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Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries 1

GE Energy Storage
GE imagination at work
Durathon
*
Battery
Application guide for E4810 and E4815 batteries
GE Energy Storages E4810 and E4815 Durathon sodium-nickel batteries represent a new era for battery
technology and energy storage. With an energy density of 170 Wh/l, Durathon Batteries provide more energy
in less space than traditional batteries. Their tolerance to severe environmental conditions eliminates the
operating costs of external heating or cooling systems, while their charge acceptance and projected lifespan
of 10,000 cycles enables a reduction in fuel consumption by applications that use generators to maintain
continuity of service. Each battery is equipped with an integrated Durathon Battery Management System
(BMS) that provides a complete picture of the status and health of the battery throughout its long life.
2 Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries
1.0 Features 1
Aging and Cycle Life 1
Shelf Life and Storage 1
Climate Conditions 1
Capacity 1
Environmental Stewardship 1
2.0 Battery Overview 2
Durathon Battery Cells 2
Durathon Battery String Assembly 2
Durathon Battery Modules 3
3.0 Battery Versions 4
E4810 Durathon Battery 5
E4815 Durathon Battery 7
4.0 Thermal Overview 9
5.0 Thermal Efects on Power 10
Efects on Power Availability
Operation 10
Efects on Charge/Discharge
Cycle (CDC) Operation 10
6.0 Operations 11
Power Availability Applications 11
Energy Storage CDC Operation 13
7.0 Durathon Battery Management
System (BMS) 14
Temperature Control and
Battery Protection 14
Performance Monitoring 14
Communications 15
8.0 Addendum 16
Daily or Throughput Energy 17
Table of Contents
1 Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries
Aging and cycle life
Durathon Batteries age gradually and do not
experience sudden loss of performance at end of life.
Sodium-nickel technology gives Durathon Batteries
an extended cycle life, which ofers ongoing savings in
terms of equipment and maintenance costs.
Shelf life and storage
A dormant Durathon Battery can be stored indefnitely
in any state of charge without negatively impacting
capacity or internal resistance. An extensive storage
period also has no impact on the batterys state
of charge when it returns to service. Durathon
Battery modules require no periodic refreshing or
maintenance charging.
Climate conditions
The Durathon Battery ofers high performance over
a wide range of temperatures
1
(-40C to 65C) and
functions efectively at elevations up to 3,000 meters
without the need and added expense of cooling or
heating infrastructure.
Capacity footprint
With an energy density of 170 Wh/l, Durathon
Batteries provide more energy in less space than
traditional batteries. This gives the Durathon Battery a
capacity (kWh) rating similar to batteries almost twice
its size.
Environmental stewardship
Durathon Batteries do not release hydrogen or other
fammable gasses during normal operation. The
electrochemistry is comprised of abundantly available
materials such as salt, nickel and iron. Durathon
Batteries are recyclable at end of life through GE-
authorized recycling partners.
1.0 Features
1
-40C to 60C without reduced performance
Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries 2
GEs Durathon Battery uses salt and nickel as its
primary reactants (Figure 1). An insulated outer
case is used to maintain the battery cells operating
temperature, and ensure that the batterys
external surfaces remain within 10C to 15C of the
surrounding ambient temperature.
2NaCl + Ni 2.58 V/46 Ah NiCl + 2 Na
(discharged) (charged)
Figure 1. Sodium-nickel reaction
Durathon Battery cells
Inside the Durathon Battery cell (Figure 2), the cathode
is flled with salt (sodium chloride), nickel, and a
sodium-based liquid electrolyte (NaAlCl
4
). A solid
ceramic electrolyte separates the anode and the
cathode. While this ceramic electrolyte acts as an
electrical insulator and is impermeable to liquids and
gases, its beta alumina chemistry conducts sodium
ions.
During charging, sodium is released from the salt
in the cathode and moves through the ceramic
electrolyte to the anode. When the cell discharges, the
sodium travels in the opposite direction, and combines
with chlorine to re-form as salt.
Durathon Battery string assembly
Durathon Battery cells are assembled in strings. Each
string is composed of 21 cells with a nominal potential
of 2.58 V and a capacity of 46 Ah connected in series
to maximize voltage. The strings are subsequently
connected in parallel within the Durathon Battery
module to maximize capacity. The kilowatt hour of
each module, therefore, depends on the number of
strings contained in the module:
Durathon Battery E4810 = Four (4) strings or
10k Wh (184 Ah at 54.2 V)
Durathon Battery E4815 = Six (6) strings or 15
kWh (276 Ah at 54.2 V)
Note: Multiple Durathon Battery modules can be
connected in parallel if more capacity is needed.
Modules cannot be connected in series for higher
voltage.
Positive
terminal
Cathode
Anode
Outer Case
Ceramic
electrolyte
Figure 2. Durathon Battery cell
2.0 Battery overview
3 Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries
Outer case
Durathon BMS
Durathon Battery heater
Durathon Battery cells
Inner case
Thermal insulation
Durathon Batteries are delivered and installed as
complete, stand-alone modules (Figure 3). Inside each
module, a sealed, metal inner case houses the battery
string assemblies and the Durathon Battery heater,
which maintains the batterys operating temperature.

