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TITLE: FM MODULATION AND DEMODULATION

OBJECTIVES:
1. Analyzing characteristic of signal based on frequency modulation(FM) techniques.
2. Work efficiently in groups to perform experiments.
3. Present experimental findings in the form of standard engineering reports
EQUIPMENTS:
No Equipments Serial Num Specification
1. oscilloscope GOS-6353 Serial no: B680085
(OSC)
- Instrument that
generate waveform
over a frequency
range.
- Types of waveform
(i) Sinusoidal
(ii) Square
(iii) Triangle
2. Module KL 93004 Serial no: 020197
(11/15)
LM 566 FM modulator
circuit
LM 565 PLL frequency
demodulator circuit
3. Jumpers/Wires and probes - -

THEORY:
Frequency Modulation
In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by
varying its frequency. In analog applications, the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is
directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal. Digital data can be sent by
shifting the carrier's frequency among a set of discrete values, a technique known as frequency-
shift keying. (Contrast this with amplitude modulation, in which the amplitude of the carrier is
varied while its frequency remains constant.)
FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech
(see FM broadcasting). Normal (analog) TV sound is also broadcast using FM. A narrowband
form is used for voice communications in commercial and amateur radio settings. The type of
FM used in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM. In two-way radio, narrowband
narrow-fm (N-FM) is used to conserve bandwidth. In addition, it is used to send signals into
space.
FM is also used at intermediate frequencies by most analog VCR systems, including VHS, to
record the luminance (black and white) portion of the video signal. FM is the only feasible
method of recording video to and retrieving video from magnetic tape without extreme
distortion, as video signals have a very large range of frequency components from a few hertz
to several megahertz, too wide for equalizers to work with due to electronic noise below -60 dB.
FM also keeps the tape at saturation level, and therefore acts as a form of audio noise reduction,
and a simple limiter can mask variations in the playback output, and the FM capture effect
removes print-through and pre-echo. A continuous pilot-tone, if added to the signal as was
done on V2000 and many Hi-band formats can keep mechanical jitter under control and assist
timebase correction.
FM is also used at audio frequencies to synthesize sound. This technique, known as FM
synthesis, was popularized by early digital synthesizers and became a standard feature for several
generations of personal computer sound cards.
Mathematically, the FM signal can be representing as:
( ) ( ) | | t f t f A t x
m c c FM
t | t 2 sin 2 cos + =
where;
( ) = t u instantaneous modulated frequency
=
c
f carrier frequency
=
m
f modulating frequency
= | modulating index

And the frequency can be expressed as:
( ) ( ) t f f f t
dt
d
f
m m c
t | u
t
2 cos
2
1
= =
Frequency Modulator Based on LM566 VCO
The LM556 VCO circuit is frequency modulator based on VCO IC, LM566. If SW1 is open this
circuit is typical VCO whose output frequency is determined by the value of C
3
and VR1, and
the audio input voltage. If the values of C
3
and VR1 are fixed, the output frequency is directly
proportional to voltage difference between pins 8 and 5 (V
8
-V
5
). In other words, an increase in
audio input voltage (V
5
) causes a decrease in the value of (V
8
-V
5
) and a decrease in the output
frequency. Conversely, decreasing the audio input voltage (V
5
) will cause the output frequency
to increase. As discussed above, the value of C3 and VR1 can also determine the output
frequency, which is inversely proportional to the product of VR1 and C3. Tat is, the greater the
VR1 x C
3
value, the lower the output frequency. If the SW
1
is closed, the voltage divider
constructed by R
1
and R
2
provides a DC level to the audio input (pin5). By adjusting the VR1,
we can easily tune the VCO center frequency f
o
when an audio signal is applied to the input, the
output frequency will generate frequency deviation around fo in the variations of audio
amplitude. Thus, a frequency-modulated signal is obtained.
Figure 3.3: LM 566 frequency modulator circuit
Frequency Demodulation
FM receivers, like their AM counterparts, are super heterodyne receivers. The FM
receiver is similar to the AM receivers discussed previously. The pre-selector, RF
amplifier, first and second mixers, IF amplifier and detector sections of an FM receiver
perform almost identical functions as they did in AM receivers: The pre-selector rejects
the image frequency, the RF amplifier establishes the signal-to-noise ratio and noise
figure, the mixer/converter section down-converts RF to IF, the IF amplifiers provide
most of the gain and selectivity of the receiver, and the detector removes the information
from the modulated wave.
With FM receivers, constant amplitude IF signal into the demodulator is desirable.
Consequently, FM receivers generally have much more IF gain than AM receivers. In
fact, with FM receivers, it is desirable that the final IF amplifier be saturated. The
harmonics produced from overdriving the final IF amplifiers are high enough that they
are substantially reduced with band-pass filters that pass only the minimum bandwidth
necessary to preserve the information signals.
The final IF amplifier is specially designed for ideal saturation characteristics and is
called a limiter, or sometimes pass-band limiter if the output is filtered.
The pre-selector, RF amplifiers, mixer/converter, and IF sections of an FM receiver
operate essentially the same as they did in AM receivers; however, the audio detector
stage used in FM receivers is quite different. The envelope (peak) detector common to
AM receivers is replaced in FM receivers by a limiter, frequency discriminator, and de-
emphasis network. The frequency discriminator extracts the information from the
modulated wave, while the limiter circuit and de-emphasis network contribute to an
improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio that is achieved in the audio-demodulator stage
of FM receivers.



