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Chapter 1


1.1 General nature of training

In New Generation Telecommunication Company /

Xpress, the training included two parts theoretical and

practical parts. Mainly the training was in three

departments, field, implementation and operation.

The theoretical part is lectures about different topics of

company telecommunication system like iDEN overview,

Radio Frequency Planning and Optimization, Cellular

Network Traffic Planning and Radio Frequency Design,

Principles of GSM (Global System for Mobile

communication), Principles of GPS (Global Positioning

System), Site Survey and layout of BTS (Base Transceiver


The practical part is going out field with technicians from

Field Implementation and Operation Department to solve

problems of sites due to alarms received by the OMC

(Operation and Monitoring Center).

1.2 Outline of the report

In this report, a brief description of the training will be

presented including the company profile, training details,

and finally conclusions and recommendations.

Chapter 2

New Generation Telecommunication Company /

Xpress Profile

2.1 Introduction

XPress Telecommunications, a private shareholding

company, launched its services in June 2004 in the

Jordanian telecommunications market as the latest wireless

and mobile operator, offering a new form of

telecommunications solutions based on the Integrated

Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN) technology. XPress is the

first Arab company in the Middle East to introduce the

technology, which combines the abilities of ordinary mobile

phones with the instantaneous Direct Connect (walkie-

talkie) service.

XPress was granted the exclusivity of deploying iDEN by

telecom giant Motorola, who developed the technology back

in 1994 to offer contemporary solutions for the growing

business sector needs, as well as other sectors requiring

instantaneous, real time communication, and the benefits of

time and cost saving, efficiency and productivity.

Furthermore, and in an act considered unprecedented by a

US government bank, XPress received a $54 million loan

guarantee from Export-Import Bank of the United States

(Ex-Im Bank), marking Ex-Im Bank's largest financing of a

telecommunications project in the Middle East, and its first

limited-recourse project financing in the country. The deal

signified a real landmark for XPress that reinforced its

viability and value for the local telecommunications market.

XPress offers subscribers its primary Direct Connect

service, which enables one-to-one and one-to-many

immediate, real time communication with a push of the

Direct Connect button, similar to "Walkie-Talkie" systems. In

addition, subscribers have complete access to regular

mobile phone services including SMS and packet data

applications such as wap and complete data transfer


XPress currently retains over 200 employees, 98% of which

are Jordanian. The company's own nationwide network

covers 95% of populated areas across the country, and is

continuously undergoing optimization.

Early indications have signaled an overwhelming demand

and acceptance for the new technology despite the fact that

it is not familiar. The company's steadfast work since its

launch has enabled it to accomplish many milestones and

positioned it as a solid player in the local

telecommunications industry.

Since its launch, XPress has introduced a number of

unique value added services, specifically pioneering the Per

Second Billing System. Starting January 1st 2005, XPress

introduced the PBS System in order to provide subscribers

with a fair method of calculating the cost of mobile calls

made, depending on the precise calling time in seconds

whereby users are charged for actual talking time without

incurring extra costs for unused time. The rating of each

second is charged at 1/60 of the whole minute. PSB is

applicable to all mobile calls from XPress to XPress and

from XPress to other mobile and landline networks at any

time of the day.

In 2005, XPress also launched the Push-To-View feature

available through the new i860 XPress phone. With the

i860 subscribers can send pictures to other XPress users at

the push of a button. The i860 enables users to also edit

and store images and features a camera with a 10 second

Video Recorder.

The company is also regularly introducing the latest in iDEN

handsets that cater to the various needs and tastes of the

diverse customer base.

In order to extend wider accessibility of its services to

different parts of the country, XPress inaugurated

showrooms around Jordan in Zarqa, Irbid, and Aqaba, as

well as in the Wehdat area.

2.2 Services

XPress is Jordan's latest telecommunications company

offering fully integrated wireless communications services.

XPress services are based on the Integrated Digital

Enhanced Network Technology (iDEN), making Jordan the

first Arab country with this technology in operation.

Through nationwide coverage and iDEN technology, XPress

offers cellular-plus services for the first time in Jordan:

-Push To- Services

Cellular Phone

GPS / XGPS (Global Positioning System)

Data Services

International Roaming

2.2.1 Push-To- Services

 Push to talk (PTT)

Direct Connect: Only XPress delivers the walkie-talkie

service that lets you get right through to any XPress user

anywhere in Jordan.

Group Connect: If you're part of a team that depends on

timely, consistent communication, one-to-many has a lot to

offer you.

 International Push To Talk (IPTT)

International Push-To-Talk or iPTT is the service which

enables XPress subscribers to talk internationally by the

push of a button.