These internal components are enclosed within the
battery modules outer case, with the Durathon
Battery Management System (BMS) installed on
the modules exterior. With a vacuum and thermal
insulation between the inner and outer cases, the
exterior of the Durathon Battery module is able
to remain within 15C of the surrounding ambient
temperature.
Figure 3. Durathon Battery module components
Durathon Battery modules
Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries 4
Operating at a higher voltage, the Durathon Battery reframes the concept of capacity by focusing on kilowatt
hours (kWh) rather than the more traditional measurement of Amp hours (Ah). For example, Table 1 illustrates
how the Durathon Battery performs against two typical lead-acid battery banks.
GE Energy Storage has used this distinction of kilowatt hours to diferentiate between the two current Durathon
Battery oferings for telecom applications the E4810 and the E4815.
Table 1. Usable capacity
Lead Acid
Durathon
Battery
E4810
Durathon
Battery
E4815
Capacity (Ah) 300 600 184 276
Operating potential (V) 50.4 50.4 54.2 54.2
Theoretical energy (kWh) 15.1 30.2 10.0 15.0
Usable capacity (%) 50% 50% 80% 80%
Usable capacity (kWh) 7.56 15.12 8.0 12.0
3.0 Battery versions
5 Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries
The E4810 Durathon Battery is composed of four strings of 21 cells (2.58 V, 46 Ah) connected in parallel within
the module. Each E4810 module contains a total of 84 cells for an overall capacity of 10 kWh (184 Ah at 54.2 V).
Table 2 illustrates the E4810 power ranges.
Table 2. E4810 power ranges
Cyclic Deep Discharge
Min Max Max
1.2 kW 1.75 kW
2
2.8 kW
3
E4810 Durathon Battery
E4810 cycle curves
Figure 4. E4810 cycle curve @ 1.3 kW
2
30% range
3
C/2 rate, 60% DOD, 10 hour recharge time
Figures 4 and 5 illustrate the cycle curves of the E4810 Durathon Battery.
FIGURE 4_1.3kW
0
20
40
60
80
100
0
20
40
60
80
100
S
O
C

%
S
O
C

%
Time (hrs)
1 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
47
49
51
53
55
57
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

(
V
)
-150
-100
-50
0
50
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
FIGURE 5_1.8kW
-150
-100
-50
0
50
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

(
V
)
Time (hrs)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
57
55
53
51
49
47
45
Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries 6
Figure 5. E4810 cycle curve @ 1.8 kW
FIGURE 4_1.3kW
0
20
40
60
80
100
0
20
40
60
80
100
S
O
C

%
S
O
C

%
Time (hrs)
1 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
47
49
51
53
55
57
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

(
V
)
-150
-100
-50
0
50
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
FIGURE 5_1.8kW
-150
-100
-50
0
50
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

(
V
)
Time (hrs)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
57
55
53
51
49
47
45
7 Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries
FIGURE 6_1.5kW
FIGURE 7_2.6kW
0
20
40
60
80
100
S
O
C

%
-180
-140
-100
-60
-20
20
60
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
1 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
47
49
51
53
55
57
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

(
V
)
Time (hrs)
0
20
40
60
80
100
S
O
C

%
-180
-140
-100
-60
-20
20
60
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

