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SUBSONIC WIND-TUNNEL WALL CORRECTIONS ON A WING WITH A

CLARK Y-14 AIRFOIL

A Masters Project
Presented to
The Faculty of the Department of
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
San Jose State University

In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirements for a Degree
Master of Science
In
Aerospace Engineering

By
Tommy James Blackwell
May 2011

2011
Tommy James Blackwell
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

ii

ABSTRACT
As our civilization relies more heavily on aircrafts and rockets, the use of wind-tunnels has
increasing been integrated as an important aeronautical tool in their design. Even though windtunnels are great scientific tools, they do have their flaws. Based on the specific wind-tunnel
design, one of the main negatives is that wind-tunnels cannot simulate free-flight conditions
without having to correct the data for wall effects and other flow phenomena.
Both two and three-dimensional flows need to have corrections applied that are unique to that
wind-tunnels design. For two dimensional flows, corrections that can be obtain are for the
  with direct corrections available for      . The

corrections are developed from the buoyancy, solid and wake blockages, and streamline
curvature corrections. For tree-dimensional flows, corrections can be obtain are   ,

 These corrections depend on the methods applied to the two-dimensional cases


along with the method of images.
The experiments contained in this project are utilizing an AEROLAB wind-tunnel along with a
ClarkY-14 airfoil and wing. The wind-tunnel was set up to have inlet velocities of 6, 30, 68 and
102 mph and outlet atmospheric environmental conditions. The data collected with the correction
factors applied was then compared with free-flight CFD models to compare corrections
effectiveness

iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to take the opportunity to thank Dr. Mourtos and Dr. Papadopoulos for their support
throughout this project. Their assistance has been invaluable during the process of finishing this
project. I would also like to thank San Jose State University for the use of their wind tunnel
facility.
A special thanks goes to my mom, dad and family, who have stood by me with encouragement
and moral support. Also to my Aunt Helen and Jim Lyons, who provided editing assistance, I
thank you so much for your time and effort.
Finally, I thank Hai Le, Albert Rios and Paul Linggi for being a sounding board and
encouragement throughout the project.

Table of Contents
List of Figures ................................................................................................................................. 1
List of Variables .............................................................................................................................. 6
Chapter 1: Introduction ................................................................................................................. 11
1.1 Background ......................................................................................................................... 11
1.1.1 Development of Wind-Tunnels.................................................................................... 11
1.1.2 Wind-Tunnel Design .................................................................................................... 13
1.1.3 Wall Effects ................................................................................................................. 16
1.1.4 Wall Effect Corrections ............................................................................................... 19
A. The Method of Images ..................................................................................................... 19
Chapter 2: Clark Y-14 Airfoil and Wing ...................................................................................... 24
2.1 Development of Airfoils and Wings ................................................................................... 24
2.2 Development of the Clark Y-14 .......................................................................................... 27
2.3 Characterizing the Clark Y-14 ............................................................................................ 28
2.3.1 Aerodynamic Forces .................................................................................................... 29
2.3.2 Low-Speed Aerodynamics ........................................................................................... 30
2.3.3 Characterizing Airfoil Performance ............................................................................. 31
2.3.4 Characterizing Wing Performance ............................................................................... 32
2.4 Obtaining Airfoil Characteristics from Data....................................................................... 32
2.4.1 Airfoil control Volume Analysis ................................................................................. 32
vi

2.4.2 Test Section Control Volume Analysis........................................................................ 33


2.4.3 Wing Direct Force Measurement ................................................................................. 34
Chapter 3: AEROLAB Low-Speed Wind Tunnel ........................................................................ 36
3.1 General AEROLAB Wind Tunnel Specifications .............................................................. 36
3.2 Test Section and Instrumentation........................................................................................ 37
3.3 Clark Y-14 Airfoil and Wing Models ................................................................................. 39
Chapter 4: Two-Dimensional Wall Corrections for the Clark Y-14 Airfoil ................................ 40
4.1 Buoyancy Correction .......................................................................................................... 40
4.1.1 Theory .......................................................................................................................... 40
4.1.2 Approach ...................................................................................................................... 42
4.1.3 Results .......................................................................................................................... 49
4.1.4 Discussion .................................................................................................................... 51
4.2 Solid Blockage Correction .................................................................................................. 52
4.2.1 Theory .......................................................................................................................... 52
4.2.2 Approach ...................................................................................................................... 53
4.2.3 Results .......................................................................................................................... 55
4.2.4 Discussion .................................................................................................................... 57
4.3 Wake Blockage Correction ................................................................................................. 58
4.3.1 Theory .......................................................................................................................... 58
4.3.2 Approach ...................................................................................................................... 59
vii

4.3.3 Results .......................................................................................................................... 61


4.3.4 Discussion .................................................................................................................... 66
4.4 Streamline Curvature Correction ........................................................................................ 67
4.4.1 Theory .......................................................................................................................... 67
4.4.2 Approach ...................................................................................................................... 69
4.4.3 Results .......................................................................................................................... 71
4.4.4 Discussion .................................................................................................................... 75
Chapter 5: Three-Dimensional Wall Corrections for the Clark Y-14 Wing ................................ 77
5.1 Buoyancy Correction .......................................................................................................... 77
5.1.1 Theory .......................................................................................................................... 77
5.1.2 Approach ...................................................................................................................... 78
5.1.3 Results .......................................................................................................................... 78
5.1.4 Discussion .................................................................................................................... 79
5.2 Solid Blockage Correction .................................................................................................. 79
5.2.1 Theory .......................................................................................................................... 79
5.2.3 Results .......................................................................................................................... 80
5.2.4 Discussion .................................................................................................................... 81
5.3 Wake Blockage Correction ................................................................................................. 82
5.3.1 Theory .......................................................................................................................... 82
5.3.2 Approach ...................................................................................................................... 82
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5.3.3 Results .......................................................................................................................... 84


5.3.4 Discussion .................................................................................................................... 85
5.4 Method of Images ............................................................................................................... 85
5.4.1 Theory .......................................................................................................................... 85
5.4.2 Approach ...................................................................................................................... 89
5.4.3 Results .......................................................................................................................... 91
5.4.4 Discussion .................................................................................................................... 92
5.5 Streamline Curvature Correction ........................................................................................ 93
5.5.1 Theory .......................................................................................................................... 93
5.5.2 Approach ...................................................................................................................... 93
5.5.3 Results .......................................................................................................................... 94
Chapter 6: Computational Fluid Dynamics of the Clark Y-14 Airfoil ........................................ 98
6.1 Grids.................................................................................................................................... 98
6.2 Setup ................................................................................................................................. 100
6.3 Results ............................................................................................................................... 101
6.4 Discussion ......................................................................................................................... 111
Chapter 7: Conclusion................................................................................................................ 112
Works Cited ................................................................................................................................ 113
Appendix A ................................................................................................................................. 115
Appendix B ..................................................................................................................................... 1
ix

2D Airfoil Data (Pressure) .......................................................................................................... 1


2D Airfoil Calculations ............................................................................................................. 59
Appendix C ................................................................................................................................... 71
3D Wing Data ........................................................................................................................... 71
3D Wing Calculations ............................................................................................................... 89

List of Figures
Figure 1.1 - Benjamin Robins Whirling Arm .......................................................................8
Figure 1.2 - Example of open-circuit wind-tunnel.................................................................11
Figure 1.3 - Example of closed-circuit wind-tunnel ..............................................................12
Figure 1.4a - Example of model maintained on the centerline of test section .......................13
Figure 1.4b - Example of model mounted on test section wall .............................................14
Figure 1.5 - Example of 3D image system utilizing lifting line and a pair
of trailing vortices ..............................................................................................15
Figure 1.6 - Shape factor to determine ...............................................................................18
Figure 2.1 - Early patented airfoil shapes by H.F. Phillips31 ................................................21
Figure 2.2 - Airfoil Nomenclature .........................................................................................24
Figure 2.3 - Clark Y Airfoil ...................................................................................................25
Figure 2.4 - Aerodynamic Forces ..........................................................................................27
Figure 2.5 - Pressure distribution over an airfoil ...................................................................30
Figure 2.6 - Control volume on a 2D body ............................................................................31
Figure 2.7 - Schematic of Forces on Sting balance ...............................................................31
Figure 3.1 - AEROLAB Educational Wind Tunnel...............................................................33
Figure 3.2 - AEROLAB Wind Tunnel Test Section ..............................................................34
Figure 3.3 - Clark Y-14 Airfoil ..............................................................................................36
Figure 3.4 - Clark Y-14 Wing with and without Flaps and slats deployed ...........................36
Figure 4.1 - Cross-sectional area in percentage of length......................................................38
Figure 4.2 Static Pressure Gradient in the test section for a velocity of 6.5 MPH .............39

Figure 4.3 - Body shape factor for different shapes...............................................................40


Figure 4.4 - Plot of thickness ratios for a category of airfoils vs. ......................................41
Figure 4.5 Laminar and turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate ....................................42
Figure 4.6 Test section diagram for calculation of P2 and V2 .............................................44
Figure 4.7 Effective cross-sectional exit area of the test section with the boundary layer
displacement removed ........................................................................................45
Figure 4.8 Effective cross-sectional area at exit of test section for various airspeeds........46
Figure 4.9 - Static pressure gradient through the test section from 0 to 334
Figure 4.10 - 2D Buoyancy Correction for 0 334

....................47

.........................................................48

Figure 4.11 Plot of vs. Fineness ratio ..........................................................................50

Figure 4.12 Model volume plotted with airfoil angle attack ..............................................53
Figure 4.13a Solid Blockage for the Clark Y-14 for M < .3...............................................53
Figure 4.13b Solid Blockage for the Clark Y-14 for V <90 ft/sec .....................................54
Figure 4.14: Diagram of the velocity profiles in a test section with wake ............................55
Figure 4.15 Wake rake behind the Clark Y-14 airfoil .....................................................57
Figure 4.16 Profile of wake at 6.5MPH ..............................................................................59
Figure 4.17 Profile of wake at 30 MPH ..............................................................................60
Figure 4.18 Profile of wake at 68 MPH ..............................................................................61
Figure 4.19 Plot of the coefficient of drag vs. angle of attack ............................................62
Figure 4.20 Plot of the wake blockage vs. angle of attack .................................................62
Figure 4.21 Image system needed for the streamline curvature correction ........................64
Figure 4.22 Translation of moment to quarter-chord point on the Clark Y-14 ..................67
2

Figure 4.23 Plot of Cl vs. uncorrected angle of attack .....................................................69


Figure 4.24 Plot of mc/4 vs. uncorrected angle of attack ..................................................69
Figure 4.25 Plot of L' vs. uncorrected angle of attack......................................................70
Figure 4.26 Plot of vs. uncorrected angle of attack .......................................................70
Figure 4.27 Plot of corrected Cl vs. uncorrected angle of attack .........................................71
Figure 4.28 Plot of corrected angle of attack vs. uncorrected angle of attack ....................71
Figure 4.29 Plot of corrected coefficient of moment vs. uncorrected angle of attack ........72
Figure 5.1 Values of vs. fineness ratio ..........................................................................75
Figure 5.2 Plot of the buoyancy correction vs. the test section airspeed ............................76
Figure 5.3 Plot of the solid blockage for the Clark Y-14 wing...........................................78
Figure 5.4 Values of K3 and K3 for a number of bodies .....................................................80
Figure 5.5 Plot of the angle of attack vs. the coefficient of drag ........................................81
Figure 5.6 Plot of the angle of attack vs. wake blockage ...................................................81
Figure 5.7 - The effects of downwash on a finite wing to produce induced drag .................83
Figure 5.8 - Single vortex arrangement for simulation with vertical boundaries ..................84
Figure 5.9 - Vortex image system for the horizontal simulation of wing in a rectangular test
section .................................................................................................................85
Figure 5.10 - Vortex image system for the vertical simulation of wing in a rectangular test
section .................................................................................................................86
Figure 5.11 Vortices image setup to calculate the induced velocity...................................87
Figure 5.12 Plot of vs. the u .........................................................................................89
Figure 5.13 Plot of cdi vs. the u .......................................................................................89
Figure 5.14 Wing lift slope curves for 6.5 MPH ................................................................91

Figure 5.15 Wing lift slope curves for 30 MPH .................................................................92


Figure 5.16 Wing lift slope curves for 68 MPH .................................................................92
Figure 5.14 Wing lift slope curves for 102 MPH ...............................................................93
Figure 5.18 Plot of the change in the angle of attack vs. uncorrected angle of attack........93
Figure 5.19 Plot of the change in coefficient of lift vs. uncorrected angle of attack ..........94
Figure 5.20 Plot of the change in moment coefficient vs. uncorrected angle of attack ......94
Figure 6.1 Orthogonal grid around the Clark Y-14 Airfoil ................................................95
Figure 6.2 Free flight grid with 5 sub-domains for the Clark Y-14 ....................................96
Figure 6.3 Grid modeling the flow inside the wind-tunnel with the Clark Y-14................97
Figure 6.4 CFD Results for the Clark Y-14 at -4 aoa .........................................................98
Figure 6.5 CFD Results for the Clark Y-14 at 0 aoa ..........................................................98
Figure 6.6 CFD Results for the Clark Y-14 at 4 aoa ..........................................................99
Figure 6.7 CFD Results for the Clark Y-14 at 8 aoa ..........................................................99
Figure 6.8 CFD Results for the Clark Y-14 at 12 aoa ........................................................100
Figure 6.9 CFD Results for the Clark Y-14 at 16 aoa ........................................................100
Figure 6.10 Plot of the Cp over the Clark Y-14 at -4 aoa .....................................................101
Figure 6.11 Plot of the Cp over the Clark Y-14 at 0 aoa ......................................................101
Figure 6.12 Plot of the Cp over the Clark Y-14 at 4 aoa ......................................................102
Figure 6.13 Plot of the Cp over the Clark Y-14 at 8 aoa ......................................................102
Figure 6.14 Plot of the Cp over the Clark Y-14 at 12 aoa ....................................................103
Figure 6.15 Plot of the Cp over the Clark Y-14 at 16 aoa ....................................................103
Figure 6.16 Plot of the Cl at a velocity of 44 ft/sec comparing uncorrected, corrected, expected
and CFD results ..................................................................................................104

Figure 6.17 Plot of the Cl at a velocity of 99.73 ft/sec comparing uncorrected, corrected,
expected and CFD results ...................................................................................104
Figure 6.18 Plot of the Cl at a velocity of 149.64 ft/sec comparing uncorrected, corrected,
expected and CFD results ...................................................................................105
Figure 6.19 Streamlines over the Clark Y-14 at -4 aoa ......................................................105
Figure 6.20 Streamlines over the Clark Y-14 at 0 aoa ........................................................106
Figure 6.21 Streamlines over the Clark Y-14 at 4 aoa ........................................................106
Figure 6.22 Streamlines over the Clark Y-14 at 8 aoa ........................................................107
Figure 6.23 Streamlines over the Clark Y-14 at 12 aoa ......................................................108
Figure 6.24 Streamlines over the Clark Y-14 at 16 aoa ......................................................108

List of Variables
Abbreviation

Description

Chord

Test Section Height

Planform Area

DB

Change in Drag due to Buoyancy

Body Shape Factor

Body Thickness

LE

Leading Edge

TE

Trailing Edge

Induced velocity

eff

Effective Angle of Attack

Induced Angle of Attack

Change in Induced Angle of Attack

Angle of Attack

Corrected Angle of Attack

Uncorrected Angle of Attack

cd

Coefficient of Drag for an Airfoil

cdu

Uncorrected Coefficient of Drag for an Airfoil

cdc

Corrected Coefficient of Drag for an Airfoil

cd0

Coefficient of Drag at 0 Lift Condition

CD

Coefficient of Drag for a Wing

CDu

Uncorrected Coefficient of Drag for a Wing


6

CDc

Corrected Coefficient of Drag for a Wing

CDi

Coefficient of Induced Drag

CDi

Change in the Coefficient of Induced Drag

Cl

Coefficient of Lift for an Airfoil

Clu

Uncorrected Coefficient of Lift for an Airfoil

Clc

Corrected Coefficient of Lift for an Airfoil

CL

Coefficient of Lift for a Wing

CLu

Uncorrected Coefficient of Lift for a Wing

CLc

Corrected Coefficient of Lift for a Wing

Re

Reynolds Number

Reu

Uncorrected Reynolds Number

Rec

Corrected Reynolds Number

Recr

Critical Reynolds Number

Cm

Moment Coefficient for an Airfoil

Cmu

Uncorrected Moment Coefficient for an Airfoil

Cmc

Corrected Moment Coefficient for an Airfoil

Cm

Cm

Corrected Moment Coefficient for an Airfoil at Chord

Uncorrected Moment Coefficient for an Airfoil at Chord

CM

Moment Coefficient for a Wing

CMu

Uncorrected Moment Coefficient for a Wing

CMc

Corrected Moment Coefficient for a Wing

Normal Force

Axial Force
7

CN

Normal Force Coefficient

Cp

Pressure Coefficient

Cpu

Uncorrected Pressure Coefficient

Cpc

Corrected Pressure Coefficient

Dynamic Pressure

qu

Uncorrected Dynamic Pressure

qc

Corrected Dynamic Pressure

Pt

Total Pressure

Pressure

Ps

Static Pressure

Freestream Pressure

Vortex Strength

Pitching Moment

Mu

Pitching Moment on Upper Surface

Ml

Pitching Moment on Lower Surface

Density

Velocity

Freestream Velocity

Vu

Uncorrected Velocity

Vc

Corrected Velocity

Tunnel Width

Wing Span

Vortex Spacing

Change in Induced Velocity

Cylinder Radius

Local Velocity

Test Section Cross-sectional Area

Boundary Layer Thickness

Boundary Layer Displacement

Turbulent Boundary Layer Displacement

Laminar Boundary Layer Displacement

Static Pressure Curve Slope


Wing Lift Curve Slope

Sx

Airfoil Cross-Sectional Area

Length of Leading Edge

Body Shape for 2D Bodies

Body Shape for 3D Bodies

Doublet Strength

ltc

Length of Test Section

Fineness Ratio

P0

Initial Pressure

xcr

Distance where the flow transitions

cmodel

Model Chord

vmodel

Model Volume

sb

Solid Blockage

wb

Wake Blockage
9

total

Total Blockage

Mass Flow Rate

hs

Spacing between sources

Yw

Wake Width

Induced Velocity in the Vertical Direction

10

Chapteer 1: Introduction
1.1 Back
kground
1.1.1 Dev
velopment of
o Wind-Tu
unnels
The first attempt to simulate steaady, controllaable air flow
w used mounntain slopes aand valleys
where thee wind was usually
u
stead
dy with miniimal trees annd other turbbulence landdscape featurres.
These early attempts were met with
w limited success
s
and ddepended onn weather coonditions whhich
at the tim
me, were hard
d to predict hour
h
to hourr much less a few days oout from a test date. In thhe
early 170
00s, Benjam
min Robins whirling
w
arm
m device (Figgure 1.1) prooduced air vvelocities of oonly
a few feeet per second
d for testing models and was the onlyy device at thhe time that could achieeve
those maarginal from what could be
b found natturally.

Figure 1.1
1 - Benjam
min Robins Whirling Arm
A
where a mass was dropped w
which rotated
d the
arm. (NASA,
(
20005)
The whirrling arm dev
vice did not produce a reeliable flow of air for tessting and cauused turbuleence
from the model going
g through itss own wake. (NASA,20005) During th
the mid-17000s, Sir Georrge

11

Cayley used a whirling arm that could produce velocities of 10 to 20 feet per second but was not
modified in any way to correct for the model going through its own wake. (Theodorsen, 1933)
Over the years since Robins first whirling arm, they had gotten bigger and able to produce faster
velocities to the point that researchers were able to obtain tip velocities in excess of 100 mph.
Since the times of Leonardo da Vinci and Sir Isaac Newton as well as Benjamin Robins and Sir
George Cayley, engineers realized that there was a need for a device to create and maintain a
steady, controllable flow of air. It wasnt till the 1870s that the Aeronautical Society of Great
Britain began development of the first enclosed wind tunnel that could maintain a steady,
controlled air flow. The society invented, designed and operated with the help of Francis Herbert
Wenham, who is credited with many aeronautical fundamental discoveries including the
measurement of lift-to-drag ratios and the importance of a high aspect ratio. (NASA,2005) Along
with other experiments that were completed using the new technology, Osborne Reynolds
demonstrated that the airflow pattern over a scale model would be the same as for a full-scale
model if certain parameters were the same with the scaled and fullscale model. The flow
parameter became known as the Reynolds Number which is a description for all fluid-flow
situations, including the shapes of flow pattern, the ease of heat transfer and the onset of
turbulence. However there are limitations on the conditions in which dynamic similarity are
based upon the Reynolds Number alone. (Theodorsen, 1933) With the advent of the Reynolds
Number, the wind-tunnel became a more powerful research tool which allowed the Wright
brothers to test their variously designed airfoils which revolutionized manned flight. Since the
Wright brothers, the use of wind-tunnels has exploded and the science of aerodynamics was
born.

12

Wind-tunnels are often limited to the volume and the speed of airflow which could be delivered
by the flow environment and power plant respectively. The wind-tunnels used by the Germans
during WWII are an interesting example of the difficulties associated with extending the useful
range of large wind-tunnels. To overcome the limit in volume that kept large wind-tunnels from
operating effectively, the Germans used caves which were excavated to be even larger to store
air which could be diverted to their wind-tunnels when needed. The caves allowed for an
increase in air volume which in turn allowed the research labs to explore the high-speed regimes
and greatly accelerated the number of aircraft advances that German held over the Allies. By the
end of the war, Germany had three different supersonic wind-tunnels that were able to sustain
velocities of Mach 4.4. (NASA, 2005) Since the time of the war, metal vessels which can hold
very high pressure and handle higher volumes of air where developed and are used as a substitute
to the German design. Later research focused on more powerful power plants, turbine blade
design, tunnel shape and test section design. Wind-tunnels and other types of tunnels were the
best aerodynamic research tool until computer power increased enough for the development of
CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) programs to take over for the expensively run windtunnels. Even with CFD solvers being used, wind-tunnels still have their place in research today.

1.1.2 Wind-Tunnel Design

The design of wind-tunnels can be open-circuit or closed-circuit. Open-circuit tunnels (Figure


1.2) can also be suckdown or blower tunnels. A Suckdown tunnel is open to the
atmosphere (open-circuit) and has the axial fan or centrifugal blower downstream of the test
section which sucks the fluid through the test section. A Blower tunnel is also open to the
13

atmospheere but has th


he axial fan or centrifugal blower uppstream of thhe test statioon and blowss the
fluid thro
ough the testt station. Opeen-circuit tu
unnels have tthe advantagge of being leess expensivve to
build butt come at thee cost of requ
uiring more power to opperate and thee model cann only be
subjected
d to ambient conditions.

Figuree 1.2 - Exam


mple of open
n-circuit win
nd-tunnel (K
Kasravi, 20110)
Closed-ccircuit tunneels (Figure 1.3) are closed to the outsside atmosphhere with an axial fan orr
multi-staage axial com
mpressor (sup
personic tun
nnels) to creaate the fluid stream. Twoo advantagess
over the open-circuitt tunnels are that the atm
mospheric connditions in thhe tunnel caan be controllled
and this type
t
of tunneel avoids thee loss of retu
urning airs m
momentum. Closed-circuuit tunnels aalso
have morre uniform flow
fl through
h the test secttion than opeen-circuit tuunnels but grreat attentionn
needs to be concentraated on the design
d
of thee entrance too the test secttion to mainntain uniform
m
flow. Thee control oveer the condittions and flo
ow in the tunnnel comes w
with the cost of being verry
expensiv
ve to build. (P
Pankhurst, 1952)

14

Figure 1.3 - Example of closed


d-circuit wiind-tunnel ((Kasravi, 20010)
The fluid
d flow createed by the fan
ns blowing in
nto the test ssection is higghly turbulennt due to the
motion of
o the blades on the fan. The
T turbulen
nce can be diissipated by adding clossely-spaced
vertical and
a horizontal vanes whiich smooth out
o the fluid before it ennters the test section.
Suckdow
wn tunnels do not havee this issue siince the fan is positionedd behind thee test sectionn and
downstreeam of the fluid flow. In closed-circu
uit tunnels, tthe fan or turrbine is locatted on the
opposite side of the tunnel
t
from the
t test sectiion which alllows the fluuid flow to enncounter sevveral
f
before it
i reaches thee test sectionn. The vane set allow forr the
vane setss to straighteen the fluid flow
flow to be
b sucked or
o blown down
d
the tun
nnel with thee fluid flow entering the test section in a
laminar state.
s
The tun
nnel itself iss usually circcular due to tthe effects oof viscosity oof a fluid flow
w
through a square crosss section. The
T fluid flow
w through a square crosss section willl have flow
constrictiion in the co
orners of the square tunn
nel which willl cause turbbulent flow. T
The inside fa
face
of the tun
nnel walls arre made as sm
mooth as po
ossible to redduce surface drag and turrbulence.

