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LUCELO, Camille Joy D.

7 October 2013
BSA 2-2 Prof. A. Escuro

Communication is the act of conveying information from one point to the other. It is
a process in which a sender passes on a message by using a medium by which delivers the
message to the receiver. Thus the communication process simply looks like this:

In an organization, having a sound and unified work environment is the key to attain its goals.
But in order to have this kind of a working atmosphere, an organization must first set up effective
communication. Developing effective communication inside the organization will lead into efficient
functioning of the enterprise, proper planning, sound decision-making, effective staffing, enhancement
of motivation and morale, and good coordination among members.
Communication may be classified on the succeeding basis: (On the basis of)
1. Organizational Structure
2. Direction
3. Mode of Expression
Communication on the basis of organizational structure is divided into formal communication
and informal communication. Under formal communication, messages travel through formally
established channels. The formal communication guarantees an orderly flow of interaction, thus making
it easier for superiors to control their subordinates. However, engaging in this type of communication
not only is time consuming but also tends to filtration of information and distortion of facts due to its
lack of personal contact and leadership. Informal Communication on the other hand is personal in
nature and exists informally between members of the organization. Commonly referred as grapevine,
informal communication could be identified into single strand, gossip chain, probability chain, and
Chester chain. Under this kind of communication, the passing of information from one point to another
is faster compared to the one discussed earlier, thus making it more flexible. Other than that, it also
helps in improving decision making which leads into the satisfaction of the inner urge and need of the
people inside the organization. Even so, informal organization may carry inadequate information, which
may sprouted from rumors in the organization that might spark misunderstanding and confusion inside
the organization.
Communication on the basis of direction can be sub-divided into downward, upward,
horizontal and diagonal.
Type Description Diagram
- One that flows from top to bottom
- From superior to subordinates
- Used for giving directives

- Information flows from bottom to top.
- From subordinates to superiors
- Progress reports, problems, suggestions
or recommendations, opinions, ideas etc.

- Communication between personnel of
the same level or position.

- Communication between people who
arent in the same department nor on
the same position.

Communication based on mode of expression can be written, oral or gestural. Written
Communication is expressed through written words such as in the form of letters, circulars, notes,
memoranda, reports etc. Oral Communication, a.k.a two shades is expressed through spoken words. It
could be in the form of conversations like in meetings, group discussions, consultations and the like.
Lastly, gestural or non-verbal communication that uses postures, gestures of different parts of the body
to convey messages. It is considered as one of the effective modes of communication.
Good communications can be achieved if ideas are clarified before communicating, the
purpose of each communication are thoroughly evaluated, consultations are engaged in and
participants do not seek only to be understood but to understand their fellow workers as well.
However, despite of push hard in maintaining good communications inside an organization,
barriers of communication still exist which will be as follows:
1. Poorly Expressed Message
-Wrong word choices
- Misconstruction of sentences
- Lack of coherence
2. Complex Organizational Structure
*distance between sender and
3. Status Barriers
-superiors doesnt want to talk to their
4. Filtering of Information
*Conveys only the information that
listeners would be interested.
5. Semantic Barriers
-The variation of meaning of words or
6. Language Barriers
* Not only pertains to the language
used by different countries but also
the jargon used by different work
7. Different Backgrounds
8. Emotional Attitude
-When emotions are at peak, biases
can be made.
9. Undisclosed Assumptions
*Assumptions of one person may
differ to the assumption of the other.
10. Inadequate Attention - Half Listening
11. Lack of Mutual Trust
-the lack of trust between the
communicator and the receiver,
causes a message not to be followed.
12. Resistance to Change *Maintain status quo
13. Mechanical Barriers
-due to inadequate transmission,
wrong choice of media etc.

Here are some strategies to have effective communication:
Clarity and Completeness
Proper Language
Proper Channel or Medium
Sound Organizational Structure
Training and Development of Employees
Effective Listening
Consultation and Participation
Motivation, Mutual Trust and
Integrity Factor
Use of Formal Communication
Effective Feedback Mechanism
Proper Gestures and Tone

But we mustnt fret, for these barriers can be avoided if effective listening is applied.
Listening is different from hearing. The later pertains to only the act of receiving the sound, but with the
later it involves not only sound reception but also interpretation. Listening is the most neglected skills of
communication but it is the most important. Thus, in order to have sound communication in an
organization, effective listening must be developed within its members. And effective listening can be
achieved by following these:

Stop Talking
Put the talker at ease
Show the talker that you want to
Remover distractions
Emphasize with talkers
Be patient
Hold your Temper
Go easy on argument and
Ask questions