(
V
)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
57
55
53
51
49
47
45
Time (hrs)
Figure 6. E4815 cycle curve @ 1.5 kW
The E4815 Durathon Battery is composed of six strings of 21 cells (2.58 V, 46 Ah) connected in parallel within the
module. Each E4815 module contains a total of 126 cells for an overall capacity of 15 kWh (276 Ah at 54.2 V).
Table 3 illustrates the E4815 power ranges.
Figures 6 and 7 illustrate the cycle curves of the E4815 Durathon Battery.
Table 3. E4815 power ranges
Cyclic Deep Discharge
Min Max Max
1.2 kW 2.6 kW
4
4.28 kW
5
E4815 Durathon Battery
E4815 cycle curves
4
30% range
5
C/2 rate, 60% DOD, 10 hour recharge time
Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries 8
Figure 7. E4815 cycle curve @ 2.6 kW
FIGURE 6_1.5kW
FIGURE 7_2.6kW
0
20
40
60
80
100
S
O
C

%
-180
-140
-100
-60
-20
20
60
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
1 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
47
49
51
53
55
57
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

(
V
)
Time (hrs)
0
20
40
60
80
100
S
O
C

%
-180
-140
-100
-60
-20
20
60
C
u
r
r
e
n
t

(
A
)
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

(
V
)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
57
55
53
51
49
47
45
Time (hrs)
9 Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries
The Durathon Batterys thermal-fask construction
minimizes heater use and keeps the outer case of
the module between 10C and 15C above ambient
conditions (Figure 8). This allows the battery to reach
and maintain its operating temperature without an
on-site cooling system or a high-energy consumption
heater.
During commissioning, the Durathon Battery heater
is used to bring the battery module up to its target
operating temperature of approximately 300C. From
an ambient temperature of 25C, the Durathon Battery
will reach its target temperature within 14 to 16 hours.
When commissioning is complete, the battery will
operate in a temperature range from 260C to 350C.
In a Charge/Discharge Cycle (CDC) application, the
batterys sodium-nickel reaction generates heat when
the battery is discharging and absorbs heat when
it is charging. This results in minimal heater usage
an average of approximately 10 watts. In a power
availability application, the batterys insulated, thermal
fask construction creates an environment that also
requires little heater use. In the E4810 module, the
Durathon Battery heater averages less than 100 W in
energy consumption, while the E4815 module utilizes
120 W or less.
By maximizing the insulating qualities of its thermal
fask construction and minimizing heater usage,
the Durathon Battery modules outer case remains
within 15C of the surrounding ambient temperature.
This eliminates the need for battery-specifc, on-site
cooling systems.
Sealed
outer case
Sealed
inner case
300 W heater
Heat loss ~100 W
Outer case surface temperature
10C-15C above ambient
Ceramic insulation - Air evacuated
BMS
Figure 8. Durathon Battery thermal overview
4.0 Thermal overview
Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries 10
Efects on power availability
operation
The maximum power that may be drawn from
a Durathon Battery used in a power availability
application is 4.2 kW which represents the highest
power level at which the temperature is able to return
to operating levels while the battery is recharging.
Efects on Charge/Discharge Cycle
(CDC) operation
The maximum power that may be drawn from a
Durathon Battery used in a CDC application is 2.7 kW
(Figure 9) which represents the highest power level at
which the temperature is able to return to operating
levels while the battery is recharging to the higher
State of Charge (SOC) limit of Partial State of Charge
(PSOC) regime.
While the amount of current discharged by the Durathon Battery is directly related to the surface area of the
ceramic electrolyte, thermal efects may impact discharge currents. The origins of these thermal efects are
twofold. First, because Durathon Battery technology does not require integrated cooling systems for operation,
