF/:0,
HT/NN306,07-0N
"eneldaeg n. hori'on 2"enelKtaeg4

9enelvagor n. the constellation o! Frion, *sky s$ord*
@"enniath n. coll. of "ent, 1. "any points 2. by e#t.,
range o! "ountains Mornvenniath TI/60N,
/a"bengol"or/:99c
"ent n. point Ety/7:7
"entha- v. to send, cause to go
"eren adj. !esti)e, gay, +oyous Ety/7:0 c The $ord $as
changed to beren in the ,tymologies, but meren $ould
be restored together $ith "ereth
"ereth n. !east, !esti)al Ety/7:0, S/N7N c The $ord $as
changed to bereth in the ,tymologies, but $as ne)er
changed in the te=ts 2c!. %ereth -derthad and the
co"pound %erethrond4
"eril n. rose 2So$er4 SD/609-76
"erilin 2"rilind N.4 n. nightingale Ety/79N, Q/.DN
"arKlind,
"esg 2"esc N.4 adj. $et Ety/7:7
"eth n. end Ety/7:7
"ethed n. end GT/NM0
"ethen adj. end, Enal Ety/7:7, HT/NM37N
D "iaug n. to"cat
D "iaulin n. Pueen 2cat4
"ib- v. to kiss
"dh n. de$ Ety/7:7
"l n. lo)e, a#ection Ety/7:0
"ilbar n. dear ho"e, place returned to a!ter tra)elling,
place o! one*s birth 2E/6:4
"ilui adj. !riendly, lo)ing, kind Ety/7:0
"iluias n.abst.of "ilui !riendliness, kindliness
"i"p adj. num. card. ele)en E/6:39M
"in prep. in the 2referring to a gap, space, barrier or
anything intervening between two other things4
Minhiriath /otR/%ap, HT/N:366,6N
"n I pron.poss. 1st pl. our HT/NN306,00,0;
"n II 2"in *., N.4 adj. num. card. one 2+rst of a series4
Ety/7:7, HT/N030N-0M, HT/N;3<
70
"ina prep. into 2"iKna4
A"inai 2"inei N.4 adj. single, distinct, uniPue Ety/7:7,
Q/EI
"inas n.abst. 1. to$er 2. by e#t., !ort, city $ith a citadel
and central $atch-to$er Ety/7:7, S/N7N, HT/N030N
"indon n. 1. isolated hill, especially a hill $ith a $atch
to$er 2. by e#t. to$er Ety/7:7, Ety/79M
"inib adj. num. card. ele)en HT/N;3<-;
"iniel n. an El!, one o! the Hanyar ?J/7;7 "inK-el
LErst el!L
"inla"ad n. *Erst )oiced* or *Erst-echoing*, alliterati)e 2T4
)erse "ode 2"inla"ad thent/estent4 GT/6N<, ?J/766,
?J/76M c The $ord is not translated by Tolkien. Oor a
discussion o! its probable "eaning, re!er to 'olkien(s
)egendarium p. 606-600
"inl# n. once 2one ti"e4
"inna- v. to enter
"inui adj. num. ord. Erst HT/N0361, HT/N030M
"inuial n. L"orro$di"L, the ti"e near da$n, $hen the
star !ade /otR/D "inKuial LErst t$ilightL
"r n. +e$el, precious thing, treasure Ety/7:7, /otR/E,
S/N7N, %/7N;, /8/7MN, RCEF/:7c "irion N. n. augm..
@"rdan n. +e$el-s"ith S/N16 "RrKtZn
"rechor n. bracelet 2"grKechor4
"ria- v. to sparkle like a +e$el 2E/6:4
"irian n. piece o! "oney, coin used in Condor
"riel part. sparkling like a +e$el RCEF/<N, /otR/II3I
"irion n. augm. of "r great +e$el, Sil"aril Ety/7:7 see
also golovir, silevril
"iruvor n. *precious +uice*, a cordial "ade by the El)es
"ist n. error, $andering Ety/7:7
@"ista- v. to stray Ety/7:7
A"istad n. straying, error Ety/7:7, Q/&
"ith I n. $hite !og, $et "ist Ety/7:7
"ith II adj. 2pale4 grey Ety/7:7, S/N7N, T,/6;:
@"ithren adj. o! grey GT/N7<

"ithril n. true-sil)er, a sil)er-like "etal /otR
"ithKrill Lgrey brillianceL
"w adj. s"all, tiny, !rail HT/NM37M
"oe adj. so!t Ety/7:6
"oeas n.abst.of "oe, dough Ety/7:6
"oli$ n. $rist HT/N:3< Lhand-linkL, "a$K@li!
"*r n. darkness, dark, night Ety/7:7, /etters/7;0
"orben n. one o! the -)ari or Easterlings in 8eleriand
?J/7:<-7:: "ornKpen, altered !ro" FS @"oripende
@"orchant n. shado$ 2of objects, cast by light4, dark
shape S/N70, HT/N039 "ornKcant Ldark shapeL
"orgul n. black arts, sorcery, necro"ancy Ety/7::,
S/N70, ?J/7;7, %R/7M1, R,/N;0 "ornKgUl Ldark
"agicL
"orn adj. black, dark Ety/7:7, /etters/7;0, /etters/N0:,
?J/7<;, ?R/667, GT/<M
"ornedhel n. Dark-El! ?J/7::, ?J/7;1 "ornKedhel
@"uda- v. to labour, toil Ety/7:7
"uia- v. to $hine, co"plain
"uil n. drear ,myn Muil R,/77N
"uin adj. dear Ety/7:N
"uindor n. masc. dear brother Ety/79N "uinKtar
"uinthel n. fem. dear sister Ety/790 "uinKth]l
"#l n. sla)e, thrall Ety/7:7
"und n. bull /etters/N00-N07
"l n. gull ?J/7:9-7;1, ?J/N6; see also gwael, "aew
72
:
na prep. 1. $ith, by 2also used as a genitive sign4 2. to,
to$ards, at Ety/7:N, /otR/I3QII
@na- v. to be no aer i eneth l8n HT/NN306,0N
nad n. thing Ety/7:N
nadh n. !etter
nadhor n. pasture Ety/7:N.
nadhras n.abst.of nadhor, pasture Ety/7:N
nae interj. alas Ety/7:M
naeg n. pain Ety/7:M
Anaegra- v. to cause pain Ety/7:M, Q/&
Anaer 2noer N.4 adj. sad, la"entable Ety/7:M, Q/FE
naeras n.abst.of naer sadness
naergon n. $oe!ul la"ent %/7<0
naeth n. 1. biting 2.by e#t. $oe 2gets sense of gnashing
teeth in grief4 ,lu-naeth ?J/0M;, Ety/7:N-7:M
naew n. +a$ Ety/7:N
nag- v. to bite Ety/7:N
naglath n. coll. of nagol, the teeth ?R/600
@nagol n. tooth naglath ?R/600 c naglath N. n. coll.
nail 2neil *.4 adj. num. ord. third HT/N030M
naith pl. natsai N. n. any !or"ation or pro+ection tapering
to a point3 a spearhead, triangle gore, $edge, narro$
pro"ontory Ety/7;:, GT/0;0, R,/71:
@nalla- v. to cry nallon /otR/IH3Q, RCEF/:0, /etters/0:;
nan 2nand *., N., nann N.4 n. 1. $ide grassland, land at
!oot o! hills $ith "any strea"s 2. by e#t., )alley
Ety/7:N, S/N7M, /etters/71;, HT/NM37<, Q/.D6
nana n.dim. "other, "u""y Ety/7N;, Ety/7:N See also
naneth
naneth n. "other Ety/7N;, Ety/7:N
n&r n. rat Ety/7:9
@nara- v.%rch.&oet. to tell Ety/7:N, HT/NM37<
narbeleth n. Fctober 2"onth4 /otR/D naurKpeleth
Lsun-$aningL
narch n. 2bitter-4 biting Narchost /otR, R,/<16

narcha- v. to rend Ety/7:N
nardh n. knot Ety/7;:
narn pl. nern n. a tale or a saga, that is told in )erse to be
spoken and not sung Ety/7:N, ?J/767, %R/7:7, S/N60
FS @narna, ,E @njarnZ LtoldL
narphen n. character o! a story 2narnKpen4
@nartha- v. to kindle HT/NM37:
@narthan n. beacon, signal Ere to noti!y o! the approach o!
an ene"y, lit kEre signl Aornarthan HT/N0371
naru 2narw N.4 adj. red Ety/7:N, Q/?
naruvir n. ruby 2naruK"Rr4
narwain n. the "onth o! January /otR/D naurKg$ain
Lne$ sunL
nass n. 1. point, 2sharp4 end 2. angle or corner
Ety/7:M, HT/NM37:
nasta- v. to prick, point, stick, thrust Ety/7:M, HT/NM37:
nath n. $eb Ety/7:M
nathal n. guest 2E/6:4
nathla- v. to $elco"e
nathra- v. to $ea)e 2nathron4
nathron n. $ea)er, $ebster Ety/7:M
naud adj. bound Ety/7:;
naug n. and adj. 1. stunted, d$ar! 2..as a noun, a D$ar!
Ety/7:M, ?J/7;;, GT/611, GT/6N; .
naugol 2naugl N.4 pl. nauglin n. dim. of naug, d$ar!
Ety/7:M
naugri" n. class pl. of naug, D$ar)es ?J/7;;
naugKri"
naur n. 1. Sa"e 2. Ere Ety/7:N, S/N7M, /otR/II3IH
nauth n. thought Ety/7:;, HT/N<3<
nautha- v. to concei)e Ety/7:;
naw pl. Anoe 2nui N.4 n. idea Ety/7:;, Q/&
nawag pl. neweg N. 2neweig N.4 n. D$ar! Ety/7:M
nawb n. thu"b HT/N;3M c see also nobad
74
ned prep. in, during 2$ith re!erence to ti"e4 SD/609-76
c m-nother possible interpretation3 Lanother, one "oreL
2related to B. net:e;4, HT/N:3N1n
neder adj. num. card. nine Ety/7:<, HT/N030M, HT/N;3<,
E/6:39M
nederthil n. nonagon *nine points*
nedh- pref. in, inside, "id- Ety/7:< c See also the
preposition ned, and the noun ened !or a discussion o!
this !or"
Anedhu 2nedhw N.4 n. bolster, cushion Ety/7:;, Q/?
@nedia- 2ndia- N.4 v. to count Ety/7:;, HT/N<3<
nedrui adj. num. ord. ninth HT/N030M
ne$ prep. on this side o! /otR/II3I, RCEF/:0
:e$rast n. *>ither Shore*, the $estern"ost coast o!
%iddle-earth
negen adj. angular 2E/6:4
@neitha- v. to $rong, to depri)e Neithan GT/NM<
neithan adj. depri)ed, $ronged GT/NM<
n0l 2neleg N.4 pl. nelig n. tooth Ety/7:<, ?R/667,
HT/N<37
nelchaenen adj. num. ord. thirtieth SD/609-676
neledh adj. num. card. three 2This $ord takes the !or"
nel- in a co"pound4 Ety/7:<, T-I6M1, HT/N;3<
@neledh- v. to enter T-I/6M1, >//:: c >a""ond and
Scull apparently understand this $ord as a deri)ati)e o!
neledh LthreeL, hence their translation neledh neledhi
Lthree by threeL. >o$e)er, $e ha)e sho$n in 1iswelGkH
2third issue, pp. :N-:;4 that this $ord is concei)ably a
)erb deri)ed !ro" /ED Lto goL. The preE= ne- also
occurs in nestegi Lto insert, stick inL FS @ne- K ledi-
Lto go intoL
nelest n. third 2!raction4
nel$ n. needle
nell n. bell Ety/7:9
nella- v. to sound 2of bells4 Ety/7:9, HT/N<3:
nelladel n. ringing o! bells Ety/7:9 nelladK-el
nelthil n. triangle Ety/7:<, Ety/797 nel-Ktill

nelui adj. num. ord. third HT/N030M
ne" 2ne"b N.4 n. nose Ety/7:<
nen pl. nn N. n. 1. $ater 2used of a lake, pool or lesser
river4 2. by e#t. $aterland Ety/7:<, S/N7M, GT/NM:,
R,/70:-70;
nen echui n. ,ui)ionien
nend 2nenn N.4 adj. $atery Ety/7:<, Q/.D6
D nenig n. drop o! $ater
@nesta- v. to heal nestad ?R/7:9-7;1
@nestadren adj. healing ?R/7;1 nestadK-ren
@nestag- v. to insert, stick in Ety/7;;
D neta- v. to bleat 2o! sheep4
neth I adj. young Ety/7::
neth II n. fem. 1. hypo.of nth II sister 2. girl 2in her
teens, approaching the adult4 HT/N:36N-6<,77,
HT/N;3<
nethig n.fem.dim. of neth II, Llitte sisterL, play na"e
gi)en to the ring Enger HT/N:36N, HT/N:37;-79,
HT/N;3<,6: c Oirst gi)en in the "anuscript as netheg in
HT/N:36N-6M, but see especially HT/N;36: n. 67 !or
discussion
niben adj. 1. s"all, petty 2. as a noun, little Enger
2,lvish play-name used by and taught to children4
S/N7M, ?J/7;;, ?J/N1;, HT/N;3<
nd adj. da"p, $et, tear!ul Ety/7:<
ndh n. honeyco"b HT/NM37;
n$ n. !ront, !ace Ety/7:;
niged n. little Enger HT/N;3M See also lebig
Ani""id- v. to $hiten Ety/7:;, Q/&
ni"p I 2ni"- N.4 adj. pale, $hite Ety/7:;
ni"p II adj. s"all and !rail HT/N;36;
nin pron. "e /otR/IH3Q, RCEF/:0
nn I adj. poss. 1st "y GT/N1, HT/NN300
nn II n. tear Ety/7:<
nn III adj. $et, $atery Nindalf T,/69M, S/N7M
Anind 2ninn N.4 adj. slender Ety/7:;, Q/.D6
76
ninglor n. golden $ater-So$er, gladden GT/0;1-;6,
GT/NM1 nRnKglaur L$ater goldLc @ningloron
@ningloron der.pl. of ninglor )oeg Ningloron GT/0;6,
GT/NM1
D ningon n. lapis la'uli
nnholch n. onion 2tear-root4 nRnKsolch
nnia- v. to $eep
nniel adj. tear!ul Ety/7:<
nni" n. sno$drop 2So$er4 Ety/7<: nRnKni"p L$hite
tearL
ninniach n. rainbo$ S/7;: robably nRn, @ninn- K
iach L$ater-!ordL See also eiliant
nnui n. and adj. 1. $atery 2. as a noun, the "onth o!
Oebruary /otR/D
niphred 2ni$red N.4 n. pallor, !ear Ety/7:;, S/N7M, Q/>
niphredil 2ni$redil N.4 n. a pale $inter So$er, sno$drop
Ety/7:<, Ety/7:;, /otR/II3HI, /etters/N10, Q/>
niphredK-il Llittle pallorL
nr n. tear, $eeping Ety/7:<
nrnaeth n. 2tear!ul4 la"entation Ety/7:< nRrKnaeth
Ltear-gnashingL
niss n. !rost
nth I n. youth Ety/7::
nth II n. fem. sister HT/N:36Nc See also thel, "uinthel
nithren adj. !rosty
no v. imp. of na-, beJ HT/NN306,0N
nobad n. dual pl. of nawb, the pair o! Engers co"posed o!
the thu"b and the inde= 2grouped together as in the
act of picking something4 HT/N;3M,6<
Anod- 2nud- N.4 v. to tie, bind Ety/7:;, Q/&
noen adj. $ise, sensible HT/N<39
n%$ n. "outh 2including the lips4
nogoth n. D$ar!, lit. Lthe Stunted OolkL S/N7M, ?J/77;,
?J/7;;, ?J/N1;, ?J/N67
nogotheg n. dim. of nogoth, lit. Ld$arSetL, a na"e o! the
etty-D$ar)es ?J/7;;