 Push To View (PTV)

The "Push-To-View" (PTV) feature allows a user to capture

and share a photo during a dispatch private call

conversation with another user with a PTV-capable iDEN

handset. After the picture exchange both users are able to

view the image while they resume their dispatch call.

You can send pictures of all the available sizes and

resolutions by adjusting those fields on your handset prior

capturing the picture.

 Push To Order (PTO)

PTO service is especially launched to cater your needs and

facilitate your life with its variable services at your door

step: Food delivery, grocery, water distribution, in addition

to flowers shop, event arrangements, car rental, taxi, gas

station, fuel distribution, courier and hospitals and much

more to come to be at your service!

2.2.2 Cellular Phone

With the ever-growing life requirements on the

personal and professional level, XPress is always striving to

deliver unique services to cater to its customers' needs and


2.2.3 GPS / XGPS

Commerce relies on fleets of vehicles to deliver goods

and services either across a crowded city of through

nationwide corridors. So, effective fleet management has

direct bottom-line implications, such as telling a customer

when a package will arrive, spacing buses for the best

scheduled service, directing the nearest ambulance to an

accident, or helping tankers avoid hazards.

The Global Positioning System (GPS), a satellite-based

navigation system is built in every XPress handset, which

provides the backbone for systems tailored to applications

in agriculture, mass transit, urban delivery, public safety,

and vessel and vehicle tracking that industrialists,

construction workers, dispatchers, farmers, soldiers, pilots,

surveyors, hikers, delivery drivers, fire-fighters, and people

from many other walks of life can use in ways that make

their work more productive, safer, and even easier.

2.2.4 Data Services

XPlore is a new data service that allows users to

instantly access information via XPress wireless devices. It

provides the users with instant, easy, and user-interactive

access for all types of information that they need.

2.2.5 International Roaming Service

XPress has been able to successfully launch roaming

with a number of operators in countries worldwide. XPress

today supports roaming to our valued subscribers while

traveling abroad and to visitors to Jordan traveling from

foreign countries.

2.3 Advantages And Disadvantages of iDEN

The iDEN’s Advantage are as follows:

• Flexible, multi-national, network scaling

• Efficient RF Channel usage in several spectrum


• Circuit-switched (dial-up) and Packet-data (IP) digital

data networking

• Dispatch capability for Private, Local and Wide Area

Group calling

• Clear GSM cellular subscriber services

• Alphanumeric Messaging (Short Messaging Service)

• Reliable digital communication technology

• Fully Featured, compact portable devices (Mobile


The iDEN’s disadvantage are as follows:

• Limited Geographical availability: iDEN is only

available in north and south America and some

portions of Asia. This means that the service cannot

offer the same coverage and roaming capabilities as


• Single Vendor Standard: As iDEN is only offered by

Xpress ( and the only handset supplier is Motorola ),

consumers do not have significant choices for service

plans and handset. Furthermore, the smaller market

size has limited competition and is not attractive to

other suppliers.

Chapter 3

Training Description

The training in Radio Frequency Planning and

Optimization department mainly consists of two parts, the

planning part that describes the design of network and the

principles of selecting sites, where the optimization part is

responsible for keeping a healthy network with good

performance taking into account these three basic concepts

of network:

• Coverage: getting a usable radio signal to all areas in

the network.

• Capacity: handling the call traffic generated by the


• Quality: low interference and few calls dropped.

3.1 RF Planning

Radio Frequency Design is a major step in network

deployment. It ensures that the network is effectively up

and running, and that the basic services as well as call

stability can be provided. Through wise coordination of

planning and optimization activities, this service will help an

operator achieve the best capacity and performance from

its network.

Xpress network characteristics:

- 160 EBTS (Enhanced Base Transmitter Site).

- Frequency uplink (809-814) MHz.

- Frequency downlink (854-859) MHz.

- RF single carrier 25 MHz.

- Channel bandwidth 5 KHz.

- 200 channel.

- Dispatch calls follow the half-duplex model of

communication. So, dispatch calling splits a single

25 MHz carrier into 6 channels and during a

dispatch talk, one channel on the carrier is used

with 25 Kbps max. data rate.

- Interconnect calls follow the full-duplex model of

communication. So, interconnect calling splits a

single 25 MHz into 6 channels, where 2 channels

are needed to improve interconnect call with 9.9

Kbps data rate.

 iDEN Network Element:

1. MS: it is the user end interface, can be iDEN mobile

phone, PDA or any compatible device.