the heat contained within the battery modules does not actively dissipate. Second, Durathon Battery modules
utilize a highly efcient thermal fask design that minimizes the amount of heat loss. When combined, these
factors create certain thermal limitations in both power availability and CDC operations.
These thermal factors do not, however, endanger the battery itself. The Durathon BMS is designed to protect
the ceramic electrolyte from damage at elevated temperatures. Once the Durathon Battery modules internal
temperature reaches 350C, the BMS will disconnect the battery from the DC bus to prevent the battery from
discharging further. When the temperature drops below 350C, the BMS will automatically reconnect to the DC
bus and return to normal operation.
5.0 Thermal efects on power
11 Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries
The primary considerations regarding which version of the Durathon Battery should be used are site load and
application.
Figure 9. CDC limits
Power availability applications
This approach assumes that the Durathon Batteries
are left at 100% SOC and are dedicated resources
in case of complete loss of power due to grid or
generator failure. The appropriate size and number
of Durathon Battery modules is dependent upon the
amount of autonomy time that is required given sized
load.
Sample calculation
Number of Durathon Batteries required =
[DC Load(A)] [Bus Potential(V)] Autonomy Hours
[Usable Capacity(kWh) 80% recommended DOD
6.0 Operations
Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries 12
Additional reference tool
Table 4 can also be used to determine when to incorporate additional Durathon Battery modules in a power
availability application.
Load (kW)
E4810 (# of modules) E4815 (# of modules)
1 2 3 1 2 3
.8 10.8 15.7
1.0 8.7 12.9
1.5 5.8 8.7
1.6 5.4 10.8 8.2 15.7
2.0 3.8 8.7 6.5 12.9
2.5 2.6 7.0 10.4 5.2 10.4 15.2
2.8 2.0 6.2 9.4 4.0 9.4 13.7
3.0 5.8 8.7 3.8 8.7 12.9
3.5 4.8 7.5 2.8 7.5 11.2
4.0 3.8 6.5 2.3 6.5 9.8
4.2 3.6 6.2 2.0 6.2 9.4
4.5 3.1 5.8 5.8 8.7
5.0 2.6 5.2 5.2 7.9
5.5 2.2 4.3 4.3 7.1
5.6 2.0 4.2 4.2 7.0
6.0 3.8 3.8 6.5
6.5 3.3 3.3 6.0
7.0 2.8 2.8 5.5
7.5 2.5 2.5 5.2
8.0 2.3 2.3 4.8
8.4 2.0 2.0 4.5
8.5 4.4
9.0 3.7
9.5 3.3
10.0 3.2
Table 4. Power availability times and number of modules
13 Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries
Energy storage CDC operation
Table 5. Recommended number of modules for CDC operation
Note: Only the E4815 Durathon Battery should
be used with a DG and load this size.
Because the Durathon Battery is capable of being
charged at increased currents, battery modules can be
used to reduce fuel consumption in applications that
rely on generators to maintain continuity of service.
When the Durathon Battery is used in this type of CDC
operation, the number of modules required is based on
load and charging capacity.
Table 5 indicates the recommended number of
batteries required to maximize fuel savings given a
particular diesel generator (DG) size and site load.
Other site-specifc or economic considerations may
alter these recommendations.
Sample calculation for use with generator
Number of Durathon Batteries Required =
Generator size (kW] - site load (kW)
Durathon Battery charge power (kW)
Note:
Table assumes 1 kVA = 0.8 kW
Table does not take into account elevation
Table assumes gen-set will run at 80% capacity
60 A charge current per Durathon Battery
module (3.4 kW)
Special considerations in CDC
operation
A particular advantage of the Durathon Battery is
that it does not have to be taken ofine to complete
periodic equalization charges in order to maintain
peak performance. Instead, the Durathon Battery is
regularly returned to top of charge (100% SOC) as part
of its standard operating procedure. This occurs once
every 25 cycles and does not result in a loss of service.
Allowing the battery to charge for approximately 9.5
hours is all that is required.
During CDC operation, the return to 100% SOC ensures
that:
The SOC or amp hour counter is reset.
Any sodium crystal growth is reduced.
Note: Refer to daily or throughput energy section of the
Addendum for additional information.