nogothri" n. class pl. of nogoth, D$ar!-!olk RCEF/:M,
GT/76;, ?J/7;; nogothKri"
@nor- v. 1. to run 2.by e#t., to ride
nordh n. cord Ety/7;:
norn adj. 1. t$isted, knotted, crabbed, contorted 2. hard
Ety/7;:
nornwaith n. class pl. of norn the D$ar)es %R/97,
%R/61< nornKg$aith
noroth n. giant
norr n. "ur"ur
north n. riding race 2E/6:4
northa- v. to race 2on horses4 E/6:
n%rui n. and adj. 1. sunny, Eery 2. as a noun, the "onth
o! June /otR/D
noss 2nos N.4 n. kindred, !a"ily, clan Ety/7:;, %/701
nost n. kindred, !a"ily, house %/7<1
nosta- v. to s"ell 2so"ething4
nothlir n. !a"ily line 2esp. as family tree, genealogical
tree4 ?R/07N, ?R/07:, ?R/719 nost, @noth K lRr
L!a"ily lineL
nothri" n. class pl. of nost, kindred, !a"ily, house
Nothrim BC NostD Ainar+n %/7<1 c The $ord $as
re+ected in !a)or o! nost, but it "ay be interpreted as a
)alid class plural Lthose o! the houseL noss/nost K
ri"
novaer interj. and n. !are$ell
nu prep. beneath/under Ety/7:;, etc. See also nuin
n$ prep. be!ore
nui n. bee
nuin prep. nu;i under the Ety/7:;, etc. nuKi
nuitha- v. to stunt, to pre)ent !ro" co"ing to co"pletion,
stop short, not allo$ to continue ?J/N67
nula$ v. to s$allo$ *do$n-lick*
n#r I adj. deep Ety/7:;
n#r II n. race 2o! people4 Ety/7:;
@n#r III adj. sad N=rnen GT/NM;, R,/NM:
Anw 2hnio$ N.4 n. noose Ety/7;:, Q/IG
78
<
o I 2od *.4 prep. !ro", o! 2preposition :as a proclitic; used
in either direction, from or to the point of view of the
speaker4 Ety/7<1, ?J/7<<, ?J/7<9-:1, /otR/II3IH,
SD/609-76, RCEF/:0 c -ccording to ?J/7<<, the
preposition Lis nor"ally o in all positions, though od
appears occasionally be!ore )o$els, especially be!ore
o-L. ?ith a su#i=ed article, see also uin
o II N. prep. about, concerning Ety/7:; c The
,tymologies state that h- is preE=ed to the $ord
!ollo$ing this preposition, $hen it begins $ith a )o$el3
o 1edhil Lconcerning the El)esL. So"e scholars
consider that this rule is not )alid in Sindarin, but that
the preposition $ould perhaps beco"e oh in such a
case 2hence oh ,dhil, to be co"pared $ith ah in
%thrabeth Ainrod ah %ndreth4
ochui adj. num. ord. se)enth HT/N:3N0 See odothui !or
the usual $ord
%dhel n. Deep El! or Cno"e, one o! the ?ise Oolk
?J/7<N, ?J/7<<, ?J/7:;-7:9
%dhelli" n. class pl. of %dhel Deep El)es or Cno"es, the
?ise Oolk ?J/7<N XdhelKri"
odhril n. fem. parent Ety/7:9
odhron n. masc. parent Ety/7:9
odog adj. num. card. se)en Ety/7:9, HT/N030M, HT/N:3N0,
HT/N;3<, E/6:39M
odothil n. heptagon *se)en points*
odothui adj. num. ord. se)enth TI/760, ?R/N7<,
HT/N030M
D odri" adj. "any 2C/4 odKri"
oew n. cri"e, e)il deed 2E/6:4
ogol adj. $icked, e)il HT/N;370
ogron n. $icked or e)il person 2E/6:4
*l pl. elei N. n. drea" Ety/7:1, Ety/7:9
<l$anner n. one o! the na"es gi)en to the Hala /Xrien
oll 2old N.4 n. torrent, "ountain-strea" Ety/79<
olph n. bottle

oltha- v. to drea" Ety/7:1, Ety/7:9
%lui adj. drea"y
@oneth n. fem. gi)er besoneth %/N1N-1M
ongol n. stench Ety/7:;
@onna- v. to beget %bonnen, ,boennin ?J/7;:
@onnen pl. @ennin pp. of onna-, born %bonnen,
,boennin ?J/7;:
D onin n. an)il
onod n. Ent /otR/O, /etters/00N
onodri" n. class pl. of onod the Ents, as a race
/etters/00N, T,/6<M onodKri"
or prep. abo)e, o)er Ety/7:9
or- pref. abo)e, o)er Ety/7:9
oraearon n. se)enth day o! the .W"enXrean $eek, Sea-
day /otR/D aurKaearon
oranor n. second day o! the $eek, day o! the Sun /otR/D
aurKanor
orbelain n. si=th day o! the $eek, day o! the o$ers or
Halar /otR/D aurKbelain
orch pl. ,rch n. Coblin, Frc Ety/7:9, /R/N1<, ?J/791,
/otR/II3HI, /otR/O, /etters/6:;
orchal 2orchall N., orchel N.4 adj. 1. superior, lo!ty,
e"inent 2. tall Ety/7<7, Ety/7:9, ?J/71M c In his
article &robable errors in the ,tymologies, >elge
Oauskanger lists orchel as a "isreading, !ollo$ing
,hristopher Tolkien*s note ad"itting that the e is
uncertain. >o$e)er, though orchal is attested in
?J/71M, it does not necessarily "ean that the !or"
orchel is incorrect. It "ight be constructed by analogy
$ith $ords such as hathol La=eL 2!ro" ?J/07N and the
na"e o! a .W"enXrean, >atholdir, GT3NNN4, $hich is
also !ound as hathal 2in >athaldir, na"e o! a co"panion
o! 8arahir, /R/N77, untranslated but concei)ably
cognate4 and hathel 2/R/7;94. ?ithout entering into the
details, such $ords end $ith a syllabic consonant 2as in
English LpeopleL4, and se)eral )ocali'ations are
apparently possible in Sindarin. The epenthetical )o$el
80
is generally o, but it see"s that a or e are also allo$ed.
Regarding orchal, its origin is o! course di#erent, as it
is a co"pound $ord $here the second ele"ent clearly
deri)es !ro" _>-/, but it "ay ha)e been assi"ilated,
later, to this class o! $ords by analogy. ?e "ay
there!ore consider that orchel is a per!ectly )alid
dialectal )ariant orKhall, FS @ork^alla
orchoth n. class pl. of orch, the Frcs 2as a race4 ?J/791
orchKhoth
D or$ n. apple 2C/4
D or$orn n. apple tree 2or!Korn4
orgaladh n. !ourth day o! the .W"enXrean $eek, day o!
the ?hite Tree /otR/D c This day $as !or"erly
called orgaladhad in the El)ish calendar
aurKgaladh
orgaladhad n. !ourth day o! the El)ish $eek, day o! the
T$o Trees /otR/D c This day $as rena"ed orgaladh
in the .W"enXrean calendar aurKgaladh, $ith
Puenya inSuenced dual ending
orgilion n. Erst day o! the $eek, day o! the Stars /otR/D
aurKgil, $ith archaic geniti)e
orithil n. third day o! the $eek, day o! the %oon /otR/D
aurKithil
or"enel n. E!th day o! the $eek, >ea)ens* day /otR/D
aurK"enel
orn n. tree 2such as ash or birch, not large trees4
Ety/7:9, S/N7M, /etters/N0< see also galadh
orod pl. ered 2er,d *., N., ereid N.4 n. "ountain
Ety/7:9, S/N7M, /etters/0<7, T,/6:;, R,/<06
orodben n. "ountaineer, one li)ing in the "ountains
?J/7:< orodKpen
orodri" n. class pl. of orod, range o! "ountains
Ety/7:9 orodKri"
oronnad n. birthday 2lit. begetting day, as El)es
celebrate the conception not the birth4 aurKonnad
oroth n. rage 2E/6:4
@ortha- v. to raise Ety/7:9
@orthel- v. to roo!, screen abo)e Ety/796

orthelian n. canopy Ety/796
@orthor- v. to "aster, conPuer Ety/79M
%rui adj. daily, co""only see also ilaurui
os- pref. about, around Ety/7:9
@osgar- v. to cut round, to a"putate Ety/7:9
osp n. reek, s"oke Ety/79<
D ospa- v. to s"oke
ost n. 1. city, to$n $ith $all round 2. citadel, !ortress or
stronghold, "ade or strenghtened by art Ety/7:9,
S/N7M, ?J/N6N, R,/070
othgar- v. to do $rong 2E/6:4
othgarn n. "isdeed 2E/6:4
Aothlonn 2othlond N., othlon N.4 n. pa)ed $ay Ety/7:1,
Q/.DN ostKlond
Aothrad 2ostrad N.4 n. street Ety/7;7, Q/& ostKrZd
Aothronn 2othrond *., N.4 n. !ortress or city in
underground ca)es, underground stronghold
Ety/7:9, Ety/7;N, ?J/N6N, Q/.DN ostKrond
othui adj. num. ord. se)enth HT/N0361,0M See also
odothui
D ott n. egg
ovor 2ovr N., o$r N.4 adj. abundant Ety/79<c see also
ovras
@ovra- v. to abound Ety/79<
ovras n.abst.of ovor, cro$d, heap. Ety/79<
82
=
pad- v. to step 2E/6:4
@p&d n. $ay %phadon :*ap-pata;, 'harbad :*thara-pata;
?J/7;:, S/N7;
@pada- v. to $alk %phadon :*ap-pata;, 'harbad :*thara-
pata; ?J/7;:, S/N7;
pae n. )egetable
Apaich 2peich N.4 n. +uice, syrup Ety/7;0, Q/EI
palan- adv. a!ar, abroad, !ar and $ide /otR/II3I,
/otR/IH3Q, RCEF/:0-:N B palan
palandir v. $atch !ro" a!ar
palan-hinnen adj. !a"ous *!ar-kno$n*
palath n. sur!ace Ety/7;1
pa"a- v. to )o"it 2Pua"a-4
p&n I 2pein N.4 n. plank, E=ed board 2especially in 4oor4
Ety/7;1, Q/EI
@p&n II adj. all, in totality mhellyn 3n phain SD/609-76
panas n.abst.of p&n I, Soor Ety/7;1
Apand 2pann N.4 n. courtyard Ety/7;1, Q/.D6
pann adj. $ide Ety/7;1
@panna- I v. to open, to enlarge Ety/7;1
Apanna- II 2pannod N.4 v. to Ell Ety/7<<, Q/&
pant adj. !ull Ety/7<<, SD/609-76
par- v. to peel 2E/6:4
paran adj. s"ooth, sha)en 2often applied to hills without
trees4 Dol .aran R,/N77
parch adj. dry Ety/7;1, HT/NM3M See also apharch
par$ pl. per$ n. book Ety/7;1
parth n. Eeld, enclosed grassland, s$ard GT/0<1,
%/771, R,/7N9
path adj. s"ooth Ety/7;1
patha- v. to s"ooth, iron
@pathra- v. to Ell Ety/7<<
pathred n. !ullness Ety/7<<
Apathu 2pathw N.4 n. le)el space, s$ard Ety/7;1, Q/?

paur n. Est 2often used to mean ThandT, its chief use was in
reference of the tighly closed hand, as in using an
implement or a craft-tool, rather than to the +st used in
punching4 Ety/7<<, S/N09, %/6:9, %/76;, HT/N:3;
paw n. sickness Ety/7<<
pe conj. i! 2_?I- HT/N94
p> pl. pui n. lip
@ped- v. to speak, to say pedo, arphent /otR/II3IH,
T//06319
pedweg adj. talkati)e 2E/6:4
peg n. s"all spot, dot Ety/7;0
pel I pl. peli N. n. !enced Eeld 2U 5ld ,nglish t=n4
Ety/7;1
pel- II v. to !ade
@peleth n. !ading, $ithering Narbeleth /otR/D
@pelia- v. to spread Ety/7;1
@pelin n. !ading, $ithering )hasbelin Ety/7<<
pelthaes n. pi)ot Ety/7;1, Ety/791
@pen- I prep. $ithout, lacking, -less Narwain ben-adar
/otR/II3II
pen II relative pron. one, so"ebody, anybody ?J/7:<
penbed adj. unpronounceable 2E/6:4
pend 2penn *., N.4 n. decli)ity, slope Ety/7;1, R,/M0M,
Q/.D6
pendrath 2pendrad N.4 n. passage up or do$n slope,
stair$ay Ety/7;1, Q/.D7 pendKrath, pendKrZd
peng n.Mil. bo$ 2for shooting4 Ety/7<<
pengolodh n. teaching sage, a doctor o! lore, lore-"aster
@penia- v. to E=, to set Ety/7;1
pendh adj. restless
penind adj. $ithout inner thought, insane
penna- v. to slant do$n /otR/II3I, RCEF/:0
pennas n.abst.of pent, history, historical account
Ety/7<<, ?J/690, ?J/01<
penneth n. coll. of pend, ridges, group o! do$ns R,/M0M
84
Apenninor 2penninar N.4 n. last day o! the year
Ety/N11, Q/& pantKRnKaur
pent n. tale Ety/7<<
per- pref. hal!, di)ided in "iddle
@peredhel n. hal!-el! S/N71, /otR/-2i4 per-Kedhel
perian n. >obbit, >alSing /otR/HI3IH, /otR/E, RCEF/:M,
/etters/71;, Q/.DN perK-ian
periannath n. coll. of perian the >obbits, >alSings
/otR/HI3IH, /otR/E-O, RCEF/:M, /etters/71;
perin adj. hal!, di)ided in "iddle Ety/7;1
pess n. !eather
pesseg n. pillo$ Ety/7<<
peth n. $ord Ety/7<<, /otR/II3IH, RS/N<7.
pethron n. narrator, "instrel Ety/7<<
phaw- v. to e"it !oul breath 2E/6:4
pholg n. pig
pigen adj. tiny Ety/7;0
Apihen 2pichen N.4 adj. +uicy Ety/7;0, Q/&
D pil n. colour
pilin n. arro$
pi" n. tail 2pi"pV, pi"p4
pn adj. little $2l .3n R,/M7< c Si"ilar $ords occur in
Cno"ish 2pinig Ltiny, littleL, E/663<N4 and in Benya
2pinea Ls"allL etc., E/603:7.
pinnath n. coll. of pend, ridges, group o! do$ns
/otR/Inde=, R,/M0M Oor"ed !ro" the plural pinn
,!. penneth
plad n. pal", Sat o! the hand, hand held up$ards or
!or$ards, Sat and tensed 2$ith Engers and thu"b
closed or spread4 HT/N:39
plada- v. to !eel $ith the hand, to pass the sensiti)e pal"
o)er a sur!ace HT/N:39
p*d n. ani"al*s !oot Ety/7;0
pol- v. to be able to 2can, could4
por- v. to choke, dro$n
D porog n. chicken, !o$l

post n. pause, halt, rest, cessation, respite Ety/7;0
posta- v. to rest
@presta- v. to a#ect, trouble, disturb Ety/7;1
prestannen pp. of presta-, 1. a#ected 2. "utated 2of a
mutated vowel4 Ety/7;1
prestanneth n. a#ection o! )o$els, "utation Ety/7;1
p#g n. berry
@puia- v. to spit Ety/7;0
puig adj. clean, tidy, neat Ety/7;0
puiga- v. to $ash, to clean
86
?
@rach n. $agon, $ain <ondraich GT/N<M c Since this
$ord is attested in a co"pound only, its un"utated
!or" is uncertain. It could also be *grach or *rhach
ractha- v. to shatter
r&d n. path, track Ety/7;7
@rada- v. to "ake a $ay, End a $ay Ety/7;7
raeda- v. to catch in a net HT/N0360
rae$ 2raew *.4 n. net HT/N0360
Araeg 2rhoeg N.4 adj. crooked, bent, $rong Ety/7;7,
Q/FE, Q/R>
raegdan n. sinner
Araen I 2rhaen N.4 adj. crooked Ety/7;0, Q/R>
raen II adj. netted, enlaced HT/N0366
Araew 2rhaew N.4 n. !atho" Ety/7;0, Q/R>
D r&$ adj. roaring
Ara$n 2rha$n N.4 n. $ing 2horn4, e=tended point at side, etc.
Ety/7;0, Q/R>
rag- v. to break
raida- v. to s"ile
Arain I 2rhain N., rhein N.4 n. border Ety/7;7, Q/R>
rain II 2rein *.4 n. erratic $andering HT/N0367
raitha- v. to stri)e, reach !or
ra" 2rha" N., rha"b N.4 n. $all Ety/7;0, S/N7<, Q/R>
ra""as n.abst.of ra", 2great4 $all /otR/H3I, /otR/Inde=
Aranc 2rhanc N.4 pl. renc or rheng, :arch.; n. ar"
Ety/7;0, Q/R>
randr 2rhandir N.4 n. masc. $anderer, pilgri" Ety/7;7,
HT/N0367, Q/R>
rant n. 1. lode, )ein 2. course, ri)erbed Ety/7;7,
S/N7<
@raph n. rope Vdalraph GT/N0N
ras 2rhas N.4 n. horn 2especially on living animal, but also
applied to mountains4 Ety/7;7, HT/N<361, /otR/E,
S/N7<, Q/R> c The !or" rhaes in the ,tymologies is a
"isreading according to HT/N<361

