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EE6390 Cuong Vo 1

CDMA 800 MHz Cellular System RF Design


EE 6390
Wireless Communication System Project
Final Report:
RF DESIGN
CDMA 800 MHz CELLULAR SYSTEM
Professor : Dr. Murat Torlak
Student Name: Cuong Vo
Student ID : 640-42-6262
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CDMA 800 MHz Cellular System RF Design
Abstract
There are three different mobile telecommunication technologies that are currently using in the
US which are AMPS, GSM, TDMA and CDMA. The CDMA is latest technology in the mobile
telecommunications. There are four different CDMA mobile systems using in the US that are:
CDMA PCS system 1900MHz with13 kbps vocoding
CDMA PCS system 1900MHz with 8 kbps vocoding
CDMA Cellular system 800MHz with13 kbps vocoding
CDMA Cellular system 800MHz with 8 kbps vocoding
Comparing to the Cellular systems, the PCS systems have less interference level because there
are not many RF systems working at 1900MHz. However, due to frequency effect on path loss, the
1900MHz systems have more loss than 800MHz (about 10 dB). Therefore, the 800 MHz systems have
cover are larger the 1900 MHz systems. The high vocoding can improve to the voice quality of the
system, but the low vocoding rate can raise the capacity of the systems. According to practical results.
The 8 kbps vocoding systems provide up to 20 channels (corresponding 13 Erlangs at 2% GoS), and the
13 kbps vocoding systems provide up to 13 channels (corresponding 6.3 Erlangs at 2% GoS).
For these reasons, the CDMA 800 MHz Cellular system with 8 Kbps vocoding is the benefit
system for the telephone providers. Therefore, the CDMA cellular 800 MHz that follows the IS-95A
standard is chosen for this project.
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CDMA 800 MHz Cellular System RF Design
I. Introduction
In this project, the Las Vegas is select for the design area. This city has about a million
populations with 3% increased ratio, but this city used to has over 500,000 visitors in weekends and
holidays. The CDMA cellular 800 MHz system is considered to used in the design. The system follows
the IS-95 standard, and its specifications describe in the following table:
Parameter Specification
Multiple Access CDMA
Modulation DQPSK
Mobile Demodulation OQPSK
Channel Bandwidth 1.25 MHz
Forward Channel Frequency Band 869 - 894 MHz
Reverse Channel Frequency Band 824 - 849 MHz
Separated Channel Frequency Band 45 MHz
Data Rate 9600 bps
Processing Gain 21.07 dB
Users per RF Channel 20 Digital with 8Kbps vocoding
Since the Nortel products is assumed to used in this design, some Nortel standard and practical
formulas will be used in the design.
The propagation tool is MSI Planet version 2.8 with the CDMA Analysis module. The operating
system is Windows NT. There are two main functions: predicting signal and simulating system.
For prediction function, the Planet predicts the pilot strength base on the main factors: cell database,
propagation model and morphology characteristics. Cell database contents hardware profiles of the cell
sites such as: EIRP, site position, antenna high, number of sectors, antenna types, antenna directions,
antenna tilts and applying propagation model. Propagation model predicts path loss of wave. In Planet,
there are two methods to build propagation model. The theory model base on mathematic equations and
physical theorems to predict signal. This model is not exact (up to 20% error) because it does not
account on the morphology of the design area. To improve the problem, the survey model method bases
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CDMA 800 MHz Cellular System RF Design
on the actual drive test data of the design area to turn the propagation model. The survey model has
accuracy prediction less then 8%. Morphology data is heights and clusters (characteristics of design
area such as urban, suburban and rural). The Planet calculates path loss and predict receive signal with
effect of the morphology data.
The CDMA analyzer module has simulating function. This function analyzes system upon the
network profiles (mobile type and base station type). This function can generate many different
characteristics of the network such as FER, interference, handoff, load, path balance and some other
parameter. Interference level and handoff status are two main results that designer must be concerned.
II. System Description
1. Design Requirements
The approach of the CDMA Cellular 800MHz performs the following functions:
The design area is Las Vegas.
The system uses CDMA to perform the multi-access method.
The CDMA 800MHz with 8 Kbps vocoding has 20 voice channel that corresponds to 13 Erlangs at
grade of service (GoS) of 2%.
The Multi Carriers Allocated (MTCA) technology is applied to deploy up to 3 .
The system will provide service for both the Las Vegas' population and visitors.
2. Hardware description:
There are five main blocks the system. Their functions are described below:
Mobile Telephone Exchange (MTX) provides three functions: call processing, mobility management
and billing.