Site Load (kW)
1 1.5 2 2.5 2.7 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
D
G

S
i
z
e

(
k
V
A
)
10 2 1 1 1 1
Small DG & big
load combination
11 2 2 1 1 1
12 2 2 2 2 1
13 2 2 2 2 2
14 2 2 2 2 2
15 3 2 2 2 2 2
16 3 3 2 2 2 2
17 3 3 3 2 2 2 2
18 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2
19 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2
20 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2
21 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
22 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
23 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3
24 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3
25 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3
26 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3
27 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
28 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4
29 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4
30 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4

Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries 14

Site Load (kW)
1 1.5 2 2.5 2.7 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
D
G

S
i
z
e

(
k
V
A
)
10 2 1 1 1 1
Small DG & big
load combination
11 2 2 1 1 1
12 2 2 2 2 1
13 2 2 2 2 2
14 2 2 2 2 2
15 3 2 2 2 2 2
16 3 3 2 2 2 2
17 3 3 3 2 2 2 2
18 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2
19 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2
20 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2
21 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
22 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
23 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3
24 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3
25 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3
26 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3
27 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
28 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4
29 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4
30 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4

Every Durathon Battery includes a fully-integrated Battery Management System (BMS). Mounted on the exterior
of the battery module, the Durathon BMS is designed to provide continuous functional monitoring, diagnostics
and end-user communications.
Temperature control and battery
protection
The Durathon BMS protects the battery to ensure
safe, reliable operation under all conditions. It
controls the initial heat up of the Durathon Battery
at commissioning, and continues to regulate the
modules temperature during operation. By managing
the batterys connection to the DC bus, it is also able
to protect the Durathon Battery from any over charge
or over discharge.
Performance monitoring
The Durathon BMS provides a complete and ongoing
picture of the Durathon Batterys performance
over time as well. From the moment the battery is
commissioned, the Durathon BMS begins to provide
vital measurements and diagnostic information to
the end user. Table 6 illustrates the performance
measurements, calculations and diagnostics that are
available through the Durathon BMS.
Table 6. Durathon BMS performance measurements, calculations and diagnostics
Measurements Calculations Diagnostics
Battery current
Heater current
String voltage
Battery voltage
Battery temperature
Amp hours (Ah) available
State of charge (SOC)
percent
Top of charge (TOC)
End of discharge (EOD)
Battery resistance
Cell resistance and voltage
Number of charge/
discharge cycles
Charge and discharge
hours
Charge delivered and
received
Energy discharged
Thermal insulation failure
Temp sensor failure
detection
Heater failure detection
Contactor failure detection
Voltage sense relay failure
detection
Failed cell detection
Power supply failure
detection
7.0 Durathon Battery Management System (BMS)
15 Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries
Table 7 outlines the various ways that the Durathon BMS is able to communicate operational information.
Table 7. Durathon BMS communications
Locally
LED status light
The BMS uses a LED status light display to confrm normal operation
or signify a fault condition.
TTL com port
Users can communicate to the Durathon BMS using a user-friendly
graphical user interface (GUI) and an isolated TTL-to-USB connection.
The GUI allows for diagnostics, special control functions and data
logging.
Remotely
RS485 Modbus
When confgured using the RS485 Modbus, the Durathon BMS can
provide the following data:
Battery current
Battery voltage
DC bus voltage
State of charge (SOC)
Battery temperature
Fault data
Digital outputs
Generator remote start
Generator remote stop
Spare output
Communications
Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries 16
8.0 Addendum
17 Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries
Throughput energy is defned as the amount of energy (in kWh) that can be placed into the Durathon Battery
and subsequently drained from the battery over the course of one day. Because the Durathon Battery features
high cyclability, there are a variety of ways to optimize the batterys throughput energy when operating in
CDC mode.
A determination of how to best utilize the Durathon Battery can be made using these three factors:
The curve cycle in Figure 10 is for the Durathon Battery E4810 at 1.3 kW. By considering the above criteria and
referencing this curve cycle, one can obtain a clear picture of the relationship between SOC and time.
1. Maximized throughput:
To extract as much daily or throughput energy as possible from the Durathon Battery, its
charge time needs to be minimized, while the batterys discharge time is maximized.
2. Cycles:
The batterys number of daily cycles is the number of times the battery charges and
discharges. If the sole power source is a generator, then the batterys maximum number
of daily cycles is directly related to the number of generator starts.
3. Power availability:
Power availability relates to the amount of capacity that the Durathon Battery still has
when the charge cycle begins. It is measured in time (hours) and is based on the site load.
1
2
3
Daily or throughput energy
Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries 18
Figure 10. Curve cycle for the E4810 at 1.3 kW
A. Discharge starts at 100% SOC; T = 0
B. Discharge starts at 75% SOC; T = 1:49
C. Discharge starts/ends at 50% SOC; T = 3:42
D. Charge starts at 25% SOC; T = 5:30
E. Discharge ENDS/Charge starts at 8% SOC; T = 6:41
F. Charge starts at 25% SOC; T = 7:07
G. Charge starts/ends at 50% SOC; T = 8:06
H. Charge ends at 75% SOC; T = 9:39
I. Charge ends at 100% SOC; T = 13:29
E4810 cycle curve at 1.3kW(~25A)
110
105
100
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
57.0
56.5
56.0
55.5
55.0
54.5
54.0
53.5
53.0
52.5
52.0
51.5
51.0
50.5
50.0
49.5
49.0
48.5
48.0
47.5
47.0
46.5
46.0
0
:
0
0
0
:
3
0
1
:
0
0
1
:
3
0
2
:
0
0
2
:
3
0
3
:
0
0
3
:
3
0
4
:
0
0
4
:
3
0
5
:
0
0
5
:
3
0
6
:
0
0
6
:
3
0
7
:
0
0
7
:
3
0
8
:
0
0
8
:
3
0
9
:
0
0
9
:
3
0
1
0
:
0
0
1
0
:
3
0
1
1
:
0
0
1
1
:
3
0
1
2
:
0
0
1
2
:
3
0
1
3
:
0
0
1
3
:
3
0
1
4
:
0
0
1
4
:
3
0
1
5
:
0
0
1
5
:
3
0
1
6
:
0
0
A
S
O
C