Arasg 2rhasg N.4 n. horn 2especially on living animal, but
also applied to mountains4 Ety/7;7, Q/R>
rath n. 1. course, ri)erbed 2. street 2in a city4 Ety/7;7,
/otR/Inde=, R,/M07,MM6
Araud 2rhaud N.4 n. "etal Ety/7;7, Q/R> Cenerali'ed
!ro" FS @rauta LcopperL
Araudh 2rhaudh N.4 adj. hollo$, ca)ernous Ety/7;N,
Q/R>
raug 2graug *., rhaug N.4 n. a po$er!ul, hostile and
terrible creature, a de"on Ety/7;N, S/N7<, ?J/N6M,
Q/R>
Araun 2rhaun N.4 adj. errant Ety/7;7, Q/R>
Araw I 2rhaw N.4 n. bank 2especially of a river4 Ety/7;0,
Q/R>
Araw II 2rhaw N.4 pl. Aroe n. lion Ety/7;7, Q/R>
D r0broch n. 'ebra 2*striped horse*, !ro" raibrog $ith the
sa"e "eaning, C/4
-red suKi#. denotes co"pletion o! a $ork or design, $ith
Enal details and/or Enishing touches 2E/6:4
Aredh- v. to so$ Ety/7;7, Q/R>
Arein 2rhein N., rhin N.4 n. slot, spoor, track, !ootprint
Ety/7;N, Q/R>
re" I n. "esh, net 2esp. for catching, hunter(s or +sher(s
net4 /otR/E, HT/N0309
Are" II 2rhe" N., rhe"b N.4 adj. !rePuent, nu"erous
Ety/7;7, Q/R>
@re""en pp.adj. $o)en, netted, tangled galadhremmin
/otR/E, /otR/II3I, RCEF/:0
?e""irath n. the constellation leiades, *the netted
+e$els*
ren- v. to re"e"ber
Arend 2rhenn N.4 adj. circular Ety/7;7, HT/N<366, Q/R>,
Q/.D6
Arenia- 2@rhenia- N.4 v. to stray Ety/7;7, Q/R>
Arest 2rhest N.4 n. cut Ety/7;N, Q/R>
D reth- v. to sa)e 2C/4 This $ould "ake edraith "ean
so"ething like *sa)ing !orth*
88
Arevia- 2@rhevia- N.4 v. 1. to Sy, sail 2. to $ander
Ety/7;0, Q/R>
rhaed adj. to co"plete a $ork or design, to add Enishing
touches and Enal details 2E/6:4 see also -red
@rhach n. curse e-(9ach %R/7:7
rhanc adj. a$ry, a$k$ard 2E/6:4
rhass n. precipice Ety/7<7
@rhavan n. $ild "an ?J/069
rhaw I adj. $ild, unta"ed Ety/7;0, Q/R>, HT/N<361 c
%eaning rectiEed according to HT/N<361
rhaw II n. Sesh, body %R/7M1, HT/N:360
Arhib- v. to scratch Ety/7;:, Q/R>
rhw n. $inter season /otR/D
Arhosg 2rhosc N.4 adj. bro$n Ety/7;M, Q/&
Arhoss 2thross N.4 n. $hisper or rustling sound Ety/7;<,
Q/R>
@rhovan 2rho$an N.4 n. $ilderness 9hovanion /otR/%ap,
HT/N<361c
rhovanion der.pl. of rhovan 9hovanion /otR/%ap
rhudol adj. un$elco"e 2E/6:4
rh#n n. east Ety/7;N, S/N7<, /otR/E
rhnen adj. eastern 'alath 9h=nen S/N01
Arhuven 2rhu$en N.4 n.%rch., &oet. east Ety/7;N, Q/R>
r 2rh N.4 n. cro$n, $reath, garland Ety/7;7, %/7N:,
Q/R>
Arib- 2rhib- N.4 v. to So$ like a 2torrent T4 Ety/7;N,
Q/R> c The reading o! the gloss is uncertain
rdh n. so$n Eeld, acre Ety/7;7, HT/N<366
@r$ n. bark Aladrif /otR/E, T,/6<9, T,/6:7
rig- v. to t$ine, $reathe 2E/6:4
rill n. brilliance 2E/6:4
ri" I 2rhi" N., rhi"b N.4 n. cro$d, host, great nu"ber
Ety/7;7, S/N7<, /etters/6:;, /etters/7;0, Q/R>
Ari" II 2rhi" N., rhi"b N.4 n. cold pool or lake 2in
mountains4 Ety/7;N, Q/R>

Arn I 2rhn N., rhien N.4 n. and adj. 1. cro$ned 2. as a
noun,by e#t., cro$ned lady, Pueen Ety/797, Ety/7;9,
Q/R>
rn II n. re"e"brance %/7:0
rnas n.abst.of rn II "e"ory
Arinc 2rhinc N.4 n. t$itch, +erk, trick, sudden "o)e
Ety/7;7, Q/R>
Arind 2rhind N., rhinn N.4 n. circle Ety/7;7, Q/R>,
Q/.D6
ring 2rhing N.4 adj. cold Ety/7;7, S/N7<, HT/N0367, Q/R>
Aringorn 2rhingorn N.4 n. circle Ety/7<M, Q/R>
rindKcorn
Ars 2rhs N.4 n. fem. Pueen Ety/7;7, Q/R>
Ariss 2rhis N., rhess N.4 n. ra)ine Ety/7;N, Q/R>
Arista- 2@rhista- N.4 v. 1. to cut 2. to rend, rip
Ety/7;N, Q/R>
Aritha- 2@rhitha- N.4 v. to +erk, t$itch, snatch Ety/7;7,
Q/R>
Arw 2rh$ N.4 n. edge, he", border Ety/7;7, Q/R>
roch n. horse, s$i!t horse !or riding Ety/7;N, S/N7<,
/etters/6:;, /etters/0;0, /etters/7;0
rochben n. 2horse4 rider ?J/7:< rochKpen
rochir n. horse-lord rochKhRr c see also rochirri"
rochirri" n. class pl. of rochir, horse-lords, the people o!
Rohan /otR, etc. rochirKri"
rochon n. 2horse4 rider GT/N<7
@rodon n. -inu, di)inity /otR/D FS @2a4reto2ndo4
Lnoble oneL, ,E @arZta
rodwen n. high )irgin noble
rogol n. saddle
rohaith n.Mil. lancer *horse-spear*
ro" 2rho" N.4 n. horn, tru"pet
Aro"ru 2rho"ru N.4 n. sound o! horns Ety/7;N, Q/R>
ro"KrU
rond 2rhond N., rhonn N.4 n. 1. ca)e roo! 2. )aulted or
arched roo!, as seen !ro" belo$ 2and usually not )isible
90
!ro" outside4, or a 2large4 hall o! cha"ber so roo!ed
Ety/7;N, HT/N<360, S/N7:, ?J/N6N, Q/R>, Q/.D6
ros- v. to distil, drip 2E/6:4
Aross I 2rhoss N.4 n. rain Ety/7;N, Q/R>
ross II adj. red-haired, copper coloured 2especially used of
animals, as fo#, red deer, etc.4
@rosta- v. to hollo$ out, e=ca)ate Ety/7;N
@roval 2rho$al N.4 n. pinion, great $ing 2of eagle4
)androval /otR/HI3IH, Ety/7;0, Q/R>
Ar# 2rh# N.4 n.%rch., &oet. loud-sound, tru"pet-sound
Ety/7;N, Q/R>
r#dh adj. bald S/7:9, ?J/6;:
Arui 2rhui N., rhuiw N.4 n. hunt, hunting Ety/7;N, Q/R>
ruin adj. 2Eery4 red %/7<<
run- v. to polish, grind, rub 2E/6:4
rusc n. !o= HT/N6361
rust n. copper HT/N6361
rustui adj. o! copper HT/N6361
r#th n. anger S/N7<
D ruthol n. oats, porridge 2C/4
ruthra- v. to rage 2E/6:4
rthui adj. angry
Arn 2rhn N.4 n. LchaserL, hound o! chase Ety/7;N, Q/R>

@
saba- v. to del)e 2S--4
@sabar n. del)ed "ine Nornhabar, %nghabar ?J/019,
?J/N69, S/7;1 c The un"utated !or" is reconstructed !ro"
the place na"e Nornhabar, assu"ing that the second $ord
is "utated in co"position. Though habar as the regular
!or" "ight be possible as $ell, in the Jenya?etsa $e End
the root S-- Ldig, e=ca)ateL 2E/603;04, so it see"s "ost
likely that Tolkien re-used this old base, and that the
underlying !or" in those na"es $ould indeed be sabar
sad n. li"ited area naturally or artiEcially deEned, a place,
spot GT/N0M, HT/N0369-01
s&dh n. s$ard, tur! HT/N0301
@sador n. !aith!ul one *ador 2na"e4 c Sador $as TWrin*s
!aith!ul ser)ant. The "eaning o! this noun is deduced
!ro" sadron, assu"ing that these $ords are in the
sa"e kind o! relation as hador and hadron
@sadron n.masc. !aith!ul one GT/N76
sael adj. $ise *aelon ?J/077, %R/71M, SD/609-76
saelas n.abst.of sael $isdo"
saer adj. bitter Ety/7;M
saew n. poison Ety/7;M
sa$- 2sav-4 v. to ha)e, to possess 2E/6:4 see also gar-
said adj. pri)ate, separate, not co""on, e=cluded
HT/N0301
saig adj. hungry
Asain 2sein N.4 adj. ne$ Ety/7;M, Q/EI
salab n. herb Ety/7;M, Q/EI
D salbin n. )iola
D salbindel n. )iolin
sal$ n. lyre
Asalph 2salA N.4 n. broth, liPuid !ood, soup Ety/7;M,
HT/N<360, Q/> c The !or" salf in the ,tymologies is a
"isreading, see HT/NM360
@sa" n. cha"ber, roo" *ammath /otR/HI3III, S/N7M B
sa"be c see also sa""ath
92
sa"- v. to think 2E/6:4
sa"arad n. dual pl. of sa""ar, t$o neighbours
HT/N;301
sa""ar n. neighbour HT/N;301 Lone $ho d$ells
besideL I FE. neahKgebur
sa""ath n. coll. of sa", cha"bers /otR/HI3III, S/N7M
sant n. garden, Eeld, yard 2or other place in private
ownership whether enclosed or not4 HT/N0301
sarch n. gra)e GT/N<7
sar$ n. table
sarn n. 1. stone 2as a material4 2. s"all stone Ety/7;M,
S/N7:, GT/N<7, HT/N0366, R,/70: c *ern in GT/N<7 is a
"isprint, see HT/N0366
sarnas n.abst.of sarn, cairn, pile o! stones /R/N1<
saur adj. putrid 2o! !ood4 E/6:
sautha- v. to drain Ety/7;;
saw I pl. Asoe **. 2sui N.4 n. +uice Ety/7;M, Q/&
saw II n. Elth, putrescence 2E/6:4
seidia- v. to set aside, appropriate to a special purpose or
o$ner HT/N0301
sell n. fem. 1. daughter 2. girl, "aid 2child4 Ety/7;M
sellath n. coll. of sell, all the daughters SD/609-76
@sen adj. dem. this i thiw hin /otR/II3IH
@send 2@senn *.4 n. rest sennas R,/M07 see also sennas
sennas n. abst. of send, guesthouse R,/M07 Lresting
placeL, !ro" *send, *senn 2SED4 T
sennui adv. rather, instead 2used as an adverb74 SD/609-76
sera- v. to like 2/oTR, *seron*4
sereg n. blood
seregon n. L8lood o! StoneL, a plant o! the kind called in
English LstonecropL, $ith deep red So$ers, that gre$
on -"on RUdh S/N7: seregKgond
seron n. lo)er %/7N;
si adv. here
D sibtha- v. to $histle
sdh n. peace

sigil I n.Mil. dagger, kni!e Ety/7;M B sicil
sigil II n. necklace *igil ,lu-naeth ?J/0M;
sla- v. to shine $hite
silevril n. Sil"aril Ety/7:7 ,!. See also golovir,
"irion
silivren adj. 2$hite4 glittering /otR/II3I, RCEF/:0
sili!K-ren
sing n. salt
singren adj. salty 2singKren4
siniath n. coll. ne$s, tidings Ety/7;M
sinnarn n. no)el tale Ety/7;M sainKnarn
sr adv. today HT/NN306,0:
sr n. ri)er Ety/7;M, S/N7:, R,/7;Nc See also sirion
@siria- v. to So$ Ety/7;M
sirion I n. augm. of sr, great ri)er *irion Ety/7;M
@sirion II der.pl. of sr Nanduhirion /otRc hirion
sirith n. So$ing
@soga- 2sunc N.4 v. to drink Ety/7;;, HT/N<36<
solch n. root 2especially as edible4
soth n. bath
D su$ n. boso"
sui conj. as, like
@suil n. greeting %rassuil /otR/-2ii4 c Deduced !ro"
%rassuil, concei)ably aran>suil. Oor the "eaning, see
suilad
@suila- v. to greet suilad SD/609-76
suilad ger. of suila-, greeting
@suilanna- v. to greet, to gi)e greetings suilannad
SD/609-76
Asuith 2s#th N.4 n. draught Ety/7;;, Q/&
s#l I n. $ind S/N7:
s#l II n. goblet
D sus interj. shushJ
94
(
tab- v. to stop, block, close 2E/6:4
tachol 2tachl N.4 n. pin, brooch
t&d 2tad *., N.4 adj. num. card. t$o Ety/7N9, Ety/796,
?J/7;;, HT/N030M-0:, HT/N;3<
@tad-dal pl. tad-dail n. and adj. biped, t$o-legged ani"al
?J/7;; tZdKtZl
tadol adj. num. ?uant. double Ety/796
tadui adj. num. ord. second HT/N030M
taeg n. boundary, li"it, boundary line ?J/719
taen I n. height, su""it o! high "ountain Ety/7;9
taen II adj. long 2and thin4 Ety/796
@taen III n. sign 'aengyl, 'engyl %R/7;M
taer adj. straight Ety/790, HT/N<36; c ?ritten tEr 2$ith
ae-ligature4 in the ,tymologies, rectiEed here according
to HT/N<36; 2$hich also lists the ligature4
taes n. nail Ety/791
@taetha- v. to !asten, tie Ety/7;9
taew n. holder, socket, hasp, clasp, staple Ety/791,
HT/N<36:
ta$- v. to taste
ta$n 5tavn/ n. a thing "ade by handicra!t 2E/6:4
@ta$nen adj. closed, blocked, stopped uidavnen ?R/7N6
c Frthography nor"ali'ed to tafnen, as in lefnui
@tagol n. post, "ark glandagol HT/N03;, HT/N030;
taid adj. second 2in the sense of supporting, second in
command4 HT/N030M
Ataith 2teith N.4 n. "ark Ety/796, Q/EI
t&l 2teil N.4 n. !oot tad-dail ?J
talad n. an incline, slope
tala$ n. ground, Soor
Atalagan 2talagand N.4 n. harper
talan n. Set, $ooden plat!or" 2in the trees of )othlGrien
where the <aladhrim dwelt4 GT/N<M, /otR/II3HI

talath 2dalath N.4 n. 1. Sat sur!ace, plane 2. Sat land,
plain, 2$ide4 )alley 'alath Dirnen GT/N<M, Ety/7M7,
S/N7:
Atal$ I 2dal$ N.4 n. pal" o! hand
tal$ II n. Sat Eeld, Sat land Nindalf
@talraph n. stirrup Vdalraph GT/N0N tZlKraph L!oot-
ropeL
talt adj. slipping, !alling, insecure
Atalu 2dalw N.4 adj. Sat
@ta""a- v. to knock
t&n n. s"ith
tanc adj. Er"
tang n.Mil. bo$string
@tangada- N. v. to "ake Er", conEr", establish Ety/7;9
tar- v. to stretch 2E/6:4
tara 2tar- N.4 adj. tough, sti# Ety/791
tarag n. 1. horn 2.by e#t., steep "ountain peak
Ety/796, HT/N<36:
tarch adj. sti#, tough tarch-lang R,/M7<
tarias n. abst. sti#ness, toughness, di#iculty
tarlanc adj. sti#-necked, obstinate 791 taraKlanc, later
tarchKlang
D tarog n. o=
tass 2tars N.4 n. labour, task
tathar 2tathor N.4 n. $illo$-tree
tathren adj. o! $illo$, ha)ing $illo$s
taug adj. strong, Er" 2E/6:4
taur I n. king 2only used of the legitimate kings of whole
tribes4 Ety/7;9, Ety/79M see also aran
taur II n. great $ood, !orest
taur III adj. "ighty, )ast, o)er$hel"ing, huge, a$!ul, high,
subli"e
tauras n.abst.of taur III )astness
tauron n. !orester
taus n. thatch
tavor 2tavr N., ta$r N.4 n. $oodpecker 2bird4 LknockerL
96
taw adj. o! $ool, $oollen
tawar n. 1. $ood 2as a material4 2. by e#t., great $ood,
!orest 'awar-in-Dr=edain GT/N<:, Ety/796c
tawaren adj. $ooden Ety/796
tawarwaith n. class pl. of tawar, Sil)an el)es GT/0M<
ta$arKg$aith L!orest-el)esL
t0 n. line, $ay Ety/796
tegil n. pen %/76; c Sindari'ed !or" o! Buenya tekil,
not kno$n to the Sindar until the co"ing o! the foldor
2but see ho$e)er tegol !or a possible dialectal )ariant4
B tekil
tegilbor n. one skilled in calligraphy, a calligrapher
tegilKpaur
tegol 2tegl N.4 n. pen Ety/796 c It is stated in %/76;
that Ltegil $as a Sindari'ed !or" o! Buenya tekil LpenL,
not kno$n to the Sindar until the co"ing o! the
foldorL. It "ust be assu"ed there!ore that tegol $as
either re+ected by Tolkien, or that it "ay perhaps ha)e
been considered as a dialectal )ariant. Oor a si"ilar
case $here both a true Sindarin/.oldorin $ord and a
Sindari'ed !or" concei)ably coe=ist, see "agol and
"egil Ls$ordL 2it is unlikely that $eapons $ere not
kno$n to the Sindar be!ore the co"ing o! the foldor4
@teitha- v. to $rite, dra$ Ety/796, /otR/II3IH
telch n. 1. leg 2. ste" Ety/796
tele pl. telei N. n. end, rear, hind"ost part Ety/790
teler n. an El!, one o! the Teleri %/7;M
telerri" n.class pl. of teler, the Teleri, a tribe o! El)es
@telia- 2@teilia- N.4 v. to play
telien 2teilien N.4 n. sport, play Ety/79M
tell n. 1. a grade 2. a step in a stair$ay or ladder
tellen 2tellein N., tellin N.4 n. sole o! !oot tZlKrein
telu n. do"e, high roo!
@ten object pron. hi"/her/it 2as object4 caro den
HT/NN306,0M-<c
tengia- v. to re)eal
tengwa- v. to read 2$ritten "aterial4 see also henna-