15

1.1.3 Wa
all Effects

s
of most
m wind tun
nnels is rectaangular whille the tunnel itself is circcular which
The test section
causes itss own design
n issues. Thee inlet must keep
k
the flow
w laminar duuring the traansition from
m
circular to
t rectangulaar. Since therre will alway
ys be some tturbulence entering the ttest section, this
must be accounted
a
fo
or when anallyzing the model
m
data. T
The model inn the test secttion is usually
kept in th
he center of the
t test sectiion to reducee interactionn with the tesst section waall boundaryy
layer but this cannot always be obtained due to test sectioon design orr placement oof the model
itself. (Fiigure 1.4a an
nd b) The tesst section an
nd model cre ate a host off other issuess that will neeed
to be corrrected and factored
fa
out in
i order for the
t model daata to be acccurate and usseful.

Figure 1.4a - Exam


mple of model maintained on the ceenterline off test section
n. (NASA, 20005)

16

Figure
F
1.4b - Example of model mounted
m
on ttest section wall. (NASA
A, 2005)
In the book, Low-Sp
peed Wind Tunnel
T
Testiing, the authhor produces a list of isssues produceed by
the existeence of the walls
w
in the test
t section. The issues oone needs to consider aree listed below
w;
(Pope, 19
984)
x

In
n a closed test section, a lateral consttraint to the flow patternn about a boddy is knownn as
ssolid blockage and causes an increaase of dynam
mic pressure, increasing all forces annd
moments
m
at a given anglee of attack. In
n an open teest section, thhe effect of solid blockage
iss usually neg
gligible sincee the flow is allowed to eexpand in a normal mattter.

In
n closed test sections, a lateral
l
constrraint to the fflow pattern about the w
wake is know
wn as
w
wake blockaage. The w
wake blockag
ge effect inccreases the w
wake size whhich in turn
in
ncreases the drag on the model. In an
n open test ssection, the eeffect of waake blockagee is
usually neglig
gible since th
he flow is alllowed to exppand in a noormal matterr.

In
n closed test section, the angle of attack near thee wingtips off a model wiith a large sppan is
in
ncreased exccessively, maaking the tip
p stall start eaarly. The efffect of an oppen jet is oppposite

17

where the tips are unstalled. In both cases the effect is diminished to the point of
negligibility by keeping model span less than .8 of the tunnel width
x

An alteration to the normal curvature of the flow about a wing so that the wing moment
coefficient, wing lift and angle of attack are increased in a closed wind tunnel and is
decreased with an open jet.

The normal downwash is altered so that the measured lift and drag are in error. The
closed jet makes the lift too large and the drag too small at a given geometric angle of
attack. An open jet has just the opposite effect.

The normal downwash is altered so that behind the wing is the measured tail setting and static
stability are in error In a closed jet, the model has too much stability and an excessively high
wake location. In an open jet, the stability effect is large.
x

The normal flow pattern is altered so that the hinge moments are too large in a closed test
section and too small in an open test section.

The normal flow is altered about an asymmetrically loaded wing such that the boundary
effects become asymmetric and the observed rolling and yawing moments are in error.

The flow is altered by a thrusting propeller such that a given thrust occurs at a speed
lower than it would be in free-flowing air when in a closed test section. With the
propeller braking, the effect is opposite. Wake effects such as these are negligible when a
free jet is employed.

In most instances, corrections for all the above will not be used at once. With these corrections
listed above, extraneous corrections are needed due to wind tunnel design which includes
angularity of flow, local variations in velocity, tare, and interference.

18

1.1.4 Wall Effect Corrections

Wall effects that need to be corrected depend on the model that is placed in the tunnel. With an
airfoil spanning the test section, wall to wall, 2D wall effect corrections will be utilized. Other
shapes that are not considered 2D will employ 3D wall effect corrections.
A. The Method of Images

The method of images approach allows for the flow pattern about the wing to be closely
simulated mathematically by replacing the wing with a system of vortices composed of a lifting
line vortex and a pair of trailing vortices. (Theodorsen, 1933) Similarly, a solid body may be
represented by a source-sink system and a wake by source. The simulation of a course, sink,
doublet or vortex behind the boundary to be represented. Solid boundaries are formed by the
addition of an image system which produces a zero streamline matching the solid boundary.

19

Figure 1.5
1 - Example of 3D ima
age system utilizing
u
liftting line and
d a pair of ttrailing vorttices.
(Pope, 1984)
An open
n boundary requires an im
mage system
m that producces a zero veelocity potenntial line whiich
matches the boundary
y. (Pope, 1984) After the image systtem is establlished, a clossed rectanguular
test sectio
on becomes a doubly inffinite system
m of vortices. This methood can be used to determ
mine
the corrected values for
f the inducced drag coeefficient, indduced angle oof attack andd the inducedd
velocitiess. In the boo
ok written by
y Gustafson, he discussess the need, inn both the innviscid and
viscous flow,
f
that thee normal bou
undary cond
dition for the solid walls to set the syystem of imaages
correctly
y. This will ensure you haave an accurrate solutionn when calcuulating the coorrection facctors.
(Gustafso
on and Sethiian, 1991)
B. Buoya
ancy Correcction

Like the other correcction factors needed to an


nalyze the daata returned from wind ttunnel testinng,
the buoyaancy correcttion is need for
f all parts of an aircrafft, especiallyy the fuselagge. While thee
fuselage experiences significantly
y higher draag due to buooyancy forcee than a wingg or airfoil, tthe
20

developm
ment of the correction
c
factor for a wiing or airfoill is still neceessary. As thhe flow passees an
immersed
d body in a wind
w
tunnel test section, the flow woould like to eexpand beyoond the wallss of
the test section. In orrder to conseerve mass, th
he flow thereefore must acccelerate. Thhis interactioon
between the test sectiion walls an
nd the flow near
n the test ssection is refferred to as hhorizontal
buoyancy
y, and is deffined (Hahn, 2004) as

(1.1)

where

f
in figu
ure 1.6. The derivative oof pressure w
with respect tto x was
Values of / can be found
provided
d as some preessure. The horizontal
h
bu
uoyancy muust be subtraccted from thee drag of thee
model beefore analysiis can comm
mence. Some wind tunnells have slighhtly expandinng walls to
mitigate the buoyanccy force that is projected onto the bo dy in the floow field. (Poope, 1984)

Figure
F
1.6 - Shape facto
or to determ
mine (Pop
pe, 1984)

21

(1.2)

C. Wake Blockage Corrections


Any real body without suction-type boundary layer control will have a wake behind it and this
wake will have a mean velocity lower than the free stream. The velocity outside the wake in a
closed tunnel must be higher than free stream in order that a constant volume of fluid may pass
through the test section. Maskells theory of wake blockage in closed tunnels was originally
intended for use with aircraft models. The theory applies to large blockages arising in the testing
of bluff models, particularly those mounted on the floor. Maskell has derived expressions for
the correction of force and pressure coefficients measured in a closed wind tunnel on bluff
models subject to separated flow. For symmetrical models, normal to the wind direction, the
relationships given (Gould, 1970) are shown in equation 1.2.

(1.3)

These relationships are the key to developing the corrected values for wake blockage and can be
verified through experimental methods using a flat plate.
D. Solid Blockage Corrections
The presence of a model in the test section reduces the area through which the air can flow and
by continuity and Bernoullis equation increases the velocity of the air as it flows over the
model. This increase of velocity is called solid blockage. Its effect is a function of model
thickness, thickness distribution, model size and is independent of the camber. (Herriot, 1950)
To determine the blockage correction for a symmetrical body at zero attack, it is only necessary
to consider only the basic profile of the airfoil. The wing can be represented by a series of finite

22

lines of sources and sinks. The lines will thin down at the extreme tip and the planform will not
be exactly rectangular. The actual wing is represented quite well by this method and enables a
calculation to be made of the induced velocity along the tunnel axis by images of the wing. The
velocity induced by the images which represents the effect of the tunnel walls on the velocity at
the model is known as the solid-blockage correction.

23

Chapteer 2: Clark
k Y-14 Airrfoil and Wing
W
2.1 Deveelopment of
o Airfoils and
a Wings

w
on the developmen
nt of airfoil ssections begaan in the latee 1800's.
The earliiest serious work
Although
h it was know
wn that flat plates
p
would
d produce lifft when set aat an angle off incidence,
some susspected that shapes with curvature, which
w
more cclosely resem
mbled bird w
wings wouldd
produce more
m
lift or do so more efficiently.
e
H.F.
H Phillipss patented a sseries of airffoil shapes inn
1884 afteer testing theem in one off the earliest wind tunnells in which ""artificial currrents of air
(were) prroduced from
m induction by
b a steam jet in a woodden trunk or conduit." (T
Theodorsen,
1933) Occtave Chanutte writes in 1893, "...it seems very ddesirable thatt further scieentific
experimeents be madee on concavo
o-convex surrfaces of varrying shapess, for it is nott impossiblee that
the differrence betweeen success an
nd failure off a proposedd flying machhine will deppend upon thhe
sustainin
ng effect betw
ween a planee surface and
d one properrly curved too get a maxim
mum of 'lift'.."
(Theodorrsen, 1933)

1 - Early pa
atented airfo
oil shapes b
by H.F. Philllips (CTIE, 2004)
Figure 2.1

24

At nearly the same time, Otto Lilienthal had similar ideas. (Lilienthal, 2000) Lilienthal had a
clear interest in the physical basis of flight: He wanted to fly. He realized quickly and correctly
that the knowledge of his time was absolutely insufficient for his aim. So he put his main aim
aside for decades in order to concentrate on an extensive aerodynamic measurement program.
After more than 20 years of experiments in physics without a single practical attempt to fly,
Lilienthal summarized his knowledge in the book Bird flight as the basis of aviation in 1889.
Lilienthal describes the technique of flight as a stomping ground for amateurs, emotionmechanics and only a few specialists (Lilienthal, 2000). His book is for all of them. It is a
popular book about physics which guides in a clear line of thought to from Lilienthal achieved
newest state of research. The book is still a standard for the research of bird flight today.
Lilienthal combined theoretical and technical skills and skills in craft and athletics in a very
special way which enabled him to become the first flying human. He worked out the theoretical
stock-in-trade for human flight, constructed a suitable flying apparatus and built it mostly by
himself. He had the physical constitution, courage and dexterity in order to test his flying
apparatus. He was designer and testing pilot in one person. So it was easier for him to improve
his construction during the testing period. The diversity of Lilienthal`s skills, the broadness of his
interests and his interdisciplinary approach are certainly essential reasons for his success.
No one equaled him in the power to draw new recruits to the cause; no one equaled him in
fullness and desire of understanding of the principles of flight; no one did so much to convince
the world of the advantages of curved wing surfaces; and no one did so much to transfer the
problem of human flight to the open air where it belonged.
As a missionary, he was wonderful. He presented the cause of human flight to his readers so
earnestly, so attractively, and so convincingly that it was difficult for anyone to resist the

25

temptation to make an attempt at it himself, he was without question the greatest of the
precursors, and the world owes to him a great debt. With these words in 1912, Wilbur
Wright described the man who was the most important influence on practical flying and flight
theory before the Wright brothers: the German engineer, Otto Lilienthal.
Airfoils used by the Wright Brothers closely resembled Lilienthal's sections: thin and highly
cambered. (Lilienthal, 2000) This was quite possibly because early tests of airfoil sections were
done at an extremely low Reynolds number, where such sections behave much better than
thicker ones. The erroneous belief that efficient airfoils had to be thin and highly cambered was
one reason that some of the first airplanes were biplanes. The use of such sections gradually
diminished over the next decade. A wide range of airfoils were developed, based primarily on
trial and error. Some of the more successful sections such as the Clark Y and Gottingen 398 were
used as the basis for a family of sections tested by the NACA in the early 1920's. (NASA, 2005)
In 1939, Eastman Jacobs at the NACA in Langley, designed and tested the first laminar flow
airfoil sections. These shapes had extremely low drag and the section shown here achieved a lift
to drag ratio of about 300. A modern laminar flow section, used on sailplanes, illustrates that the
concept is practical for some applications. It was not thought to be practical for many years after
Jacobs demonstrated it in the wind tunnel. Even now, the utility of the concept is not wholly
accepted and the "Laminar Flow True-Believers Club" meets each year at the homebuilt aircraft
fly-in. One of the reasons that modern airfoils look quite different from one another and
designers have not settled on the one best airfoil is that the flow conditions and design goals
change from one application to the next. On the right are some airfoils designed for low
Reynolds numbers. Unusual airfoil design constraints can sometimes arise, leading to some
unconventional shapes. The airfoil here was designed for an ultra-light sailplane requiring very

26

high max
ximum lift co
oefficients with
w small piitching mom
ments at high speed. One possible
solution: a variable geometry
g
airffoil with flex
xible lower ssurface.
ontinuously re-evaluated
r
d in order to meet the groowing demannd in
Today, airfoils are co
commerccial, military
y, and scientiific applicatiions. Drag caan be reduceed to save onn fuel costs; lift
can be in
ncreased to enable lower speed flightt; profiles caan be redesiggned to accom
mmodate heeat
transfer at
a high speed
ds. In these applications,
a
, airfoils are optimized ffor performannce and
economy
y at specific operating
o
co
onditions deffined by altittude, temperrature, and vvelocity. Thee
main con
nsideration in
n airfoil desiign is the rellative velocitty of the airffoil. For thiss reason, airffoils
for subso
onic, transon
nic, superson
nic, and hypeersonic flow conditions eexhibit strikiingly differeent
design ph
hilosophies (John.
(
D. An
nderson). High speed airrfoils may haave less cam
mber to reducce
skin fricttion drag and
d low speed airfoils will tend to havee more cambber in order tto maximizee lift.
Differentt airfoils are defined by various
v
paraameters suchh as leading eedge (LE), trrailing edge
(TE), thicckness (t), ch
hord (c), and
d camber, ass seen in Figuure 2.2.

Figure 2.2 - Airfoil Nomenclatu


N
ure (NASA, 2005)


o the Clark
k Y-14
2.2 Deveelopment of
Clark Y-14 is the nam
me of a partiicular airfoill profile, widdely used in general
purpose aircraft
a
desig
gns, and mucch studied in
n aerodynam
mics over thee years. The profile was
designed
d in 1922 by Virginius E.. Clark. The airfoil has a thickness oof 11.7 perceent and is flaat on
27

the lowerr surface from 30 percen


nt of chord back.
b
The flaat bottom sim
mplifies anglle measurem
ments
on propellers, and maakes for easy
y constructio
on of wings on a flat surrface. The Cllark Y is
appealing
g thanks to its high camb
ber, which produces
p
a veery good liftt-to-drag ratiio.

Figure 2.3
3 - Clark Y A
Airfoil
The Lock
kheed Vega is one exam
mple of the Clark Y used in practice. For many appplications tthe
Clark Y has
h been adeequate; it giv
ves reasonab
ble overall peerformance iin respect off its lift-to-drrag
ratio, and
d has gentle and relativelly benign staall characteri
ristics. But thhe flat lowerr surface is suboptimal from
f
an aero
odynamic perrspective, an
nd it is rarelyy used in new
w designs. T
The Spirit off St.
Louis and
d the Piper Cub
C use the Clark
C
Y.

2.3 Cha
aracterizing
g the Clark
k Y-14
The Clarrk Y-14 was chosen for this
t project due
d to the airrfoil being a general purrpose design that
can be ussed for its su
uperb controll at low Reynolds numbeers. An addiitional featurre of this winng is
that its lo
ower surfacee is parallel to its chord, enabling
e
thee use of an innclinometer to change thhe
angle of attack directtly if needed
d. For this pro
oject, the Cllark Y-14 airrfoil is charaacterized undder
low-speeed operating conditions. A full airfoil is mountedd vertically inn the SJSU w
wind tunnel to
obtain 2D
D flow condiitions and prressure distriibutions oveer the chord aas well as m
measure the w
wake.
In additio
on to the 2D characterizaation, a Clarrk Y-14 wingg is used forr 3D characteerization. Thhe
Wing is mounted
m
to a sting balan
nce, in a horiizontal positiion, to meassure the reaction forces
directly. The data obttained from both the 2D
D and 3D expperiments wiill be analyzed in order tto
28

obtain values for the coefficients; CL, CD, CM and CN. Wind tunnel wall corrections for the SJSU
tunnel are combined with the test data to develop corrected data more similar to free space
conditions. These results will then be compared with the theoretical and excepted data values for
any given angle of attack. The analysis will be building a more rigorous model of the Clark Y14s behavior under low speed conditions.
2.3.1 Aerodynamic Forces
The aerodynamic forces acting on a body may be described by lift, drag and pitching moment.
Lift is the net vertical force and drag is the net horizontal force with respect to the direction of
motion. The pitching moment reflects the tendency of the airfoil or wing to pitch about a given
reference point. These quantities are derived from the normal force and axial force acting on the
airfoil by equations 2.1 and 2.2;

(2.1)

(2.2)

The normal force (N) is defined as the force perpendicular to the airfoil chord and the axial force
(A) that is acting parallel to the chord. It can be seen in the equations for the lift force ( and the
drag force (are both derived from the same normal and axial force. However, the angle of
attack ( determines how much of the normal and axial forces transfer into the lift and how
transfer into the drag forces. The pitching moment may be expressed by an integral of the net
moments acting on the airfoil (Equation 2.3).

29

(2.3)

In Equatiion 2.3, the differential


d
moments
m
aree taken with respect to a given refereence and then
integrated from the leeading edge to the trailin
ng edge. A ggraphical reppresentation of these forcces is
n Figure 2.4.
shown in

Figure 2.4 - Aerodyna


amic Forcess (Anderson
n, 2007)
2.3.2 Low
w-Speed Aeerodynamics
In low-sp
peed flows, several
s
ideallizations can
n be applied w
when the freee stream veelocity is undder
Mach .3 to help simp
plify the fluid
d dynamics analysis.
a
Onne assumptioon that can bbe made from
m the
idealizatiion of the flo
ow is that deensity remain
ns constant ((no compressibility of thhe fluid) sincce the
density varies
v
by only a few perccent from a velocity
v
rangge of 0 to 3000 mph (Andderson, 2007)
Another idealization is the flow is
i inviscid. Inviscid flow
ws are flows that neglect the viscous
hat occur in any
a flow succh as fraction
n, thermal coonduction annd diffusion.. Using this
effects th
assumption relies on having a hig
gher Reynolds number bbecause viscoous effects hhave a signifficant
effect at low Reynold
ds numbers. These effeccts are know
wn to be miniimal for low
w-speed air fllows
and this idealization
is well supported by currrent theory. (Anderson, 2007) The fflow is assum
i
med
to be steaady and the body
b
forces acting on th
he working flluid were assumed to bee minor comppared
to dynam
mic effects. These
T
idealizzed condition
ns are sufficiient to allow
w the use of B
Bernoullis
equation (Equation 2.4),
2
in the lo
ow-speed flo
ow analysis.

30

Bernoullis equation may also be derived from the momentum equation by considering a
differential control volume and applying the assumptions made previously. The resulting
equation shows that the sum of the local pressure (p) and the dynamic pressure (q), (Equation
2.5), is constant throughout a given flow. From this Equation, the local velocities may be
computed from knowledge of upstream data and local pressure so that all of the flow
characteristics may be obtained.

(2.4)
(2.5)

Effects of the wind tunnel walls may be ignored by applying the inviscid flow approximation. By
doing so, the flow may be assumed to be uniform except over the airfoil/wing. Uniform flow
simplifies the control volume analysis and allows the consideration of a full length airfoil as a 2D
profile. The assumption of uniform flow is justified due to the smooth wind, the filtered flow and
the controlled entry into the test section.
2.3.3 Characterizing Airfoil Performance
Airfoil performance may be characterized by quantities such as the lift, drag or pitching moment
produced under different operating conditions. These aerodynamic forces are often computed
from the total pressure over the planform area and are then normalized by the dynamic pressure
in order to produce non-dimensional quantities. For example, the lift, drag and normal
coefficients may be expressed as Equation 2.6, 2.7 and 2.8 respectively. The pitching moment
must also be normalized by the chord length in order to produce a non-dimensional moment
coefficient as in Equation 2.9.

31

(2.6)

(2.7)

(2.8)

(2.9)
(2.10)

These non-dimensional quantities are functions of the Reynolds number (Equation 2.10) and the
angle of attack. The Reynolds influence may be seen by the inclusion of the density ( and the
velocity ( terms while the angle of attack influence is implied through the force, moment and
area terms. Thus, in order to appreciate the full range of responses of a given airfoil, it is
necessary to consider a range of Reynolds numbers and angles of attack. Variation in the
Reynolds number produces different lift curves, while variations in the angle of attack will alter
the lift-drag ratio.
2.3.4 Characterizing Wing Performance
Wing performance can be characterized much the same way as an airfoils performance.

2.4 Obtaining Airfoil Characteristics from Data


2.4.1 Airfoil control Volume Analysis
One method of obtaining the lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients of interest is to analyze
a control volume over the surface of the airfoil. In this method, localized pressure measurements
are taken in a plane in the chord wise direction on both the upper and lower surfaces to obtain a
pressure distribution. (Figure 2.5) The difference in the pressure distributions may then be
integrated in order to obtain an expression for the net pressure acting over the surface.

32

Figu
ure 2.5 - Preessure distriibution overr an airfoil ((Pope, 19844)
In the preessure distrib
bution show
wn in Figure 2.5,
2 the arrow
ws pointing towards thee wingspan
representts a positive gage pressu
ure while the upper presssure distributtion shows ooutward poinnting
arrows to
o show negattive gage preessure. This is clarified iin the two pllots shown bbelow the
pressure distribution diagram. It can be seen that the norm
malized gagge pressure iss lowest nearr the
leading edge
e
where the velocity is
i the highesst. This obse rvation conffirms the behhavior prediccted
by Berno
oullis equatiion. Howeveer, a limitatio
on of this arrrangement iss that the sum
mmation of
pressure data fails to detect the ax
xial forces acting
a
on thee airfoil and tthe skin fricttion is
unaccoun
nted for in th
his method.
2.4.2 Tesst Section Control
C
Volu
ume Analysiis
An altern
native metho
od of measurring drag forrce is to perfform a controol volume annalysis over a
streamlin
ne bounded control
c
volum
me. By apply
ying conservvation of moomentum to this control
volume, it can be ded
duced that th
he body with
hin the controol volume coontributed too a loss of
33

momentu
um. The effeects may be visualized
v
by
y marking thhe inlet and ooutlet velociity profiles aas
shown in
n Figure 2.6. The inlet flo
ow is uniform
m while the outlet flow will have a nnon-uniform
m
shape due to localizeed loss of mo
omentum. Th
his loss of m
momentum iss known as thhe drag

Figu
ure 2.6 - Co
ontrol volum
me on a 2D b
body (Andeerson, 2007))
produced
d by the airfo
oil and may be
b indirectly
y calculated by solving tthe velocity pprofiles at eiither
end of th
he control volume. Altern
natively, thro
ough the usee of Bernoullis equationn, localized
pressure measuremen
nts in the waake may be used
u
instead.. A non-dim
mensional anaalysis
consideriing normalizzed pressure was then ussed to solve ffor the coeffficient of draag. This typee of
arrangem
ment will pro
ovide sufficieent data to caalculate the drag coefficcient but diffferential forcces
were not measured an
nd thus lift and
a moment cannot be e valuated froom this data.
2.4.3 Wing Direct Force
F
Measu
urement
A more realistic
r
meth
hod of predicting airfoil performancce is to consiider a finite llength wingsspan
mounted in the centeer of the test section. Thee 3D airfoil ((wing) uses a sting balannce that meaasures
the axial and normal reaction forrce imposed on the sting--airfoil struccture due to tthe flow. Thhe

34

Figure 2.7: Scheematic of Fo


orces on Stin
ng balance (Pope, 19844)
reduced constraints
c
allow
a
the airffoil to respond with the full six degrrees of freedom and the finite
width of the airfoil will
w allow rottational flow
w over the siddes of the wiing.