(
%
)
Time (hh:mm)
B
a
t
t
e
r
y

P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

(
V
)
SOC percent Battery voltage
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
19 Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries
These parameters are calculated as follows:
Power availability:
The amount of time it would take to get to 8% SOC. If the Durathon Battery was
operating in a 50% to 25% SOC range and the generator was unable to start when the
battery was at 25% SOC, there would be 1.18 hours of power availability before the
battery gets to 8% SOC (which is the point of low-voltage disconnect).

Power Availability (hours) = T
end

SOC
T
8% SOC
Cycles per day:
Number of times the Durathon Battery will discharge and charge based on the 1.3 kW
and within a specifc SOC operation range.

Cycles per day = 24 hrs per day / (discharge time + charge time)
Daily energy (kWh):
Amount of energy per day that can be placed into the Durathon Battery and then
drained from the battery (throughput energy).

Daily energy (kWh) = Site load(s) (kWh) x discharge time per day (hours)
The points from the graph can also be placed in a table (Table 8) and used to calculate power availability, cycles,
daily energy and the new concept of the discharge-to-charge ratio.
Table 8. Calculations for power availability, cycles, daily energy and CDC ratio
Range
Discharge
reference points
Discharge time
(hours)
Charge reference
points
Charge time
(hours)
Power
availability
(hours)
Cycles
per day
Ratio discharge-
to- charge
Daily energy
(kWh)
100% to 8% A to E 6.68 E to J 6.80 0.00 1.8 0.98 15.5
75% to 25% B to D 3.68 F to H 2.53 1.18 3.9 1.45 18.5
75% to 50% B to C 1.88 G to H 1.55 2.98 7.0 1.22 17.1
50% to 25% C to D 1.80 F to G 0.98 1.18 8.6 1.83 20.2
1
2
3
Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries 20
There are two ways to calculate the daily discharge time based on the information in Table 8.
1. Using the cycles per day and discharge time per cycle:
Discharge time per day = discharge time per cycle x cycles per day

2. Using the ratio of discharge-to-charge time:
Ratio (discharge-to-charge time): For every hour the Durathon Battery is charged, this ratio
represents the amount of time it will discharge for the 1.3 kW load. For example, if the battery is
operated in the 75% to 25% range at 1.3 kW, the battery will discharge from 75% SOC to 25% SOC in
3.68 hours and recharge back to 75% SOC in 2.53 hours (3.68 / 2.53 = 1.45). Since it is a ratio, it can
be used as the cycle as well as the daily level.
Ratio = discharge time / charge time
With the ratio, charge time and discharge times can be calculated on a daily level.
Charge time per day = 24 hrs / (Ratio +1)
Discharge time per day = 24 hrs Charge time per day
Reviewing the two methods:
The number of daily cycles is a general relationship with daily energy. That is, the more the
Durathon Battery cycles, the more energy it can provide on a daily basis. Because there is still a
relationship to the amount of discharge time per cycle, there is NOT a direct relationship between
cycles and daily energy (kWh).
There is, however, a direct relationship between daily energy and the discharge-to-charge ratio,
since discharge time is incorporated into the ratio calculation. Therefore, the larger the ratio, the
more daily energy, or throughput, the Durathon Battery can provide.
1
2
21 Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries
The implications of these parameters are that CDC operation can be optimized by examining:
1. Cycles per day
2. Ratio (discharge-charge)
3. Power availability
Using Tables 9 to 12 below for module size and load, the desired cyclic range or PSOC range can be chosen for
any given site.
For example, if an E4810 Durathon Battery supporting a 1.0 kW load was operated in a 80-20% SOC range, the
results would be:
2.5 cycles per day
A 1.57 to 1 discharge-to-charge ratio
Having 1.07 hours of capacity at the end of the discharge cycle
Daily energy throughput could then be calculated:
Daily energy (kWh) = (Power) x [24 hr - (24 hr / (Ratio +1))]
= (1.0kW) x [24hr - (24hr / (1.57 +1))]
= 14.7 kWh
Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries 22
Top SOC Power Availability
(Time to 8%)
80 70 60 50 40 30
B
o
t
t
o
m