Base Station Control (BSC) controls the message and signaling routing. It also provides the voice
coding and decoding, inter-system hand-off (soft) and power control functions.
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CDMA 800 MHz Cellular System RF Design
Base Station Transceiver Subsystems (BTS) provide the air interface between the CDMA network and
the subscriber handset. It also supports softer handoff and performs some power control functions.
TheAntennas are used for transceiver radio frequency.
III. Calculating and Analyzing
2. Assumptions
Mobile Transmit Power of 0.2 W or 23 dBm is used in the link budget.
Mobile Antenna Gain is assumed to be 0 dBi.
Receiver Noise Figure is specified as 4 dB for Nortel 800 MHz Metrocell CDMA BTS.
Reverse Link Eb/No: 6.5 dB is the average reverse link Eb/No required to achieve a 2% FER.
BTS Antenna Gain: The DB898H60 with 18 dBi and DB898H83 with 17 dBi.
BTS Receiver Sensitivity is 123.7 dBm corresponding with 4 dB noise figure and 6.5 dB Eb/No
BTS Antenna Height: The typical antenna height of 30 m to 40 m is used in the link budget. The
antenna height is chosen to control the coverage area and interference.
BTS Cable and Connector Losses = (40m + 20m) x 4 dB/100m + 1 dB = 3 dB
Standard Deviation the typical value of 8 dB is used for standard deviation.
Cell Area and Cell Edge Reliability: Cell edge reliability is 90% is target design.
Slow Fade Margin is 5.4 dB for 10 dB standard deviation and 90% cell edge reliability
Soft Handoff Gain = 0.52 for two cells in handoff
Building and Car Penetration Factor: 20 dB for the dense urban area, 16 dB for the urban area,
12 dB for the suburban area, and 7 dB for car.
Body Loss: A typical value of 3 dB is used.
Traffic Loading Margin: This degradation of the link budget is caused by the noise rise due to
traffic loading. For 50% and 30% loading, the degradations are 3 dB and 1.5 dB respectly.
Pilot Power of Nortel 800 MHz Metrocell CDMA BTS transmitter is set at 33 dBm.
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CDMA 800 MHz Cellular System RF Design
2. Calculate Path Loss and Link Budget
Antenna EiRP of Pilot Signal:
EiRP = pilot power - cable and connector losses + antenna gain = 33 - 3 + 17 = 47 dBm.
According to the reverse link budget, the maximum path loss and required on-street pilot signal
level are showing in below table:
Clutters the maximum path loss required on-street pilot signal
Dense urban 127 dB
47 127 = -80.0 dB
Urban 131 dB
47 131 = -84.0 dB
Suburban 136 dB
47 136 = -89.0 dB
Rural outdoor 148 dB
47 148 = -101.0 dB
Highway 141 dB
47 141 = -94.0 dB
La s Ve ga s Link Budget for CDMA Mobility Syste m
RF Inputs Comment s
Frequency of Oper at i on MHz 800.00 Cus t omer
CDMA RF Ca rrier Ba n d widt h MHz 1.2288 Te c h . sp e c ific
Dat a Rat e ( 8K Vocoder ) k bps 9.60 Cus t omer
Processi ng Gai n d B 21.07 C a lc u l a t e d
Morphol ogy/ Cover age Cla ss
D. Ur ban Ur ban Subur ban Hi ghway Rural
( Of f i ce) ( Of f i ce) (Res.) (Res.) ( Pay Phone) Co mme n ts
No = KT d Bm -174.0 -174.0 -174.0 -174.0 -174.0 RF
Cel l Noi se Fi gure d B 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 Vendor ( 4dB f or MCBTS)
Noise Ba n d widt h (B) d BHz 60.89 60.89 60.89 60.89 60.89 C a lc u l a t e d
Noise a t Ce ll Input ( NoB) d Bm -109.11 -109.11 -109.11 -109.11 -109.11 C a lc u l a t e d
Ta rget Eb/ Nt d B 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 7.0 Ve n d o r sp e c ific for 2% FER
Mi n. CNR d B -14.07 -14.07 -14.07 -14.07 -14.07 C a lc u l a t e d
Rx. Sensitivity d Bm -123.18 -123.18 -123.18 -123.18 -123.18 C a lc u l a t e d
Mo b ile EiRP d Bm 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 23.0 Cust omer speci f i c ( Cl ass I I I )
BS Ant enna Hei ght m 30.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 40.0 Cust omer speci f i c
BS Ant enna Gain d Bi 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 17.0 Cust omer speci f i c
BS Ca b le Loss d B 1.84 1.84 2.12 2.53 2.53 See gui del i nes f or assumpt i ons
Max. Al l owabl e Loss (50%Ps, No Load) d B 161.34 161.34 161.06 160.65 160.65 C a lc u l a t e d
Body Loss Margi n d B 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 3.0 RF