35

Chapteer 3: AERO
OLAB Lo
ow-Speed Wind
W
Tun
nnel
3.1 General AERO
OLAB Win
nd Tunnel Specificatio
S
ons
The San Jose State University
U
wiind tunnel (F
Figure 3.1) w
was designedd by AEROL
LAB and is
nment. The w
wind tunnel is an open ccircuit or Eiiffel
specificaally made forr the educational environ
tunnel wiith a 12x12x
x12-inch testt section wheere a force bbalance or tabble mountedd models cann be
used to obtain
o
a varieety of aerody
ynamics dataa.

Figure 3..1 - AEROL


LAB Educattional Wind
d Tunnel (A
AEROLAB, 2007)
The maximum velocity that can be
b created iss around 1455 mph with a clear channnel with nearrinfinite adjustability
a
above 10 mp
ph with the 9 blade fan w
which is connstructed of rreinforcedfiberglass. The bladees are rated to
o a maximum
m rotational speed of 34437 rpm but m
maximum
rotationaal speed in th
he wind tunn
nel is 2345 rp
pm. The fan is mounted directly to thhe shaft of a
10HP mo
otor which iss controlled by heavy-du
uty variable ffrequency drrive.
The tunn
nel ductings are
a composeed of four maajor duct com
mponents wh
which are the contraction,, the
test sectio
on, the diffu
user and then
n fan housing
g. A propriettary 9th-ordeer polynomiaal defines thee
contraction contour. The contracttion ratio (in
nlet area to ooutlet area) is 9.5:1 whicch allows thee
gh performan
nce and low turbulence llevel at low sspeeds. Alonng with the
tunnel to achieve hig

36

contraction ratio, the shallow-ang


gle (6 total-iincluded diveergence anglle based on cross sectionaal
area) help
ps eliminate diffuser
d
effeccts especially
y when large models are bbeing tested ((AEROLAB,
2007). An
nother contriibuting factorr to the high performance
p
e of this tunneel is that flow
w conditioninng
uses hexaagonal matrix
xes which aree 4 inches lon
ng and .25 innches wide too straighten thhe flow. Thee
hexagonaal matrixes do
o little to elim
minate small eddies, althoough the tunnnel is equipped with two
turbulencce-reducing screens immeediately down
nstream of thhe hexagonall matrixes. Thhey are madee of
0.009 incch stainless stteel wire spacced at 20 wirres per inch. Small eddiess in the air arre broken intoo yet
smaller ed
ddies by the screens. Com
mparatively speaking,
s
sm
maller eddies ddissipate fastter than largeer
eddies.

3.2 Testt Section an


nd Instrum
mentation
The test section
s
of th
he AEROLA
AB wind tunn
nel is 12x12xx12-inch (Fiigure 3.2) annd is equippeed
with diveerging walls that divergee 0.0625 inch
hes from thee test sectionn inlet to the outlet. The
diverging
g walls mitig
gate the test section buoy
yancy effect resulting froom the grow
wing boundarry
layer thicckness.

LAB Wind Tunnel


T
Testt Section (A
AEROLAB, 2007)
Figure 3..2 - AEROL
s
is alsso equipped with a manu
ually-operateed yaw tablee for models needing to bbe
The test section
mounted to the floor of the test seection usually for pressuure models. T
These models can be
37

connected to a 24-tube multi-manometer that does not require the DAC or to the two solid-state
differential pressure transducers. When using the 24-tube multi-manometer, it only required reading
of the change of pressure from the tubes manually. The vertical glass tubes provide pressure
measurement as well as visualization. Along the bottom, these tubes connect to an anodized
aluminum reservoir. The reservoir remains at atmospheric pressure because the lid does not make a
perfect seal. To use models that require pressure transducers, a data acquisition (DAC) system is
supplied and is used with the pressure transducers and the sting balance. Also, there is a sting

Force/Moment Balance that is mounted to the top of the MPS (Motion Positioning System)
vertical arms. The wind tunnels three-component sting balance is mounted on a parallelogramtype model positioning system. The model positioning system was designed specifically for the
EWT sting balance. It was dimensioned such that changes in pitch angle have little effect on
model height the forward tip of the balance remains essentially stationary as pitch angle is
changed, therefore keeping the test model centered in the airflow. The pitch angle range is +/20. Prior to shipment, the balance was calibrated (first order only) at AEROLAB.
The maximum load ranges are:
Normal Force (Side Force):
Axial Force:
Pitching Moment (Yawing Moment):

25 lbs. (111.2 N)
10 lbs. (44.5 N)
50 inch-lbs. (5.65 N-m)

The use of the DAC is controlled by a program written in LabVIEW to control all tunnel
functions. This program is connected and used to control the two solid-state differential pressure
transducers and a three-component sting Force/Moment balance.

38

3.3 Clarrk Y-14 Airrfoil and Wing


W
Modeels
The wind
d tunnel com
mes with a vaariety of mod
dels but the ttwo models used to deveelop the
correction factors forr the wind tu
unnel were th
he Clark Y-114 airfoil andd wing. The Airfoil (Figgure
3.3) is mounted vertiically to the yaw
y table an
nd spans the test section.. The 18 flussh-mounted
pressure tabs are con
nnected to thee pressure trransducer arrray or can bee connected to the 24-tubbe
multi-man
nometer. Forr this project,, the pressuree tabs are connnected to thhe DAC to haave the test ruuns
recorded through LabVIEW.

Figure 3.3 - Clark Y-1


14 Airfoil (A
AEROLAB
B, 2007)
The Clarrk Y-14 wing
g (Figure 3.4
4) can be mo
ounted on stiing balance oonly and hass adjustable sslats
and flapss for a wide variety
v
of ex
xperiments th
hat can be peerformed. Thhe wing is 99.875 inches long
and has a span of 3.5
5 inches. Forr the purposee of this project, the wingg will be left
ft in a clean
configuraation which entails the slats and flap
ps being left un-deployedd.

Figurre 3.4 - Clarrk Y-14 Win


ng with and without Flaaps and slatts deployed (AEROLAB,
2007)

39

Chapter 4: Two-Dimensional Wall Corrections for the Clark Y-14 Airfoil


For an airfoil, there are several corrections that need to be performed to more accurately model
free-flight conditions. The four main wall corrections for an airfoil are buoyance, wake
blockage, solid blockage and streamline curvature. The buoyance corrections will have an
additive component to the drag force while the wake and solid blockage component are
dimensionless but are used in the correction for the streamline curvature. The streamline
curvature corrections are the most important for correcting airfoil data corrections for , cL,

cmand includes the parameters; Vc, qc, Rec, c, clc, cm c and cd0. The velocities tested in the

wind-tunnel are 6.5, 30, 68 and 102 MPH and the Reynolds numbers are 100,000, 500,000,
1,200,000 and 1,800,000 respectively. Data and calculations for this chapter can be found in
Appendix B

4.1 Buoyancy Correction


4.1.1 Theory
Closed-throat wind-tunnels have a variation of static pressure along the axis of the test section.
The variation of static pressure is due to a thickening of the boundary layer as the flow
progresses through the test section. As the flow approaches the end of the test section, the
pressure progressively becomes more negative. With the pressure turning more negative down
the length of the test section, the model tends to be sucked down the test section. The amount of
buoyancy is usually insignificant for wings and airfoils but the correction becomes more
important for fuselages and nacelles. The buoyancy corrections can be applied in the twodimensional or three-dimensional space. For the two-dimensional case, the cross-section area is

40

shown in figure 4.1 and the static pressure variation along the test section length is graphed in
figure 4.2 as an example. It should be noted that for every velocity change, the static pressure
gradient through the test section will change. The static pressure can be determined
experimentally by measuring the pressure distribution over the airfoil or wing or by utilizing
equation 4.1 to determine the slope.

Figure 4.1 - Cross-sectional area in percentage of length

41

(4.1)

2.02

Pressure(lb/ft2)

2
1.98
1.96
1.94
1.92
1.9
0

10

12

DistancethroughTestSection(inches)

Figure 4.2 Static Pressure Gradient in the test section for a velocity of 6.5 MPH
Wind tunnel designers employ slanted vertical walls along the test section length to mitigate the
effects of the buoyancy force on the model. The walls slightly widen from the narrowest point at
the mouth of the test section and opens to a determined width through calculations and then
verification of the results to ensure the test section exit has not over expanded.
4.1.2 Approach
It can be seen that the variation of the static pressure in figure 4.2 from any two given station
along the airfoil is linear and therefore the pressure differential acts on the average area. The
resulting drag force for that segment of the airfoil is

(4.2)

Equation 4.2 can be solved by plotting the local static pressure against the cross-section area as
in figure 4.2 and the area under the curve is found to be the buoyancy. If the static pressure
gradient is a straight line, equation 4.2 simplifies to

42

(4.3)

Graphing
g the static pressure
p
grad
dient shows that
t the test section is efffectively shrrinking and tthis
can be illlustrated by viewing streeamlines tran
nsiting downn the test-secction. As thee streamliness
approach
h the end of the
t test sectiion, they are closer togetther than whhen entering the test sectiion.
The squeeezing effectt should be accounted
a
forr in the correected equation and addeed to the presssure
gradient effect. The total
t
drag inccrement per span length with the inccluded squeeezing effect iis

(4.4)

where can be foun


nd from figurre 4.3. Witho
out experimeental data to find the vallues for the bbody

shape,
can be deetermined eaasier by replacing w
with . W
With the substitution of

,
becomess

where ;

, can alsoo be determinned by Figurre

5.4.

Figurre 4.3 - Body


y shape facttor for diffeerent shapess (Pope, 19884)

43

(4.5)

Fiigure 4.4 - Plot


P of thick
kness ratios for a categoory of airfoiils vs. (Poope, 1984)

A more rigorous
r
approach is necessary if thee pressure grradient is nott given wherre the use off the
Bernoullis and contiinuity equatiions are need
ded. The preessure gradieent can be deetermined byy
using Bernoullis equ
uation (Equaation 4.6) and the continuuity equationn (Equation 4.7) by know
wing
the veloccity and pressure at the entrance
e
of th
he wind tunnnel. The veloocity and preessure can bee
then deteermined at th
he test sectio
on entrance and
a exit.

(4.6)

(4.7)

To begin
n, the Rec willl need to be determined for a given for the exxperiment. R
Recr for a flatt
plate, wh
hich taking one
o side of th
he test sectio
on can be asssumed, is 5000,000. For R
Re < 500,0000, the
flow is co
onsidered to
o be laminar and for Re > 500,000, thhe flow is coonsidered to be turbulentt. The
Reynoldss number forr a length is found by

(4.8)

44

Once thee Reynolds number


n
is fou
und for the test section leength, the deeterminationn if the flow is
laminar or
o turbulent can
c be madee. If the flow
w is laminar tthe test sectiion length, thhe boundaryy
layer disp
placement caan be found directly from
m

(4.9)

The exit velocity is needed


n
at thee test section
n exit which depends on the cross-sectional area at
the exit. The
T cross-seectional areaa is dependen
nt on the bouundary layerr displacemeent. Since thee
boundary
y layer displaacement hass been found
d, the effectivve area at thee exit can also be found by

((4.10)

For the case where fllow turns turrbulent beforre exiting the test sectionn, the xcr willl need to bee
found to determine th
he boundary
y layer displaacement. (Figgure 4.3)

Figure 4.5 Laminar and turrbulent boun


ndary layerr over a flatt plate (CFD
D Online, 20009)
mined by usiing the criticcal Reynoldss number forr a flat plate in
The transsition point, xcr, is determ
45

(4.11)

With the transition point found, the laminar boundary layer displacement can be found at that
point by using equation 4.9. The laminar boundary layer displacement at the transition point can
also be assumed to be the thickness of the turbulent boundary layer displacement. With that
assumption,

(4.12)

Solving for xeq, the starting point of turbulent boundary layer can be found by subtracting xeq
from . Since the turbulent boundary layer start point has been identified, equation 4.12 can be
used to find the turbulent boundary layer displacement at the test section exit by replacing xeq in
the equation with the length of the turbulent boundary layer. Using equation 4.10 and replacing

with
, the effective exit area can be found.

The test section exit area can now be used in equation 4.7 but the other parameters also need to
be found. Some assumptions need to be made to simplify the problem 1) by ignoring the losses
through the contraction of the inlet of the test section, 2) ignoring the losses through the flow
screen at the wind-tunnel entrance, 3) assuming incompressible flow and the pressure at the
entrance of the test section is actually lower than the pressure calculated at the test section
entrance. The known parameters for equation 4.6 are  which are assumed to be
STD and is 0

46

Figu
ure 4.6 Tesst section diiagram for ccalculation of P2 and V2
Since thee boundary conditions
c
att the entrancee of the windd-tunnel are known, equuation 4.6 caan be
utilized to find P1 at station
s
1 butt realize P1 iss actually lesss than P1. (F
Figure 4.6) V1 is also knnown
since it iss measured at
a station 1 with
w the DAC
C. All variabbles are now
w known for station 0 andd 1
but unknown for stattion 2. V2 at station 2 willl need to be calculated bby equation 4.7 and the
cross-secctional area that
t was calcculated for seection 2, thee test sectionn exit by the process of
determin
ning the boun
ndary layer displacement
d
t. (Figure 4.77) The last vvariable that needs to be
found is P2 which can
n be easily calculated
c
by
y equation 4..6. Once all ssix variabless have been
calculated, the longittudinal staticc pressure grradient can bbe found for any free-streeam velocityy.

47

Figure 4.7 Effecttive cross-seectional exitt area of thee test section


n with the b
boundary laayer
displaceement remooved
By using
g the P1 and P2, the longittudinal staticc pressure grradient is caalculated by

((4.13)

This proccess can be repeated


r
as many
m
times as
a needed too obtain a

curve for thhe wind-tunnnel.

A code to
o complete this
t task is sh
hown in App
pendix A andd can be useed to output a range of

to

excel filee. Now that the


t pressure gradient through the tesst section is kknown, this allows for thhe
applicatio
on of a simp
plified equatiion for the buoyancy corrrection (Equuation 4.14) for an airfoil.

48

((4.14)

4.1.3 Results
To determine the 2D buoyancy correction, the cross-sectional exit area of the test section is
shown in figure 4.8.

EffectiveTestSectionExitArea,A2eff(ft2)

1.00

0.98

0.96

0.94

0.92

0.90

0.88
0

50

100

150
200
TestSectionAirspeed,V(ft/sec)

250

300

Figure 4.8 Effective cross-sectional area at exit of test section for various airspeeds

Equation 4.14 is used along with equation 4.6 and 4.6 to determine the static pressure gradient
through the test section (Figure 4.9).

49

StaticPressureGradient/ (lb/ft2)

0.00
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

10.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00

TestSectionAirspeed,V(ft/sec)

Figure 4.9 - Static pressure gradient through the test section from 0 to 334

The airfoil has a model volume of .0068 ft3 by recreating an exact model of the airfoil in
SolidWorks. The 2D buoyancy correction, as shown on the chart below, was calculated for a
velocity range of 0 334

and is plotted in figure 5.6. The maximum velocity plotted

corresponds to at sea level.

50

2DBuoynacyCorrection,Db(lbs)

1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

TestSectionAirspeed,V(ft/sec)

Figure 4.10 - 2D Buoyancy Correction for 0 334

4.1.4 Discussion
As seen in figure 4.10, the buoyancy drag contributes very little to the overall drag on the airfoil.
The largest amount of drag for what is considered low speed is approximately .9 lbs. per span
length and could be omitted from the wall corrections if a high degree of fidelity is not required.
With the assumptions that the boundary layer starts at station 1 in figure 4.6, this creates a certain
amount of error in the calculations. Since the boundary layer actually starts at the entrance of the
wind-tunnel, by the time the flow reaches the test section entrance, it could already be turbulent.
The assumption was made because the exact equation used to create the inlet is not known nor
the actually roughness of the inner surface. Also, the wind-tunnel has a flow straightening system
at the entrance. The entering air first passes through a matrix of parallel passages that are shaped as
a hexagonal matrix, like a honeycomb. The honeycomb cells are 4 inches long and serve to
straighten the flow to eliminate most flow angularity. The honeycomb matrix does little to

51

eliminate small eddies and it is hard to account for these eddies which effects on the boundary layer
thickness. The tunnel is equipped with two turbulence-reducing screens immediately downstream of
the honeycomb and even though they help keep the flow straight, it is hard to calculate the screens
effects on the boundary layer.

The effective cross-sectional exit area of the test section is affected by the wind-tunnel inlet
conditions. The effective area is more susceptible to the inlet conditions at very low speeds as
seen in figure 4.8. At approximately 90 ft/sec, the test section exit turns from laminar to turbulent
which reduces the boundary layer displacement and which causes the pressure gradient slope to
decrease slightly. Once the flow turns turbulent in the test section, the effective cross-sectional
exit area stabilizes and at approximately 140 ft/sec, the area becomes equal to .9962 ft2 for M <
3.

4.2 Solid Blockage Correction


4.2.1 Theory
With a two-dimensional model in the test section, the flow is semi-blocked and the flow area is
reduced. In order for continuity and Bernoullis equation to be satisfied, the flow must increase
in velocity to maintain the same mass flow rate through the test section. The increase of velocity
is considered solid blockage and is a function of model thickness, thickness distribution and
model size. The camber of the airfoil is independent of the solid blockage. The solid blockage
velocity increment at the model is much less (about ) than the increment one obtains from the
direct area reduction. (Pope, 1984) The streamlines furthest from the model are also impacted
by the increment velocity since they are displaced more due to the confines of the test section.

52

4.2.2 Approach
In solving solid-blockage problems, it is important to determine the axial velocity. One case to
examine is where a circular cylinder is placed into a two-dimensional test section. The circular
cylinder can be simulated as doublet of certain strength and is contained by an infinite vertical
series of doublets of the same strength. Using this simulation of doublets, the axial velocity can
be found by

(4.15)

Since the velocity produced by a doublet varies inversely with the square of the distance from the
doublet, then doubly infinite doublet series may be summed as

(4.16)

To use a 2-ft diameter cylinder in a tunnel that is 10-ft high would have a solid blockage that
would cause the flow velocity to be increased by 3.3% over the true free-stream velocity. In the
case of an airfoil, the solid-blockage velocity increment (Glauert, 1933) is show be

(4.17)

where values of can be found in figure 4.9. Another variation to determine the solid-blockage

53

Figuree 4.11 Plott of vs. F


Fineness ratiio

on an airfoil is from a report thatt uses some factors


f
assocciated with thhe buoyancyy correction
(Allen an
nd Vincenti, 1944). The following reesult is from their work w
where

((4.18)

where ; . A simplerr equation foor the solid-bblockage corrrection for a


two-dimeensional tunn
nel is given by

((4.19)

where is .74 for a wing spann


ning the tunn
nel test sectioon horizontaally and iss .52 for a sppan
that is spanning vertiically and a good
g
approx
ximation for an airfoil m
model volumee is

54

((4.20)

The approximation of the airfoil model volume is only appropriate at a 0 angle of attack. For
any other angle of attack, the model thickness becomes

(4.21)

where the .49 is the thickness of the airfoil due to the chord line of the Clark Y-14 being the
bottom edge of the airfoil. The model chord becomes


(4.22)

and the model span remains unaffected. The variable, C, can be used but if greater accuracy is
desired, the geometric area of the exit of the test section should be used less the boundary layer
displacement thickness around the perimeter. The boundary layer displacement can be calculated
by using the process in section 4.1. But if an approximation is adequate, the approximation of the
displacement thickness is .6 of the boundary layer thickness, since the boundary layer turns
turbulent at some point in the test section. The boundary layer thickness can be found by

(4.23)

For an example of boundary layer thicknesses, wind tunnels with the general size of 7x10-ft have

displacement thicknesses of inch.


4.2.3 Results
For the 2D solid blockage correction, equation 4.19 is used to determine the correction factor for
the solid blockage. Since the airfoil is mounted vertically in the wind tunnel, a value of .52
was used. C is the effective area at the exit of the test section and figure 4.8 can be used to find
the effective area for a plotted velocity. The model volume is estimated with equations 4.20,
4.21, 4.22 and is plotted in figure 4.12. With the model volume and test section exit effective
area

55

ModelVolume,vmodel (ft3)

0.020

0.015

0.010

0.005

0.000
4

10

12

14

16

AirfoilAngleofAttack, (degrees)

Figure 4.12 Model volume plotted with airfoil angle attack


calculated for angle of attacks from -4 to 16 degrees, the solid blockage is calculated and plotted
in figure 4.13a. A more detailed view of solid blockage curve is plotted in figure 4.13b.

2DSolidBlockage,sb

0.0115

sb@
0aoa

0.0095

sb@
4aoa

0.0075

sb@
4aoa

0.0055

sb@
8aoa

0.0035

sb@
12aoa

0.0015

sb@
16aoa
0

50

100

150
200
250
TestSectionAirspeed,V(ft/sec)

300

Figure 4.13a Solid Blockage for the Clark Y-14 for M < .3

56

2DSolidBlockage,sb

0.0115

0.0095
4aoa
0aoa

0.0075

4aoa
8aoa
0.0055

12aoa
16aoa

0.0035

0.0015
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

TestSectionAirspeed,V(ft/sec)

Figure 4.13b Solid Blockage for the Clark Y-14 for V <90 ft/sec

4.2.4 Discussion
The two-dimensional solid blockage is a dimensionless quantity and increases with angle of
attack as seen in figure 4.12 and 4.13. The plot shows the solid blockage at very low speeds
jumps dramatically but continues in a decreasing slope as the flow speed increases. At a velocity
of approximately 83 feet per second, the boundary layer turns turbulent at the exit of the test
section and causes the solid blockage to drop and stay flat for the remainder of the velocities
used in calculations.
A fundamental source of error in the solid blockage used in section 4.2.2 is the simulation of the
body by doublet system to develop the equations. It may be possible to circumvent the error if
the pressure at the tunnel wall is measured with the model in place and then with the model
57

removed. The resultaant velocity increment


i
caan be compuuted and the image system theory cann be
used to compute the ratio
r
betweeen blockage at
a the wall aand at the tunnnel centerline. The
AEROLA
AB wind tun
nnel has two holes in thee walls of thee test sectionn used for pittot tube inseertion
to measu
ure pressure. When the pitot tube is not
n installed,, the holes arre left open aand can actuually
lead to a reduction in
n the solid bllockage since pressure caan be naturaally increasedd or decreased
dependin
ng on tunnel conditions.

4.3 Wak
ke Blockag
ge Correctio
on
4.3.1 Theeory
All bodiees create a wake
w
with thee fluid they are
a moving tthrough and bodies in w
wind tunnels aare
not exem
mpt. The law of continuitty states the velocity
v
outsside the wakke in a closedd tunnel musst be
higher th
han the free stream
s
veloccity in order for a constannt volume off fluid to floow through thhe
test sectio
on. (Figure 4.14)
4
The veelocity in thee mainstream
m will be higgher due to B
Bernoullis
principle. Bernoulliss principle sttates that a pressure
p
graddient derivedd because off the boundarry
layer gro
owth along th
he model ind
duces a veloccity incremeent on the moodel. Wake bblockage maay be
neglected
d for the casee of open top
p and bottom
m of the test section. Thee natural tenndency for thhe

Figurre 4.14: Dia


agram of thee velocity prrofiles in a ttest section with wake. (Pope, 19844)
wake is toward
t
the ax
xial symmettry which permits a singlle correctionn.
58

4.3.2 Approach
In order to calculate the wake effect due to the model, we must first simulate the wake and the
tunnel boundaries. For the two-dimensional case, a line source is needed to be placed at the
wings trailing edge with some hypothetical different colored fluid which can mark the wake
region. The region to be emitted (Q) may be determined by

(4.24)

To preserve continuity, a sink must be placed at least 4 body lengths downstream. This
simulation of the wake must be contained between the upper and lower surface of the test section
walls by an infinite vertical row of sink-source combinations. The sources will not produce an
axial velocity on the model but the sinks will induce a horizontal velocity in the amount of

(4.25)

where hs is the spacing between sources. The one-half in equation 4.25 is due to half of the sink
velocity increment will be felt upstream and downstream. The incremental velocity is produced
at the model due to the walls and it should be added to the measured velocity. A handy equation
for the incremental velocity is

where

(2.26)

. Maskells two-dimensional method calculates the wake blockages correction by


(2.27)

To be able to utilize equation 2.27, the must be known or be able to be calculated. One
method for calculating the is by

59

(2.28)

This metthod requiress that the sheear stresses from


f
the uppper and loweer surfaces oof the airfoil to be
measurred. The AEROLAB win
nd-tunnel is incapable off measuring the shear strresses and w
with
only th
he cp availablle, only the pressure
p
drag
g can be meaasured whichh is a very sm
mall part of the
total drag
g. The shearr stresses on the surface of
o the airfoill dominate thhe additive ccomponent oof the
drag. An
n alternate method
m
is to calculate
c
thee from thhe wake that is created behind the airrfoil.