S
O
C
70
cycles 15.5
5.87
ratio 2.07
60
cycles 7.9 15.6
4.97
ratio 1.89 2.12
50
cycles 5.2 8.0 15.5
3.94
ratio 1.78 1.98 2.15
40
cycles 3.9 5.3 8.1 15.6
2.95
ratio 1.70 1.88 2.02 2.20
30
cycles 3.1 3.9 5.4 8.1 15.6
1.99
ratio 1.62 1.80 1.94 2.05 2.20
20
cycles 2.5 3.2 4.1 5.4 8.1 17.2
1.07
ratio 1.57 1.73 1.87 1.98 2.08 1.97
Top SOC Power Availability
(Time to 8%)
80 70 60 50 40 30
B
o
t
t
o
m

S
O
C
70
cycles 21.5
3.37
ratio 1.16
60
cycles 10.8 21.7
2.77
ratio 1.10 1.19
50
cycles 7.1 11.0 21.7
2.22
ratio 1.01 1.13 1.24
40
cycles 5.3 7.3 11.2 22.0
1.67
ratio 0.98 1.08 1.16 1.24
30
cycles 4.2 5.5 7.5 11.4 21.7
1.13
ratio 0.94 1.05 1.14 1.20 1.24
20
cycles 3.5 4.4 5.7 7.7 12.1 25.0
0.60
ratio 0.92 1.03 1.11 1.18 1.17 1.22
Table 9. Energy throughput for E4810 @ 1.0 kW
6

Table 10. Energy throughput for E4810 @ 1.75 kW
6
Note: If multiple batteries are used, ratios will change by that same factor (assuming charging capacity is available). For
example, if the ratio is 2:1 then adding a second battery would make the ratio 4:1; three batteries would be 6:1, and so on.
23 Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries
Table 11. Energy throughput for E4815 @ 1.5 kW
Table 12. Energy throughput for E4815 @ 2.6 kW
Top SOC Power Availability
(Time to 8%)
80 70 60 50 40 30
B
o
t
t
o
m

S
O
C
70
cycles 15.4
5.92
ratio 2.10
60
cycles 7.8 15.5
4.99
ratio 1.91 2.15
50
cycles 5.2 8.0 15.6
3.95
ratio 1.80 1.99 2.12
40
cycles 3.8 5.3 8.0 15.5
2.96
ratio 1.71 1.89 2.05 2.23
30
cycles 3.0 3.9 5.4 8.0 15.7
1.99
ratio 1.63 1.80 1.96 2.07 2.18
20
cycles 2.5 3.2 4.0 5.4 8.1 17.2
1.07
ratio 1.58 1.74 1.88 2.00 2.08 1.97
Top SOC Power Availability
(Time to 8%)
80 70 60 50 40 30
B
o
t
t
o
m

S
O
C
70
cycles 21.3
3.42
ratio 1.19
60
cycles 10.8 21.5
2.81
ratio 1.09 1.21
50
cycles 7.1 11.0 21.5
2.24
ratio 1.04 1.14 1.21
40
cycles 5.3 7.4 11.2 21.7
1.69
ratio 0.99 1.11 1.20 1.24
30
cycles 4.2 5.5 7.6 11.4 22.0
1.14
ratio 0.97 1.07 1.16 1.23 1.28
20
cycles 3.5 4.4 5.7 7.7 12.1 19.2
0.61
ratio 0.95 1.05 1.13 1.19 1.20 0.73
Durathon Battery Application Guide: E4810 and E4815 Batteries 24
GE imagination at work
For more information,
visit www.geenergystorage.com.
GEA-988113006
*
Durathon is a trademark of General Electric Company.
GE, the GE Monogram, imagination at work and all other trade-
marks, and service marks, unless otherwise noted, are owned or
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Copyright 2013. General Electric Company. All rights reserved.