Build i ng Penet rat i on Loss d B 20.0 16.0 12.0 7.0 0.0 Vendor / Cus t omer
Probabi l i t y of Ser vi ce at Cell e d g e % 90% 90% 90% 90% 90% Vendor / Cus t omer
Co mp o site Slow Fa d in g St d. Devi at i on d B 10.0 10.0 8.0 8.0 8.0 Vendor / Cus t omer
Fa d e Ma rgi n d B 12.8 12.8 10.3 10.3 10.3 C a lc u l a t e d
SHO Ga in d B 4.5 4.5 4.1 4.1 4.1 C a lc u l a t e d
(Tot al Mar gi n - Sof t Handof f Gai n) d B 28.28 24.28 18.20 13.20 6.20 C a lc u l a t e d
Pr opagat i on Model Cor r ect i on d B 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 RF
Max. Al l owabl e Pat h Loss (No Load) d B 130.06 134.06 139.86 144.45 151.45 C a lc u l a t e d
Se c t o r Lo a d i ng % 50% 50% 50% 50% 50% Vendor / Cus t omer
Lo a d Fluct uat i on Mar gin d B 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 Ve n d o r Sp e c ific
I nt er f er ence Mar gi n ( Loadi ng Fa c t o r) d B 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 3.5 C a lc u l a t e d
Isot r opi c Max. Al l owabl e Pat h Loss d B 126.55 130.55 136.35 140.94 147.94 C a lc u l a t e d
Cel l Radi i km 0.90 1.43 4.25 15.13 24.18 C a lc u l a t e d . Se e No t e 1
Pilot EiRP d Bm 47.0 47.0 47.0 47.0 47.0 Ve n d o r sp e c ific
Mi n. Req. Signal Level at MS d Bm -80 -84 -89 -94 -101 C a lc u l a t e d
1. Th e c e ll ra d ii a re c a lcul at ed f r om t he gener i c Okumur a- Hat a model s. Planet t ool may be use d t o ref i ne t he cal cul at i ons whi ch t akes
t er r ai n, cl ut t er and cur vat ur e of t he ear t h i nt o consi der at i ons.
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CDMA 800 MHz Cellular System RF Design
Per-Sector Capacity Calculation in Link Budget: The capacity of a CDMA cellular system per
sector is calculated as formula: C = [ 1 + (PG x F x S) / (V x Eb/No) ] x L
Where: C = number of users/sector, PG = processing gain = 21.1 dB = 128, F = 0.65 frequency reuse
factor, V = 0.40 voice activity factor, S = 0.85 (for 3-sector sites) sectorization factor, Eb/No = 6.5 dB
and L = loading factor. Assumes 50% loading for the city area (the dense urban, urban, and suburban
areas) and 30% loading for the highway and rural areas. The capacity at 2% GOS is:
C = 20 users/sector = 13.2 Erlangs (for the city area)
C = 12 users/sector = 6.61 Erlangs (for the highway and rural areas)
3. RF Design Calculation
3.1 Design Objectives and Criteria
The main objectives are coverage design area and CDMA analysis for all the coverage areas.
Nortel RF uses the clutter and vector information in the digital database to determine the morphology
(dense urban, urban, suburban, and highways). The following table summarizes the coverage objectives:
Las Vegas Areas:
On-Street Pilot
Signal Levels
Penetration
Factor Provided
Area
Availability
Color in
Plots
- Dense urban area -80 dBm 20 dB 90% green
- Urban area -84 dBm 16 dB 90% yellow
- Suburban area -89 dBm 12 dB 90% red
- Rural -101 dbm 0 db 90% orange
- Major highways -94 dBm 7 dB Cont. coverage blue
3.2 Propagation Model
Planet calculated the received signal level at the mobile (PRx) as follows
P
Rx
= P
Tx
- PL
Where: P
Tx
is the antenna EiRP and PL is the path loss from the propagation model. The path loss
equation is: PL = -K1 - K2 log d - K3 log h
b
+ K4 Diff. - K5 log h
b
log d - Clutter factor
Where: PL = path loss (dB), d = distance (m), Diff.= diffraction loss, h
b
= effective base station
antenna height (m), and Clutter factor = gain in dB for the clutter type at the mobile position
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CDMA 800 MHz Cellular System RF Design
For the K-factors, K1, K2, K3, K4, K5 = multiplying factors whose values depend on the model
used we use the values from the tuned CDMA-900 model:
K1 K2 K3 K4 K5
0.0 -42.0 -13.04 0.45 5.8
The clutter factors are also taken from the tuned CDMA-900 model. The values are as following
Clutter Types Clutter Factor (dB) Clutter Types Clutter Factor (dB)
Business districts -6.565 Low suburban 4.380
Dense urban -6.565 Rural 8.060
Mean urban -5.126 Open space 5.000
Low urban -1.859 Dense forest 4.627
Dense suburban -1.613 Low forest 11.359
Mean suburban -4.247 River, lake 6.477
Using a model with clutter factors allows us to use one propagation model for the whole area.