((2.29)

This method
m
does not have thee additive co
omponent off skin frictionn drag but is more accurate
when ussing only preessure. To measure
m
the wake,
w
a wakke rake is placed behindd the airfoil as in
figure 4..15. The waake rake meeasures the pressure
p
acrooss 18 pressuure ports, theese pressurees are

Figure 4.15 Wake ra


ake behind tthe Clark Y
Y-14 airfoil
then conv
verted to dyn
namic pressu
ures by

60

((4.30)

Once the dynamic pressures across the rake have been calculated, a plot of the q is needed to
visually see where the wake is located. Taking the qs that are in the wake, apply equation 4.31


(4.31)

where the is the distance between the pressure ports to find the area under the curve for each
q value and the area can then be summed to satisfy the in equation 2.29. After the
integration has been completed, the rest of the equation becomes trivial to calculate the
4.3.3 Results
Figures 4.16 through 4.18 were plotted with the calculated data from using equation 2.29.

61

0.014

0.012

Distnaceonwakerake,x(ft)

0.01

0.008

4aoa
0aoa
4aoa
8aoa

0.006

12aoa
16aoa

0.004

0.002

0
0.30

0.20

0.10

0.00

0.10

0.20

0.30

Dynamicpressure,q(psf)

Figure 4.16 Profile of wake at 6.5MPH

62

0.014

0.012

Distnaceonwakerake,x(ft)

0.01

0.008

4aoa
0aoa
4aoa
8aoa

0.006

12aoa
16aoa
0.004

0.002

0
1

Dynamicpressure,q(psf)

Figure 4.17 Profile of wake at 30 MPH

63

0.014

0.012

Distnaceonwakerake,x(ft)

0.01

4aoa

0.008

0aoa
4aoa
8aoa

0.006

12aoa
16aoa
0.004

0.002

0
0

10

15

20

25

Dynamicpressure,q(psf)

Figure 4.18 Profile of wake at 68 MPH


Figure 4.19 is developed from the calculated cd of the pressure data corresponding to equation
4.30.

64

0.186
Coefficientofdrag,cdu

0.166
0.146
0.126
0.106

6.5MPH

0.086

30MPH

0.066

68MPH

0.046
0.026
0.006

11

16

Angleofattack, (degrees)

Figure 4.19 Plot of the coefficient of drag vs. angle of attack


Figure 4.20 is plotted with the calculated wake blockage from equation 2.27.
0.014

Wakeblockage,wb

0.012
0.010
0.008
6.5MPH
0.006

30MPH

0.004

68MPH

0.002
0.000
4

11

16

Angleofattack, (degrees)

Figure 4.20 Plot of the wake blockage vs. angle of attack

65

4.3.4 Discussion
The wake blockage for a two-dimensional shape depends heavily on the coefficient of drag and it
is important to have complete data relating to the drag (skin friction and pressure). Without all
the components for the drag, it is hard to calculate the correct wake blockage. It is also difficult
to get a complete picture of the drag without developing an equation to model the pressures to
integrate in equations 2.28 and 2.29. This point is illustrated in figure 4.19 where the cd is greater
for the case of the 30 MPH flow compared with the 6.5 MPH flow but both are higher for the 68
MPH flow. This is confusing because it would be expected that the cd would slowly increase
with flow speed to a certain point.
In figure 4.16, flow through the test section is so slow that that pressure sensors have a difficult
time measuring any pressure change over the noise created by the senor itself. Figure 4.17 shows
a more expect profile shape as the flow velocity increases. It can be seen that the flow is
becoming steadier and when the test section velocity is increased to 68 MPH, the wake profile
becomes very smooth and easily distinguishable from the normal flow conditions. Due to tunnel
limitations, a 102 MPH run could not be performed due to the wake and solid blockage
becoming so great, that it would choke the tunnel flow, and possibly damage some of the
equipment.
Also, a consideration needs to be made that the wake rake did not measure the entire wake and
therefore, the wake correction is left incomplete. This issue will lead to an incorrect cd from
being calculated. Since two of the main contributors of the wake blockage come from the wake
calculations, the error could be significant.

66

4.4 Streamline Curvature Correction


4.4.1 Theory
For the streamlines, the presence of the ceiling and the floor prevents the normal curvature of the
free flow that occurs about any lifting body, and relative to the straightened flow, the body
appears to have more camber than it actually has. This is usually on the order of 1% for
customary sizes. Accordingly, the airfoil in a closed wind tunnel has too much lift and moment
force about the quarter chord at any given angle of attack as well as the angle of attack being too
large itself. This effect is not limited to cambered airfoils but to any lifting body that produces a
general curvature in the airstream.
To gain insight into the streamline curvature effect, it must be assumed that the airfoil in
question is small and may be approximated by a single vortex at its quarter-chord point. The
image system necessary to contain this vortex between the floor and ceiling consists of a vertical
row of vortices about and below the real vortex. The image system extends to infinity both above
and below and has alternating signs according to the section about the method of images that will
be discussed in a later section. With the method of images, it can be seen that by considering the
first image pair as shown in figure 4.22, it is apparent that the vortices induce no horizontal
velocity since the horizontal components cancel but the vertical components add induced
velocity.

67

Figuree 4.21 Ima


age system needed
n
for the streamlin
ne curvaturre correction (Pope, 1984)
From sim
mple vortex theory,
t
the vertical
v
veloccity at a distaance x from the lifting liine will be

((4.31)

Substituttion of reason
nable valuess for x and h into the aboove equationn reveals thatt the boundaaryinduced upwash
u
anglle varies alm
most linearly along the chhord, and hence the streaam curvaturee is
essentiallly circular.
The chorrdwise load for
f an airfoill with circulaar camber m
may be considdered to be a flat plate
loading plus
p an ellipttically shapeed loading. The
T magnitudde of the flatt plate loadeed is determiined
from the product of the
t slope of the
t lift curvee and the bouundary-induuced increasee in the anglee of
nt because fo
or a circular camber the curve at thiss point is parrallel
the tangeent at the hallf-chord poin
to the lin
ne connecting
g the ends off the camberr line. The looad is properrly computedd as an anglee of
attack co
orrection.

68

4.4.2 Approach
To complete the corrections for the streamlines, the airfoil will need to be assumed to be a flat
plate. A correction for the angle of attack is developed by

(4.32)

where

(4.33)

assuming that is small compared to h2 which is the first image pair. The second pair of

vortices being twice as far away, will be roughly one-fourth as effective and the third pair, oneninth. So that so that for the images above and below the real wing, we have

(4.34)

The additive lift correction is

(4.35)

and the additive moment correction is




(4.36)

The complete low-speed wall effects for two-dimensional wind-tunnel testing are located below
if only the corrected term is needed. The data with the subscript u are uncorrected data and bases
on free-stream, clear tunnel q, with the exception of drag which must have the buoyancy
correction due to the longitudinal static-pressure gradient removed before final correcting.
The velocity correction is

(4.37)

(4.38)

The dynamic pressure is

69

The Reyn
nolds numbeer is

((4.39)

The angle of attack iss


((4.40)

where comes frrom the mom


ment force measured
m
durring wing-tunnnel testing. The measurre of

is from
fr
the win
ng testing and
d needs to haave its own ccorrection ddue the moment force beiing

taken at a different sp
pot than at th
he quarter-ch
hord point. IIn figure 4.22, it can seenn that the acctual
point of force
f
measurrement is loccated behind
d the quarterr-chord and tthe equation to

Fiigure 4.22 Translation


n of momen
nt to quarterr-chord poiint on the C
Clark Y-14
(AE
EROLAB)
translate it to the quaarter-chord point
p
is

((4.41)

where A is 1.135 inches for this wind-tunnel


w
. With the determineed, find by

70

(4.42)

is used to calculate

(4.43)

The coefficient of lift is


(4.44)

where the coefficient of lift is derived from the pressure distribution over the wing. The pressure
distribution is calculated by

(4.45)

Once the has been determined, summing the area under the curve created by the on the
upper and lower surface of the airfoil, gives the for a particular angle of attack and velocity.
The coefficient of moment is

(4.46)

The coefficient of drag at 0 lift angle is




4.4.3 Results
The results below are created from equations 4.34 -4.46.

71

(4.47)

0.020

,Changeincoefficientoflift,Cl

0.015
0.010
0.005
6.5MPH

0.000

11

16

30MPH

0.005

68MPH

0.010

102MPH

0.015
0.020
0.025

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 4.23 Plot of Cl vs. uncorrected angle of attack


0.0
Changeincoefficientofmoment,mc/4

11

16

0.5
6.5MPH
30MPH

1.0

68MPH
102MPH
1.5

2.0

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 4.24 Plot of mc/4 vs. uncorrected angle of attack

72

Changeinlift,L'(lbs)

0.19

0.14
6.5MPH
30MPH

0.09

68MPH
102MPH
0.04

0.01

1
6
11
UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

16

Figure 4.25 Plot of L' vs. uncorrected angle of attack

Changeinangleofattack, (degrees)

0.040
0.030
0.020
6.5MPH
30MPH

0.010

68MPH
102MPH

0.000

11

16

0.010
0.020

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 4.26 Plot of vs. uncorrected angle of attack

73

CorrectedCoefficientoflift,cl

1.300

0.800
30MPH
68MPH
0.300

102MPH
6.5MPH
1

0.200

0.700

11

16

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 4.27 Plot of corrected Cl vs. uncorrected angle of attack


16

CorrectedAngleofAttack(degrees)

14

12
10
8
6
4
2
0
2

2
4

10

12

14

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 4.28 Plot of corrected angle of attack vs. uncorrected angle of attack

74

16

CorrectedCoefficientofmoment,cmc/4

0.0

11

16

0.2
0.4
6.5MPH
0.6

30MPH

0.8

68MPH
102MPH

1.0
1.2
1.4

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees

Figure 4.29 Plot of corrected coefficient of moment vs. uncorrected angle of attack
The profile drag was created at the zero lift position of -3.5 degrees angle of attack and is in
Table 1.

Uncorrected
Velocity,VU
(ft/s)
9.53
44.00
99.73

Uncorrected
Angleof
Uncorrected
Corrected
Attack,u Coefficientof Coefficientof
Drag,Cd0u
Drag,Cd0
(degrees)
3.46
0.080
0.08
3.67
0.150
0.15
3.51
0.010400
0.0104

Table 1 Uncorrected and corrected Cd0


4.4.4 Discussion
The correction mainly depends on the calculated cl and the cl comes from the pressure
distribution over the airfoil. The airfoil has pressure ports from the 0 chord line position to the
80% of the chord line. The last 20% of the pressure distribution is not included due to any
pressure readings after the 80% chord length. This introduces an element of error into the

75

calculations for total Cp and filters through to the calculation of total cl. The corrected angle of
attack vs. uncorrected angle of attack is as expected in that the figure 4.25 shows for any
uncorrected angle of attack; the corrected angle of attack is lower. Also the cl has a negative
slope for most test sections airspeeds and behaves as expected. All the 6.5 MPH cases produced
erratic results due to the flow speed itself and the very low Reynolds number plays an important
role in the results. The corrected coefficient of moment is negative as expected but again, the 6.5
MPH case shows 0 correction factor required.
The Cd0calculations introduce the most error of all the corrections. The correction depends on
the solid blockage and the wake blockage which as discussed previously, the wake blockage has
a large error rate. The error is then multiplied by 3 times due to the equation used to calculate it.
Another source of error is coming from the plotting of the cl vs. cd to determine the initial Cd0 to
correct. From published data for the Clark Y-12 and Clark Y-15, the correction is two orders of

magnitude higher than it should be. Also the wake calculated for the cd is incomplete at high
angles of attack due to the wake rake not being long enough to capture the whole wake.

76

Chapter 5: Three-Dimensional Wall Corrections for the Clark Y-14 Wing


For a wing, there are several corrections that need to be performed to more accurately model
free-flight conditions when data is collected from a wind tunnel. The four main wall corrections
for an airfoil is buoyance, wake blockage, solid blockage and streamline curvature. The
buoyancy corrections will have an additive component to the drag force while the wake and solid
blockage component are dimensionless but are used in the correction for the streamline
curvature. The streamline curvature corrections are the most important for correcting wing data
and includes the corrections for , CL, CmandCDi. The velocities used in testing in the
wind-tunnel are 6.5, 30, 68 and 102 MPH and the Reynolds numbers are 100,000, 500,000,
1,200,000 and 1,800,000 respectively. The data and calculations are located in Appendix C.

5.1 Buoyancy Correction


5.1.1 Theory
Closed-throat wind-tunnels have a variation of static pressure along the axis of the test section.
The variation of static pressure is due to a thickening of the boundary layer as the flow
progresses through the test section. As the flow approaches the end of the test section, the
pressure progressively becomes more negative. With the pressure turning more negative down
the length of the test section, the model tends to be sucked down the test section. The amount of
buoyancy is usually insignificant for wings and airfoils but the correction becomes more
important for fuselages and nacelles. The buoyancy corrections can be applied in a threedimensional space. The philosophy behind the three-dimensional buoyancy correction is the
same as the two-dimensional.

77

5.1.2 Approach
The apprroach to the three-dimen
t
sional case is
i very simillar to the twoo-dimensionnal one. The
process can
c be follow
wed in sectio
on 4.1.2 dow
wn to equatioon 4.14. At thhe point, thee buoyancy
correction becomes

(5.1)

The iss determined


d by finding the fineness ratio of the shape beingg tested and iin this case, the
Clark Y-14 wing. Th
he fineness raatio is calcullated by the length of thee shape beinng tested diviided
by the maximum thicckness of thee shape. Thee ratio is usedd to find the by figuree 5.1.

Fiigure 5.1 Values


V
of vs. fineneess ratio (Poope, 1984)

5.1.3 Ressults
The buoy
yancy correcction was callculated usin
ng equation 55.1 and using the methodds in sectionn
4.1.2 to determine
d
the pressure gradient throu
ugh the test section. Thee buoyancy ccorrection is
plotted in
n figure 5.2 for
f M < .3.

78

3DBuoyancyCorrection,Db (lbs)

0.025

0.02

0.015

0.01

0.005

0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

TestSectionAirspeed,V(ft/sec)

Figure 5.2 Plot of the buoyancy correction vs. the test section airspeed
5.1.4 Discussion
The buoyancy for the wing is lower than that of the airfoil. This could be due to the airfoil
covering the entire berth of the test section where the wing is only 80% of the test section berth.
The calculated drag due to the buoyancy is a really small component of the overall drag. This
small component is so small that it could be left out of the correction altogether and still
represent less than .1% of the error in drag force.

5.2 Solid Blockage Correction


5.2.1 Theory
With a three-dimensional model in the test section, the flow is semi-blocked and the flow area is
reduced. In order for continuity and Bernoullis equation to be satisfied, the flow must increase
in velocity to maintain the same mass flow rate through the test section. The increase of velocity
79

is considered solid blockage and is a function of model thickness, thickness distribution and
model size. The camber of the airfoil is independent of the solid blockage. The solid blockage
velocity increment at the model is much less (about ) than the increment one obtains from the
direct area reduction. (Pope, 1984) The streamlines furthest from the model are also impacted
by the increment velocity since they are displaced more due to the confines of the test section.
5.2.2 Approach
The solid blockage correction for a three-dimensional body follows the same procedures as in
section 4.2.2. The approach for solid-blockage of a wing defined by Thoms short-form equation
is

(5.2)

where k is .90 for a wing and .96 for a body of revolution. Solid-blockage for a wing-body
system is a combination of simply the sum of each component as determined from their
respective equations. This will give you the total solid blockage for the entire system.
5.2.3 Results
Applying equation 5.2 to the Clark Y-14 wing and using a k value of .90, the solid blockage is
plotted in figure 5.3 for test section velocities of M < .3. The cross-sectional area was derived
from the process used in 4.1 and those C values were used in the solid blockage for a wing.

80

0.0225

3DSolidBlockage,sb

0.0175

sb@
4aoa
sb@
0aoa
sb@
4aoa

0.0125

sb@
8aoa
sb@
12aoa

0.0075

sb@
16aoa

0.0025
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

TestSectionAirspeed,V(ft/sec)

Figure 5.3 Plot of the solid blockage for the Clark Y-14 wing
5.2.4 Discussion
The solid blockage is greater for the wing compared with the airfoils solid blockage in section
4.2. This makes sense because the wing blocks more area in the flow as the angle of attack
increases than an airfoil. But wings solid blockage follows the same pattern as the airfoil as the
velocity increases.

81

5.3 Wake Blockage Correction


5.3.1 Theory
All bodies, two-dimensional and three-dimensional, create wake with the fluid they are moving
through and bodies in wind tunnels are not exempt. The law of continuity states the velocity
outside the wake in a closed tunnel must be higher than the free stream velocity in order for a
constant volume of fluid to flow through the test section. For the three-dimensional case,
Maskells three-dimensional method is utilized. The Maskells method accounts for the effects of
momentum outside the wake when separated flow occurs. This added effect from the momentum
is added by the lateral wall constraint on the wake and results in lower wake and model base
pressure than what would occur in the free flow condition. (Maskell, 1965) Maskell
demonstrates that wake blockage yields results similar to their higher speed counter parts on the
same model. The natural tendency for the wake is toward the axial symmetry which permits a
single correction.
5.3.2 Approach
The wake blockage correction for streamline flow follows the loci for the two-dimensional case
in section 4.3.2 as far as the wake is simulated by a source of strength

(5.3)

which is matched for continuity by adding a downstream sink of the same strength. However for
the three-dimensional case, the image system consists of a doubly infinite course-sink system
space a tunnel height apart vertically and a tunnel width apart horizontally. The axial velocity
induced at the model by the image source system is again zero, and due to the image sink system
is

82

(5.4)

The increeased drag due


d to the preessure gradieent may be ssubtracted byy removing tthe wing waake
pressure draw by

(5.5)

where K1 is derived from


f
figure 5.4
5

Fiigure 5.4 Values


V
of K3 and K3 forr a numberr of bodies

The Cdu for


f the wing is calculated
d by using th
he force dataa generated bby test comppleted in the
AEROLA
AB wind-tun
nnel. The forrce data is geenerated by the 3-compoonent force/m
moment stinng
balance. The normal and axial fo
orces measurred by the stiing balance hhad equationn 2.2 appliedd to
vert the drag to into its cooefficient foorm, apply
convert the raw data to a drag forrce. To conv

83

(5.6)

Using the calculated from the wind-tunnel data, the wake blockage and change to the due
to the wake can be found.
5.3.3 Results
The calculated CDu is shown in figure 5.5 and the is shown is figure 5.6.
0.8

Coefficientofdrag,cdu

0.7
0.6
0.5

6.5MPH

0.4

30MPH

0.3

68MPH

0.2

102MPH

0.1
0

0.1

6
11
UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

16

Figure 5.5 Plot of the angle of attack vs. the coefficient of drag
0.0016
0.0014

Wakeblockage,wb

0.0012
0.001
6MPG

0.0008

30MPH

0.0006

68MPH

0.0004

102MPH

0.0002
0
4

0.0002

11

16

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees

Figure 5.6 Plot of the angle of attack vs. wake blockage

84

5.3.4 Discussion
When comparing figures 5.5 and 5.6 to each other, it can be seen that the two plots are highly
coupled together. The coefficient of drag is the dominating factor in the wake blockage
correction. The correction for the coefficient of drag could not be completed due to the Clark Y14 not being graphed in figure 5.4 even though the thickness ratio is known for the Clark Y-14.
Being able to determine the correction factor for the coefficient of the drag is extremely
important and without it, the drag cannot be corrected.

5.4 Method of Images


5.4.1 Theory
Method of images has many applications in modern engineering from aerospace to electrical.
Method of images can be used in any application where the item of interest is located inside a
field. In electrical engineering, one example of its use is to determine a conductors change in an
electromagnetic field whereas in aerospace, method of images can be used to determine the
downwash on a wing or airfoil in a wind-tunnel. A wing being flown in nature close to the
ground can have method of images applied to determine the downwash. Downwash is defined as
a small velocity component in the downward direction at the wing and is caused by the wing-tip
vortices downstream of the wing. The wing-tip vortices induce a small downward velocity
component in the neighborhood of the wing by the vortices dragging the surrounding air
around them and this motion induces a small downward velocity component on the wing.
(Anderson, 2007) The downwash then combines with the to produce a local relative wind that
the wing encounters. The downwash caused by these wing-tip vortices become very important
when the wing is located in a confined space such as a wind-tunnel. When the airflow is confined
by the walls of the wind-tunnel, downwash produces a higher induced velocity () on the wing
85

which creeates a mom


ment on the wing.
w
Figure 4.1 illustrat es what occuurs when thee induced
velocity from
f
the dow
wnwash actss upon a finitte wing. Thee moment crreated on thee wing by thee
induced velocity
v
introduces the in
nduced anglle of attack (( ) componnent to the wing. While ppilots
only caree about the effective angle of attack (
( ), enginneers care grreatly about the inducedd
angle of attack. The induced
i
angle of attack adds
a
to the eeffective anggle of attack to equal the
geometric angle of atttack (). Th
he induced an
ngle of attacck reduces thhe local anglle of attack tthe
wing enccounters but adds to the drag
d
(D) the wing experiiences in thee form of indduced drag ( ).
The indu
uced drag is defined
d
as a component of the

Figure 5.7
5 - The eff
ffects of dow
wnwash on a finite wingg to producee induced d
drag (Anderrson,
2007)
g on the wing due to the downwash of
o the airstreeam passing over it. Thee induced draag
total drag
can be ap
pproximated
d by equating
g the L multiiplied by thee tangent of tthe induced angle of attaack.
(Anderso
on, 2007) Beecause of thee confined sp
pace of the w
wind-tunnel, the downwaash affects thhe
wing more than if it was
w unconfin
ned, hence the
t need for a correctionn of the inducced drag
86

gathered from wind-tunnel data. An application of method of images is to correct for the inflated
induced drag on the wing due to the wind tunnel walls. To apply this method, the wing can be
replaced with a vortex system composed of a lifting line vortex and a pair of trailing vortices. A
solid body, like a wing, can be represented by a source-sink system where the body is located
and the wake can be represented by a source. (Pope, 1984) Using this vortex system can produce
accurate results to any degree necessary. The solid boundary of the wing is formed by the
production of a zero streamline matching the solid boundary. After the image system is
established for the wing, the system can be applied for a closed rectangular wind-tunnel. It
should be noted that the two-dimensional application of method of images only applies if the
downwash is needed along the lifting line and the three-dimensional application is necessary to
get induced upwash after the wing, the streamline curvature effect or the correction for the wing
with a lot of sweepback. (Pope, 1984)
To setup the image system, take the image and replicate the opposite sign of the image system as
demonstrated in figure 5.8 where one vortex A is bound by two walls 1 and 2. To correctly setup

Figure 5.8 - Single vortex arrangement for simulation with vertical boundaries
the images, second vortex is created that is assigned the opposite sign of A to wall 1 which is
vortex B. Vortex C is the same sign as B and created opposite side of wall 2. The higher the
order of accuracy needed, more images are needed in the system in order for the system to be

87

balanced
d. With the ad
ddition of vo
ortex B and C,
C there imaages need to be created w
with vortex B
B
and C. Vortex
V
B is added to thee opposite side of vortexx B and is asssigned the opposite signn of
vortex B. The same concept
c
is ap
pplied to vorrtex C and alll additional vortices neeeded for the
desired accuracy.
a
Forr the case off a rectangulaar test sectioon of a wind--tunnel, figuure 5.10

Figure 5.9
5 - Vortex image systeem for the horizontal
h
siimulation oof wing in a rectangularr test
section
n (Pope, 19884)
demonstrrates the verttical walls component an
nd figure 5.99 demonstrattes the horizzontal walls aand

88

Figure 5.10 - Vorteex image sysstem for thee vertical sim


mulation off wing in a rrectangular test
section
n (Pope, 19884)
shows the image systtem becomes a doubly in
nfinite system
m of vorticees. (Pope, 19984) For a wiing
in a closeed rectangulaar test sectio
on where thee three-dimennsional quanntities are reqquired is shoown
in figure 1.5.
5.4.2 Approach
With the use of elem
mentary vorteex theory and
d the expresssion for the iinduced veloocity due to the
vortex strrength () att a distance (r)
( from each
h bound vorttex. The exppression appllies to a sem
miinfinite vortex
v
startin
ng at the lifting line and trailing
t
to innfinity in thee aft directionn. The inducced
velocity is
i

89

(5.7)

bined with th
he strength of
o a vortex equation
e
whiich is formedd from the reelationship
and comb
between the circulatiion for a unifformly loadeed wing and lift is

(5.8)

producess;

(5.9)

For each
h image of th
he vortex wh
here the vorteex applies a downwash oon the wing,, the inducedd
velocity is
i calculated
d. Since the positive
p
direction is conssidered the ddown direction, the
calculated induced veelocity is sub
btracted from
m the induceed velocity ccalculated foor the wing
simulated
d in the test section.

s
to calcculate the in
nduced veloocity
Figure 5.11 Vortiices image setup
The wing
g in free fligh
ht produces an induced velocity
v
on iitself and thaat is found bby

90

((5.10)

The coefficient of lift for the wing is found by using the axial and normal forces measured in the
tunnel by the sting balance, then applying equation 2.1 to get the lift. Once the lift is calculated
for the wing, the CL is found by

(5.11)

The correction to the angle of attack comes from the summing of equation 5.10 of all the images
but does not include the wing itself. When the sum of the change of the angle of attack is added
the induced angle of attack that the wing experiences in free flight, the total induced angle of
attack is found for in the tunnel.