The LM565 and LM565C are general purpose phase locked loops containing a stable, highly
linear voltage controlled oscillator for low distortion FM demodulation, and a double balanced
phase detector with good carrier suppression. The VCO frequency is set with an external resistor
and capacitor, and a tuning range of 10:1 can be obtained with the same
capacitor. The characteristics of the closed loop systembandwidth, response speed, capture and
pull in rangemay be adjusted over a wide range with an external
resistor and capacitor. The loop may be broken between the VCO and the phase detector for
insertion of a digital frequency divider to obtain frequency multiplication.
The LM565H is specified for operation over the 55C to +125C military temperature range.
The LM565CN is specified for operation over the 0C to +70C temperature range.

PROCEDURES:
Experiment 6.1 LM 566 Frequency Modulator
1. Centre frequency of modulator was set to 50 kHz.
2. A 500mVpp, 1 kHz sine wave is connected to the input of modulator. The output
waveform is observed and recorded in Table 3.2 LM 566 Frequency Modulator.
3. The same procedures were repeated for audio frequencies of 5 kHz and 10 kHz
respectively.
Experiment 6.2 PLL Frequency Demodulator
1. Connect plug was inserted in j3 to complete the LM565 PLL circuit and free running
frequency f
0
of modulator was set to 50 kHz at VCO output by turning VR1.
2. The modulator output was connected to the PLL circuit input and connect plug was
inserted in J1.
3. The output waveforms was observed while adjusting VR1 until sine wave occurs and the
result was recorded when the sine wave signal as in Experiment 6.1 are being applied to
the input of the modulator.
RESULTS:

Table 3.2 LM 566 Frequency Modulator--- kHz f F C p mVp Vm 50 , 01 . 0 , 500
0 3
= = =
Num Input Signal / Audio Signal Output Signal / Modulated Signal
1






Vpp = 0.1 v/div x 5 = 0.5Vpp
F = 1/T = 1/ (1ms/div x 1) = 1 kHz


Vpp = 2 v/div x 2.2 = 4.4Vpp
F = 1/T = 1/ (5us/div x 4) = 50 kHz

2






Vpp = 0.1 v/div x 5 = 0.5Vpp
F = 1/T = 1/(0.2ms/div x 1) = 5 kHz


Vpp = 1 v/div x 4.5 = 4.5Vpp
F = 1/T = 1/ (5us/div x 4) = 50 kHz
3







Vpp = 0.1 v/div x 5 = 0.5Vpp
F = 1/T = 2/ 50us/div x 1 = 10 kHz


Vpp = 1 v/div x 4.6 = 4.6Vpp
F = 1/T = 1/ (5us/div x 4) = 50 kHz
Vpp
Amplitude (V)
Vpp
Amplitude (V)
Vpp
Amplitude (V)
Table 3.3 PLL Frequency Demodulator---
0
50 f kHz =

Num Input Signal Output Signal / Demodulated Signal
1






Vpp = 0.1 v/div x 5 = 0.5Vpp
F = 1/T = 1/ (1ms/div x 1) = 1 kHz
Amplitude (V)









Vpp = 2 v/div x 0.17 = 0.34Vpp
F = 1/T = 1/ (0.2ms/div x 5) = 1kHz
2






Vpp = 0.1 v/div x 5 = 0.5Vpp
F = 1/T = 1/(0.2ms/div x 1) = 5 kHz

Amplitude (V)







Vpp = 0.1v/div x 3.2 = 0.32Vpp
F = 1/T = 1/ (100us/div x 3) = 3.333 kHz
3







Vpp = 0.1 v/div x 5 = 0.5Vpp
F = 1/T = 1/ 100us/div x 1 = 10 kHz
Amplitude (V)








Vpp = 20mv/div x 4 = 0.08Vpp
F = 1/T = 1/ (50us/div x 2) = 10 kHz
Vpp
Amplitude (V)
Vpp
Amplitude (V)
Vpp
Amplitude (V)
Vpp
Vpp
Vpp
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS:

1) Reviewing the circuit of Figure 6.1, what is the function of R1 and R2 when the SW1 is
closed?
When the switch 1 is closed, R1 and R2 form the voltage divider which provide a DC
level to the audio input in (pin5).

2) State the function of capacitor C
3
in the circuit of figure 6.3. If replacing C
3
(0.1F) by a
0.01F capacitor, what is the change of the output signal (pin7) of LM565?
The output frequency of circuit is determine by the values of C3 and VR1 and the audio
input voltage. The bigger the VR1 x C3 values, the lower the output frequency. Capacitor
C3 form a low pass filter. By replacing capacitor value to 0.01, the output signal in pin
7 will be higher and greater.