For every site, the propagation prediction was done for 30 x 30 km area.
3.3 Site Configuration
The 84 sites configuration describe in below table:
Number of sectors per site 2 3
Sector orientation Depend on Highway 0, 120, 240 degree
Antenna height 25 to 40 m 25 to 40 m
Antenna type DB898H60 or DB898H83 DB898H60 or DB898H83
Antenna horizontal beamwidth 60 or 83 60 or 83
Antenna EiRP 47 dBm 47 dBm
Antenna tilt 0 to 3 degree 0 to 3 degree
This is the typical configuration. The actual configuration of each site (especially the orientation
and the tilt) may be different. In the city, we have chosen the relatively low antenna height and the
small antenna beam width to control interference. On the other hand, we have chosen the relatively
high antenna height and the large antenna beam width to increase coverage.
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CDMA 800 MHz Cellular System RF Design
3.4 Coverage Design Results
The composite coverage result of the system shows in the Pilot Composite Coverage plot. From the
coverage design result we get 84 sites with 244 sectors (8 bi-sector, and 76 tri-sector). Our analysis in
Planet showed that the typical cell radii and cell count number records in below table:
Area Cell Radius 3-sector sites 2-sector sites Total of sites
Dense urban 0.7 - 1.2 km 15 0 15
Urban 1.2 - 1.7 km 34 0 34
Suburban 3.9 - 4.3 km 19 0 19
Rural 15.0 km 8 8 18
Total 76 8 84

3.6 CDMA Analysis

We do CDMA analysis for the whole Las Vegas area. The first step in the CDMA analysis is traffic
spreading for the design capacity (1500 Erlangs) of the first year. The CDMA analysis results consists
of: the FER is less then 2%; system is almost free from interference; both forward and reverse are
perfectly balance; hand off area is less than 50% and percentage of subscribers by handoff type
distribution: 48.3% not in handoff, 11.5% in softer handoff and 40.2% in soft handoff.
The handoff and Ec/Io simulated results are shown on the Handoff Status plot and the Interference
Level plot. Base on CDMA analyzing results, the system is perfectly satisfied standard requirement.
Most of the expected values match with simulation results.
4. Capacity Calculation for Multi-Carrier System
Nortel 800 MHz Metrocell CDMA BTS can be provisioned for up to 3 carriers. With a 50% loading,
a sector can serve 20 users with one carrier. Assuming 2% GOS, that corresponds to 13.2 Erlangs.
Ideally, if we have a perfect pooling, a sector can serve 40 users with 2 carriers. That translates to 31
Erlangs at 2% GOS. However, due to the inter-carrier interference, the estimated capacity of 2-carrier
CDMA system will be less than that ideal number. It will be 29.1 Erlangs per sector. We then calculate
the capacity of this system for one, two, and three carriers. It assumes 40 mE/subscriber requirement.
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CDMA 800 MHz Cellular System RF Design
We then calculate the capacity of this system for one, two, and three carriers. The Multi-Carrier CDMA
Traffic Capacity result is shown the table:
Number of carriers 1 2 3
Total capacity in Erlangs 4276.8 9428.4 16070.4
Total subscriber capacity 106920 235710 401760
IV. Conclusion
Our project goal was to design a CDMA 800 MHz Cellular System in Las Vegas that can
maintain the signal coverage, show the load prediction, and access successful system handoff and
interference control. In a word, the design system has been accepted with all requirement of the 800
MHz Cellular system in practical industry. The system also could be supported for 10-year projection
with 3 carriers of MTCA technology.
IV. References
Advantaged CDMA Technologies Nortels training documentation
CDMA RF Design Nortels training documentation
MSI PlaNET V2.8 Users Guide MSI Inc.
Wireless Communication Theodore S. Rappapaport
Application of CDMA in Wireless/Pesonal Communication Vijay Garg & Kenneth Smolik