tess n. 2Ene pierced4 hole
t0w pl. tw n. letter, $ritten sign Ety/796, ?J/79<,
/otR/II3IH, /otR/E, /etters/N0:c
tha$n n. post, $ooden pillar
thala adj. stal$art, steady, Er"
thalion pl. thel,n n. hero, dauntless "an 2especially as
surname of 1=rin 'halion4 Ety/7;;, S/N7;
tha" 2tha"b N.4 n. hall Ety/7;:c see also tha"as
tha"as 2tha"bas N.4 n. abst. of tha", great hall
thanc adj. cle!t, split, !orked 5rthanc S/N6M, Ety/7;;
@thand I n.Mil. shield thangail GT/0;6-0;0
thand II N. 2thann N.4 adj. Er", true, abiding
thang n. co"pulsion, duress, need, oppression
thangail n.Mil. shield-!ence, a battle !or"ation o! the
DWnedain GT/0;6-0;0 thandKcail
thannas n.abst.of thand II truth
th&r n. sti# grass Ety/7;;
thar- pref. across, ath$art, o)er, beyond Ety/7;;, S/N7;
tharan adj. )igorous 'hranduil E/6:
tharas n. hassock, !ootstool Ety/7;;
tharbad n. cross-$ay S/N7; thar-KpZd
tharn adj. sapless, sti#, rigid, $ithered Ety/7;;
D thas- v. to sha)e
thaur adj. abo"inable, abhorrent S/N7;
thavron n. carpenter, $right, builder Ety/7;;
thaw adj. corrupt, rotten Ety/797
th0l pl. thelei N. n. fem. sister Ety/790
thel- v. to intend, "ean, purpose, resol)e, $ill ?J/76;-
769
thela n. point 2of spear4 Ety/7;;
@thelion n. one $ho re"ains Er" in his purpose
%egthelion ?J/76;
then adj. short HT/N0309 See also thent, estent
thent adj. short Ety/7;;, GT/6N<, ?J/766, ?J/76M See
also then, estent
th adv. no$ 2E/6:4
98
@thia- v. to appear, see" Ety/790
@thilia- v. to glisten Ety/790, HT/N<36;
thn n.&oet. e)ening Ety/790, HT/N<36;
thinn 5thind/ adj. grey, pale Ety/790, S/N7;
thinna- v. to !ade, to gro$ to$ards e)ening Ety/790 c
The punctuation in 'he ,tymologies is considered
incorrect 2the !ull dot a!ter this $ord should
concei)ably be a co""a4
thinnas n.abst.of thent, lit. LshortnessL 2name of a mark
indicating short ?uality of vowel4 Ety/7;;
(hinnedhel n. Crey El!, a sub+ect o! Thingol
thr n. look, !ace, e=pression, countenance Ety/790,
HT/N6361
th*l n.Mil. hel" S/N7;
th*n 2thaun N.4 n. pine-tree Ety/790, S/N7;, R,/7;N
thond n. root 2o! a tree, plant etc.4 /otR/E, /etters/6:;
@thonion der.pl. of th*n Dorthonion S/791, S/N7;,
Ety/790
th*r I n. eagle .electhor S/700,7<M, /otR/-2ii4, Ety/790
th*r II adj. s$ooping, leaping do$n Ety/797
@thora- v. to !ence Ety/797
th%rod n. torrent Ety/797
thoron n. eagle Ety/790, S/N7;, Q/&
thoronath n. coll. of thoron, eagles S/7;:, S/N7;
thost n. s"ell HT/N<369
@thosta- v. to stink HT/N<369
th# n. stench Ety/797
@thuia- v. to breathe Ety/797
th#l n. breath Ety/797
thurin adj. secret, hidden /8/71N, Ety/79N
t n. line, ro$ Ety/790
till 2tild N.4 n. horn, point Ety/797
tin- v. to sparkle 2E/6:4
@tn I adj. poss. 6rd his/hers/its bess d3n SD/609-76.
tn II adj. silent, Puiet R,/MM6 c See also dn I !or a
discussion regarding this $ord

tinc n. "etal
tnen adj. silent R,/MM6 c See also dn I !or a discussion
regarding this $ord
@tinna- v. to glint Ety/797
tinnu 2tindu N.4 n. 1. dusk, t$ilight, early night 2without
Moon4 2. by e#t. starry t$ilight Ety/7MM, Ety/797,
Q/.D0 tinuKdU
(innuln n. -rcturus, *the glint at dusk*, the brightest star
in the northern celestial he"isphere
tint n. spark Ety/797
Atinu 2tinw N.4 n. spark, s"all star Ety/797, Q/?
tr adj. straight, right Ety/796
@tir- v. to $atch, to ga'e, look at Ety/79N.
@tra- v. to see t8rad SD/609-76
tras n.abst.of tr straightness, correctness
@tiria- v. to $atch, to ga'e, look at Ety/79N
tirith n. $atch, guard 2abstract noun4, )igilance
Ety/79N, S/N7:, /etters/6M;, HT/N0366
@tirn n. $atcher heledirn Ety/79N
@tirnen pp. of tir-, guarded 'alath Dirnen GT/N<M,
Ety/79N, S/N7:
tithen adj. little, tiny Ety/79N
tiwdi n. alphabet tR$KtR
@toba- v. to co)er, roo! o)er Ety/79N
tobas n.abst.of toba-, rooEng, roo!
to$n adj. lo$lying, deep, lo$
@tog- N. v. to lead, bring Ety/79M
D togol n. cockerel
tol n. island, 2steep4 isle rising $ith sheer sides !ro" the
sea or !ro" a ri)er
@tol- v. to co"e Ety/79M
toleg 2tolch *.4 n. dim. 1. Llittle pro"inent oneL, play
na"e gi)en to the "iddle Enger 2,lvish play-name used
by and taught to children4 HT/N;3<,6<-6:
tollui 2%rch. tolhui4 adj. num. ord. eighth HT/N030M,
HT/N030:, HT/N:370, HT/N0361, Teng$estie/0117601:
100
tolog adj. stal$art, trusty Ety/79M
toloth 2tolodh *.4 adj. num. card. eight Ety/79N,
HT/N030M, HT/N0376, HT/N;3<
tolothen adj. num. ord. archaic eighth erin dolothen Oor
the usual $ord see tollui
tolothil n. octagon *eight points*
@toltha- v. to !etch, su""on, "ake co"e Ety/79M
tond 2tonn N.4 adj. tall
tong adj. taut, tight 2of strings4, resonant Ety/79N
@toniel n. fem. kindler <ilthoniel c
tor- v. to hide 2E/6:4
t*r n.masc.%rch. brother Ety/79N, Q/& c The $ord
"uindor is "ore usual
torech n. hole, e=ca)ation, lair
torog n. troll
@tortha- v. to $ield, control
toss n. bush, lo$-gro$ing tree 2as maple, hawthorn,
blackthorn, holly, etc.4 Ety/7:9, Ety/79M
@trann n. shire, ad"inistrati)e district, di)ision o! a real"
i-Drann SD/609-76
@trannail adj. o! the Shire genediad Drannail SD/609-76
trasta- v. to harass, trouble Ety/796
tre- 2tri N.4 pref. through 2but denoting completeness
when pre+#ed to verbs4
@trenar- v. to recount, to tell to end
trenarn n. account, tale tre-Knarn
@trevad- v. to tra)erse
tr prep. through Ety/790
trw adj. Ene, slender Ety/790
t# n. "uscle, sine$, )igour, physical strength
t#g adj. thick, !at
@tuia- N. v. 1. to sprout, spring 2. to s$ell
D tuig n. thigh
tuilinn n. s$allo$ 2bird Lspring-singerL4
tuiw n. a sprout, bud
tull n. banner, standard 2TG/G4

tulu n. support, prop
tulus n. poplar-tree
tu" n. deep )alley, under or a"ong hills
tu"p n. hu"p
tund 2tunn N.4 n. hill, "ound
t#r n. "astery, )ictory
D trcha" n. throne *)ictory-chair* 2C/4
D t#s- v. to tease, co"b $ool
t,rn n. pl. do$ns 'yrn <orthad Lthe 8arro$-do$nsL
102
B
pref. no, not 2negative pre+# or particle4
an n. "onster
uanui adj. "onstrous, hideous
ubed n. denial
bedui adj. not Et to say 2E/6:4
channas n. unintelligence 2WKhannas4
gal adj. dark, not shining 2E/6:4
gar adj. idle 2E/6:4
garol adj. idling 2E/6:4
@garth pl. gerth n. bad deed, sin, trespass
HT/NN306,0; WKcarth
ui n. en)elope 2especially of the 5uter *ea or %ir enfolding
the world within the Nlurambar or world-walls4
@ui- pref. e)er uidafnen, uilos 2see these $ords4
,ognate o! the Puenya oi
uial n. t$ilight Ety/N11, S/N79, /otR/D ui-Kgal
@uida$nen 2uidavnen N.4 adj. e)er-closed ?R/7N6, Q/&
c .or"ali'ed to uidafnen, as in lefnui uiKta!nen
Le)er-blockedL
uil n. sea$eed Ety/79<
uilos n.and adj. 1. al$ays $hite, e)er $hite as sno$ 2.
as a noun, a s"all $hite e)erlasting So$er also called
si"bel"ynV or Le)er"indL RCEF/:N, /etters/0:;,
GT/MM ui- K loss Le)erlasting sno$, e)er 2$hite as4
sno$
uin prep. o! the SD/609-76 oKi
uir n. eternity Ety/7:9
uireb adj. eternal Ety/7:9
D uitha- v. to lay eggs, nest 2C/4
#l n. odour Ety/7:;
lal adj. gra)e, serious 2E/6:4
ulu n. one o! the na"es o! the Hala Gl"o
uluithiad adj. unPuenchable, $ithout Puenching SD/<0
WKluithia-

D ulu" n. ca"el
Aulunn 2ulund N., ulun N.4 n. "onster, de!or"ed and
hideous creature Ety/79<, Q/.DN
u" adj. bad, e)il Ety/79<
#n n. creature Ety/7:9
ungol n. spider Ety/7<<, ?R/010, /otR, R,/N91
#r I n. Ere, heat Ety/79<
#r II n. $ide Ety/79< see also land II
urug n. 1. Frc 2rarely used4 2.%rch. LbogeyL, anything
that caused !ear to the El)es, any dubious shape or
shado$, or pro$ling creature ?J/791 See orch,
gla"
urui n. and adj. 1. hot 2.$al.as a noun, the "onth o!
-ugust
thaes n. induce"ent to do $rong, te"ptation
thannas n. untruth 2WKthannas4
vel adj. not lo)ing, unlo)ing
velui adj. unlo)able 2E/6:4
104
C
A,l$ I 2iol$ N.4 n. brand c The $ord is classed as Fld
.oldorin 2F.4 in the ,tymologies, but rather see"s to
be .oldorin
,l$ II n. drinking-)essel
,ll n. draught 2o! a drink4
r 2i*r N.4 n. course

English - Sindarin
106
A
abandon v. a$artha-
abandon"ent n. a$arth
abhor v. !uia-
abhorrence n. delos
abhorrent adj. thaur
abiding adj. hi" I, thand II
abo"inable adj. deleb, thaur
abound v. o)ra-
about prep. o II
above I prep. or
above II pref. or-
abundant adj. o)or
ab,ss n. dath, iZ
account n. trenarn
account 5o$ tongues) n. la""as
acre n. rRdh
across adv. pref. ath- I, athra- I, thar-
active adj. car$eg
acute adj. laeg I
a$ar adv.pref. palan-
aAect v. presta-
aAected pp. prestannen
aAection n. "Rl
aDiction n. caul
aged n. iphant
agile adj. celeg
ago adv. io
a$ter prep.pref ab-
again adv. adui
against prep. dan
ahE interj. aiJ
Ainu n. rodon
air 5as a tune/ n. lind
air 5as substance/ n. g$elu
air 5as a region/ n. g$ilith
air, lower n. g$el$en
alas interj. nae
Aldebaran n. borgil
alive I adj. cuin
alive II v. cuina-

all adj. pZn II
allegiance, hold v. buia-
allow v. da!-
alone I pref. er-
alone II adj. erui
alone III adv. ero
alphabet n. ti$di
alphabet, runic n. angerthas, certhas
also adv. eithro
a"ber n. "aligon
a"putate v. osgar-
anchor n. cgra"
ancient adj. iaur
and conj. a, ah, ar, adh
anger n. rUth
angle n. bennas, nass
angr, adj. rWthui
angular adj. negen
ani"al n. la)an
annals n. gnias
anniversar, n. edinor
answer n. dang$eth
anvil n. onin
apparition, vague n. auth II
appear v. thia-
apple n. or!
apple-tree n. or!orn
approach v. anglenna-
April n. g$irith
arch n. cU
Arcturus n. tinnulgn
arid adj. apharch
ar" n. ranc
around pref. os-
arrow n. pilin
article n. bach
as conj. sui
ash n. lith
ashen adj. lithui
asse"bl, n. hUd
assist v. atha-
108
at prep. na
August n. urui
AulF n. belegol
autu"n n. ia)as, lasbelin
Avar n. ga)ar
avenge v. achar-
awaGen v. echuia-
awaGening n. echui
awe n. an$ar
awGward adj. rhanc
awr, adj. rhanc
aHe-stroGe n. hast

)
babble v. gla)ra-
babbling adj. gla)rol
bab, n. laes
bacG, again adv. pref. ad-
bacG, $ro" shoulder to shoulder n. bost
bad adj. !aeg, u"
baGe v. bas-
baGe bread v. basta-
bald adj. rUdh
ball n. coron
ban v. boda-
bane n. dagnir
banner n. tull
barG n. rR!
barrow n. gorthad
bath n. soth
battle I n. auth, dagor, "aeth
battle II v. dagra-
battles, all o$ the n. dagorath
ba, n. ca!
ba,, s"all and land-locGed n. hUb
be v. na-
be able to v. pol-
beach n. !alas, !aur
beacon n. narthan
bear n. brag, gra$, "edli
bear-liGe adj. "edlin
beard n. !ang
bearer n. cyll
beat v. dra)a-
beat 5with a ha""er/ v. dringa-
beauti$ul adj. bain
beaut, n. bainas
bed n. haust
bedridden adj. caeleb
bee n. nui
bee, hone, n. glinui
beech-tree n. brethil, !]r
be$ore prep. nW!
beget v. edonna-, onna-
110
begin 5suddenl, and vigorousl,/ v. heria-
be goneE interj. ego
behind prep. adel
beholdE interj. alae
beneath I pref. di-
beneath II prep. nu
bent adj. cUn, raeg
berr, n. pUg
beside pref. ar- 2arch.4
betra, v. g$eria-
betra,er n. g$arth
be,ond prep. athan
bind v. g$edh-, nod-
biped n. tad-dal
bird, s"all n. ae$, Eleg
birds, o$ adj. ae$en
birthda, n. oronnad
bite v. nag-
biting n. naeth, narch
blacG adj. "orn
blade, aHe or broadsword n. hathol
blasphe", n. daebeth
bleat v. neta-
blessing n. galu
blocG v. tab-
blocGed adj. ta!nen
blood n. agar, iZr, sereg
bloodstained adj. agar$aen, agar$en
blosso" v. edlothia-
blue adj. luin
blue, pale adj. elu
boar n. caragpholg
boat n. lunt
bod, n. rha$ II
boge, n. urug
bold adj. beren, cand
bond n. g$edh, g$end I
bone n. asg
booG n. par!
border n. edrain, glZn II, rain I, rR$
born pp. onnen

born 5later/ n. and adj. abonnen
boso" n. su!
bottle n. olph
bound adj. naud
bound 5to li"it/ v. gleina-
boundar, n. taeg
boundar,, "arG o$ n. glandagol
bow I v. ca!-
bow II n.Mil. cU, peng
bowed adj. cUn
bowstring n. tang
bracelet n. "grechor
branch n. gol!
brand n. yl! I
bread n. bass, bast
bread-giver n. bassoneth, bessain
breaG v. rag-
breaG out, suddenl, v. breitha-
breastplate n. a"bas
breath n. h$est, thUl
breathe v. thuia-
breeIe n. h$Y, h$est
bride n. dineth, dRs
bridegroo" n. daer II
bridge n. iant
bright adj. glZn I
brilliance n. aglar, rill
brilliance, glea"ing 5o$ the sun/ n. !ael II
brilliant adj. celair
bring v. tog-
broad adj. land II
brooch n. tachol
broth n. salph
brother n. hanar 2arch.4, ha$n 2arch.4, tar 2arch.4
brother, dear n. "uindor
brother, sworn n. g$ador
brown adj. rhosg
brown, golden/,ellow/darG adj. baran
bud n. tui$
building n. adab, car
112
building, large o$ "asonr, 5used as a dwelling/ n.
barthan
bull n. "und
burden, great n. caul
burial "ound n. haudh
burn v. dosta-
bush n. toss
bus, adj. car$eg
but prep. ach, dan
butter n. "ang
butter2, n. g$il$ileth
buttocGs n. hach