3) If a low pass filter is externally connected to the output of LM565 frequency
demodulator, does the demodulated signal become smoother?
Yes. This is because, the low pass filter is function to block high frequency signal and
allow low frequency signal which is modulation signal to pass through it by remove ac
component.
DISCUSSION:
This lab session is designed in order to study the principles of FM Modulation and demodulation
operation. As we know, the frequency modulation is the process of varying the frequency of a
constant amplitude carrier directly proportional to the amplitude of the modulating signal at a
rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal. In mathematically the FM signal can
express by equation below:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) | |
}
+ = = dt t S k f A t A t X
f c c c FM
t u 2 cos cos
If ( ) ( ), 2 cos t f A t S
m m
t =
( ) ( ) | | t f t f A t X
m c c FM
t | t 2 sin 2 cos + =
Where;
( ) t u =instantaneous modulated frequency
c
f =carrier frequency
m
f =modulating frequency
| = modulation index
Before start to conduct with this experiment, all the components and equipments are ensured to
be in good condition. The oscilloscope also needs to be calibrated. These precautions are
necessary to avoid any difficulties when conducting the experiment.
This lab session is consists of two parts, Experiment 6.1 Frequency Modulator using LM 566
and experiment 6.2 PLL frequency demodulator.
Operation of Frequency Modulation is tested in Experiment 6.1 where IC LM 566 is used in FM
modulator circuit. Before we begin this part, the center frequency of the modulator must be set to
50 kHz by varying the VR1 because, we want the output frequency is in range about + 50 kHz.
Firstly, we vary the frequency of the input modulator signal from 1 kHz to 5 kHz and 10 kHz at
500mVpp sine waveform. Here, we get the output waveform in square waveform; this is because
the output of IC LM 566 itself in square wave forms. Based on our results, the frequency of the
output signal does not change and it remains as 50 kHz. The input frequency does not cause any
change for frequency and peak voltage of output signals. When the Vm is constant but the input
frequency is change from 1 kHz until 10 kHz, the output frequency that is produce for each
frequency is same. The output frequency of LM 566 frequency modulator can be determined by
the value of C3, VR1 and the audio input voltage. But in this part C3 and VR1 is fixed to 0.01 uF
and 50 kHz respectively, so the output frequency is only depends on amplitude of the input
signal or audio signal.
After completing this experiment regarding with FM modulation, It is true that as we increase the
input signal, the output frequency and peak voltage will not change. The effect can only be
determined by observing the waves. As the input frequency increase, the output voltage will
seem like overlapped. When V
m
is maximum, the waveform is compress and makes the
modulated frequency higher. The amplitude of modulating signal effects the modulating
frequency. When V
m
is minimum, the waveform is expanded and makes the modulated
frequency lower. The figure below shows that how the modulating signal effects the modulated
signal.

During this lab session the output waveform is slightly affected by internal noise from the circuit,
where we have problem to see the actual changes in the waveform of modulated signal.
After that we proceed to experiment 6.2, PLL frequency demodulator to get the demodulated
output for 1kHz till 10kHz. In this part, we face a problem with setting the free running
frequency of 50kHz at the VCO output. We solve it by taking the maximum frequency that can
achieved by turning VR1 to maximum as possible. The frequency demodulator converts
instantaneous frequency variations to linear voltage changes. The frequency demodulators are
frequency dependent circuit designed to provide voltage that is proportional to the input
frequency. The overall function for fm demodulator is nonlinear which can be operated in linear
condition by having a transfer function ,K=

. The output of demodulator can be expressed as


Vout(t) = Kf, where V
out
(t) = demodulated signal, K demodulator transfer function(volt per
hertz) and f= difference between modulate signal frequency and the centre frequency of the
demodulator. With the use of phase locked loop, fm demodulation can be accomplished very
easily. This is because, PLL frequency demodulator circuit automatically can compensates with
the changes in the input frequency. It also only using the function of locking frequency when
VCO output frequency is equal to the input frequency. This process of locking when getting
feedback from the VCO output is controlled by the PLL input frequency and it will remain
constant. In this PLL frequency demodulator circuit, we can come to a conclusion that when the
input signal increases in frequency, the output signal decreases in voltage and vice versa.

CONCLUSION:
After completing this lab session, we are understood the basic principles of Frequency
Modulation and Demodulation operations. Moreover, all of the objectives of this lab session
achieved successfully at the end of this lab session. Through this lab session, we finds that the fm
is varying the frequency of a constant amplitude carrier directly proportional to the amplitude of
the modulating signal at the rate equal to the frequency of the modulating signal. Fm signals can
be generated by direct or indirect frequency modulation method. We manage to analyze
characteristic of signal based on frequency modulation techniques and present a standard
engineering report.
REFERENCES:
1. http://phase-locked-loop-tutorial.php
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Voltage-controlled_oscillator
3. Electronic Communications Systems, fifth edition, Wayne Thomasi, Published in 2004,
Prentice Hall
4. Lecture note BENT 3133 Communication Principal Sem 1 session 2009/2010.