(5.12)

Now the corrected needs to be introduced to determine the to calculate the corrected .
Since the cosine of the angle between the lift and lift component created in the wind-tunnel is
one, the


(5.13)

The induced drag coefficient can be written as


(5.14)

and the change in the induced drag caused by the boundary induced downwash becomes


(5.15)

This method will need to be modified to calculate the downwash on bigger models over the 80%
cross section length of the test section width.
5.4.3 Results
Using the method of images, figures 5.12 and 5.13 were plotted against the angle of attack for
the correction factor of andcdi,respectively.

91

Changeinangleofattack, (degrees)

2.0
1.5
1.0
6.5MPh

0.5

30MPH
0.0
4

11

16

0.5

68MPH
102MPH

1.0
1.5

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees

Figure 5.12 Plot of vs. the u


0.070

Changeincoefficientofdrag,cdi

0.060
0.050
0.040

6.5MPh

0.030

30MPH
68MPH

0.020

102MPH
0.010
0.000

1
0.010

11

16

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 5.13 Plot of cdi vs. the u


5.4.4 Discussion
The method of images is an accurate way of determining corrections utilizing the image
methodology. As seen from these plots, the run at 6.5 MPH, gives the most problematic data but

92

other runs seem to align with each other except at high angles of attack. At high angles of attack,
the correction becomes larger and is expected based on the method used to develop the
correction equations.

5.5 Streamline Curvature Correction


5.5.1 Theory
The corrections for the streamline curvature for three-dimensional testing follows the same as for
protocol the two-dimensional case in that they are concerned with the variation of the boundaryinduced upwash along the chord. Once again the variation turns out to be essentially a linear
increase in angle so that the streamlines curvature effects may be treated as the loading on a a
circular arc airfoil. Similarly, the loading is treated as a flat-plate effect based on the flow angle
change between the quarter and half chord, and an elliptic load based on the flow angle change
between the half and three-quarters chord but for the three-dimensional case, the image system is
vastly different from the simple system for two dimensions.
The three-dimensional image system as in figure 1.5 where basically it consists of the real wing
with its bound vortex and its trailing vortices. The vertical boundary is simulated by the infinite
system of horseshoe vortices and the horizontal boundaries by the infinite lateral system. Linking
the two systems are the infinite diagonal system. The effect of the doubly infinite image system
at the lifting line of the real wing is the main boundary upwash effect. Mostly the area of interest
is in the change of the upwash along the chord and along the span as well.
5.5.2 Approach
The total additive correction for the angle of attack is

93

(5.16)

The additive lift correction is




(5.17)

where a is the wing lift curve slope which is plotted from the data collected from wind-tunnel
test on the Clark Y-14 wing.
The additive correction to the moment coefficient is
 

(5.18)

5.5.3 Results
The wing lift slope curves were created for each Reynolds number and is shown in figure 5.14 5.17.
0.040
y=0.0029x 0.0102
0.030
0.020

Lift,L(lbs)

0.010
0.000
4

0.010

11

0.020
0.030
0.040
UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 5.14 Wing lift slope curves for 6.5 MPH

94

16

0.700
y=0.0229x+0.2275
0.600

Lift,L(lbs)

0.500
0.400
0.300
0.200
0.100
0.000
4

11

16

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 5.15 Wing lift slope curves for 30 MPH

3.500
y=0.1168x+1.1553
3.000

Lift,L(lbs)

2.500
2.000
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
4

11

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 5.16 Wing lift slope curves for 68 MPH

95

16

12.000
y=0.4029x+2.5436

Lift,L(lbs)

10.000
8.000
6.000
4.000
2.000
0.000
4

11

16

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 5.14 Wing lift slope curves for 102 MPH


Figure 5.18 5.20 are derived from the corrections discussed in this section.

Changeinangleofattack,
(degrees)

2.000
1.500
1.000

0.500

6.5MPh

0.000

30MPH

0.500

11

16

68MPH
102MPH

1.000
1.500
2.000

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 5.18 Plot of the change in the angle of attack vs. uncorrected angle of attack

96

Changeincoefficientoflift,CLc

0.008
0.006
0.004
0.002

6.5MPh

30MPH

11

16

68MPH

0.002

102MPH
0.004
0.006
0.008
UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 5.19 Plot of the change in coefficient of lift vs. uncorrected angle of attack

Changeincoefficientofmoment,Cmc

0.002
0.0015
0.001
0.0005

6.5MPh
30MPH

11

0.0005

16

68MPH
102MPH

0.001
0.0015
0.002
UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 5.20 Plot of the change in moment coefficient vs. uncorrected angle of attack

97

Chapteer 6: Com
mputationa
al Fluid Dy
ynamics off the Clarrk Y-14 Aiirfoil
6.1 Grid
ds
Two grid
ds were creatted to simulaate the fluid flow inside the wind-tunnnel and anoother to moddel
the Clark
kY-14 in freee flight cond
ditions. The free
f flight grrid was creatted in Pointw
wise and is
constructted by orthog
gonality (Fig
gure 6.1). Th
he airfoil is iimport from SolidWorkss where a onnestep strucctured grid is placed arou
und the Clarrk Y-14 Airffoil. The gridd was steppeed out to 10 bbody
lengths around
a
the aiirfoil.

Figu
ure 6.1 Orrthogonal grid around the Clark Y
Y-14 Airfoill

98

After thee grid is form


med around th
he airfoil, th
he main dom
main is divideed into 5 smaaller domainns.
All five down
d
have th
he volume setting set to fluid with thhe biggest doomain outsidde boundaryy
being sett as the inlet.. All the rem
maining domaains will havve their outsiide boundaryy set to pressure
outlets. The
T last boun
ndary condittion to be sett is the bounndary aroundd the airfoil nneeds to be sset to
wall. Thee grid is now
w ready to bee exported to
o Fluent.

Figure 6.2 Free flight


f
grid with
w 5 sub-doomains for the Clark Y
Y-14
The next grid to be created is forr the airfoil in
nside the tunnnel but insttead of the grrid being 2D
D, it
will be 3D due to an bug in the so
oftware that will not alloow this grid type to be exxported to F
Fluent
properly.. This grid allso be constrructed out off an orthogo nal grid locaated around the airfoil buut
not stepp
ped out to 10
0 body length
hs. The step out should bbe in a multiiple of 8+1. T
The grid in
figure 6.3
3 was steppeed out 57 steeps. The orth
hogonal grid is then dividded up 6 subb-domains.

99

Figure 6.3 Grid


G
modeliing the flow
w inside the w
wind-tunnel with the C
Clark Y-14
From thee boundary of
o the orthogonal grid, a new structurred out to thhe boundaries of the test
section. All
A domains in figure 6.3
3 are assigneed the volum
me condition of fluid. Thhe boundary
condition
ns are also seetup as the velocity
v
inlett on the rightt side of the grid and a ppressure outline
on the lefft. The upper and lower boundaries are
a set as waalls as their bboundary coonditions as w
well
as the airrfoil. Once th
he setup is complete, thee grid is expoorted to Flueent.

6.2 Setu
up
The setup
p for the grid
ds is perform
med in Fluen
nt where the grid was sizzed to the corrrect dimenssions
of chord of 3.5 inchees. After the grid is scaled, the bounddary conditioons are checkked to ensurre
mported into
o Fluent. Thee residuals w
were set for cconvergencee at 1e-07. Thhe
they weree properly im
flow conditions are set
s at inviscid
d with air seelected at thee medium.
100

6.3 Resu
ults
In figures 6.4 6.9, the
t static preessure is plottted in the coontour map ffor the Clarkk Y-14 at angle
of attacks of -4, 0, 4, 8, 12, and 16
1 at a free-sstream veloc ity of 149.644 ft/sec..

Figure
F
6.4 CFD Results for the C
Clark Y-14 aat -4 aoa

Figure
F
6.5 CFD Resu
ults for the C
Clark Y-14 at 0 aoa

101

Figure
F
6.6 CFD Resu
ults for the C
Clark Y-14 at 4 aoa

Figure
F
6.7 CFD Resu
ults for the C
Clark Y-14 at 8 aoa

102

Figure
F
6.8 CFD Resullts for the C
Clark Y-14 aat 12 aoa

Figure
F
6.9 CFD Resullts for the C
Clark Y-14 aat 16 aoa
In figures 6.10 6.15
5, the Cp oveer the airfoil is plotted annd is used too calculate thhe coefficiennt of
lift over the
t airfoil att angles of atttack of -4, 0,
0 4, 8, 12 annd 16 and a fflow velocityy of 149.64
ft/sec.

103

Fiigure 6.10 Plot

of the Cp over the Clark Y-144 at -4 aoa

Figure 6.11 Plot

of the Cp over thee Clark Y-144 at 0 aoa

104

Figure 6.12 Plot

of the Cp over thee Clark Y-144 at 4 aoa

of the Cp over thee Clark Y-144 at 8 aoa


Figure 6.13 Plot

105

Fiigure 6.14 P
Plot of the Cp over the Clark Y-144 at 12 aoa

Fiigure 6.15 P
Plot of the Cp over the Clark Y-144 at 16 aoa
8, the coefficcient of lift is
i graphed foor -4, 0, 4, 8,, 12 and 16 for correctedd,
In figures 6.16 6.18
uncorrectted, expected and CFD results.
r

106

0.9
CorrectedCoefficientoflift,cl

0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5

Uncorrected

0.4

Corrected

0.3

Expected
CFD

0.2
0.1
0.0

11

16

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 6.16 Plot of the Cl at a velocity of 44 ft/sec comparing uncorrected, corrected,


expected and CFD results
1.2

CorrectedCoefficientoflift,cl

1.0

0.8
Uncorrected

0.6

Corrected
Expected

0.4

CFD

0.2

0.0
4

11

16

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degrees)

Figure 6.17 Plot of the Cl at a velocity of 99.73 ft/sec comparing uncorrected, corrected,
expected and CFD results
107

1.6

CorrectedCoefficientoflift,cl

1.4
1.2
1.0
Uncorreccted

0.8

Corrected

0.6

Expected
d

0.4

CFD

0.2
0.0
4

11

16

UncorrectedAngleofAttack,u (degreees

Figure 6.18
6 Plot of
o the Cl at a velocity off 149.64 ft/ssec compariing uncorrected, correccted,
expected and CFD r esults
In figures , The streamlines are shown for on
nly one veloccity of 149.664 ft/sec at vvaries angles of
attack.

Figure 6.19 Streamlinees over the C


Clark Y-144 at -4 aoa
108

Figure
F
6.20 Streamlin
nes over the Clark Y-144 at 0 aoa

Figure
F
6.21 Streamlin
nes over the Clark Y-144 at 4 aoa

109

Figure
F
6.22 Streamlin
nes over the Clark Y-144 at 8 aoa

Fiigure 6.23 Streamlinees over the C


Clark Y-14 at 12 aoa

110

Fiigure 6.24 Streamlinees over the C


Clark Y-14 at 16 aoa

6.4 Disccussion
The CFD
D was successsful at plottiing the cp ov
ver the Clarkk Y-14 for 9.533, 44.000, 99.732 andd
149.642 ft/sec at -4, 0,
0 4, 8, 12 an
nd 16 degreees of angle oof attack. In ffigures 6.4 6.9 shows tthe
static preessure as the angle of attaack increasees. It can be sseen that as the angle off attack increeases,
the staticc pressure shifts over the airfoil as th
he airfoil stallls. The cp is used to calcculate the cl aas in
section 4.4
4 for use in
n comparing the data to corrected
c
andd expected rresults. In figgures 6.16 6.18,
the graph
hs show how
w the correctiion factors compare
c
withh the CFD reesult and thee expected
values. The
T graphs sh
how that corrrected cl is close
c
to the eexpected vallues where thhe CFD is veery
close to the
t corrected
d results. Forr the CFD caases for the a velocity off 9.533, 44.000 and 99.733
ft/sec, thee CFD resultts are in App
pendix C butt mainly reppresents what
at is shown inn figures 6.44
6.15.

111

Chapter 7: Conclusion
As our civilization relies more heavily on aircrafts and rockets, the use of wind-tunnels has
increasing been integrated as an important aeronautical tool in their design. Even though windtunnels are great scientific tools, they do have their flaws. Based on the specific wind-tunnel
design, one of the main negatives is that wind-tunnels cannot simulate free-flight conditions
without having to correct the data for wall effects and other flow phenomena.
Both two and three-dimensional flows need to have corrections applied that are unique to that
wind-tunnels design. For two dimensional flows, corrections that can be obtain are for the
  with direct corrections available for      . The

corrections are developed from the buoyancy, solid and wake blockages, and streamline
curvature corrections. For tree-dimensional flows, corrections can be obtain are   ,

 These corrections depend on the methods applied to the two-dimensional cases


along with the method of images.
The CFD can be a cheaper solution to wind-tunnels but as seen in the results throughout chapter
6, require an almost perfect grid. This can be very expensive due to grid building, setup and
supercomputer time to the point the cost match that of wind-tunnels. Wind Tunnel testing and the
corrections developed for that specific tunnel that are easily applied to any model, keep tunnels
operating and a competitive source of aeronautical information.

112

Works Cited
Abbott, I. (1959). Theory of Wing Sections. New York City: Dover Publications.
American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). (2004). NACA 0012 Airfoil
Aerodynamics Analysis. Reston: Hahn, Philip.
Anderson, J. D. (2007). Fundamentals of Aerodynamics , 4th Edition. New York City: McGrawHill.
Kasravi, K. (2010). Tec452 body Structures I. Retrieved from
http://www.kasravi.com/cmu/tec452/aerodynamics/WindTunnel.html
Lilienthal, O. (2000). Birdflight as the Basis of Aviation. Hummelstown: Markowski
International Publishers
Monash University. (2004). Flying Wings: An Anthology: Horatio F. Phillips. Retrieved from
http://wwwctie.monash.edu.au/hargrave/phillis.html
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2005). Wind Tunnel History.
Retrieved from http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/WindTunnel/History.html
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (1950). Blockage Corrections for
Three-Dimensional Flow Closed Throat Wind (TR 643). Washington DC: U.S.
Government Printing Office.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (1944). Wall Interference in a TwoDimensional Flow Wind Tunnel with Considerations of the Effects of Compressibility
(TR 612). Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Pankhurst, R. C. (1952). Wind Tunnel Technique. London: Pitman
Pope, A. (1984). Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Testing. New York City: John Wiley & Sons.

113

Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. (1991). Vortex Methods and Vortex Motion.
Philadelphia: Gustafson, K. E, Sethian, J. A.

114

Appendix A

/* This program determines the Pressure Gradient through the SJSU Wind Tunnel Test
Section.*/
#define _CRT_SECURE_NO_DEPRECATE
#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>
#define VISCOCITY 0.000000382f
#define DENSITY 0.002325f
#define PRESSURE 2.1162f
#define VELOCITY_ZERO 0.0f
#define AREA_ONE 1.0f
double reynoldsNumber(double velocity, double cord_length) {
return (DENSITY * velocity * cord_length) / VISCOCITY;
}
double criticalPoint(double velocity, double cord_length, double reynolds_number) {
return ((reynolds_number * VISCOCITY) / (DENSITY * velocity));
}
double laminarBoundaryDisplacement(double velocity, double cord_length) {
return (1.72f * cord_length)/pow(reynoldsNumber(velocity,cord_length),0.5);
}
double turbulentBoundaryDisplacement(double velocity, double cord_length, double
reynolds_number) {
return (0.046f * cord_length)/pow(reynolds_number,0.2);
}
int
main(void)
{
double reynolds_number = 0.0f;
double velocity = 0.0f;
double cord_length = 1.0f;
double critical_point = 0.0f;
double boundary_displacement=0.0;
double effective_area = 0.0;
double pressure_one = 0.0f;
double velocity_two = 0.0f;
double pressure_two = 0.0f;
double ts_length = 0.0f;
115

double pressure_grad = 0.0f;


double starting_velocity = 0.0;
double ending_velocity = 0.0;
double velocity_increment = 0.0;
double velocity_mph = 0.0;
int dummy;
FILE *file;
file = fopen("C:\\data.csv","w+");
printf("Enter the starting velocity (MPH) of the flow over flat plate > ");
scanf_s("%lf", &starting_velocity);
printf("Enter the ending velocity (MPH) of the flow over the flat plate > ");
scanf_s("%lf", &ending_velocity);
printf("Enter the velocity increment (MPH) > ");
scanf_s("%lf", &velocity_increment);
fprintf(file,"MPS,FPS,Reynolds Number,Cross-Sectional Test Section Area (ft),Pressure
Gradient\n");
for (velocity_mph = starting_velocity;velocity_mph <= ending_velocity;
velocity_mph+= velocity_increment) {
velocity = velocity_mph * 1.46666666666667;
reynolds_number = reynoldsNumber(velocity,cord_length);

//printf("Reynolds Number -> %lf\n", reynolds_number);


critical_point = criticalPoint(velocity,cord_length,500000);
//printf("Critical Point (ft) -> %lf\n", critical_point);
if (reynolds_number < 500000.0f) {
//printf("Reynolds Number < 500000 - Laminar\n");
boundary_displacement =
laminarBoundaryDisplacement(velocity,cord_length);
effective_area = pow((cord_length - boundary_displacement),2.0);
//printf("Laminar Boundary Displacement (ft) ->
%lf\n",boundary_displacement);
//printf("Effective Area (ft^2) -> %lf\n\n", effective_area);
}
else {
double delta_x = 0.0;
double turbulent_start_point = 0.0;
double new_start_point = 0.0;
double new_laminar_boundary_displacement = 0.0;
116

double turbulent_boundary_displacement = 0.0;


//printf("Reynolds Number >= 500000 - Turbulent\n");
boundary_displacement =
laminarBoundaryDisplacement(velocity,critical_point);
delta_x = pow((boundary_displacement * pow(((DENSITY * velocity) /
VISCOCITY),0.2) / 0.46),1.25);
//printf("Delta X (ft) -> %lf\n",delta_x);
turbulent_start_point = critical_point - delta_x;
new_start_point = cord_length - turbulent_start_point;
//printf("New Start Point Turbulent Boundary Distplacement (ft) ->
%lf\n",new_start_point);
turbulent_boundary_displacement =
turbulentBoundaryDisplacement(velocity,new_start_point, reynolds_number);
//printf("Turbulent Boundary Displacement (ft) ->
%lf\n",turbulent_boundary_displacement);
effective_area = pow(cord_length turbulent_boundary_displacement,2.0);
//printf("Effective Area (ft^2) -> %lf\n\n",effective_area);
}
pressure_one = PRESSURE - .5 * DENSITY * pow((velocity),2);
//printf("Pressure at Test Section Entrance (lb/ft^2) -> %lf\n",pressure_one);
velocity_two = (velocity * AREA_ONE) / effective_area;
//printf("Test Section Exit Velocity (ft/sec) -> %lf\n",velocity_two);
pressure_two = pressure_one - .5 * DENSITY * pow((velocity_two),2);
//printf("Pressure at Test Section Exit (lb/ft^2) -> %lf\n",pressure_two);
//printf("Enter Test Section Axial Length (ft) >");
//scanf_s("%lf", &ts_length);
ts_length = 1.0;
pressure_grad = (pressure_two - pressure_one) / ts_length;
//printf("Pressure Gradient through the Test Section (lb/ft^3) ->
%lf\n\n",pressure_grad);

fprintf(file,"%lf,%lf,%lf,%lf,%lf\n",velocity_mph,velocity,reynolds_number,effective_ar
ea,pressure_grad);
}
printf("DONE.\n");
fclose(file);
117

scanf_s("%d",&dummy);
return (0);
}

118

Appendix B
2D Airfoil Data (Pressure)

q

coun
t

1

2

3

4

5

[ps
f]

0

0

0

0

Al
p
V_ h
ref a
[
[m d
ph e
g]
]

2

3

4

4

P
P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 10

P
11

P
12

P
13

P
14

P
15

P
16

P
17

P
18

P
19

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

10 10 10 10
16. 16. 16. 16.
0
1
4
2
1

10
16.
3

10
15.
9

10
16.
2

10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.

10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.

10
15.
8
10
15.
9
10
15.
8
10
15.
8
10
15.

10
16.
2
10
16.
2
10
16.
2
10
16.
2
10
16.

0

0

0

0

3

0

6 0.1

4

0

10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.

[m
ba
r]

10
16.
4
10
16.
4
10
16.
3
10
16.
4
10
16.

[m
ba
r]

10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
2
10
16.
2
10
16.

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

[m
ba
r]

10
16

10
16.
3

10
16.
3

10
16.
4

10 10
15. 16.
9
2

10
16.
3

10
16.
3

10
15.
8

10
16.
2

10
16.
3

10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.

10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
2
10
16.
3
10
16.

10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
4
10
16.
4
10
16.

10
15.
9
10
15.
9
10
15.
9
10
15.
9
10
15.

10
16.
2
10
16.
2
10
16.
2
10
16.
2
10
16.

10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.

10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.

10
15.
8
10
15.
8
10
15.
8
10
15.
8
10
15.

10
16.
2
10
16.
2
10
16.
2
10
16.
2
10
16.

10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.