+
cage adj. gadoras
cairn n. sarnas
caGe n. cra"
calendar n. genediad
call I v. can-, ialla-
call II n. ial
calligrapher n. tegilbor
ca"el n. ulu"
ca"p n. echad
candle n. lig"ae
canop, n. daedelu, orthelian
cape 5headland/ n. cast
captain n. hest
carpenter n. tha)ron
carpet n. !ar!
+assiopeia n. g$il$ileth
cat n. iaul
cat, Jueen n. "iaulin
cat, to" n. "iaug
catch v. gad-
catch 5in a net/ v. raeda-
cave n. !ela, gathrod, groth
cavern n. gath
cavernous adj. raudh
centre n. ened
chain n. ang$edh
chair n. ha"
cha"ber n. sa"
cha"bers n.pl. sa""ath
character 5o$ a stor,/ n. narphen
char" n. lUth
cheat v. g$eria-
cheese n. cur
cherr, n. aep
cherr, tree n. aeborn
chicGen n. porog
child n. h]n
choGe v. por-
choose v. cil-
circle n. rind, ringorn
114
circle, outer n. echor
circular adj. rend
citadel n. ost
cit,, above ground n. caras
cit,, underground n. othronn
cit,, with a citadel or wall n. "inas, ost
cla"our n. caun I
clasp n. tae$
claw n. ga"p
clean I adj. puig
clean II v. puiga-
clear adj. li" II
cleared adj. laden
clearing 5in $orest/ n. lant I
cleaver n.Mil. crist, hZdh
cle$t I n. cRl I, cirith, iau II
cle$t II adj. thanc
cle$t, deep n. !alch
clever adj. "aen
cliA, great n. brass II
cloaG n. coll III
close v. hol-, tab-
closed adj. hollen, ta!nen
clothe v. hab-, ha""a-
clothing n. ha""ad
cloud n. !ain, !Zn, !aun
cloud, adj. !anui
club n.Mil. grond
coat, $ur n. heleth
cobweb n. lhing
cocGerel n. togol
coin, used in 3ondor n. "irian
cold adj. ring
cold, bitter n. helch
colour n. pil
co"e v. tol-
co""anding adj. conui
co""onl, adj. Xrui
co"plain v. "uia-
co"plete 5a worG or design/ adj. rhaed
co"pulsion n. thang

conceal v. delia-, doltha-
conceive 5an idea/ v. nautha-
conr" v. tangada-
conJuer v. orthor-
continuall, adv. hi" I
contorted adj. norn
contract n. go$est
control v. tortha-
converse n. athrabeth
cool adj. hi" II
copper n. rust
copper, o$ adj. rustui
copper-coloured adj. gaer II, ross II
cord n. nordh
core n. ened
corn n. iau I
corner n. bennas, nass
corpse n. daen
correctness n. tgras
corrupt adj. tha$
counsel v. gor-
count v. gonod-, nedia-
countenance n. thRr
countless adj. arnediad, aronoded
course n. pr
court,ard n. pand
cover v. toba-
cow, "ilG n. gach
cra$t n. curu, "aenas
creature n. Un
crescent n. cU
cri"e n. oe$
crooG 5shape/ n. ga"p
crooGed adj. raeg, raen I
cross v. athra- II, athrada-
cross, to and $ro v. athra- II
crossing n. athrad, iach
cross-wa, n. tharbad
crow n. corch
crowd n. hoth, o)ras, ri" I
crown n. rR
116
crowned adj. rRn I
cruel adj. balch, baug
cruelt, n. balchas
cr, n. ial
cr, 5o$ encourage"ent in battle/ n. hUl
cr, 5out/ v. can-, nalla-
cr,stal n. i)or
cr,stalline adj. i)ren
cucu"ber n. colost
+uivi>nien n. nen echui
cunning adj. coru
curse n. rhach
cushion n. nedhu
custod, n. band
custo" n. hae$
cut I n. criss, rest
cut II v. rista-
cutlass n. lang
c,cle, age n. andrann

.
dadd, n. ada
daAodil n. "aloglin
dagger n. sigil I
dail, adj. ilaurui, Xrui
dais, n. eirien
da"p adj. nRd
dance I n. lilth
dance II v. liltha-
dangle v. glinga-
dare v. bertha-
darG I adj. doll, dUr, "orn
darG II n. "ar
darG III 5not shining/ adj. Wgal
darGness n. dWath, !uin, "ar
daughter n. iell, sell
da, n. arad, aur, calan
da,, $th o$ the weeG n. or"enel
da,, rst o$ the weeG n. orgilion
da,, $ourth o$ the weeG n. orgaladh, orgaladhad
da,, last o$ the ,ear n. penninor
da,, second o$ the weeG n. oranor
da,, seventh o$ the weeG n. oraeron
da,, siHth o$ the weeG n. orbelain
da,, third o$ the weeG n. orithil
da,ti"e n. arad, aur
dead adj. !ern, g$ann
dead 5person/ n. gorth II
.ead, the n. class.pl. gorthri"
deadl, adj. delu
dear adj. "ell, "uin
death I n. gUr, gurth, guruth
death II 5act o$ d,ing/ n. g$anath, g$anu
death-horror n. guruthos
debate n. athrabeth
decagon n. caenthil
.ece"ber n. girithron
decrepit 5o$ things/ adj. gern
deed n. carth
deep adj. nUr I
deer n. aras
118
de$end v. gartha-
delicate adj. deil
deliver 5$ro" evil/ v. edeleda-
dell n. i" II
delving n. groth
de"on n. raug
de"on, great n. balrog
denial n. ubed
depart v. g$anna-
departed n. g$ann
deprive v. neitha-
desert n. eru
desirable adj. grui
desire v. angra-, gdhra-
desire, seHual n. Rr
detestation n. delos
device n. gaud
device, 2oreate Mil. n. a"loth
dew n. "Rdh
die v. Er-
diAicult 5to pronounce/ adj. dirbedui
diAicult, n. tarias
di" v. g$athra-
dirt, adj. g$aur
disguise v. ga$a-
disgust n. del
disgusting adj. !uiol
dispute n. cost
distance, re"ote n. haered
distant I adv. hae
distant II adj. haeron
distil v. ros-
distinct adj. "inai
disturb v. presta-
divide v. ethad-
divinit, n. balan, rodon
do v. car-
do 5wrong/ v. othgar-
doer n. ceredir
dog n. hU
dog, hound o$ chase n. rpn

do"e n. telu
doo" I n. a"arth, "anadh
doo" II v. bartha-
doo"ed adj. barad I
door n. !en
door, great n. annon
doorwa, n. !ennas
dot n. peg
double adj. edaid, tadol
dough n. "oeas
dove n. cugu
down, downwards adv. dad
downhill adv. dadbenn
dragon n. a"lug
drain v. sautha-
draught n. suith, yll
draw v. teitha-
dread n. achas. gae, gost
dread$ul adj. gaer I, goeol
drea" I n. al
drea" II v. oltha-
drea", adj. Xlui
drear n. "uil
drinG v. soga-
drinGing-vessel n. yl! II
drip v. ros-
drown v. por-
dru" n. labu"
drunG n. bal!aug
dr, adj. parch
dungeon n. gador
.unlendings n.class.pl. g$athuiri"
duress n. thang
dusG n. tinnu
dusG, adj. doll
dust n. ast, lith
dust, adj. lithui
.war$ n. hadhod, naug, na$ag, nogoth
.warves, the n.class.pl. hadhodri", naugri", nogothri"
dwell v. dortha-
dwelling n. bar
120
'
eager adj. bara
eagle n. thar I, thoron
ear n.sing. lhe$ig
earring n. lhe$igor!
ears, pair o$ n.pl. lha$
earth I n. a"ar, cae I
'arth II ce)en
earthen adj. ce!n
earthen-ware n. ce!nas
ease v. atha-
easil, pref. ath- II
east n. a"rUn, rhUn, rhu)en
eastern adj. rhWnen
eas,, to achieve n. dadbenn
eas,, to do adj. athgar
eas,, to see adj. athgen
eat v. "ad-
eavesdrop v. lathra-, lathrada-
eavesdropper n. lathron, lethril
ebb n. dannen
echo n. gla"or
echoing adj. gla"ren
edge n. rR$
edge, sharp n. lanc III
eel n. ing$il
egg n. ott
eight adj.num. toloth
eighth adj.num. tollui, tolothen 2arch.4
elder adj. einior
elephant n. annabon
eleven adj.num. "i"p, "inib
'l$ n. edhel
'l$, darG n. "ornedhel
'l$-$riend n. el)ellon
'l$, 3re, n. thinnedhel
'l$-"aid n. elleth
'l$, "ale n. ellon
'l$, (eler n. teler
el$-stone n. edhelharn
el"-tree n. lal!, lalorn, lal)en, lal$en

'lves, 3reen n.class.pl. laegri"
'lves, o$ .oriath n.class.pl. iathri"
'lves, o$ 8othl%rien n.class.pl. galadhri"
'lves, @ilvan n.class.pl. ta$ar$aith
'lves, (eleri n.class.pl. telerri"
elvish adj. edhellen
e"bers n. iUl
e"inent adj. orchal
e"it 5$oul breath/ v. pha$-
e"otion n. !el!
e"pt, adj. co!n, lost
enca"p"ent n. estolad
enchant v. lWtha-
enclose v. gleina-
enclosure, circular n. cerin
end I n. "eth, "ethed
end II adj. "ethen
endless adj. arnediad, aronoded
endure v. brenia-, dartha-
enduring adj. bronadui
ene", n. coth
en$old v. g$aeda-
enlaced adj. raen II
enlarge v. panna- I
en"it, n. coth
enough adv. !ar, !arn
'nt n. onod
entangle v. gonathra-
entangle"ent n. gonathras
enter v. "inna-, neledh-
envelope n. ui
error n. "ist, "istad
especiall, adv. edregol
establish v. tangada-
estuar, n. ethir I
eternal adj. uireb
eternit, n. uir
evening n. aduial, thRn 2arch.4
ever pref. ui-
ever-closed adj. uida!nen
evil adj. ogol, u"
122
eHalted adj. hall I
eHcavate v. rosta-
eHcavation n. torech
eHcept prep. eng
eHcla"ation, o$ wonder or delight n. elo
eHile I n. edledhron
eHile, go into v. edledhia-
eHiled adj. edlenn
eHpand v. beltha-
e,e n. hen
e,es, o$ adj. heneb
e,es, pair o$ n. hent

1
$ace n. nR!, thRr
$ade I v. g$anna-, pel- II
$ade II 5to grow towards evening/ v. thinna-
$ading n. peleth, pelin
$ading, season o$ n. Erith
$ail v. de$-
$aintness n. h$Rn
$air adj. bain
$air 5and pale/ adj. g$Zn
$air-haired adj. baen
$aith n. astor, bron$e
$all I n. dant, lant II
$all II v. danna-
$alling adj. talt
$alsi$, v. ga$a-
$a"il, n. nost, nothri"
$a"il, 5line, or tree/ n. nothlir
$a"ous adj. palan-hinnen
$ang n. carch
$antastic adj. h$iniol
$ar I adv. hae
$ar II adj. haeron
$arewell interj. and n. no)aer
$ashion v. echad-
$asten v. taetha-
$at I n. lar
$at II adj. tUg
$ate n. a"arth, "anadh
$ated adj. a"arthan
$ather n. adar
$atho" n. rae$
$ear I n. achas, del, niphred
$ear II v. gosta-
$ear, great n. goe
$east n. "ereth
$eat n. carth
$eather n. pess
1ebruar, n. ngnui
$eel v. "atha-
$eel 5disgust/ v. !uia-
124
$eel 5e"otion/ v. !el-
$eel 5terror/ v. groga-
$eel 5with the hand/ v. plada-
$ell adj. delu
$e"ale adj. inu
$ence I n. iZth
$ence II v. thora-
$ence, o$ spiGes n. cail
$ence, outer n. ephel
$enland n. la
$estival n. "ereth
$estive adj. "eren
$etch v. toltha-
$etter n. nadh
eld n. parth, sant
eld, $enced n. pel
eld, 2at n. tal! II
eld, sown n. rRdh
erce adj. braig, bregol
erceness n. bregolas
er, adj. bara, nXrui
$th adj.num.ord. le!nui, le"ui
ght I n. "aeth
ght II v. "aetha- I
ll v. panna- II
lth n. sa$ II
nal adj. "ethen
nd v. hir-
nd 5a wa, to so"ething/ v. rada-
ne adj. brand, lhind, trR$
nger n. leber
nger, indeH n. lebdas
nger, little n. lebig, niged
nger, "iddle n. lebenedh
nger, ring n. lebent
ngers, thu"b and indeH together n. nobad
re n. naur, Ur I
r" adj. tanc, taug, thand II
r"a"ent n. "enel
rst adj.num. "ain, "inui
rst-voiced, verse "ode o$ n. "inla"ad

sh n. hZl, li" III
sher"an n. li"raedor
st n. dond
st, clenched n. dra"bor
st, $or holding tools n. paur
ve num. leben
H v. penia-
2a"e I v. lacha-
2a"e II n. naur
2a"e, leaping n. lach
2ap v. blab-
2ee v. drega-
2esh n. rha$ II
2et n. talan
2oat v. loda-
2ood n. duinen
2ood-water n. ial
2oor n. tala!
2oor, wooden n. panas
2ow v. siria-
2ow, liGe a torrent v. rib-
2ow 5out/ v. ethiria-
2ower I n. loth
2ower II v. edlothia-
2ower, golden n. "allos
2ower, golden water n. ninglor
2ower, single n. lotheg
2ower, s"all and white 5i""ortal/ n. alErin
2ower, stonecrop n. seregon
2owers, collection o$ n. g$aloth
2owers, head o$ n. goloth
2owing n. sirith
2owing 5o$ water/ adj. cell
2, v. re)ia-
2,, large n. budh
2,, s"all n. idh
$oa" I n. !al!, g$ing
$oa" II v. !altha-
$oe n. gUd
$og n. hRth, hithu
$og, white n. "ith I
126
$ogg, adj. hethu, hithui
$oliage n. golas
$ollow v. aphada-
$ollower n. aphadon, bpr, echil
$ood n. "ann
$ood, cooGed n. aes
$oot n. tZl
$oot, ani"alKs n. pad
$ootprint n. rein
$ootstool n. tharas
$ord n. athrad, iach
$orest n. taur II
$orester n. tauron
$orever n. anuir
$orgive v. dghena-, gohena-
$orGed adj. thanc
$or"ation 5tapering to a point/ n. naith
$or"ed adj. cadu
$orsaGe v. a$artha-
$orsaGen adj. eglan
$ort n. garth
$orth pref. ed-
$ortress n. barad II, garth
$ortress, underground n. othronn
$ortunate adj. al$ed
$ortune n. "anadh
$our num. canad
$ourth num. adj. canthui
$owl n. porog
$oH n. rusc
$rail adj. "R$
$ree adj. lain I
$reeIe v. hel-
$reJuent adj. lae$, re" II
$resh adj. cR$, laeb
$riend n. "ellon, "eldir, "eldis
$riendliness n. "iluias
$riendl, adj. "ilui
$riendship n. g$end I
$rog n. cabor
$ro" prep. o I