2. EBTS: it is the sub-system responsible for connection

between the MS and the land fixed network , it is also

responsible for timing control of subsystem ,

recognition and separation of traffic [ interconnect

dispatch , circuit data , packet data ] , interface

conversion radio -link to DS0 T1/E1, switching function

between base Radio , and finally maintenance of radio

link which include establish, handover, and trolling .

a. iSC: it is the ACG [access control gateway], which

is responsible for timing, synchronization between

the EBTS elements, and it can be considered the

brain of the EBTS as it does most of the EBTS


b. iMU: design to be the right hand of the iSC for

monitoring the EBTS and environment of the

shelter, the iMU generates alarms and send it to

the iSC when detected.

c. BR: the base radio it the element responsible for

interface conversion as it convert the traffic from

the iSC to RF signal with it transceiver and vise


d. RFDS: the RFDS is consisting of below element

that works together to combining several BRs to

a share the same antenna system.

i. Coupler: it split the TX and RX signals so

that each goes to it correct path.

ii. Duplexer: it makes an image for the RX

signal to all BR.

iii. Combiner: it combine the TX signal for two

or more BR, it’s a method used to have

more than one BR for each


3. DACCS: the Digital Access Cross Connect Switch is

attachment point between the EBTS and iDEN land

network. The connection is as below :

a. Dispatch and Packet data to the MPS.

b. Interconnect and control signaling to BSC.

c. OMC information signal to the OMC.

d. External facilities can be connecting to iDEN

using DACCS.

4. MPS: the Metro Packet Switch it is the element that

connect the EBTS with the dispatch subsystem, it’s

the attachment point of frame relay line.

5. DAP: the Dispatch Application Processor can be

consider as the brain of the dispatch subsystem as it

control the dispatch and packet data , maintenance

and tracking of MS mobility, first time registration, and

alarm and performance static for OMC .

6. APD: the Advance Packet Duplicator duty is to

duplicate the dispatch packet for multicast operation.

7. MDG: the Mobile Data Gateway is the terminal point to

the internet for iDEN system, it route the IP packet

from the EBTS through the DACCS and MPS to the


8. BSC: the Base Site Controller responsible for the

interconnect calls monitoring, handover with its EBTS,

and management of the EBTS with iDEN other

component. It consist of :

a. CP: the control processor contain the memory

and process ability to monitor and route the

interconnect traffic.

b. XCDR: the transcoder convert between the PCM

code of the PSTN and the VSELP [vector sum

excited leaner prediction] used for voice codec in

iDEN system. and also Mobis to SS7

9. MSC: the Mobile Switch Center it the center node for

all interconnect calls it manage the traffic between the

BSC, do the billing record, handover between other

MSC, control and interface with the PSTN, and

signaling control for the over all network.

10. HLR: the Home Location Register is the master

database that contains definition of services allowed

for each subscriber it’s also the interface to Billing and

Provisioning system.

11. VLR: the Visited Location Register contains active

subscribers and most recent location information and

Adds/deletes subscribers roaming into or out coverage


12. OMC: the Operation and Monitoring Center is it eye of

the system where you monitor the whole network, get

static analysis, and remote configure of the EBTS. It a

key element for insuring the network is in it full

optimizes performance.

Interconnect Path OMC Dispatch Path


DAP er

IP Router

RF 28

Figure 3.1: iDEN System Architecture

3.2 RF Optimization

No matter how thorough the design of a network is, it

is the responsibility of the system performance engineer to

ensure that equipment operates and performs at optimum

engineering levels, which means that RF optimization keeps

the network healthy.

Optimization is

• A Continuous process.

• Improving (fine tuning) the network Coverage and

Quality to meet design criteria.

• Eliminating/ Reducing drop calls and improving audio


• Focus the coverage to the areas where needed.

• Meet the demand of increasing traffic.

Optimization Purpose

• Improve RF Coverage.

• Improve RF Quality.

• Improve Audio Quality.

• Reduce Cost/ Spending.

• Increase Network Utilization.

• Maintain Proper Capacity.

Xpress Optimization Objective

• T_DCR (Total – Drop Call Rate) < 2%

• LOT (Loss Of Transmission) <1.5%

• I_BCR (Interconnect - Blocked Call Rate) <2%

• Dispatch Queuing <5%

• DCCH blocking <0.2%

• PCCH Utilization 13% for inbound utilization and

70% for outbound utilization

• Sector Utilization 60-80%

• Success Connection Rate >98%

• Handover Dropped Call Rate <0.5%

Optimization Procedure

• Site Post Construction Verification

• Site Noise and Interference Testing

• Site Drive Testing

• OMC Statistics Collection

• Data Analysis

• Site Configuration and System Parameter


Optimization process

Now that the site is on the air, it needs to be integrated

with the rest of the system and optimized.