10
16
10
16
10
16
10
16
10
16

1 2.0
m 88 p
ba 54 s
3 f
r=
1 1.4
m 66 f
10 ph 66 p
7 s
=
16
p
1
s
sq.
ft 14 i
10
=
4 n
16
10
16

10
16
10
16
10
16

7

8

9

10

11

0

0

0

0

3

2

3

4

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

12 0.1

5

0

13 0.1

5

0

14

0

2

0

15

0

2

0

16

0

2

0

17

0

3

0

1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1

4
10
16.
4
10
16.
4
10
16.
4
10
16.
4
10
16.
4
10
16.
4
10
16.
4
10
16.
3
10
16.
4
10
16.
4
10
10 16.
16
4

2
10
16.
2
10
16.
2
10
16.
3
10
16.
2
10
16.
2
10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
3
10
16.
2

1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
1
10
16.
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35

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7
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Av
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38
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02
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99 99 98 98 97 96 96 97
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10
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6
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10
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8
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0.3
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32

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Av
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9

10
06.
7

10
06.
2

10
06.
71
21
02.
55
8

10
06.
24
21
01.
57
6

10
06.
5
10
06.
49
5
21
02.
10
9

10
06.
1
10
06.
2
21
01.
49
2

10
06.
2
10
06.
24
5
21
01.
58
6

10
11.
5
10
11.
56
21
12.
68
7

10
14.
2
10
14.
18
5
21
18.
16
9

10
12.
7
10
12.
75
5
21
15.
18
3

10
12.
2
10
12.
28
21
14.
19
1

10
11.
8
10
11.
89
5
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13.
38
7

10
11.
3
10
11.
38
5
21
12.
32
1

10
10.
5
10
10.
52
5
21
10.
52
5

10
10.
4
10
10.
48
5
21
10.
44
2

10
10
10
10.
07
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21
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58
5

10
09.
1
10
09.
20
5
21
07.
76
8

99.
51
33
6

61

27.
6

10
4

0

62

27.
4

10
3

0

63

26.
3

10
1

0

27.
5
27.
8

10
4
10
4

65

Av
g

psf

FP
S
0.1
68
49
1

0.6
18
89
2

0.4
41
21
9

0.3
03
52
3

0.2
17
35
1

10
99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 05.
3.9 4.2 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.2 3.1 2.3 2.3 6
10
99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 05.
3.7 4.1 4
4
4.3 3.7 3.7 2.7 2.7 1
10
99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 05.
3.8 4.1 4.1 4
4.3 3.8 3.7 2.9 2.7 4
10
99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 05.
3.9 4.3 4.2 4.2 4.4 3.9 3.8 2.8 2.5 2
99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 10
3.4 3.8 3.8 3.8 4.2 3.7 3.6 2.7 2.6 05.

10
11.
5
10
11.
5
10
11.
5
10
11.
4
10
11.

10
08.
8
10
08.
8
10
08.
8
10
08.
6
10
08.

10
07.
2
10
07.
3
10
07.
3
10
07.
2
10
07.

10
06.
2
10
06.
2
10
06.
2
10
06.
1
10
06

0.7
07
44

64



0
0

0.7
07
44

0.6
98
55

0.7
04
77

0.7
02
99

0.7
00
33

0.7
24
31

0.7
41
19

0.7
86
5

57

0.1
26
73
8

10
05
10
05
10
05
10
05
10
05

0.0
62
77
6
10
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6
10
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7
10
03.
7
10
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6
10
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10
03
10
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1
10
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10
02

10
03
10
02.

10
02
10
02
10
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9
10
01.

0.2
00
18
10
00.
3
10
00.
4
10
00.
3
10
00.
3
10
00.

Cp





66

27.
9

10
4

0

99 99 99 99 99
3.7 3.9 3.8 3.8 4

99 99 99 99
3.4 3.2 2.1 1.8

67

28.
1

10
5

0

99 99 99 99 99
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99 99 99 99
3.7 3.6 2.7 2.4

68

27

10
3

0

99 99
3.7 4

69

27.
2

10
3

0

99 99 99 99 99 99
4.1 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.4 4

70

27.
1

10
3

0

99 99
3.7 4

99 99 99 99 99 99 99
3.9 3.9 4.1 3.6 3.5 2.5 2

71

27.
2

10
3

0

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3.6 4

99
4

72

27.
4

10
4

0

99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99
3.4 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.9 3.6 3.4 2.5 2.2

73

26.
5

10
2

0

99 99 99 99
3.7 4.1 4.1 4

74

26.
9

10
3

0

99 99 99 99 99 99
4.1 4.4 4.3 4.3 4.5 4

99 99 99
3.9 2.9 2.6

75

26.
9

10
3

0

99 99 99 99 99 99
3.7 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.3 4

99 99
3.9 3

76

26.
6

10
2

0

99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99
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99 99 99 99 99 99 99
3.9 3.8 4.1 3.6 3.5 2.7 2.4
99 99 99
3.8 2.9 2.5

99 99 99 99 99 99
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99 99 99 99
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99
2.7

99
2.7

58

1
10
04.
9
10
05.
4
10
05.
4
10
05.
3
10
04.
6
10
05.
2
10
05.
2
10
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4
10
05.
3
10
05.
6
10
05.
5

5
10
11.
4
10
11.
4
10
11.
3
10
11.
4
10
11.
5
10
11.
4
10
11.
4
10
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5
10
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5
10
11.
5
10
11.
5

7
10
08.
6
10
08.
6
10
08.
6
10
08.
6
10
08.
8
10
08.
6
10
08.
7
10
08.
8
10
08.
7
10
08.
8
10
08.
9

2
10
07.
2
10
07.
1
10
07.
1
10
07.
2
10
07.
2
10
07.
1
10
07.
2
10
07.
3
10
07.
3
10
07.
3
10
07.
4

10
05.
9
10
06
10
06
10
06
10
06.
1
10
06
10
06.
1
10
06.
2
10
06.
2
10
06.
2
10
06.
3

10
04.
8
10
04.
8
10
04.
8
10
04.
9
10
04.
9
10
04.
9
10
04.
9
10
05
10
05.
1
10
05.
1
10
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1

5
10
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4
10
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4
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5
10
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5
10
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6
10
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5
10
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6
10
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7
10
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7
10
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7
10
03.
8

9
10
02.
8
10
02.
8
10
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9
10
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9
10
03
10
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9
10
02.
9
10
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1
10
03.
1
10
03.
1
10
03.
2

8
10
01.
7
10
01.
7
10
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8
10
01.
8
10
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9
10
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8
10
02
10
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1
10
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9
10
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1
10
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2

2
10
00.
1
10
00.
1
10
00.
2
10
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2
10
00.
2
10
00.
2
10
00.
3
10
00.
5
10
00.
3
10
00.
5
10
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5

77

27.
4

10
3

0

78

26.
7

10
2

0

79

27.
1

10
3

0

80

27.
2

10
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0

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19

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99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 04.
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10
99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 05.
4.1 4.4 4.4 4.3 4.5 4
3.9 3
2.7 2
10
99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 05.
3.9 4.3 4.2 4
4.2 3.7 3.6 2.8 2.8 5
10
99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 05.
3.9 4.3 4.2 4.1 4.3 3.9 3.8 2.9 2.7 5
10
99 99 99 99 99 05.
99 99 99
3.8 4.1 4.0 99 4.2 3.7 3.6 2.7 2.4 26
9
6
05 35 75 4
5
75 35 9
20
20 20 20 20 20 20 20
75. 76. 76. 76. 76. 75. 75. 20 72. 20
60 29 16 01 55 57 33 73. 85 99.
54
3
37 8
4
5
2
9
4
5

10
11.
6
10
11.
5
10
11.
5
10
11.
3
10
11.
45
5
21
12.
46
8

10
08.
9
10
08.
9
10
08.
7
10
08.
6
10
08.
72
5
21
06.
76
6

10
07.
4
10
07.
4
10
07.
3
10
07.
2
10
07.
24
5
21
03.
67
5

10
06.
3
10
06.
3
10
06.
1
10
06.
1
10
06.
12
5
21
01.
33
6

10
05.
2
10
05.
2
10
05.
1
10
04.
9
10
04.
98
5
20
98.
95
5

10
03.
8
10
03.
8
10
03.
6
10
03.
6
10
03.
61
5
20
96.
09
4

10
03.
2
10
03.
2

10
02.
2
10
02.
1

10
03

10
02
10
01.
9
10
01.
94
5
20
92.
60
6

10
03
10
03.
01
20
94.
83

10
00.
6
10
00.
5
10
00.
3
10
00.
3
10
00.
31
5
20
89.
20
1

15
1.2
13
4







Av
g

psf

FP
S

0.7
11
78

0.7
09
09

0.7
02
56

0.6
97
57

0.6
92
57

0.6
91
42

0.7
30
21

0.7
87
05

0.8
28
92

0.1
56
97
8

0.6
25
53
7

0.4
48
86
7

0.3
12
14

0.2
18
42
8

0.1
30
86
2

0.0
64
03
5

0.0
13
16

0.1
02
65

0.2
01
74

Cp

2D Airfoil Calculations

P1

P2

P3

UpperSurface
P4
P5
P6

P7

P8

%ofChord

P9 P10 P11

59

P12

P13

LowerSurface
P14 P15 P16

P17

P18

P19

M
P
H

AOA=4

6

30

68
10
2

AOA=0

6

30

68

AOA=4

10
2

6

30
68

0.8

0.42
401

0.28
283

0.28
432

0.13
207

0.97
862

0.42
829

0.16
304

0.20
811

2.60
748

0.18
493

0.7

0.51
894

0.33
235

0.36
839

0.39
119

1.41
831

0.49
567

0.44
368

0.36
961

2.51
255

0.43
214

0.6
0.43
039
7

0.29
634

0.41
375

0.44
192

1.08
854

0.44
177

0.61
172

0.64
228

1.65
815

0.90
953

0.5

0.61
387

0.44
037

0.49
893

0.52
973

1.52
824

0.51
812

0.68
21

0.71
835

2.79
735

1.02
461

0.4

0.80
374

0.44
938

0.54
981

0.58
553

2.51
755

0.50
465

0.77
359

0.81
86

2.70
242

1.04
166

0.3
0.71
519
9

0.44
938

0.55
203

0.59
411

1.41
831

0.61
245

0.86
069

0.90
091

1.08
854

1.03
74

0.2
0.71
519
9

0.44
488

0.56
973

0.60
465

1.19
847

0.76
066

0.98
385

1.03
003

1.84
801

1.27
609

0.1
0.05
066
2

0.17
481

0.25
224

0.27
1

1.63
816

0.60
795

0.80
79

0.84
474

2.79
735

1.38
691

0.07
5

1
0.27
081
0.23
449
6
0.24
177
1

1.96
793

0.23
516

0.43
312

0.45
504

2.70
242

1.24
199

60

0
1.37
973
5
0.60
389
7
0.63
826
6
0.61
444
7
0.12
061
3
0.88
771
3
0.95
777
2
0.96
528
2
0.24
053
0.79
114
6
0.74

0.07
5

0.32
907

0.76
896

0.80
314

0.89
733

1.85
801

0.46
423

0.23
254

0.24
751

1.46
828
0.21
146
8
0.31

0.1

0.61
387

0.66
093

0.64
716

0.74
045

1.63
816

0.34
745

0.16
216

0.17
807

1.37
334
0.14
753
3
0.21

0.2

0.89
868

0.71
495

0.13
277

0.25
539

2.95
724

0.25
762

0.05
747

0.06
378

2.70
242
0.08
786
1
0.18

0.3

0.70
881

0.11
629

0.16
485

0.19
685

1.19
847

0.16
779

0.01
524

0.01
931

0.89
868
0.10
064
8
0.17

0.4

0.89
868

0.15
68

0.12
503

0.14
261

1.41
831

0.16
33
0.00
147
6

0.00
097

2.03
788
0.06
228
7
0.14

0.5

0.89
868

0.17
03

0.09
073

0.10
203

1.96
793

0.16
33
0.01
555
2
0.01
463
2

2.41
762
0.06
228
7
0.14

0.6

0.80
374

0.10
279

0.05
644

0.06
534

1.30
839

0.16
33
0.02
698
9
0.02
711
5

2.79
735
0.06
228
7
0.12

0.7

0.89
868

0.08
028

0.01
772

0.03
413

1.30
839

0.14
982
0.03
930
5
0.03
803
7

2.70
242
0.04
523
7
0.11

0.8

0.13
921

0.04
427
0.01
546
4
0.00
684
9

0.31
908

0.10
042
0.06
129
9
0.05
949
2

2.03
788
0.02
392
6
0.11

10
2

AOA=8

6

30

68
10
2

AOA=12

6

30

68

AOA=16

10
2

6
30

0.22
171

0.24
083

3.07
266

0.52
789

0.21
49

0.21
074

2.28
2

0.64
768

0.72
309

0.21
809

2.77
927

0.75

0.41
359

0.45
289

2.86
381

0.53
217

0.44
182

0.45
543

2.67
981

0.63
877

0.72
97

0.24
948

2.87
872

0.79

0.56
216

0.65
06

1.92
396

0.51
933

0.67
049

0.69
896

1.78
472

0.63
432

0.70
903

0.48
473

1.98
363

0.78

0.87
884

0.81
241

3.38
594

0.54
073

0.87
733

0.92
709

3.07
763

0.69
221

0.69
415

0.82
888

3.37
6

0.83

1.03
336

1.08
413

3.07
266

0.55
357

1.02
396

1.13
517

2.87
872

0.68
776

0.67
596

1.18
931

3.07
763

0.82

1.14
967

1.22
073

1.29
74

0.46
369

1.59
999

1.60
837

1.18
8

0.61
205

0.65
033

1.53
578

2.67
981

0.70

1.38
654

1.46
263

2.55
052

0.48
081

1.77
716

1.87
233

1.18
8

0.58
979

0.69
002

2.14
309

2.67
981

0.75

1.43
748

1.50
617

3.28
151

0.71
192

2.10
096

2.17
251

2.97
818

0.69
221

0.75
534

2.73
45

3.07
763

0.76

1.31
608

1.37
637

3.28
151

0.79
752

2.33
399

2.40
833

3.07
763

0.96
385

0.95
046

3.30
111

4.37
054

0.95

61

784
7
0.74
619
8

0.25
313
0.81
596
9

0.32
138

0.34
445
0.20
436
4
0.59
921
3
0.28
480
2

1.83
885

1.78
472
0.11
116

740
3
0.31
079
3

1.71
511
0.17
827
8
0.68
056
5
0.68
980
1
0.30
381
9

552
3
0.21
432
7

2.44
61
0.07
556
3
0.51
037
5
0.51
601
3

0.98
909

0.41
218
0.57
666
9
0.86
551
8

1.58
582
0.60
155

0.20
288
0.42
04
0.68
530
4

0.98
909
0.40
890

750
6
0.18
772
1

3.07
266
0.05
416
4
0.38
993
2
0.39
463
1

1.88
418
0.10
936
3
0.30
464
6
0.51
865
4

2.97
818
0.21
624

816
7
0.16
474
4

1.50
625
0.04
132
4
0.32
796
6
0.32
873
8

0.98
909
0.10
936
3
0.23
271
2
0.42
331
6

1.38
691
0.19
435

930
1
0.14
418
5

2.23
724

0.02
715
0.27
909
0.27
671
7

1.18
8
0.01
139
3
0.16
408
7
0.34
619
2

2.38
145
0.05
424

081
1
0.13
289
8

3.17
709

0.06
567
0.24
243
4
0.24
049
5

0.98
909

0.05
986
0.10
620
9
0.29
154
6

2.97
818

0.01

807
6
0.12
080
4

3.17
709

0.11
275
0.21
101
4
0.20
851
1

1.08
854

0.06
876
0.04
915
9
0.24
038
9

2.58
036

0.05

279
4
0.11
072
6

3.17
709

0.16
839
0.17
348
5

364
3
0.10
532
5

2.34
167

0.16
411
0.14
555
6

0.17
306

2.97
818

0.16
228

0.03
27

0.14
493

2.18
254

0.21
572

0.11
29
0.11
985
9

2.18
254

0.22

0.18
148

2.48
091

0.15

14 956 205 897 583

0.70 0.70 0.69 0.70 0.70


68 744 744 855 477 299

10 0.71 0.70 0.70 0.69 0.69


2 178 909 256 757 257

761

0.70
033

0.69
142

578

0.72
431

0.73
021

453

0.74
119

0.78
705

281

0.78
65

0.82
892

5
0.16
849
1
0.15
697
8

7
3
0.61 0.44
889 121
9
2
0.62 0.44
553 886
7
7

9
0.30
352
3
0.31
214

6
0.21
735
1
0.21
842
8

4
0.12
673
8
0.13
086
2

143
0.06
277
6
0.06
403
5

084

0.01
54

0.01
316

ForV=6
MPH
%ofChord


LowerSurface

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

P9

P1
0

P1
1

P1
2

0.5

0.4

0.3 0.2

0.1

0.0
75

0

0.0
75

0
1.3
79
73
5
0.1
20
61
3
0.2

0.2
62
5

0.3
29
07

1.8
58
01

1.7
5 1.4

0.6 0.8
13 03
87 74

1.5 2.5
28 17
24 55

1.0
5
0.7
15
19
9

1.4
18
31

0.7
0.7
15
19
9

1.1
98
47

0.3
5
0.0
50
66
2

1.6
38
16

0.2
62
5

1.9
67
93

62

P1
3

P1
4

P1
5

0.1 0.2

0.3

0.3
5

0.6
13
87

1.6
38
16

1.0
5

0.7
08
81

1.1
98
47

1.4

0.8
98
68

1.4
18
31

0.7

0.8
98
68

2.9
57
24

P1
6

P1
7

P1
8

P1
9

0.4 0.5

0.6

0.7 0.8

1.7
5

0.8
98
68

1.9
67
93

2.1

0.8
03
74

1.3
08
39

2.4
5

0.8
98
68

1.3
08
39

2.8

0.1
39
21

0.3
19
08

Cp

AngleofAttack(deg)

UpperSurface
Airfo
il
Stati
on P1 P2 P3
%of
Chor
d 0.8 0.7 0.6
Dista
nce
from
LE
2.4
(in) 2.8 5 2.1
0.4

0.4 0.5 30
24 18 39
7
4 01 94

0.9 1.4 1.0


78 18 88
0 62 31 54
4

154

0.10
601

0.10
265

598

0.20
018

0.20
174

8

12

16

2.6
07
48

3.0
72
66

2.2
82

2.7
79
27

2.5
12
55

2.8
63
81

2.6
79
81

2.8
78
72

1.6
58
15

1.9
23
96

1.7
84
72

1.9
83
63

2.7
97
35

3.3
85
94

3.0
77
63

3.3
76

2.7
02
42

3.0
72
66

2.8
78
72

3.0
77
63

1.0
88
54

1.2
97
4

1.8
48
01

2.5
50
52

1.1
88

2.6
79
81

1.1
88

2.6
79
81

2.7
97
35

3.2
81
51

2.9
78
18

3.0
77
63

2.7
02
42

3.2
81
51

3.0
77
63

4.3
70
54

40
53

0.2
53
13
0.2
04
36
4

1.7
84
72

1.1
88

2.3
81
45

2.4
17
62

3.1
77
09

0.9
89
09

2.9
78
18

2.7
97
35

3.1
77
09

1.0
88
54

2.5
80
36

2.7
02
42

3.1
77
09

2.9
78
18

2.4
80
91

2.0
37
88

2.3
41
67

2.1
82
54

2.1
82
54

14
15

0.0
80
37

0.1
30
84

0.1
46
83

0.1
87

15
16

0.0
89
87

0.1
69
31

0.2
22
77

0.2
70

16
17

0.0
85
12

0.1
63
82

0.2
60
75

0.3
17

17
18

0.0
85
12

0.1
30
84

0.2
74
99

0.3
17

18 Cl
19 lower

0.0 0.5
51 20
89 77

0.0 1.2
81 22
37 59

0.2 1.6
37 07
01 76

0.2 1.9
75 99

1.4
68
28

1.7
15
11
0.3
03
81
9

1.5
85
82

1.3
73
34

2.4
46
1

0.9
89
09

0.9
89
09

2.7
02
42

3.0
72
66

1.8
84
18

2.9
78
18

0.8
98
68

1.5
06
25

0.9
89
09

1.3
86
91

2.0
37
88

2.2
37
24

10
11

11
12

0.0
11
79

0.0
43
7

0.0
35
52

0.0
52

12 13
13 14

0.0 0.0
75 80
63 37

0.2 0.2
29 07
77 79

0.2 0.1
03 80
79 05

0.2 0.2
75 28

AngleofAttack(deg)

Cl

4

0

4

8

21 32 43


0.0 0.0 0.0
47 04 09
14 42 17
4
7
7
0.1 0.1 0.1
19 25 30
84 34 83
9
3
7
0.2 0.2 0.2
56 08 22
00 53 77
5
5
2
0.2 0.2 0.2
96 39 65
82 38 49

54 65 76 87 98

0.0 0.0
70 04 0.0 0.0 0.0
88 42 71 38 13
7 52 29 13
1
0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0
02 96 30 41 45
28 79 83 83 07
6
1
9
3
9
0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0
74 89 46 32 68
98 54 82 26 74
7
8
8
8
8
0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.0
22 18 92 91 82
93 50 39 60 03

10
9

0.0
89
24
0.0
69
27
4
0.0
92
32
1
0.1
32
54

uppe
r

0.0
76
13
1.1
62
13
2
1.6
92
01
2
2.0
41
72

63

0.0
39
4

0.0
65
15

0.0
46
04

0.0
73

Cl
total

0.5
96
9

0.0
60
46
0.0
84
25
4
0.0
41
77

0.4
44
64

2.3
84
72

3.2
99
77

4.0
41

12

3
0.2
48
09
1

16

0.2
82
9

8
0.2
23
22
7
0.2
43
11
8

5
0.2 0.2
43 97
11 81
8
8
0.2 0.3
67 22
98 68
1
1

3
0.2
03
33
6
0.2
87
87
2

6
0.1
18
8
0.2
67
98
1

2
0.2
08
30
9
0.2
87
87
2

8
0.0
75
69
8
0.0
93
10
2

9
0.1
07
74
8
0.2
30
82
2

4
1.7
26
14
3
2.2
84
33
1

81
0.0
19
05
7

0.1
26
4

02

0.0
08
57

0.0
32
19

94

0.1
43
66

0.1
98
36

95

0.1
43
66

0.2
18
25

17

0.1
08
85

0.1
88
42

72

0.1
08
85

0.2
67
98

71

0.1
03
88

0.2
77
93

71

0.2
03
34

0.2
53
06

94

0.2
58
04

0.2
33
17

P1
7

P1
8

P1
9

0.6

0.7 0.8

2.1

0.1
02
79

0.1
63
3

2.4
5

0.0
80
28

0.1
49
82

95

1.0
59
8

1.7
95
76

ForV=
30MPH
%ofChord


Airfo
il
Stati
on P1 P2 P3
%of
Chor
d 0.8 0.7 0.6
Dista
nce
from
LE
2.4
(in) 2.8 5 2.1

0.2 0.3 0.2


82 32 96
4 83 35 34

0.4 0.4 0.4


28 95 41
0 29 67 77

LowerSurface

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

P9

P1
0

0.5

0.4

0.3 0.2

0.1

0.0
75

0

0.0
75

0.1 0.2

1.0
5

0.4
49
38

0.6
12
45

0.3
5

0.1
74
81

0.6
07
95

0
0.6
03
89
7
0.8
87
71
3

0.2
62
5

0.7
68
96

0.4
64
23

0.3
5

0.6
60
93

0.3
47
45

1.7
5 1.4

0.4 0.4
40 49
37 38

0.5 0.5
18 04
12 65

0.7

0.4
44
88

0.7
60
66

0.2
62
5
0.2
70
81

0.2
35
16

64

P1
1

P1
2

P1
3

P1
4

P1
5

P1
6

0.3

0.4 0.5

1.0
0.7 5

0.7 0.1
14 16
95 29

0.2 0.1
57 67
62 79

1.7
1.4 5

0.1 0.1
56 70
3
8

0.1 0.1
63 63
3
3

2.8

0.0
44
27

0.1
00
42

Cp

AngleofAttack(deg)