$ront n. nR!
$rost n. niss
$rost, adj. nithren
$ruit n. ia!
$ull adj. pant
$ullness n. pathred
$ungus n. h$and
$ur n. heleth, hel!
128
3
gap n. gas
gape v. iag-
garden n. sant
garland n. rR
gar"ent n. ha"p
gate, great n. annon
gatewa, n. !ennas
ga, adj. "eren
gaIe v. tir-, tiria-
generous adj. !ael I
giant n. noroth
giddiness n. h$Rn
gi$t n. ant
girdle n. lest
girl n. iell
girl, in her teens n. neth II
give v. anna-
giver n. oneth
glance 5at/ v. glintha-
glass n. heledh
glea" n. glRn
gli""ering adj. gael
glint I n. glRn
glint II v. tinna-
glisten v. thilia-
glittering n. galad
glittering 5white/ adj. sili)ren
globe n. coron
globed adj. corn
gloo" n. da$, !uin, "aur
gloo", adj. de", do!n
glori$, v. egleria-
glorious adj. aglareb
glor, n. claur
glor,, great n. aglar
gluttonous adj. "ad$eg
go v. "en-
goblet n. sUl II
gold, "etal n. cal, "alt
golden adj. "allen

good I adj. "aer
good II interj. "a
goodness n. "aeras
goose n. g$aun
gooseberr, n. "elph
gorge n. cRl I
gorge, deep n. cabed
grace n. bless
grade n. tell
grasp v. "ab-
grass n. glae
grass, stiA n. thZr
grassland, wide n. nan
grave I adj. Wlal
grave II n. haudh, sarch
gravel n. brith
grease n. lar
great adj. beleg, daer I
greed, adj. "elch
green adj. calen
green 5and $resh/ adj. laeg II 2arch.4
greet v. suila-, suilanna-
greeting n. suil, suilad
gre, adj. thind
gre,, o$ adj. "ithren
gre, 5pale/ adj. "ith II
grind v. run-
gross 51LL/ adj.num. host
ground n. tala!
growth n. galas
guarded pp. tirnen
guess n. inc
guest n. nathal
guesthouse n. sennas
gul$ n. iZ, iau II
gull n. g$ael, "ae$, "l
130
6
habit n. hae$
hacG 5through/ v. hasta-
hair, braided n. Ennel
hair, locG o$ n. Eng
hair, ringlet o$ n. la$s
hair, shagg, n. !ast
hal$ I pref. per-
hal$ II n. perin
6al$-'l$ n. peredhel
hall n. tha"
hall, great n. tha"as
halt n. post
ha""er I n. da", dring
ha""er II v. da""a-
ha"s n. hach
hand n. ca", "a$ I 2arch.4
hand, le$t n. cru", hair, har)o
hand, right n. !air II, !or)o
hand-$ull n. "Zb
handle v. "aetha- II, "atha-
hand, adj. "aed II
hang v. glinga-
harass v. trasta-
harbour n. hUb, lorn
harbourage n. hobas
hard adj. norn
hare n. laboth
harp n. gannel
harper n. talagan
hast, adj. celeg
hat n. carab
hate$ul adj. delu
have 5to hold/ v. gar-
have 5to possess/ v. sa!-
haven n. cgrbann, hUb
havens n. lonnath
head n. dal
heal v. nesta-
healing adj. nestadren
heap n. cu", o)ras

hear v. lar-
heart I 5in the "oral sense/ n. gUr I
heart II 5ph,sical/ n. hUn
heat n. Ur I
heat, white n. brass I
heaven, high n. "enel
heav, adj. long
hedge n. cai
hedge, o$ spiGes n. caraes
height n. hallas
heir n. hRl
heirloo" n. ad)Rr
hel" n.Mil. thal
hel"et n. harn III
help$ul adj. atha$eg
he" n. glZn II, rR$
heptagon n. odothil
herb n. salab
here adv. si
hero n. callon, thalion
hew v. dra!-
heHagon n. enethil
hide v. tor-
hidden adj. hall II, thurin
hideous adj. uanui
high adj. hall I
high, in siIe adj. brand
hill n. a"on, dal, tund
hill, isolated with a watchtower n. "indon
historical adj. gobennathren
histor, n. gobennas, pennas
6obbit n. perian
6obbits, the n. periannath
holder n. tae$
hole n. dath, gas, torech
hole, ne pierced n. tess
hollow adj. coll II, raudh
hollow 5out/ v. rosta-
holl,, the land o$ n. eregion
holl,-tree n. ereg, eregdos
hol, adj. aer II
132
ho"e n. bar
ho"e, dear n. "ilbar
ho"eland n. bardor
hone, n. glR
hone,co"b n. nRdh
hooG n. ga"p
hop v. laba-
hope I n. estel
hope II v. hartha-
hope, based on reason n. a"dir
horde n. hoth
horiIon n. "eneldaeg
horn I n. ras, rasg, tarag, till
horn II n. ro"
horns, sound o$ n. ro"ru
horrible adj. deleb, gortheb
horror n. del, girith, gorog, goroth
horror, eHtre"e n. gorgor
horse, $or riding n. roch
horse, $or worGing n. lobor
horse-lord n. rochir
6orse-8ords n.class.pl. rochirri"
host n. hoth, ri" I
hot adj. born, urui
house n. adab, car
household n. herth
how interrogative.pron. "anen
hu"an n. Eren
hu""ocG n. g$astar
hu"p n. tu"p
hundred, one num. haran
hungr, adj. saig
hunt I v. !ara-
hunt II n. rui
hunter n. !eredir
hunter, "ale n. !aron
hunters n. !aradri", !aroth
hunting n. !aras
hurl v. had-
husband n. benn, her)enn
h,acinth n. lingui

134
I
ice n. heleg
icicle n. aeglos
ic, adj. helegren
idea n. inc, na$
identical adj. i"u
idle adj. Wgar
idling adj. Wgarol
i$ conj. pe
ignorant v. g$ista-
ill adj. lhae$ II
i"age n. e""
i"agination n. ing
i""ortal adj. alErin
i"pelled adj. horn
i"petus n. gor!
i"petuous adj. alag, asgar, gorn
i"prison adj. gadoras
i"pulse n. !el!
in I prep. "i
in II pref. nedh-
in, during prep. ned
incline n. talad
innocence n. glanas
innu"erable adj. arnediad, aronoded
insane adj. penind
insecure adj. talt
insert v. nestag-
instead adv. sennui
insult v. eitha-
intelligence n. hannas
intelligent adj. hand
intend v. thel-
interaction n. athragardh
into prep. "ina
iron n. ang
iron, o$ adj. angren
island n. tol
isolated adj. ereb
iv, n. ethil

M
Manuar, n. nar$ain
Naw n. anc, carach. nae$
NerG I n. rinc
NerG II v. ritha-
Newel n. "Rr
Newel-s"ith n. "grdan
NoGe n. cag
Nourne, I v. ledh-
Nourne, II n. lend I
Nourne,-bread n. le"bas
No, n. gell, glass
No,$ul adj. gell$eg
No,ous adj. gellui, glassui, "eren
Nubilation n. gella"
Nudge I v. badh-
Nudge II n. badhor
Nudge"ent n. baudh
Nuice n. paich, sa$
Nuic, adj. pihen
Mul, n. ce)eth
Mune n. nXrui
Nust adj. !ael I
Nustice n. !aelas
136
O
Geen adj. laeg I
Geenness n. laegnas
Geep v. heb-
OhaIad-.#" n. dornhabar
Gind adj. "ilui
Gindle v. nartha-
Gindler n. toniel
Gindliness n. "iluias
Gindred n. nost
Ging n. aran, Zr, taur I
Gingdo" n. arnad
Gingsher n. heledir
Gings$oil n. athelas
Gins"an n. g$anur
Giss v. "ib-
Gnead v. "aega-
Gni$e n. sigil I
Gnob, round n. dolt
GnocG v. ta""a-
Gnot n. nardh
Gnotted adj. norn
Gnow v. ista-
Gnowledge n. ist

8
labour I v. "uda-
labour II n. tass
lad, n. brennil, dR, heryn, hiril
lair n. cae$, torech
laGe n. ael
laGe, cold 5in the "ountains/ n. ri" II
laGe, shallow n. la
la"b n. iol
la"ent, woe$ul n. naergon
la"entable adj. naer
la"entation n. conath, ngrnaeth
la"p, portable n. calar
la"pwright n. calardan
lancer n. rohaith
land n. dar
land, central n. ennor
land, 2at n. tal! II
land, inhabited n. bar
language n. la" II
lapis laIuli n. ningon
last I v. brona-
last II adj. "edui
lasting adj. bronadui
later prep. pref. ab-
laugh v. gladh-, lal-
laughter n. lalaith
la,, long 5poe"/ n. glaer
lead v. tog-
lead 5out/ v. ethog-
lea$ n. lass
league n. daur
lean adj. lhain
leap v. cab-
learn v. gelia-
learned adj. istui
learned, in deep arts adj. gol$en
le$t n. cro"
le$t-handed adj. cru"ui, harga"
letter n. t]$
level adj. land I
138
licG v. la)-
lie v. !ur-
lie 5down/ v. caeda-
li$e n. cuil
li$eti"e n. lWguil
li$t v. hal-
light I n. calad, gal-, galad
light II adj. li" II
light, bright n. gail
light, golden o$ 8aurelin n. glaur
liGe I v. sera-
liGe II conj. sui
lil, n. inil
li"it I v. gleina-
li"it II n. taeg
line n. t], tR
linG n. li!
lion n. ra$ II
lip n. po
listen v. lasta-
little adj. pRn, tithen
live v. cuia-
load n. cUl
loa$ n. basgorn
loathing n. del, delos
loathso"e adj. deleb
lode n. rant
lo$t, adj. brand, orchal
log, hewn n. dra!n
lonel, adj. ereb
long adj. and
long 5and thin/ adj. taen II
long, $or a long ti"e adv. anann
8ongbeard n. sing. an!ang
8ongbeards n. pl. an!angri"
8ong-"arG n. andaith
8ong-shorts n. pl. ann-thennath
looG I n. thRr
looG II v. tir-
loo" v. brasta-
loose, let loose v. adleg-

lord n. brannon, hRr
lore n. ist
lore, deep n. angol II
lore, "agic n. gUl
lore-"aster n. pengolodh
8%rien n. luien, ol!annor
loud adj. brui
louse n. g$e!
love I v. "ela-
love II n. "eleth, "Rl
lovel, adj. "elui
lover n. "elethor, "elethril, "elethron, seron
loving adj. "ilui
low adj. to!n
lowl,ing adj. to!n
lo,alt, n. astor
lust n. "ael II
lust$ul adj. "aelui
l,re n. sal!
140
9
"achine n. gaud
"agic n. angol II
"agician n. gollor
"aiden n. g$end II
"aGe v. echad-
"aGe r" v. tangada-
"aGe read, v. !eria-
"aGer n. ceredir
"ale I n. benn
"ale II adj. anu
9an, the $athers o$ n. sing. adanadar
9an, the race o$ n. adan
"an n. benn, dRr 2arch.4
"an, one-handed n. ercha""on
"an, "ortal n. Erion
"an, wild n. rha)an
"anage v. "aetha- II
9andos n. bannos, gur!annor
"anhood n. g$aith
"antle n. coll III
9anwF n. aran einior
"an, adj. odri"
"arble n. glast
9arch n. g$aeron
"arG n. tagol, taith
"arGet-place n. bahad
"arriage n. best
"arr, v. besta-
"aster I n. herdir, heron, hRr
"aster II v. orthor-
"aster, n. tUr
"arvellous adj. el)ennui
"athe"atics n. gonodlaeras
9a, n. lothron
"a,or n. condir
"ead n. enn
"eagre adj. lhain
"ean I adj. !aeg
"ean II v. thel-
"eat n. aes

"eet v. co)a-
"e"or, n. rgnas
9en, all o$ the n. class pl. adanath
"ere n. ael
"esh n. re" I
"etal n. raud, tinc
"etal, blacG n. gal)orn
"id pref. nedh-
"iddle n. ened
"iddle-earth n. ennor, ennorath
"ight, adj. beleg, taur III
"ilG, to turn v. cura-
"ine, delved n. sabar
"irror n. cenedril
"isdeed n. othgarn
"iss v. de$-
"ist n. hRth
"ist, wet n. "ith I
"istaGe n. dl
"istaGen adj. dr
"ist-thread n. hithlain
"ist, adj. hithui
"ocGing n. iae$
"oisten v. li""ida-
"onster n. Wan, ulunn
"onstrous adj. uanui
"oon n. ithil
"oon, crescent n. cWron
"oon, new n. cqron
"orning n. aur
"orrowdi" n. "inuial
"ortal I n. !air I
"ortal II adj. Ereb
"other n. e"el, e"il, naneth
"ound n. cerin, coron, cu", tund
"ountain n. dal, orod
"ountaineer n. orodben
"ountain peaG n. aegas, tarag
"ountain peaGs, range o$ n. aeglir
"ountains, range o$ n. "enniath
"outh n. nX!
142
"u"", n.di". nana
"ur"ur n. norr
"uscle n. tU
"usic n. gling
"utated, o$ vowels pp. prestannen
"utation, o$ vowels n. prestanneth

:
nail n. taes
naGed adj. hell, lanc I
na"e I n. eneth, ess
na"e II v. esta-
:andor n. dan$aith
narrator n. pethron
narrow adj. agor
neat adj. puig
necG n. iaeth
necG 5vertebrae/ n. achad
necGlace n. sigil II
necro"anc, n. gUl, "orgul
need I n. baur, thang
need II v. boe
needle n. nel!
neighbour n. sa""ar
neighbours, pair o$ n. sa"arad
nest v. uitha-
net n. g$R, re" I
netted adj. raen II, re""en
new adj. cR$, eden, g$ain, sain
news n. siniath
night n. dU, "ar
night, dead o$ n. !uin
night$all n. dU
nightingale n. dWlinn, "erilin
nightshade n. dWath
night-ti"e n. da$
ni"ble v. En-
nine adj.num. neder
ninth adj.num. nedrui
no I pref. al- I 2arch.4, W
no II interj. ba$
nobilit, n. arodas
noble I adj. arod, brand
noble II n. arphen
noise, con$used n. gla"
noise, rushing or roaring v. lausta-
nois, adj. brui
:oldo 5eHiled/ n. aredhel
144
nonagon n. nederthil
noon n. enedhor
noose n. np$
north I n. !orn, !orod, !or)en
north II adj. !uir
northern adj. !orodren
:orth"en n.class.pl. !orodri", !orod$aith
nose n. bund, ne"
not pref. al- I 2arch.4, W
notion n. inc
:ove"ber n. hithui
now adv. thR
nu"ber, great n. lae
:"en%rean n. dWnadan
nu"erous adj. re" II
nut n. cot

<
<E interj. aJ II
oaG-tree n. doron
oath n. g$aedh, g$est
oats n. ruthol
obliJue adj. adlant
obscure I adj. doll, hethu
obscure II v. g$athra-
obstinate adj. balthand, tarlanc
ocean n. aearon, gaearon
octagon n. tolothil
<ctober n. narbeleth
odour n. Ul
o$ 5$ro"/ prep. o I
old adj. brUn, gern 2o! things4, iaur
old-age adj. inge"
old-,oung adj. iar$ain
on prep. a", bo
on 5this side o$/ prep. ne!
once n. "inlU
one I adj.num. "Rn
one II relati)e pron. pen II
one-handed adj. ercha"ion, ercha""ui
onion n. ngnholch
open I v. edra-, panna- I
open II adj. laden
oppress v. baugla-
oppressive adj. baug
oppressor n. bauglir
or conj. egor
orange I n. cul!
orange II adj. cull
<rc n. gla", gla"og, orch, urug 2arch.4
<rcs n.pl. gla"hoth, orchoth
original adj. iaur
<rion n. "enel)agor
<ro"F n. aran tauron, ara$
out pref. ed-
outline n. cant
outcr, n. caun I
oven n. bothil
146
overshadow v. g$athra-
overwhel"ing adj. taur III
owl n. ha
oH n. tarog