– Drive testing is performed to ensure that the site

covers the area it was expected to cover. The

drive data is also used to update the propagation

model used to predict coverage.

– The RF Engineer ensures that the site is

operating with the correct frequencies and power

levels, is able to initiate and receive interconnect

and dispatch calls, does not have or cause

excessive interference, is handing over to

neighbor sites and is being handed over to from

neighbor sites.

– If necessary, the site and/or surrounding sites are

adjusted to compensate for the new site. New

sites affect the D/R (Diameter / Radius)

relationship and can allow us to improve our

reuse efficiency by shrinking the coverage areas

(R) of the surrounding sites.

– The Engineer can perform a much more detailed

analysis of the operating characteristics of the

site through the use of field test software. Each

handover can be analyzed; if any dropped calls

occurred during the drive test, they can also be

analyzed, along with any other potential

problems. Solutions can be implemented by

changing software parameters in the site’s load.

• Statistics monitoring.

– Operating statistics are pulled from the switch

and analyzed daily. Commonly monitored stats:

• Dropped calls - during a call, the site is in

constant contact with the mobile. If the

mobile and site lose contact for any reason

other than the person hanging up the phone

(normal termination), it is recorded as a

dropped call. Dropped calls and red “No

Service” lights are generally caused by low

SQE, either through poor coverage or

excessive interference.

• Handover failures - generally transparent to

the user. When a handover is requested,

either by the mobile or by the site, the site it

is trying to hand over to have to pass certain

criteria. If it does not pass, the handover is

recorded as a failure. Usually the attempt is

repeated at regular intervals until the

handover is successful or the condition

which necessitated the handover in the first

place is clear. Occasionally, repeated

handover failures may result in a dropped

call if the serving signal strength continues

to decline while the mobile is trying to hand

over. Handover failures typically occur on

“fringe” sites, where there are few or no

acceptable candidates to hand over to.

• More Statistics:

• I:3 (Interconnect) Blocked Calls - This is a

“System Busy” when you try to initiate a

phone call. The site you are serving on has

no more resources left to handle your call.

The blocked call percentage is based on the

busiest hour of the day for each site. A 2%

blocked call rate triggers the addition of a

BR to the site.

• Dispatch Blocked Calls - “System Busy”

while trying to initiate a private or group

dispatch call. Same cause as an I:3

Blocked call.

• DCCH Blocking - The DCCH is the

Dedicated Control Channel, which is used to

set up calls, and perform registrations. 0.2%

blocking or less is the target.

• Percent Sectors above I:3 Blocking Target -

this stat measures the percentage of sites or

sectors in the entire network are exceeding

the 2% blocked call percentage.

• Utilization - This is a measurement of how

efficiently the systems BRs are being used.

Low utilization is a sign that BRs are being

used where they are not needed, wasting

money. Utilization that is too high is a sign

of excessive blocking. Utilization in the 60-

70% range is a good target.

• PCCH Utilization - The PCCH is fixed

resource control channel used for facilitating

all dispatch functions and location area

registrations. There is a lot of debate over

what is “over-utilized” but common values

are 13% for inbound utilization and 70% for

outbound utilization. An over-utilized PCCH

can result in collisions, different users

colliding with requests. The most common

indication of PCCH blocking is “Target Not

Available”. Sectorization is a solution to

PCCH blocking because the number of

PCCHs available for that site is tripled.

Benefits of Optimization

• Co-channel interference problems are effectively


• Coverage problems are identified and solved

• Sites BR configuration is modified to accommodate

real traffic distribution

• Network problems are isolated and solved

• System is running near its design values

– Ready for future upgrades and expansions

3.3 Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC)

The Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) is the

network element management subsystems that establishes,

maintain, collects information about the network, and

presents it to the system operator. This data is used

primarily to support the daily operation of the network radio

system elements and to provide the system operator with

valid information for future planning decisions. As the

complexity and control requirements of the iDEN system

and its relationship to other systems increases, the need for

control and monitoring equipment also increases. The OMC

exists in at least one form in every system.