UpperSurface

1
0.6
66
34
5
0.4
88
57

68

2.7
85
94

4.0
80
09

4

8

12

16

0.1
84
93

0.5
27
89

0.6
47
68

0.7
51
4

0.4
32
14

0.5
32
17

0.6
38
77

0.7
99
56

0.9
09
53

0.5
19
33

0.6
34
32

0.7
82
05

1.0
24
61

0.5
40
73

0.6
92
21

0.8
38
97

1.0
41
66

0.5
53
57

0.6
87
76

0.8
25
83

1.0
37
4

0.4
63
69

0.6
12
05

0.7
07
61

1.2
76
09

0.4
80
81

0.5
89
79

0.7
55
78

1.3
86
91

0.7
11
92

0.6
92
21

0.7
64
53

1.2
41
99

0.7
97
52

0.9
63
85

0.9
52
81

0.7
91
14
6
0.8
15
96
9
0.5
99
21
3
0.1
11
16
5

0.2
02
88
0.4
08
90
3

0.0
87
86
1
0.0
54
16
4
0.1
09
36
3
0.2
16
24
9

0.1
00
64
8
0.0
41
32
4
0.1
09
36
3
0.1
94
35
6

0.0
62
28
7

0.0
27
15
0.0
11
39
3
0.0
54
24
4

0.0
62
28
7

0.0
65
67

0.0
59
86

0.0
11
43

0.0
62
28
7

0.1
12
75

0.0
68
76

0.0
50
84

0.0
45
23
7

0.1
68
39

0.1
62
28

0.1
51
54

0.0
23
92
6

0.1
64
11

0.2
15
72

0.2
25
98

11
12

0.0
17
87

0.0
10
15
0.0
04
48
8
0.0
03

12 13
13 14

0.0 0.0
68 41
79 56

0.0 0.0
30 21
25 27
0.0
0.0 09
11 42
5
77
0.0 0.0
06 04

14
15

0.0
13
65

0.0
16
55
0.0
08
14
7
0.0
00

15
16

0.0
16
36

0.0
16
33
0.0
06
22
9

0.0

16
17

0.0
13
65

0.0
16
33
0.0
06
22
9

0.0

17
18

0.0
09
15

0.0
15
66
0.0
05
37
6

0.0

18 Cl
19 lower

0.0 0.1
06 93
23 46

0.0 0.1
12 23
51 17
0.0 0.0
03 92
45 71
8
9
0.0
0.0 08

0.2
11
46
8
0.1
78
27
8

0.1
47
53
3
0.0
75
56
3

0.4
12
18
0.6
01
55
7

10
11

0.0
06
19
0.0
15
88
1
0.0
37
59
8
0.0
37

AngleofAttack(deg)

Cl

4

0

4
8

21 32 43


0.0 0.0 0.0
30 31 36
75 43 83
6
4
9
0.0 0.0 0.0
46 46 47
19 87 99
5
2
8
0.0 0.0 0.0
30 67 96
85 08 70
7
3
4
0.0 0.0 0.0
53 52 53

10
54 65 76 87 98 9

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


44 44 44 30 0.0 0.0
48 93 71 98 01 32
8
2
4
3
8
8

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


51 55 68 68 10 0.0
13 85 65 43 53 24
9 47
1
5
5
9
0.0 0.0
0.1 0.1 0.1
03 03 15 0.1 32 16
31 95 67 33 86 90
7
1
4 15
3
3
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

54 50 47 59 18 0.0

uppe
r
0.2
30
14
9
0.3
71
21
2
0.7
00
50
1
0.3
89

65

Cl
total

0.0
36
68
5
0.2
48
04
3
0.7
93
22
0.3
97

0.4
23
61

0.4
94
38

0.6
07
78

0.3

12

16

00
3
0.0
64
32
2
0.0
77
54
8

57
5
0.0
63
65
5
0.0
79
08
1

00 71
3
5
0.0 0.0
66 68
32 99
8
6
0.0
81 0.0
05 83
1 24

86
3
0.0
64
99
0.0
76
67
2

22
5
0.0
60
09
2
0.0
73
17

63
7
0.0
64
1
0.0
76
01
6

86
8
0.0
20
70
1
0.0
21
46
7

00
69
0.0
13
67
4
0.0
31
56
2

19
7
0.4
86
85
9
0.5
99
80
6

28
4
0.0
37
92
7
0.0
26
72
7

17
3
0.0
07
68
8
0.0
12
63
1

48
6
0.0
15
61
2
0.0
31
25
8

77
4
0.0
10
93
6

70
9
0.0
06
03
8

0.0
20
53

0.0
12
43

04
64

0.0
02
42
0.0
02
14
1

08
92

0.0
06
43

0.0
03
11

14
06

0.0
11
55

0.0
10
12

16
62

0.0
18
9

0.0
18
88

P1
7

P1
8

P1
9

0.6

0.7 0.8

2.1

0.0
56
44
0.0
26
98

2.4
5

0.0
17
72
0.0
39
30

18
3
0.0
38
89
5
0.0
73
60
7

ForV=
68MPH
%ofChord


Airfo
il
Stati
on P1 P2 P3
%of
Chor
d 0.8 0.7 0.6
Dista
nce
from
LE
2.4
(in) 2.8 5 2.1

0.2 0.3 0.4


84 68 13
4 32 39 75

0.1 0.4 0.6


0 63 43 11

LowerSurface

P4

P5

P6

P7

P8

P9

P1
0

0.5

0.4

0.3 0.2

0.1

0.0
75

0

0.0
75

0.1 0.2

1.0
5

0.5
52
03

0.8
60

0.3
5

0.2
52
24

0.8
07

0.2
62
5
0.2
34
49
6

0.4
33

0
0.6
38
26
6
0.9
57
77

0.2
62
5

0.8
03
14

0.2
32

0.3
5

0.6
47
16

0.1
62

1.7
5 1.4

0.4 0.5
98 49
93 81

0.6 0.7
82 73

0.7

0.5
69
73

0.9
83

66

P1
1

P1
2

P1
3

P1
4

P1
5

P1
6

0.3

0.4 0.5

1.0
0.7 5

0.1 0.1
32 64
77 85

0.0 0.0
57 15

1.7
1.4 5

0.1 0.0
25 90
03 73
0.0 0.0
01 15
47 55

2.8
0.0
15
46
4
0.0
61
29

Cp

AngleofAttack(deg)

UpperSurface

38
0.5
25
75
4
0.6
73
41
3

81
01

0.4
47
96

0.5
26
2

4

8

12

16

04

0.2
21
71

0.2
14
9

0.7
23
09

0.7
07
44

68

0.4
13
59

0.4
41
82

0.7
29
7

0.7
07
44

72

0.5
62
16

0.6
70
49

0.7
09
03

0.6
98
55

1

0.8
78
84

0.8
77
33

0.6
94
15

0.7
04
77

59

1.0
33
36

1.0
23
96

0.6
75
96

0.7
02
99

69

1.1
49
67

1.5
99
99

0.6
50
33

0.7
00
33

85

1.3
86
54

1.7
77
16

0.6
90
02

0.7
24
31

1.4
37
48

2.1
00
96

0.7
55
34

0.7
41
19

12

1.3
16
08

2.3
33
99

0.9
50
46

0.7
86
5

2
0.7
47
84
7

0.3
21
38
0.2
84
80
2
0.1
68
49
1

54
0.3
17
40
3
0.6
80
56
5
0.5
76
66
9
0.6
18
89
2

16
0.2
15
52
3
0.5
10
37
5

10
11

0.0
06
18
0.0
27
19
6
0.0
39
94
7
0.0

11
12

0.0
18
13

0.0
04
93
0.0
06
66
2
0.0

0.4
20
4
0.4
41
21
9

47
0.1
87
50
6
0.3
89
93
2
0.3
04
64
6
0.3
03
52
3

24
0.1
78
16
7
0.3
27
96
6
0.2
32
71
2
0.2
17
35
1

6
0.1
49
30
1
0.2
79
09
0.1
64
08
7
0.1
26
73
8

2
0.1
40
81
1
0.2
42
43
4
0.1
06
20
9
0.0
62
77
6

9
0.1
28
07
6
0.2
11
01
4
0.0
49
15
9

0.0
15
4

5
0.1
12
79
4
0.1
73
48
5

0.0
32
7

0.1
06
01

9
0.1
13
64
3
0.1
45
55
6

0.1
12
9

0.2
00
18

13
14

0.0
0.0 14
39 88

0.0 0.0
10 03
98 64
0.0 0.0
20 18
15 28
4
1
0.0 0.0

14
15

0.0
14
49

0.0
00
69
0.0
16
37
3
0.0

15
16

0.0
10
79
0.0
00
85
1
0.0
14
50
6
0.0

16
17

0.0
07
36
0.0
02
12
7
0.0
13
44
4
0.0

17
18

0.0
03
71
0.0
03
31
5
0.0
12
04
3
0.0

18 Cl
19 lower

0.0 0.1
00 14
11 65
0.0
0.0 18
05 28
03
1
0.0 0.1
11 52
32 73
2
2
0.0 0.2

AngleofAttack(deg)

Cl

4

0

4
8

21 32 43


0.0 0.0 0.0
32 39 45
63 10 63
4
7
6
0.0
0.0
30 0.0 64
33 52 69
1
6 77
0.0 0.0
31 48 0.0
76 78 72
7 05
5
0.0 0.0 0.0

54 65 76 87 98


0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
52 55 56 41 00
43 09 08 09 22
2
8
8
2
7
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
72 81 92 89 15
78 71 22 58 51
3
8
7
4
4
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0
0.0 09 26 41 34
95 15 81 20 41
9
1
1
1
61
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0

10
9

0.0
32
73

0.0
19
67
0.0
21
30
9
0.0

uppe
r

0.2
89
58
5
0.4
79
94
8
0.6
81
10
4
0.9

67

12
13

Cl
total

0.1
74
93
5
0.4
98
22
8
0.8
33
83
6
1.1

0.4
04
24

0.4
61
67

0.5
28
37

32
83
6

12

16

0.0
72
64
0.0
70
74
4

55
61
5
0.0
71
93
7
0.0
70
29
9

77 95
39 06
5
1
0.0 0.0
70 68
15 50
6
9
0.0 0.0
70 70
16 38
8
6

31
19
7
0.0
66
31
5
0.0
70
16
6

68
85
7
0.0
67
01
7
0.0
71
23
2

93
90
6
0.0
72
26
8
0.0
73
27
5

55
43
7
0.0
21
32
3
0.0
19
09
6

99
57
6
0.0
24
96
2
0.0
23
17
5

09
88

13
47

0.5
35
12
6
0.5
38
54
2

0.0
32
30
5
0.0
29
52
7

14
88
7
0.0
12
46
3
0.0
13
25
1

45
01
5
0.0
36
25
2
0.0
37
23
7

35
89
5
0.0
26
86
8
0.0
26
04
4

30
35
3
0.0
19
84
0.0
17
20
4

26
07
6
0.0
13
51
5
0.0
09
47
6

22
67
2
0.0
07
76
8
0.0
02
36
9

19
22
5
0.0
00
82
3

0.0
06
07

15
95
2

0.0
07
28

0.0
15
31

P1
7

P1
8

P1
9

23
54
5
0.1
42
55
5
0.1
13
72
8

ForV=
102
MPH
%ofChord


P4

0.5

P5

0.4

1.7
5 1.4

0.5 0.5
29 85
73 53

P6

P7

P8

P9

0.3 0.2

0.1

0.0
75

1.0
5

0.5
94
11

0.3
5

0.7

0.6
04
65

0.2
71

0.2
62
5
0.2
41
77
1

LowerSurface

P1
0

P1
1

P1
2

0

0.0
75

0
0.6
14
44
7
0.9

0.2
62
5

0.8
97
33

68

P1
3

P1
4

P1
5

0.1 0.2

0.3

0.4 0.5

0.6

0.7 0.8

0.3
5

0.7
40
45

1.0
5

0.1
96
85

1.4

0.1
42
61

1.7
5

0.1
02
03
0.0

2.1

0.0
65
34
0.0

2.4
5

0.0
34
13
0.0

0.7

0.2
55
39

P1
6

2.8
0.0
06
84
9
0.0

Cp

(deg)

UpperSurface
Airfo
il
Stati
on P1 P2 P3
%of
Chor
d 0.8 0.7 0.6
Dista
nce
from
LE
2.4
(in) 2.8 5 2.1

0.1 0.3 0.4


32 91 41
4 07 19 92
0

33
42
5
0.6
77
68
1
0.6
52
27

0.6
86
34

0.3
92
57

0.4
24
81

4

8

12

16

0.2
08
11

0.2
40
83

0.2
10
74

0.2
18
09

0.7
11
78

0.3
69
61

0.4
52
89

0.4
55
43

0.2
49
48

0.7
09
09

0.6
42
28

0.6
50
6

0.6
98
96

0.4
84
73

0.7
02
56

0.7
18
35

0.8
12
41

0.9
27
09

0.8
28
88

0.6
97
57

0.8
18
6

1.0
84
13

1.1
35
17

1.1
89
31

0.6
92
57

0.9
00
91

1.2
20
73

1.6
08
37

1.5
35
78

0.6
91
42

1.0
30
03

1.4
62
63

1.8
72
33

2.1
43
09

0.7
30
21

0.8
44
74

1.5
06
17

2.1
72
51

2.7
34
5

0.7
87
05

0.4
55
04

1.3
76
37

2.4
08
33

3.3
01
11

0.8
28
92

65
28
2
0.7
46
19
8

0.3
44
45

1.8
38
85
0.1
56
97
8

0.2
47
51
0.3
10
79
3
0.6
89
80
1
0.8
65
51
8
0.6
25
53
7

0.1
78
07
0.2
14
32
7
0.5
16
01
3
0.6
85
30
4
0.4
48
86
7

0.0
63
78
0.1
87
72
1
0.3
94
63
1
0.5
18
65
4

0.0
19
31
0.1
64
74
4
0.3
28
73
8
0.4
23
31
6
0.2
18
42
8

0.0
00
97
0.1
44
18
5
0.2
76
71
7
0.3
46
19
2
0.1
30
86
2

14
63
2
0.1
32
89
8
0.2
40
49
5
0.2
91
54
6
0.0
64
03
5

27
11
5
0.1
20
80
4
0.2
08
51
1
0.2
40
38
9

0.0
13
16

38
03
7
0.1
10
72
6

59
49
2
0.1
05
32
5

0.1
73
06
0.1
81
48

0.1
02
65

0.1
44
93
0.1
19
85
9

0.2
01
74

10
11

0.0
10
61
0.0
26
91
6
0.0
39
63

11
12

0.0
20
47

0.0
05
32
0.0
06
56

12 13
13 14

0.0 0.0
49 22
79 61

0.0 0.0
12 04
09 15
0.0 0.0
20 17
10 62

14
15

0.0
16
97

0.0
01
01
0.0
15
44

15
16

0.0
12
23
0.0
00
68
3
0.0
13
85

16
17

0.0
08
37
0.0
02
08
7
0.0
12
68

17
18

0.0
04
97
0.0
03
25
8
0.0
11
57

18 Cl
19 lower

0.0 0.1
01 47
36
4
0.0 0.0
04 15
87 24
6
1
0.0 0.1
10 48
80 29

0.3
12
14

AngleofAttack(deg)

Cl
21 32 43
0.0 0.0 0.0
26 41 48
16 65 58
2
6
3
4
0.0 0.0 0.0
28 50 68
88 59 03
1
4
6
0
0.0 0.0 0.0
34 55 73
4 68 17 15

10
54 65 76 87 98 9

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


55 58 59 43 00 0.0
76 98 93 78 36 32
5 11
2
8
2
3

0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


76 85 96 93 16 0.0
84 97 54 73 24 19
7 13
8
7
6
7
0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0
94 15 34 48 36 23
82 24 16 44 03 63

uppe
r
0.3
03
12
4
0.4
97
73
3
0.7
15
35

69

Cl
total

0.1
55
72
9
0.5
12
97
4
0.8
63
64

0.4
50
52

0.4
82
49

0.5
67

6
0.0
33
30
8
0.0
23
37
9
0.0
71
04
3

8

12

16

4
0.0
57
72
0.0
36
71
1
0.0
70
58
2

7
0.0 0.1
81 03
30 11
3
3
0.0 0.1
65 00
68 90
9
1
0.0 0.0
70 69
00 50
7
6

3
0.1
37
17
7
0.1
36
25
5
0.0
69
2

8
0.1
74
03
5
0.1
83
94
3
0.0
71
08
2

2
0.2
02
24
2
0.2
43
87
9
0.0
75
86
3

0.0
57
26
0.0
75
44
5
0.0
20
2

1
0.1
03
22
9
0.1
92
74
8
0.0
25
19
8

2
0.9
49
38
6
1.0
58
95
0.5
42
68

7
0.0
12
95
1

0.0
36
5
0.0
29
34
4

4
0.0
15
07
3
0.0
19
38
5

2
0.0
45
53
2
0.0
60
19
8

0.0
13
43

0.0
38
05

4
0
4
8
12
16

C l
0.597
0.060
0.084
0.042
0.666
0.489

q
0.104
0.104
0.104
0.104
0.104
0.104

c(ft)
0.292
0.292
0.292
0.292
0.292
0.292

L'(lbf)
0.01813
0.00184
0.00256
0.001269
0.020245
0.014844

AngleofAttack
(deg)

4
0.0
25
86
1
0.0
31
88
7
0.0
09
74
5

5
0.0
22
45
0.0
26
59
7
0.0
02
54
4

7
0.0
19
07
9
0.0
21
09
3

0.0
05
79

3
0.0
15
9
0.0
15
06
7

0.0
15
22

2
0.2
23
28
6
0.2
23
30
1
0.1
16
09
6

0.037
0.248
0.793
0.397
0.526
0.673

2.378
2.378
2.378
2.378
2.378
2.378

0.292
0.292
0.292
0.292
0.292
0.292

0.025438
0.172002
0.550049
0.275558
0.364578
0.46697

4
0
4
8
12
16

6MPH 30MPH 68MPH 102MPH


0.11
2.32
9.44
26.76
0.10
2.33
11.87
26.77
0.11
2.45
12.30
27.27
0.10
2.44
11.97
27.04
0.11
2.35
12.63
26.95
0.11
2.39
11.76
27.19
0.10
2.38
11.66
26.99 Avg

V=30MPH
4
0
4
8
12
16

6
0.0
30
27
3
0.0
38
47
5
0.0
17
46
5

DynamicPressure
AngleofAttack
(deg)

AngleofAttack
(deg)

V=6MPH

3
0.0
36
16
8
0.0
47
09
9
0.0
26
52
8

1inch= 0.083333 ft

70

4
1.1
72
67
2
1.2
82
25
1
0.6
58
77
6

06

0.7
26
1

0.8
35
65

0.4
26
58

AngleofAttack
(deg)

V=68MPH
4
0
4
8
12
16

0.175
0.498
0.834
1.133
0.678
0.652

11.660
11.660
11.660
11.660
11.660
11.660

0.292
0.292
0.292
0.292
0.292
0.292

0.594924
1.694392
2.835738
3.854591
2.30468
2.218262

0.156
0.513
0.864
1.173
1.282
0.659

26.995
26.995
26.995
26.995
26.995
26.995

0.292
0.292
0.292
0.292
0.292
0.292

1.226124
4.03888
6.799867
9.232991
10.09576
5.186853

AngleofAttack
(deg)

V=102MPH
4
0
4
8
12
16

Appendix C
3D Wing Data
q
[psf]

V_ref
[mph]
0.1
0.1

Alpha
[deg]
6
5

NF/SF
AF/AF2 PM/YM
[lbf]
[lbf]
[inlbf]
4
0.03
0.01
0.01
4
0.02
0
0.02

Mc/4
[inlbf]
0.052
0.021

71

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

5
7
5
6
6
6
6
5
6
6
5
6
6
6
5
6
5
6
5.7

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

0.04
0.05
0
0.05
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.03
0
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.03
0.0295

0.02
0.01
0
0.02
0
0.01
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0.01
0.01
0.01
0
0.003

0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.05
0.04
0.01
0.01
0.03
0
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.03
0
0.015

2.3
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.5
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.4
2.5

30
31
30
30
31
30
31
31
31
31
31

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

0.13
0.08
0
0.02
0.12
0.08
0.04
0.04
0.11
0.07
0.14

0.02
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03

0.07
0.06
0.08
0.01
0.08
0.06
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.02
0.06

0.073
0.114
0.010
0.094
0.052
0.021
0.021
0.012
0.010
0.094
0.073
0.032
0.041
0.082
0.032
0.042
0.053
0.062
0.047639 Avg.
0.199
0.106
0.080
0.051
0.169
0.106
0.093
0.063
0.178
0.125
0.230

72

2.4
2.5
2.3
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.415

31
31
30
31
31
31
31
30
31
30.7

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

0.11
0.12
0.1
0.05
0.05
0.08
0.14
0.11
0.04
0.0815

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.027

0.04
0.06
0.05
0.03
0.02
0.07
0.08
0.03
0.01
0.0295

12.1
12.2
12.1
12.1
11.9
12.1
11.9
12.1
12
12
12.1
12.3
11.9
12.2
12
11.9
12.1
11.9
12.2
11.9

69
69
69
69
68
69
68
69
69
69
69
69
68
69
69
68
69
68
69
68

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

0.39
0.46
0.35
0.39
0.22
0.51
0.41
0.33
0.47
0.4
0.43
0.42
0.39
0.49
0.51
0.5
0.43
0.35
0.44
0.36

0.14
0.17
0.13
0.14
0.16
0.15
0.1
0.14
0.12
0.13
0.16
0.17
0.09
0.08
0.13
0.12
0.11
0.15
0.13
0.11

0.05
0.17
0.02
0.04
0.12
0.16
0.01
0.05
0.12
0.03
0.11
0.11
0.05
0.13
0.15
0.17
0.1
0.03
0.1
0.06

0.188
0.189
0.157
0.134
0.124
0.096
0.210
0.198
0.093
0.13941 Avg.
0.758
0.783
0.080
0.768
0.576
0.897
0.840
0.734
0.854
0.799
0.781
0.760
0.758
0.886
0.907
0.866
0.791
0.695
0.812
0.686

73

12.05
26.9
26.8
27.5
26.9
26.8
26.7
26.3
27.3
26.2
26.3
27.2
26.1
26.7
26.5
26.9
26.3
26.3
26.9
26.9
27.3
26.74
q
[psf]
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

68.7

4

0.4125

0.1315

0.072

0.75164 Avg.

103
4
1
0.14
0.13
102
4
0.91
0.46
0.22
104
4
1.04
0.08
0.28
103
4
0.85
0.54
0.23
102
4
1.06
0.13
0.29
102
4
1.02
0.14
0.19
101
4
1.05
0.21
0.32
103
4
1.05
0.25
0.32
101
4
0.97
0.27
0.26
101
4
0.95
0.39
0.22
103
4
0.95
0.51
0.3
101
4
1.02
0.25
0.26
102
4
0.99
0.25
0.31
102
4
1.04
0.31
0.27
103
4
0.93
0.28
0.34
101
4
1.02
0.28
0.32
101
4
1.03
0.21
0.33
103
4
0.99
0.29
0.33
103
4
0.97
0.42
0.21
103
4
0.95
0.37
0.2
102.2
4 0.9895
0.289 0.2665
V_ref
Alpha
NF/SF
AF/AF2 PM/YM
[mph]
[deg]
[lbf]
[lbf]
[inlbf]
6
0
0
0.03
0.01
5
0
0.01
0
0.01
6
0
0.01
0.01
0.02
7
0
0.01
0.01
0.02
6
0
0.02
0.01
0.01
6
0
0
0.01
0.01

1.943
1.666
0.080
1.532
1.907
1.924
1.856
1.856
1.750
1.749
1.669
1.854
1.742
1.885
1.587
1.794
1.805
1.722
1.800
1.769
1.69447 Avg.
Mc/4
[inlbf]
0.010
0.011
0.080
0.041
0.031
0.010

74

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

6
6
7
7
6
7
6
7
6
7
6
7
6
6
6.3

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.03
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.02
0
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0
0.0065

0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0
0.01
0.01
0.02
0
0.01
0
0.007

2.4
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.3
2.4
2.3
2.4
2.4

31
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
31
30
31
31

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0.23
0.2
0.19
0.24
0.23
0.23
0.2
0.2
0.22
0.25
0.27
0.21
0.19
0.23
0.28

0.04
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.04
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.01
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04

0
0.062
0.01
0.052
0.01
0.031
0.02
0.001
0.03
0.030
0
0.041
0
0.000
0.01
0.051
0.02
0.041
0.01
0.011
0.03
0.051
0
0.021
0.01
0.011
0.03
0.030
0.006 0.015435 Avg.
0.3
0.22
0.18
0.28
0.26
0.26
0.21
0.2
0.24
0.28
0.29
0.2
0.2
0.24
0.28

0.177
0.195
0.080
0.217
0.217
0.217
0.205
0.215
0.216
0.238
0.270
0.235
0.194
0.237
0.300

75

2.3
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.3
2.345

30
30
30
31
30
30.25

0
0
0
0
0
0

0.27
0.22
0.24
0.27
0.22
0.2295

0.02
0.01
0.03
0.05
0.01
0.0295

0.25
0.310
0.22
0.236
0.26
0.237
0.26
0.300
0.19
0.266
0.241 0.22795 Avg.