=
pain I n. naeg
pain, to cause II v. naegra
=alantir n. g$achaedir
pale adj. gael, "aidh, "alu, ni"p I
palisade, o$ spiGes n. cail
pallor n. niphred
pal", o$ hand n. ca"lann, plad, tal! I
pans, n. helin
parch"ent n. !adhu
parent n. odhril, odhron
pass, between high walls n. aglonn
pass, in "ountains n. dRn II, i"rad
pasture n. nadhor, nadhras
path n. rZd
path, narrow n. lond
pathwa, n. bZd
patience n. andreth
pause n. daur, post
peace n. sRdh
peaG n. egnas
pearl n. aear)gr
pedlar n. bachor
peel v. par-
pen n. tegil, tegol
penis n. g$Rb
pentagon n. lebthil
per"ission n. dZ!
per"it v. da!-
person, $aith$ul n. sador, sadron
person, wicGed n. ogron
petal n. lothlas
pett, adj. niben
picG up 5with the ngers/ v. leutha-
picture n. e""
piercing adj. "aeg
pig n. pholg
pile 5o$ rocG or earth/ n. "Z!
pilgri" n. randir
pillar, wooden n. tha!n
pillow n. pesseg
148
pin n. tachol
pine-tree n. than
pinG adj. crinth
pipe-weed n. galenas
pippin n. cordo!
pit n. dath
pivot n. pelthaes
place n. sad
place, hol, n. iaun
plait v. cingra-
planG n. pZn I
plant n. galas
plat$or", wooden 5in the trees/ n. talan
pla, I v. telia-
pla, II n. telien
pla, 5a harp/ v. ganna-, gannada-
=leiades n. re""irath
poe" n. glRr
poe", narrative n. glaer
poet n. "aeron
point I n. aeg, "ent, till
point II v. nasta-
point, o$ spear n. thela
point, sharp n. egnas, nass
poison n. sae$
polish v. run-
pollen n. "Zl
ponder v. idhra-
pondering adj. idhren
pool n. ael, lRn, loeg
pool, cold 5in the "ountains/ n. ri" II
pool, s"all n. both
pools n. liniath
poor adj. !aeg
poplar-tree n. tulus
porridge n. ruthol
possess v. sa!-
post n. tagol
potato n. ce!or!
potter n. cennan
potter, n. ce!nas

praise v. daetha-, egleria-
pra, v. her-
precipice n. a)ras, rhass
pregnant n. gai$
preserve 5in "e"or,/ v. ephola-
pricG v. ercha-, nasta-
pricG, with sharp point v. eitha-
pricGle n. erch
pride n. blaud
prince n. caun III, cund 2arch.4, ernil
prison n. band, gador
prisoner n. gadorphen
private adj. said
priIe v. idra-
prohibit v. boda-
prop n. tulu
propert, n. garn
prosperous adj. al$ed
protect v. beria-
proud adj. blad$eg
province n. ardhon
puddle n. both
puA n. h$est
purit, n. glanas
purple adj. ling
putrescence n. sa$ II
putrid 5o$ $ood/ adj. saur
150
P
Juadrilateral n. canthil
Juarrel n. cost
Juarter n. canath
Jueen n. bereth, rRn I, rRs
Juench v. luithia-
Juiet adj. tRn II

?
rabbit n. laboth
race 5on horses/ v. northa-
race 5o$ people/ n. nUr II
race, riding n. north
radiance n. galad, gal-, gla$
radiant n. !aen
rage I n. oroth
rage II v. ruthra-
rain I n. ross I
rain II v. elia-
rainbow n. eiliant, ninniach
raise v. ortha-
range n. lRr I
ranso" n. dan$edh
rape v. "auda-
rapid adj. lagor
rare adj. gd
rat n. nZr
rather adv. sennui
raven n. craban
ravine n. cirith, !alch, iau II, riss
ravish v. "auda-
reach 5$or/ v. raitha-
read 5silentl,, to onesel$/ v. henna-
read 5written "aterial/ v. teng$a-
readiness 5$or action/ n. hUr
read, 5to hand/ adj. !erui
real" n. ardh
reap v. critha-
rear n. tele
recite 5a poe"/ v. glir-
recGon v. genedia-, gonod-
recount v. trenar-
red adj. caran, naru
red, er, adj. ruin
red, golden adj. coll I
red-haired adj. ross II
reed n. esg
reeG n. osp
rell v. adbanna-
152
re2ection n. galad
re$usal, gesture with the hand n. ablad
re$use v. a)a-
re$user n. a)ar
regi"ent n. g$aith
region n. ardh
region, bounded or dened n. gardh
reNoice v. gella-
release I v. adleg- 2arch.4, leithia-
release II n. leithian
re"ain v. dar-, dartha-
re"e"ber v. ephola-, ren-
re"e"brance n. rRn II
re"ote I adv. hae
re"ote II n. haered
rend v. narcha-, rista-
renewal n. cRl II
renewed adj. cRr
rephrase v. adbed-
repl, n. dang$eth
resonant adj. tong
rest I n. Rdh, post, send
rest II v. posta-
resting-place n. cae$
restless adj. pengdh
retain v. heb-
return v. athol-, dananna-
reunite v. adertha-
reveal v. tengia-
ride v. nor-
rider, o$ a horse n. rochben, rochon
ridges n. penneth, pinnath
right I n. !orn
right II adj. tRr
right-handed adj. !orga"
rigid adj. tharn
ring n. cor!
ring, outer n. echor
ringing 5o$ bells/ n. nelladel
ringlet n. loch
rip v. rista-

rise v. eria-
?ivendell n. i"ladris
river n. celon, sRr
river, great n. sirion I
river, long and large n. duin
riverbanG n. duirro, ra$ I
riverbed n. rant, rath
road n. "en
road, paved n. othlonn
roaring adj. rZ!
rocG n. gond
roo$ I v. orthel-, toba-
roo$ II n. tobas
roo$, high n. telu
roo$, o$ a cave 5or vaulted/arched/ n. rond
roo" n. sa"
root n. thond
root, edible n. solch
rope n. raph
rose n. "eril
rotten adj. thaur
round adj. corn
row n. lRr I, tR
ro,al adj. arnen
rub v. run-
rub, n. naru)ir
rudd, adj. crann, gaer II, gruin
ruler n. caun III
run v. nor-
rune n. certh
running adj. cell
rushing adj. alag, asgar
rustling 5sound/ n. lhoss, rhoss
154
@
s-sign n. ga""as
sad adj. de", naer, nUr III
saddle n. rogol
sadness n. naeras
sa$e adj. barn
sa$e-Geeping n. band
saga n. narn
sail v. re)ia-
sailor n. cirion
salt n. sing
salt, adj. singren
salve n. glae$
sa"e adj. i"u
sanctuar, n. iaun
sand n. lith
sapphire n. lUl
sate v. !adra-
save I prep. eng
save II v. reth-
saving n. edraith
sa, v. ped-
scarlet adj. carnin
scorn I v. eitha-
scorn II n. iae$
scratch v. rhib-
screen I n. esgal
screen II v. haltha-
sea n. aear, gaear
sea-serpent n. li"lug
seashell n. hal!
seaweed n. gaeruil, uil
second adj.num. ed$en, tadui
second 5in co""and/ adj. taid
secret adj. thurin
seduce v. "eltha-
see v. cen-, tgra-
seed n. cot, eredh
see" v. thia-
send v. "entha-
sensible adj. noen

sentence n. gobeth
separate adj. said
@epte"ber n. i)anneth
serious adj. Wlal
serpent n. lhUg
serve v. buia-
set v. penia-
set aside v. seidia-
seven adj.num. odog
seventh adj.num. odothui, othui
seH n. huith
shade n. g$ath, lu"
shadow n. dae, dWath, g$ath
shadow, o$ obNects n. "orchant
shadowed adj. hall II
shadow, adj. g$athren, g$athui
shad, adj. hall II, lu"ren
shape n. cant
shaped adj. cadu
shapel, adj. cad$or, "aed I
shaping n. cannas
share v. ethad-
sharp adj. laeg I, "aeg
sharp-e,ed adj. "aecheneb
sharp-pointed adj. "egor
sharpness n. laegnas
sharp-sighted 5with the "ind/ adj. !ergenol
shatter v. ractha-
shave v. thas-
shaven adj. paran
shield n.Mil. a"ath, thand I
shield-$ence n.Mil. thangail
shine 5white/ v. sgla-
ship n. cair
shipbuilder n. cgrdan
shire n. trann
@hire, o$ the adj. trannail
shirt n. laub
shoe n. habad
shore n. esgar, !aur
short adj. estent, then, thent
156
shout v. can-
shouting n. gla"
shrine n. alchor
shudder v. gir-
shuddering n. girith
shush interj. sus
sicG adj. caeleb, lhae$ II
sicGle n. cerch
sicGl, adj. ge", lhae$ II
sicGness n. cael, lhR$, pa$
side, le$t-hand n. har)o
side, right-hand n. !or)o
sign n. taen III
signal-re n. narthan
silence n. dRn I
silent adj. dgnen, tRn II, tgnen
@il"aril n. golo)ir, "irion, sile)ril
silver n. celeb
silver, liGe adj. celebren
si"bel",nF n. uilos
sin n. Wgarth
sinew n. tU
sing v. glir-, linna-
single adj. er, erui, "inai
sinner n. raegdan
@irius n. helluin
sister n. neth II, nRth II, th]l
sister, dear n. "uinthel
sister, sworn n. g$athel
sit v. ha!-
siH adj.num. eneg
siHth adj.num. enchui, enegui
sGil$ul adj. "aed II
sGill n. curu
sGilled adj. "aed II, "aen
sGin n. SZd
sGull n. cas
sG, n. eil, "enel
slant v. adlanna-
slant, downwards v. penna-
slanting adj. adlant

slash n. criss
slave n. "Ul
sla, v. dag-
sla,er n. dagnir
sleep v. losta-
slender adj. E", lhind, nind, trR$
sli" adj. E"
sling n.Mil. hadlath
slipping adj. talt
slope I v. adlanna-
slope II n. pend, talad
sloping adj. adlann
s"all adj. cidinn, cinnog, "R$, niben
s"all 5and $rail/ adj. ni"p II
s"ell n. thost
s"ell 5so"ething/ v. nosta-
s"ith n. tZn
s"oGe I n. osp
s"oGe II v. ospa-
s"ooth I adj. paran, path
s"ooth II v. patha-
snaGe n. lhUg, lpg
snout n. bund
snow n. loss
snowdrop n. ngni", niphredil
snow2aGe n. lossi)or
@now"en 5o$ 1orochel/ n.class.pl. lossoth
@nowthorn n. aeglos
snow-white adj. gloss
snow, adj. lossen
soaGing 5wet/ adj. loen
soap n. glUdh
socGet n. tae$
so$t adj. "oe
so$ten v. "aega-
soil n. ce!
soiled adj. g$aur
soldier, o$ orcs n. daug
sole 5o$ $oot/ n. tellen
so"bre adj. dUr
so"eone relative pron. pen II
158
son n. ion
song n. glRr, laer II
song, hol, n. aerlinn
sorcer,, darG n. guldur, "orgul
soul n. !ae
sound 5bells/ v. nella-
sound, loud 5o$ tru"pets/ n. rU
soup n. salph
source n. celu
south n. harad, harn I
southern adj. haradren
@outherners n.class.pl. haradri"
sow v. redh-
space, open adj. land I
sparG n. tint, tinu
sparG, bright n. gil
sparG, silver n. gildin
sparGle I v. tin-
sparGle 5liGe a Newel/ II v. "gria-
sparGling adj. li" II
sparGling 5liGe a Newel/ adj. "griel
speaG v. ped-
spear-point n. aith, ecthel
spear-thrower n. hador, hadron
spectre, vague n. auth II
speech, barbarous n. gla"
speed 5on/ v. hortha-
spell n. lUth
spider n. lhing, lhingril, ungol
spiGe n. carag, ceber
spin-dri$t n. g$ing
spine n. ech
spinning wheel n. cer!
spirit n. !aer
spirit, departed n. "Zn
spirit, er, n. hUr
spit v. puia-
splendour n. aglar, claur 2arch.4
split adj. thanc
sponge n. h$and
spoor n. rein

sport n. telien
spot, s"all n. peg
spouse, o$ a Ging n. bereth
spread v. pelia-
spring I n. celu, eithel
@pring II n. ethuil
spring III v. tuia-
@pring, beginning o$ n. echuir
sprout I v. tuia-
sprout II n. tui$
sp, n. ethir II
stab v. eitha-
staA n.Mil. !annil
stain I n. g$ass, "ael I, "a$ II
stain II v. g$atha-
stained adj. g$aen, "ael I
stairwa, n. pendrath
staGe n. ceber
stalwart adj. thala, tolog
standard n. tull
star n. ]l, geil, gil
star, s"all n. tinu
starlight n. gilgalad
stars, all o$ the n. elenath
star-sun, 2ower n. elanor
startle v. cautha-
sta, v. dar-, dartha-, dortha-
sta,ing, $ast adj. a)orn
stead$ast adj. hi" I
stead, adj. thala
steel n. gais
steel, o$ adj. gaithren
steep adj. baradh
ste" n. telch
stench n. ongol, thU
step I v. pad-
step 5in a stairwa, or ladder/ II n. tell
sticG, adj. hR$
stiA adj. dorn, tara, tarch, tharn
stiA-necGed adj. tarlanc
stiAness n. tarias
160
stinG v. thosta-
stirrup n. talraph
stone 5as a "aterial/ n. sarn
stone, great n. gond
stone, hewn n. gondra!n, gondra"
stone, "ade o$ adj. gondren
stone, s"all n. sarn
stop I v. dar-, tab-
stop II n. daur
stop-gap 5diacritic sign/ n. gasdil
stopped adj. ta!nen
stopper n. dRl
stop-up v. dilia-
stor", o$ wind n. alagos
straight adj. taer, tRr
straightness n. tgras
stranger n. athal
stra, v. "ista-, renia-
stra,ing n. "istad
strea" n. celeth
strea", "ountain n. oll
street n. othrad, rath
strength, bodil, n. bellas
stretch v. tar-
strip v. heltha-
strive v. raitha-
stroGe v. "atha-
stroGe, heav, n. dra"
strong adj. taug
strong 5in bod,/ adj. belt
struggle, uphill adv. adj. a"benn
stuAing n. dRl
stunt v. nuitha-
stunted adj. naug
sudden adj. bragol, bregol
suddenness n. breged
suAice v. !eira-
suAicient adv. !ar
sugar n. glist
su""er n. laer I
su""it 5o$ a high "ountain/ n. taen I

su""on v. toltha-
su" up v. gonod-
sun n. anor
sun, light o$/heat o$ n. ast II
sunGen adj. dW)en
sunlight n. aur, gla$ar
sunn, adj. nXrui
sunset n. annUn
superior adj. orchal
support n. tulu
sur$ace n. palath
sur$ace, 2at n. talath
survive v. brona-
swallow I 5bird/ n. tuilinn
swallow II 5the action o$/ n. nu-la!
swan n. alph
sward n. parth, pathu
swart adj. baran, donn
swarth, adj. donn
swear v. g$esta-
sweet adj. lend II, "elui
sweetl, adj. lendren
swell v. tuia-
swi$t I adj. celeg, lagor
swi$t II adv. li" I
swooping adj. thar II
sword n.Mil. crist, lang, "agol, "egil
swords"an n.Mil. "agor
s,rup n. paich
162
(
table n. sar!
tail n. pi"
taGe v. "aba-
tale n. narn, pent, trenarn
tale, novel n. sinnarn
talG v. car!a-
talGative adj. ped$eg
tall adj. tond
tangled adj. re""en
tasG n. tass
tassel n. !ath
taste v. ta!-
taut adj. tong
teach v. goltha-
tear n. nRn II, nRr
tear$ul adj. nRd, ngniel
tease 5wool/ v. tUs-
tell 5to the end/ v. trenar-
te"ple n. alchor
teeth, all o$ the n. naglath
teeth, row o$ n. carach
tell 5a tale/ v. nara- 2arch.4
te"ptation n. Wthaes
ten num. cae II
tenth adj. caenen, caenui
terri$, v. gruitha-
terri$,ing adj. goeol
terror n. goe, gorgor
thanG v. hanna-
thanG$ul adj. hann$eg
thatch n. taus
the I art.pron.rel.sing. i,
the II art.pron.rel.pl. in
there adv. ennas
thicG adj. tUg
thigh n. tuig
thin adj. lhain
thing n. nad
thing 5"ade b, handicra$t/ n. ta!n
thinG v. sa"-

third I adj.num. nail, nelui
third II n. nelest
thirst, adj. !aug
thirtieth adj.num. nelchaenen
thong, leather n. lath
thorn n. ]g
thought n. nauth
thought, inner n. ind
thought$ul adj. idhren
thought$ulness n. idhor
thousand, one 51,Q2R/ adj.num. "eneg
thrall n. "Ul
thread n. lain II
thread, ne n. lh]
thread, thin n. esbin
three adj.num. neledh
threshold n. !en
throat n. lanc II
throne n. tWrcha"
through I pref. tre-
through II prep. trR
through 5together/ adv. godre!
thrust v. nasta-
thu"b n. na$b
tide, high n. duinen
tide, low n. dannen
tidings n. siniath
tid, adj. puig
tie v. nod-, taetha-
tight 5o$ strings/ adj. tong
tilted adj. adlann
ti"e n. lU
tin, adj. "R$, pigen, tithen
tire v. drautha-
to prep. na
to, $or prep. an
toda, adv. sgr
together pref. go-
toil v. "uda-
to"b n. haudh
to"orrow n. abarad
164
tongue, ph,sical n. la" I
tooth n. carch, nagol, n]l
top n. ca$
tor"ent n. baul
torrent n. oll, thXrod
tough adj. dorn, tara, tarch
toughness n. tarias
tower n. barad II, "inas
tower 5up/ v. brasta-
town, walled n. gobel, ost
tracG n. bZd, rZd
trade v. banga-
tra"ple v. batha-
trap n. gadas
travel v. ledh-
traverse v. athrada-, tre)ad-
treat, n. go$est
tree n. orn
tree, golden n. "allorn
tree, large n. galadh
tree, o$ blacG wood n. lebethron
tree, with a spirit or heart n. huorn
tree-woven adj. galadhre""en
tress n. En
tressure n. cathrae
triangle n. nelthil
triu"ph n. gell
triu"phant adj. gellui
(roll n. torog
troth n. g$aedh
trouble v. presta-, trasta-
true adj. thand II
true-silver n. "ithril
tru"pet n. ro"
trust I n. estel
trust II v. estelia-
trust, adj. tolog
truth n. thannas
tr, v. de!-
(ulGas n. enner
tune n. lind

tune$ul adj. lend II
tune$ull, adj. lendren
tunic n. laub
tunnel n. groth
tur$ n. sZdh
twelve adj.num. i"p
twilight n. tinnu, uial
twin n. g$anunig
twine v. rig-
twins n. pl. g$enyn
twins, pair o$ n. g$anUn, g$anur
twirl v. h$inia-
twirling adj. h$ind
twisted adj. norn
twitch I n. rinc
twitch II v. ritha-
two adj.num. tZd
two-legged 5ani"al/ n. tad-dal
t,rannous adj. baug
t,rant n. bauglir
166
B
Bl"o n. ulu
under I pref. di-
under II prep. nu
understand v. henia-
undo v. dangar-
unintelligence n. Wchannas
uniJue adj. "inai
unite v. ertha-
unlovable adj. W)elui
unloving adj. W)el
unpronounceable adj. penbed
unJuenchable adj. uluithiad
unta"ed adj. rha$ I
untruth n. Wthannas
unwelco"e adj. rhudol
up, upon prep. a"
uphill adv. a"benn
upli$ting adj. a"chaled
uproar n. gla"
urge 5on/ v. hortha-, huia-
Brsa 9aNor n. balagerch
use v. iuitha-
use$ul adj. "aer
use$ulness n. "aeras