 OMC – Radio (OMC-R) — required for radio system


 OMC – System (OMC-S) — for possible switching

system management

 OMC – Network (OMC-N) — a possible Network

Operation Center (NOC)

The OMC-R controls and monitors the radio network

elements, including the:

• Dispatch Application Processors (DAPs)

• Base Site Controllers (BSCs)

• Enhanced Base Transceiver Systems (EBTS)

• Mobile Date Gateways (MDGs)

• Advanced Packet Duplicators (APDs)

The scope of responsibility for the OMC-R is the fixed

Network Radio Equipment (FNE). The OMC-R does not


• Mobility Management of the subscriber within the


• Mobile Switching Center

• Telo Transmission management

• Inter-region administration and control

Each of the radio network elements can be managed

remotely by the OMC. The OMC supports connection to

other network entities through:

• X.25 packet network (BSCs and EBTSs)

• Frame Relay Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVCs)


• Ethernet networks (DAP and APD)

Functional characteristics

Functions the OMC provides include:

• Event/ Alarm Management

• Fault Management

• Performance Management

• Configuration Management

• Security Management

• Performance Statistics

• Event Data Repository (event archive)

• View Operations, Administrative & Maintenance

(OA&M) of the MSC/HLR

• Limited interaction with the EBTS through SNMP

(power level, frequency and software level)

In OMC I have learned to make hourly and daily reports to

show the status of sites by using CROME program.

3.4 Site Equipments





Figure 3.3: Site tour

Figure 3.4: GPS Antenna

Every Site have two GPS antenna, they can be either on

the site room or one on the site room and the other on the


Figure 3.5: Microwave

Microwave consists of three main parts: Dish, Radio, and

Passive Repeater, microwaves are constructed to be a line

of site.

Figure 3.6: Microwave Rack

Microwave rack consists of Fuse Panel, MMU (Microwave

Modem Unit), and DDF (Digital Distribution Frame).

Figure 3.7: Rectifier

Rectifier converts AC power to DC in batteries, it has two

contactors, the Primary contactor disconnect the site at 44

V, and Secondary contactor disconnect the microwave at

24 V.

Figure 3.8: Batteries

Batteries are used to store DC power for the case when

electricity is disconnected

Figure 3.9: Air Conditioner

Every room site has two ACs turned on and off in shifts by


Figure 3.10: Fire System

Figure 3.11: Surge Unit

Surge units are designed to protect the site from excessive

voltage occurs due to power spikes.

Figure 3.11: GPS ICs

Every site has two GPS ICs one is active and the other is


Figure 3.12: Sectors

Every sector consist basically of BRs (Base Radio either

Quad or Legacy), Duplexers, and MultiCoupler.

Figure 3.13: Generator

Generators are used in sites that are not connected to

Electrical transmission lines.

3.5 Fields

Through my training I went several times to different

locations to

• Xpress stores in Yadodeh

Where I get a general idea about site equipments,

there types, models Etc.

• AMM-054 in Amman- Jawa

The site was on air with alarm BR11 OOS (out of


• AMM-040 in Amman- Adasseyeh

The site was on air with alarms AC Power Failure,

Surge, and minor rectifier. Where we found that the

generator is out of work and needed to be changed.

• MAD-001 in Madaba- Almukhayam

The site was on air with alarm High Temperature


• AMM-001 in Amman- Beirut Hotel

The site was on air with alarms BR is bouncing and

high temperature. So, we went in a drive test in

Alabdaly town.

Also we have changed the 3 Damaged BR’s (Base

Radio – Part of EBTS) by new ones.

• ZAR-005 in Zarqa – Al Hawouz

The site was on air with alarm High Temperature


• AMM-059 in Amman – Al Hommar beside the Royal


The site was on air with alarm High Temperature


Chapter 5


4.1 Conclusions

In the practical training for a period of 70 days, I have

learned a lot about the present scenario in the field of

communication. I have gained knowledge about the two

technologies used by the company -- Integrated Digital

Enhanced Network Technology (iDEN), and Global

Positioning System (GPS).

At our college we learn most of the things theoretically,

which does not provides sufficient information about the

subject, and students remain unaware of the problems

and errors when they go to the field. This practical

training has provided us the knowledge about various

technologies in the communication field.

I am highly grateful to the XPress family for the support

and guidance given to us for the successful completion

of our practical training.

Table Of Contents:

Chapter 1: Introduction…………………………………………………………………………………………...
• 1.1 General nature of training
• 1.2 Outline of the report

Chapter 2: New Generation Telecommunication - Company / Xpress


• 2.1 Introduction

• 2.2 Services

 2.2.1 Push-To- Services

 2.2.2 Cellular Phone

 2.2.3 GPS / XGPS

 2.2.4 Data Services

 2.2.5 International Roaming Service

• 2.3 Advantages & disadvantages of iDEN

Chapter 3: Training Description…………………………………………………………………...


• 3.1 RF Planning

• 3.2 RF Optimization

• 3.3 Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC)

• 3.4 Site Equipments

• 3.5 Fields


‫بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم‬

Mutah University

Practical Training at:

XPress Telecommunications, a private shareholding

company, Amman

Done By :
Bader M.S Al Nammur
Electrical Engineering / Communications