S
vague adj. hethu
Sala n. balan
vale, deep n. i" II
Salinor n. dor-rodyn
valle, n. lad
valle,, deep or narrow n. i"lad
valle,, deep under/a"ong hills n. tu"
valle,, long and narrow with a watercourse n. i"rath
valle,, o$ 2owers ". i"loth
valle,, wide n. talath
valour n. caun II
value v. idra-
S7na n. ban$en
San,a n. "iniel
Sarda n. elbereth, gilthoniel, !anuilos
vassal n. bpr
vassal, $aith$ul n. bar
vast adj. taur III
vastness n. tauras
vegetable n. pae
veil I n. esgal, !Zn
veil II v. g$athra-
veiled adj. hall II
vein n. rant
vengeance n. acharn
veno" n. lhoer
verse n. linnod
victor, n. tUr
vigilance n. tirith
vigour n. gor!, hUr
village, walled n. gobel
viola n. salbin
violence n. breged
violent adj. asgar, bregol
violet n. helinil
violin n. salbindel
virginit, n. g$eneth
viscous adj. hR$
vision n. inde""
voice n. la""ad
168
voices, echoing n. la"ath
voices, "an, n. conath
void adj. co!n, ga$, iZ
vo"it v. pa"a-

T
wagon n. rach
wait v. dar-, dartha-
walG v. pada-
wall n. ra"
wall, great n. ra""as
wanderer n. randir
wandering n. "ist
wandering, erratic n. rain II
want v. angra-
war n. auth
warliGe n. authren
war" adj. laug
warn v. gor-
warrior n. "aethor
warrior, o$ orcs n. daug
wash v. puiga-
watch I v. tir-, tiria-
watch II n. tirith
watch 5$ro" a$ar/ v. palandir-
watcher n. tirn
water n. nen
water, drop o$ n. nenig
water, Juiet n. lorn
water$all n. lanthir
water-vessel n. calph
water, adj. nend, nRn III
wave, large n. !aloth
wa, n. "en, pZd
wear, I v. drautha-
wear, II adj. lo"
weave v. nathra-
weaver n. nathron
web n. g$R, nath
wed v. besta-
wedding n. best
weeG 5o$ ve da,s/ n. le!nar
weep v. ngnia-
welco"e v. nathla-
well I adv. al- II 2arch.4, "ae
well II n. eithel
170
werewol$ n. gaur
west n. annUn, dUn
western adj. annui
Testron, language o$ n. annWnaid
wet adj. li"p, "esg, nRd, nRn III
what interrogative.pron. "an
when I conj. ir
when II interrogative.pron. "ar
where I conj. ias
where II interrogative.pron. "as
while conj. ir
whine v. "uia-
whirl v. h$inia-
whirling adj. h$ind, h$iniol
whisper I n. lhoss, rhoss
whisper II v. lhussa-
whistle v. sibtha-
white adj. !aen, !ain, ni"p I
white, as snow adj. uilos
white, shining adj. glZn I
white-hot adj. brassen
whiten v. ni""id-
wholeso"e adj. alu
wh, interrogative.pron. a""an
wicGed adj. ogol
wide n. land II, pann, Ur II
wi$e n. bess, her)ess
wield v. tortha-
wild adj. braig, rha$ I
wilderness n. rho)an
will n. innas
willow, o$ adj. tathren
willow-tree n. tathar
wil, adj. coru
wind n. g$ae$, sUl I
window n. henneth
wind, adj. g$aeren
wine n. g$Rn
wing n. ra!n
wing, great n. ro)al
winter n. rhR$

wisdo" n. saelas
wise adj. goll, gol$en, idhren, noen, sael
wish I n. iest
wish II v. iesta-
without prep.pref. pen- I
wiIard n. curungr, ithron
with, b, prep. adh
with, b, adv. pref. an
withered adj. tharn
withering n. peleth, pelin
woe n. naeth
wol$ n. draug, gara!
wol$-howl n. gaul
wol$-"en n.class.pl. gaur$aith
wo"an n. bess, dR
wo"an, "ortal n. Erieth
wo"an, o$ the race o$ 9an n. adaneth
wo"an, ,oung n. dess
wondrous n. el)ennui
wood I n. eryn, glad
wood II 5as a "aterial/ n. ta$ar
wood, great n. taur II
wooden adj. ta$aren
woodpecGer n. ta)or
wool n. ta$
woolen adj. ta$
word n. peth
word, o$ good o"en n. albeth
world n. ardhon, gardh
wor" n. le$eg
worn 5decrepit, o$ things/ adj. gern
Tose n. drU, drWadan
wound I v. harna-
wound II n. haru
wounded adj. harn II
woven adj. re""en
wreath n. rR
wreathe v. rig-
wrist n. "oli!
write v. teitha-
wrong I v. neitha-
172
wrong II adj. raeg
wronged adj. neithan

C
,ard n. sant
Cavanna n. i)ann
,awn v. iag-
,ear n. idhrinn, Rn II
,ear, Salian n. ennin
,ellow adj. "alen
,ellow-ha""er n. e"lin
,esterda, n. gRr
,et prep. dan
,oGe n. ianu
,oung adj. neth I
,outh n. nRth I
Cule n. duru!uin
U
Iebra n. r]broch
174
Doriathrin Sindarin
A
a genitive ending 2Dagnir Claurunga4
al- pref. negati)e, no, not
ar pref. outside
Argad name. Loutside the !enceL
Argador name. Llands outside the !enceL
+
cwindor 5pindorV/ n. narrator 2a c$ beco"es a p )ery
early on in Eldarin so this $ord should perhaps be
nor"alised to pindor4
.
dag- v. to slay
dagnir n. slayer
dair n. shado$ o! trees
dal$ n. pal" o! the hand
.airon name
daudh n. pit
.enithor name Llithe and lankL
.ior name LsuccessorL
.ol"ed name L$et headL
d*n n. back
dor n. land
dorn n. oak
dr*g n. $ol!
dunn adj. dark
dur n. dark
durgul n. sorcery
'
'glador name /and o! the el)es
el n. star
'lboron name Lstar !astL
'ld pl. 'ldin n. El!
3
gad n. !ence

galbreth n. beech-tree
gald n. tree
ganu adj. "ale
gar" n. $ol!
garth n. real"
3arthurian name L!enced real"L
gell n. sky
gelu adj. blue, sky-blue
5n/g*l adj. $ise, "agical
5n/gold n. .oldo
3olda"ir n. Sil"aril 2.oldo +e$el4
5n/golo n. "agic
5n/gorth n. horror
5n/gorthin adj. horrible
6
hedhu adj. !oggy, obscure, )ague
I
-ion genitive plural ending
dhra- v. to desire
istel/istil n. starlight, sil)er light
8
lal- v. to laugh
laur n. gold
lw n. Esh
l%" n. echo
l%"en adj. echoing
lost adj. e"pty
luin adj. blue
lung adj. hea)y
luth n. spell
8uthien name LenchantressL
9
"ab n. hand
9ablost name Le"pty handL
9ablung name Lhea)y handL
176
">d adj. $et
"eneg adj.num.card. thousand
9enegroth name Lthousand ca)esL
"d n. "oisture
"ir/"r n. +e$el
"orgul/"orngul n. dark lore, sorcery
"orn adj. black, dark
"oth n. pool
"uil n. t$ilight, shado$
"uilF n. secrecy
"uilin adj. )eiled
:
:an .ungorthin name L)ale o! black horrorL
nand n. Eeld, )alley
nass n. $eb
:augla"r name Lnecklace o! the d$ar)esL
naugol n. d$ar!
neld num.card. three
neldor n. beech
:eldoreth name, great beech o! Thingol
nivon n. !or$ard, $est
:ivri" name L$est "archL
:ivrost name L$est )aleL
nw n. nose
<
orn n. tree, high tree
orth pl. orthin n. "ountain
?
radhon n. east
?adhri" name Least "archL
?adhrost name Least )aleL
?egion name LhollinL
regorn pl. regin n. holly-tree
ri" n. edge, he", border
ring n. cold pool, or lake in "ountains
rost n. plain, $ide land 2bet$een "ountains4
rodh/roth pl. rodhin n. ca)e

(
(hingol name Lgrey cloakL
(hurin name LsecretL
(huringwethil name Lsecret shado$L
B
u"both n. large pool
urch pl. urchin n. orc
178
repositions and con+unctions
a5dh/ and
adel behind
adh $ith
a" upon
an to, !or
athan beyond
be according to
bo on
dad do$n
dan but, yet, back, against
ed !orth, out o!
egor or
eng sa)e, e=cept
"i in 2a place4
na at, to
nan $ith, possessing, including 2see adh4
ned in, during 2$hen re!erencing ti"e4
ne$ on this side o!
nu beneath, under
n$ be!ore
o5h/ about 2oh i! be!ore a )o$el4
o5d/ o!, !ro" 2od i! be!ore a )o$el4
or abo)e, o)er
sui as, like
thar across, o)er
tr through

?ords $ith a "edial ,> and their possible later Third
-ge on$ards !or"s
This list does not include $ords that ha)e a "edial ,>
caused by "utation
Early !or" /ater !or" English "eaning
achad ahad n. neck
acharn aharn n. )engeance
achas ahas n. dread, !ear
alchor alhor n. te"ple, shrine
bachor
2"bachor4
bahor
2"bahor4
n. pedlar
balchas
2"balchas4
balhas
2"balhas4
n.abst.of balch cruelty
echad ehad n. ca"p
echil ehil n. 6. !ollo$er 0. by e#t. hu"an being
echor ehor n. outer circle, encircling, outer ring
echui ehui n. a$akening
echuir ehuir n. a season, the beginning o! spring
"grechor "grehor n. bracelet
orchal orhal adj. 6. superior, lo!ty, e"inent 0. tall
rochir rohir n. horse-lord
rochirri" rohirri" n. class pl. of rochir, horse-lords, the
people o! Rohan
rochon rohon n. 2horse4 rider
tachol tahol n. pin, brooch
180
I-ste" con+ugation tables 2regular4
resent tense
Singular lural
I"perati)e -o
Cerund -ed
6st person -in -i"
0nd person
2!or"al4
-ol -olir
0nd person
2in!or"al4
-og -ogir
7rd person /engthened
)o$el
-ir
Outure tense
Singular lural
6st person -ithon -itha"
0nd person
2!or"al4
-ithol -itholir
0nd person
2in!or"al4
-ithog -ithogir
7rd person -itha -ithar
ast tense
Oor I-ste" )erbs, there are t$o parts to $orking out
the endings !or the past tense. The Erst table sho$s
the consonant changes a#ecting the last consonant in
the ste".
Friginal consonant 2!ro"
the ste"4
8eco"es in the past tense
8
D
D>
C
/
.
-%%rrrr
-..rrr
-..rrr
-.Crrr
-//rrrr
-..rrr

R
H
-R.rrr
-%%rrr
-!ter the consonant changes listed on the pre)ious
page, the !ollo$ing endings then apply 2the gaps are
!or the t$o consonants43
Singular lural
6st person -rrrin -rrri"
0nd person
2!or"al4
-rrrinol -rrrinolir
0nd person
2in!or"al4
-rrrinog -rrrinogir
7rd person See belo$ See belo$
Third person past tense !or"s
The gap is !or the letters o! the ste" be!ore the Enal
consonant
2e.g. >eb- ). to keep has the 7rd person past tense
!or" >e"p4.
Friginal consonant
2!ro" the ste"4
Singular lural
8
D
D>
C
/
.
R
H
rr"p
rrnt
rrdhant/rrnd
rrnc/rrgant
rrll
rrnn
rrrn
rr"p/rr)ant
rr""ir
rrnnir
rrnnir
rrngir
rrllir
rrnnir
rrrnir
rr""ir
182
--ste" con+ugation tables 2regular4
resent tense
Singular lural
I"perati)e -o
Cerund -ad
6st person -on -a"
0nd person
2!or"al4
-ol -olir
0nd person
2in!or"al4
-og -ogir
7rd person -a -ar
ast tense
Singular lural
6st person -nnen -nne"
0nd person
2!or"al4
-nnenol -nnenolir
0nd person
2in!or"al4
-nnenog -nnenogir
7rd person -ant -anner
,onsonant si"pliEcation in the past tense
,onsonant cluster 2end o!
ste"4
8eco"es
-nna
-ida
-ada
-nnen 2not
-nnannen4
-innen
-annen
Outure tense
Singular lural
6st person -tha -tha"

0nd person
2!or"al4
-thol -tholir
0nd person
2in!or"al4
-thog -thogir
7rd person -tha -thar
184
I-ste" irregular con+ugation tables 2past tense4
,ar- to do, to "ake
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
-goren
-gorel
-goreg
-gor
-gore"
-gorelir
-goregir
-gorir
%en- to go
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
E)ennin
E)ennol
E)ennog
E)enn
E)enni"
E)ennolir
E)ennogir
E)ennir

--ste" irregular con+ugation tables 2past tense4
-ngra- to $ant
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
-ngrnen
-ngrnenol
-ngrnenog
-ngrn
-ngrne"
-ngrnenolir
-ngrnenogir
-ngrner
-)a- to re!use
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
-""en
-""enol
-""enog
-"
-""e"
-""enolir
-""enogir
-"er
8anga- to trade
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
8angen
8angenol
8angenog
8anc
8ange"
8angenolir
8angenogir
8anger
,ar!a- to speak
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
-gar!annen
-gar!annenol
-gar!annenog
-gar!ant
-gar!anne"
-gar!annenoli
r
-gar!annenog
186
2in!or"al4
7rd person
ir
-gar!anner
Cala- to gro$
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
Callen
Callenol
Callenog
Call
Calle"
Callenolir
Callenogir
Caller
Ca$a- to ho$l
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
Conen
Conenol
Conenog
Caun
Cone"
Conenolir
Conenogir
Coner
Croga- to !eel terror
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
Crungen
Crungenol
Crungenog
Crunc
Crunge"
Crungenolir
Crungenogir
Crunger
Ista- to kno$
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
Istassen/Sinne
n
Istassenol
Istassenog
Istas/Sint
Istasse"
Istassenolir
Istassenogir
Istasser

7rd person
/aba- to hop
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
/a""en
/a""enol
/a""enog
/a"p
/a""e"
/a""enolir
/a""enogir
/a"ber
/oda- to Soat
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
/unnen
/unnenol
/unnenog
/unt
/unne"
/unnenolir
/unnenogir
/under
%uda- to labour
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
%udassen
%udassenol
%udassenog
%udas
%udasse"
%udassenolir
%udassenogir
%udasser
Sgla- to shine $ith a sil)er light
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
Sgllen
Sgllenol
Sgllenog
Sglle"
Sgllenolir
Sgllenogir
188
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
Sgll Sgller
Thora- to !ence in
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
Thoren
Thorenol
Thorenog
Thaur
Thore"
Thorenol
Thorenog
Thorer
Toba- to co)er/roo! o)er
Singular lural
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
Tu""en
Tu""enol
Tu""enog
Tu"p
Tu""e"
Tu""enolir
Tu""enogir
Tu"ber

Irregular )erbs 2in all tenses4
-nna- to gi)e
=resent
Singular lural
I"perati)e
Cerund
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
-nno
-nnad
-nnon
-nnol
-nnog
-nna
-nna"
-nnolir
-nnogir
-nnar
=ast
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
Fnen
Fnenol
Fnenog
-un
1uture
6st person
0nd person
2!or"al4
0nd person
2in!or"al4
7rd person
-nnathon
-nnathol
-nnathog
-nnatha
Elia- to rain
=resent
Singular lural
I"perati)e
Cerund
7rd person
Elio
Eliad
-il
=ast
7rd person -ul
1uture
7rd person Eliatha
190