11.8
12
12.1
12.1
11.8
12.2
12
11.9
12.1
12.1
12.2
12
11.9
11.7
11.9
11.9
12.1
11.9
11.9
12.2
11.99

68
69
69
69
68
69
69
68
69
69
69
69
68
68
68
68
69
68
68
69
68.55

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1.14
1.11
1.22
1.16
1.12
1.15
1.14
1.16
1.15
1.15
1.11
1.15
1.18
1.15
1.16
1.16
1.13
1.14
1.15
1.15
1.149

0.16
0.13
0.11
0.14
0.12
0.12
0.13
0.12
0.14
0.13
0.14
0.17
0.13
0.11
0.12
0.17
0.15
0.16
0.1
0.12
0.1335

1.28
1.083
1.31
0.990
1.24
0.080
1.32
1.084
1.23
1.091
1.2
1.183
1.27
1.093
1.18
1.224
1.28
1.103
1.24
1.143
1.29
1.010
1.3
1.083
1.28
1.166
1.32
1.063
1.3
1.104
1.27
1.134
1.37
0.972
1.32
1.043
1.27
1.113
1.32
1.063
1.2795 1.04138 Avg.

27.2
27.1

103
103

0.1
0.1

2.72
2.98

0.35
0.23

3.21
3.36

2.427
2.816

76

26.9
26.6
27.1
26.9
27.1
26.5
27.6
27.4
27.3
27.5
26.5
26.1
26.9
27.1
26.9
27.6
27.1
26.5
26.995
q
[psf]
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

103
102
103
103
103
102
104
103
103
104
102
101
103
103
103
104
103
102
102.85
V_ref
[mph]
8
6
7
7
6
5
6
5
7
7

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
Alpha
[deg]
3.9
4
3.9
3.9
4
4
3.9
3.9
4
3.9

2.58
2.47
2.52
2.69
2.91
2.68
2.6
2.62
3.02
2.79
2.53
2.48
2.65
2.7
2.95
3
2.63
2.54
2.703
NF/SF
[lbf]
0
0.01
0.01
0
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.03
0.01
0.01

0.39
0.42
0.43
0.26
0.35
0.29
0.43
0.48
0.3
0.32
0.42
0.37
0.3
0.32
0.21
0.21
0.39
0.42
0.3445
AF/AF2
[lbf]
0.01
0.01
0
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0
0.02
0.01

2.98
0.080
3.03
2.089
3.05
2.173
3.18
2.395
3.45
2.581
3.2
2.354
3.09
2.299
3.21
2.220
3.31
2.949
3.36
2.422
2.99
2.253
3.01
2.130
2.98
2.512
3.24
2.356
3.47
2.644
3.41
2.808
3.07
2.381
3.12
2.144
3.186 2.30162 Avg.
PM/YM
Mc/4
[inlbf]
[inlbf]
0.02
0.020
0.02
0.041
0.01
0.080
0.03
0.030
0.02
0.041
0.03
0.009
0.01
0.031
0
0.062
0.01
0.011
0
0.021

77

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.11

6
6
6
6
7
7
6
8
8
7
6.55

3.9
4
4
4
3.9
4
3.9
4
3.9
4
3.95

0
0
0.02
0.02
0.02
0
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.005

0.01
0.01
0
0.01
0
0.01
0
0
0
0.02
0

2.3
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.4
2.3
2.4
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.3
2.4

30
30
31
30
30
31
30
31
30
30
30
31
31
30
31
31
31
30
31

4
4
4
4
4
3.9
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
3.9
4
4
4

0.34
0.27
0.42
0.36
0.36
0.45
0.39
0.37
0.32
0.37
0.3
0.39
0.36
0.35
0.38
0.29
0.35
0.37
0.41

0.01
0
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.02
0.03
0.03
0
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.01
0.03
0.04
0.01
0

0.01
0.010
0.01
0.010
0.01
0.031
0
0.041
0.01
0.031
0.02
0.020
0.02
0.001
0.02
0.001
0.04
0.019
0.03
0.009
0.009 0.013826 Avg.
0.43
0.45
0.53
0.41
0.46
0.54
0.48
0.47
0.46
0.48
0.43
0.45
0.46
0.46
0.48
0.42
0.5
0.47
0.5

0.275
0.110
0.080
0.336
0.286
0.393
0.328
0.297
0.203
0.287
0.192
0.358
0.286
0.265
0.308
0.181
0.225
0.297
0.350

78

2.5
2.375

32
30.55

4
3.99

0.39
0.362

0.03
0.0205

0.55
0.258
0.4715 0.26572 Avg.

11.7
11.8
11.7
11.8
11.8
11.7
11.9
11.5
11.8
11.7
11.6
11.8
12.1
12.1
12
11.7
11.9
12
11.8
11.8
11.81

68
68
68
68
68
68
68
67
68
68
67
68
69
69
69
68
68
68
68
68
68.05

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

1.95
1.78
1.68
1.79
1.87
1.94
1.77
1.78
1.72
1.89
1.79
1.76
1.96
1.88
1.87
1.8
1.73
1.81
1.87
1.85
1.8245

0
0.05
0.03
0.08
0.03
0.24
0.13
0.02
0.09
0.05
0.05
0.22
0.17
0.11
0.12
0.23
0.08
0.25
0.18
0.05
0.107

2.17
1.871
2.62
1.069
2.59
0.080
2.49
1.220
2.22
1.656
1.89
2.131
2.35
1.318
2.22
1.469
2.79
0.775
2.34
1.577
2.62
1.090
2.58
1.068
2.19
1.872
2.38
1.516
2.38
1.496
2.1
1.631
2.7
0.885
2.22
1.531
2.16
1.716
2.42
1.414
2.3715 1.36919 Avg.

27
26.2
26.7
26.7
26.6
26.8

103
101
102
102
102
102

4
4
4
4
4
4

4.41
4.33
3.96
4.37
3.94
4.02

0.05
0.06
0.19
0.19
0.1
0.27

5.83
5.41
5.69
4.61
6.24
6.15

3.310
3.564
0.080
4.447
1.926
2.181

79

26.7
26.8
26.7
26.5
26
26
25.8
26.2
26
26.6
26.2
26.6
26.6
26.3
26.45
q
[psf]
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

102
102
102
102
101
101
100
101
101
102
101
102
102
101
101.6
V_ref
[mph]
6
6
7
6
8
7
8
7
7
7
7
6
7
7

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4.1
4
4.005
Alpha
[deg]
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

4.23
4.27
4.38
3.99
4.16
4.29
4.1
3.97
4.18
4.14
4.25
4.28
4.02
4.55
4.192
NF/SF
[lbf]
0.05
0.03
0.04
0.03
0.04
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.03
0
0.03

0.56
0.05
0.27
0.06
0.26
0.16
0.07
0.42
0.12
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.1
0.41
0.1895
AF/AF2
[lbf]
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0
0.01
0.02
0
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0
0.02

4.98
3.787
5.41
3.440
6.28
2.798
6.44
1.829
4.43
4.192
6.12
2.771
5.96
2.537
5.24
2.988
6.01
2.653
5.08
3.500
5.54
3.268
5.54
3.330
5.93
2.401
4.98
4.450
5.5935 2.97257 Avg.
PM/YM
Mc/4
[inlbf]
[inlbf]
0.01
0.094
0.02
0.082
0.06
0.080
0.04
0.102
0.01
0.093
0
0.062
0.01
0.073
0.03
0.053
0.02
0.082
0.01
0.031
0
0.041
0
0.062
0
0.000
0.01
0.072

80

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.12

6
6
7
8
7
8
6.9

8
8
8
8
8
8
8

0.01
0.04
0.01
0.04
0.05
0.04
0.031

0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.03
0.011

2.4
2.5
2.4
2.5
2.4
2.3
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.2
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.6
2.4
2.42

31
32
31
31
31
30
31
31
31
31
31
31
30
30
31
31
31
31
32
31
30.95

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

0.47
0.5
0.48
0.48
0.47
0.47
0.49
0.47
0.46
0.49
0.48
0.49
0.46
0.46
0.47
0.49
0.5
0.43
0.51
0.49
0.478

0.02
0.03
0.04
0
0.02
0
0.01
0.01
0
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.02
0
0
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0.003

12

69

8

2.34

0.03

0.03
0.01
0
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.004

0.051
0.073
0.021
0.073
0.094
0.063
0.0651 Avg.

0.57
0.404
0.63
0.406
0.58
0.080
0.63
0.365
0.62
0.354
0.62
0.354
0.62
0.396
0.61
0.364
0.58
0.373
0.65
0.366
0.62
0.375
0.57
0.446
0.57
0.383
0.58
0.373
0.61
0.364
0.64
0.376
0.61
0.426
0.58
0.311
0.6
0.457
0.63
0.386
0.606 0.36792 Avg.
3.37

1.480

81

12.1
12.1
11.8
11.9
11.9
12.2
11.9
11.8
11.8
11.9
12
12
12
11.7
11.7
12.1
12.1
11.9
11.9
11.94

69
69
68
68
68
69
68
68
68
68
68
68
69
68
68
69
69
68
68
68.35

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

2.39
2.28
2.43
2.53
2.46
2.75
2.31
2.3
2.26
2.45
2.24
2.28
2.5
2.7
2.3
2.37
2.28
2.37
2.48
2.401

0.19
0.16
0.15
0.38
0.36
0.22
0.29
0.26
0.34
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.31
0.22
0.4
0.24
0.23
0.02
0.33
0.078

27.3
26.1
26.2
26.9
26.9
26.2
26.5
26
25.7
26.3

103
101
101
103
103
101
102
101
100
101

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8

5.53
6.03
5.49
6.17
6.21
5.44
5.97
5.05
4.64
5.84

0.01
0.06
0.07
0.22
0.01
0
0.02
0.49
0.51
0.5

3.04
1.913
3.38
0.080
2.99
2.046
2.94
2.303
2.84
2.258
2.65
3.049
3.42
1.367
3.37
1.397
3.09
1.594
3.14
1.938
3.27
1.372
3.38
1.345
2.92
2.261
2.6
2.996
3.19
1.577
3.3
1.612
3.59
1.135
3.25
1.662
2.92
2.220
3.1325 1.78031 Avg.
7.23
6.83
6.04
7.2
7.41
6.4
7.33
7.99
7.58
6.44

4.231
5.667
0.080
5.587
5.460
4.874
5.043
2.476
2.036
5.663

82

26.6
26.5
26.7
26.9
26.2
26.2
26.9
26.6
26.2
26.6
26.475
q
[psf]
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1

102
102
102
103
101
101
103
102
101
102
101.75
V_ref
[mph]
7
7
7
8
7
7
6
6
6
6
7
7
6
6
7
7
7
6

8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
Alpha
[deg]
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

5.7
5.16
4.89
6.35
5.79
5.5
5.88
5.23
5.23
5.41
5.5755
NF/SF
[lbf]
0.05
0.05
0.02
0.04
0.04
0.06
0.07
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.03

0.43
0.43
0.33
0.02
0.32
0.03
0.07
0.48
0.05
0.61
0.133
AF/AF2
[lbf]
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0
0
0
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.02

7.45
4.363
8.34
2.354
8.45
1.685
7.05
6.110
6.59
5.410
6.57
4.829
6.92
5.266
8.21
2.629
8.31
2.529
8.45
2.762
7.3395 3.95282 Avg.
PM/YM
Mc/4
[inlbf]
[inlbf]
0.04
0.064
0.03
0.074
0.01
0.080
0.02
0.063
0
0.083
0.03
0.094
0
0.145
0
0.083
0
0.062
0.02
0.042
0.02
0.063
0.04
0.043
0.02
0.063
0.03
0.053
0.02
0.063
0.01
0.052
0.02
0.042
0.03
0.032

83

0.1
0.1
0.105

7
7
6.7

12
12
12

0.02
0.04
0.039

0.01
0.01
0.01

0
0.041
0.03
0.053
0.0185 0.06476 Avg.

2.5
2.4
2.6
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.6
2.6
2.5
2.4
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.5
2.5
2.6
2.4
2.5

31
31
32
31
31
31
32
32
31
31
31
31
32
32
32
33
31
31
32
31
31.45

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

0.54
0.59
0.55
0.52
0.46
0.51
0.68
0.46
0.54
0.44
0.52
0.56
0.54
0.57
0.51
0.51
0.59
0.44
0.51
0.53
0.5285

0.06
0.06
0.01
0.02
0.08
0.01
0
0.07
0.06
0.02
0.03
0.05
0.04
0
0.04
0.07
0.01
0.05
0.08
0
0.036

0.62
0.499
0.58
0.643
0.66
0.080
0.61
0.468
0.55
0.403
0.67
0.387
0.66
0.749
0.59
0.363
0.71
0.409
0.55
0.362
0.58
0.498
0.55
0.611
0.57
0.549
0.6
0.581
0.59
0.467
0.64
0.417
0.55
0.673
0.59
0.322
0.62
0.437
0.62
0.478
0.6055 0.46982 Avg.

11.7
11.8
11.6
12.1
11.7

68
68
67
69
68

12
12
12
12
12

2.79
3.06
2.69
2.81
3.31

0.21
0.21
0.01
0.11
0.22

2.91
3.5
2.49
2.99
3.18

2.872
2.842
0.080
2.834
3.680

84

11.8
12
11.8
11.7
11.8
12.1
11.8
11.8
11.9
11.9
11.7
11.8
11.7
12.3
11.8
11.84

68
68
68
68
68
69
68
68
68
68
68
68
68
69
68
68.1

12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

2.54
2.66
3.24
2.95
2.34
2.78
3.12
2.7
3.2
3.35
2.84
2.67
2.8
3.06
2.72
2.8815

0.21
0.02
0.14
0.1
0.03
0.21
0.18
0.07
0.19
0.13
0.15
0.04
0.2
0.12
0.22
0.1155

26.7
26.1
26
27.1
27.4
26.2
27.2
26.3
25.9
25.7
26.5
25.6
27.9
26.9

102
101
101
103
104
101
103
102
101
100
102
100
104
103

11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9

6.79
6.84
7.04
7.05
8.34
7.37
7.51
6.63
7.05
7.05
6.3
6.67
6.91
7.22

0.68
0.07
0.13
0.45
0.44
1.2
0.94
0.34
0
0.69
1.01
0.27
0.27
0.3

3.05
2.214
3.41
2.103
3.09
3.625
2.68
3.434
3.24
1.610
3.03
2.732
3.76
2.706
2.09
3.506
2.95
3.682
3.11
3.833
3.75
2.136
3.74
1.794
3.58
2.223
3.68
2.662
2.88
2.757
3.1555 2.66616 Avg.
8.63
7.03
9.19
7.19
8.33
8.41
9.72
5.75
7.97
9.62
8.91
7.34
8.96
9.83

5.442
7.146
0.080
7.421
8.955
6.864
5.844
7.991
6.641
4.991
4.147
6.484
5.361
5.133

85

27.4
27.2
28.6
26.4
27.3
27
26.77
q
[psf]
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.115

103
103
106
102
103
103
102.35
V_ref
[mph]
7
7
8
7
7
7
8
7
8
7
7
7
7
8
7
6
7
7
7
7
7.15

11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
11.9
Alpha
[deg]
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16

7.22
7.22
7.53
6.59
6.74
6.66
7.0365
NF/SF
[lbf]
0.01
0.05
0.02
0.04
0.01
0.03
0.03
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.01
0.03
0.03
0
0.02
0
0.01
0.0235

0.83
1.14
0.35
0.32
0.51
0.02
0.149
AF/AF2
[lbf]
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.0125

8.74
6.223
8.51
6.453
9.14
6.466
8.9
4.758
8.34
5.629
6.31
7.493
8.341 5.97613 Avg.
PM/YM
Mc/4
[inlbf]
[inlbf]
0.02
0.001
0.02
0.084
0.03
0.080
0.02
0.063
0
0.021
0.01
0.072
0.03
0.032
0.03
0.011
0.02
0.042
0.01
0.052
0.01
0.052
0.03
0.032
0.04
0.043
0.01
0.011
0.01
0.052
0.03
0.032
0.03
0.030
0.03
0.011
0.02
0.020
0.01
0.011
0.0195 0.03263 Avg.

86

2.5
2.2
2.3
2.2
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.3
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.4
2.5
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.5
2.5
2.3
2.4
2.395

31
30
30
30
31
31
31
30
30
31
32
30
31
30
31
31
31
31
30
30
30.6

16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16

0.61
0.56
0.59
0.6
0.54
0.53
0.59
0.61
0.48
0.53
0.57
0.53
0.59
0.54
0.56
0.53
0.53
0.61
0.55
0.55
0.56

0.01
0.03
0.01
0
0.04
0.03
0.03
0.01
0.05
0.04
0
0.01
0.04
0.04
0.01
0
0.05
0
0.04
0.06
0.02

11.5
11.9
11.9
11.9
12
11.8
11.8
11.9
11.6

67
68
68
68
69
68
68
68
67

15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9

2.66
2.72
2.74
2.75
2.83
2.67
2.74
2.41
2.66

0.08
0.11
0.09
0.07
0.06
0
0.08
0.1
0.07

0.66
0.604
0.55
0.611
0.65
0.080
0.63
0.614
0.63
0.489
0.66
0.438
0.62
0.603
0.67
0.594
0.54
0.455
0.6
0.498
0.7
0.481
0.59
0.508
0.63
0.593
0.62
0.499
0.63
0.531
0.65
0.448
0.66
0.438
0.73
0.534
0.57
0.570
0.65
0.490
0.632 0.50396 Avg.
3.24
3.11
3.17
3.19
3.39
3.17
3.2
2.97
3.05

2.273
2.527
0.080
2.509
2.475
2.364
2.479
2.025
2.463

87

11.8
12.1
11.9
12.1
12.1
12
12
12.1
11.8
12.1
11.9
11.91

68
69
68
69
69
69
69
69
68
69
68
68.3

15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9

2.61
2.61
2.55
2.87
2.81
2.72
2.64
2.82
2.73
3
2.82
2.718

0.1
0.02
0.16
0.01
0.09
0.05
0.1
0.01
0.05
0.18
0.07
0.075

3.06
2.349
3.1
2.309
3.17
2.115
3.16
2.788
3.15
2.674
3.31
2.327
3.3
2.171
3.19
2.654
3.19
2.468
3.49
2.728
3.49
2.354
3.205 2.30662 Avg.

27.5
26.7
28.3
27.7
26.5
26.1
26
26
28.6
27.9
27.9
26.6
26.8
26.4
25.6
26
26.4
28.5

104
102
105
104
102
101
101
101
106
104
104
102
102
102
100
101
102
106

15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9
15.9

8.9
10.3
10.96
8.36
9.25
10.22
10.05
8.82
10.63
9.48
11.09
7.96
11.27
8.93
9.32
9.01
8.62
10.24

0.36
0.29
0.01
0.45
0.38
1
0.29
0.91
0.41
0.44
0.6
0.27
0.58
0.04
0.53
0.44
0.62
0.81

11.71
10.21
12.85
12.11
12.92
12.05
14.5
8.26
13.27
8.34
13.44
11.35
10.41
9.18
10.72
12.93
9.15
8.94

6.735
11.137
0.080
5.216
6.251
9.131
6.329
10.019
8.761
11.307
9.544
5.147
12.947
9.327
8.596
5.743
8.715
12.282

88

28.1
27.3
27.045

105
103
102.85

15.9
15.9
15.9

11.83
11.34
9.829

0.54
10.78 13.738
0.28
12.51 10.992
0.3035 11.2815 8.59987 Avg.

3D Wing Calculations

Sin

4

0.069
76

0.0 0.0
03 15

3

0.052
34

0.0 0.0
07 06

2

0.034
90

0.0
0 09

0. 0.0 0.0 0.0


8 12 31 11 04
0.
0.0
1 10 0.0 0.0 18
2 5 39
1
5
1 0. 0.0 0.0 0.0

1

0.017
45

0

0.000
00

1
2

0.017
45
0.034

[p [lb
sf] f]

0.0
0. 29
5
4 1

0.0
0. 06
5
0 1

0. 0.0
4 11 05

[lb
f]

[in
lbf]

Cos Tan

0.9 0.0
975 699
3
6

0.9 0.0
986 524
1
3

0.9 0.0
993 349
2
9

0.9 0.0
998 174
6
5
1.0 0.0
000 000
0
0
0.9 0.0
998 174
5
6
0.9 0.0

V=6
MPH

8
1
2
1

Dra
g
Lift
(lb) (lb) CL

0.0 0.0 1.
296 009 2
3 3
4

0.

0.0 0.0 2
065 07 7

0.0 0.0 0.
049 003 1
5 9
9
0.0 0.0 1.
291 152 0
67 07 1
0.0 0.0 1.
360 178 4
69
9 3
0.0 0.0 0.

89

6.5 30 68


MP MP MP
H
H
H

0.0 0.0 0.0


389 366 354
5
59
07
4

C D

0.
03
9
0.
29
2

0.
01
3
0.
52
8
0.
71
0
0.

AngleofAttack(deg)

q

PM
/Y
M

AngleofAttack(deg)

AngleofAttack(deg)

V=6
MPH

AF
NF /A
/SF F2

8
1
2
1

0.2
916
46

0.0
132
1
0.5
279
93
0.7
098
71
0.6

102
MP
H
0.0
341
65

0.0
524
13

0.0 0.0
463 531
89
7

0.0
801
75
0.1
094
17
0.2
418
07
0.3

0.0 0.0
825 758
57 41
0.1 0.1
435 428
53 39
0.2 0.2
505 503
71 74
0.2 0.3

23
5

12
5

19
5

AngleofAttack(deg)

V=30
MPH

2. 0.0
41 81 0.0
4 5
5 27
2. 0.2 0.0
34 29 29
5
5
0 5
2.
0.0
37 0.3 20
4 5 62
5

2. 0.4 0.0
8 42 78 03
0.5
1 2. 28 0.0
5 36
2 5
2.
1 39 0.5 0.0
6 5
6
2

V=68
MPH

0.0
29
5
0.2
41
0.4
71
5
0.6
06
0.6
05
5
0.6
32

90

3

0.052
34

4

0.069
76

5

0.087
16

6

0.104
53

7

0.121
87

8

0.139
17

9

0.156
43

1
0

0.173
65

1
1

0.190
81

1
2
1
3

0.207
91
0.224
95

993 349
9
2
0.9 0.0
986 524
3
1
0.9 0.0
975 699
3
6
0.9 0.0
962 874
9
0
0.9 0.1
945 051
2
0
0.9 0.1
925 227
9
5
0.9 0.1
902 495
7
4
0.9 0.1
876 583
8
9
0.9 0.1
848 763
3
1
0.9 0.1
816 943
3
8
0.9 0.2
781 125
6
5
0.9 0.2
743 308

191 184
44 93

6 67
9 0

0.0 0.0
831 212
85 49

0.
1
4
0.
4
1
0.
6
3
0.
8
2
0.
8
5
0.
9
3

V=30
MPH

AngleofAttack(deg)

6 11
5

8
1
2
1
6

0.2
295
0.3
596
88
0.4
737
66
0.5
094
66
0.5
327
94

V=68
MPH

90

0.0
295
0.0
457
03
0.0
635
54
0.1
450
95
0.1
735
82

0.
03
7
0.
05
2
0.
08
0
0.
10
9
0.
24
2
0.
30
2

699
97

019
65

872 724
99 22

AngleofAttack(deg)

0

4

8
1
2

0.258
82

1
6

0.275
64

Planfo 34.
rm 562 in^
5 2
Area:
0.2
400 ft^
17 2

8
1
2
1
6

V=
102
MPH

V=
102
MPH
AngleofAttack(deg)

2.7 0.0 3.2


18 75 05

1
5

AngleofAttack(deg)

1
6

0.4 0.1
12 31 0.0
5 72
5
0.1 1.2
1.1 33 79
49
5
5
2.3
1.8
24 0.1 71
5
5 07
3.1
2.4 0.0 32
01 78
5
2.8 0.1 3.1
81 15 55
5
5
5

0.241
92

7
0.2
493
3
0.2
679
5
0.2
867
5

AngleofAttack(deg)

4

12
.0
5
11
.9
9
11
.8
1
11
.9
4
11
.8
4
11
.9
1

1
4

7
0.9
703
0
0.9
659
3
0.9
612
6

0.2
26 0.9
.7 89 0.2 66
5
5 89
4 4
0.3
26
.9 2.7 44 3.1
5 86
0 95 03
4 26 4.1 0.1 5.5

0.4 0.1
206 024
68 05
1.1
49
1.8
125
91
2.3
667
78
2.7
945
2
2.5
920
37

0.1
335
0.2
340
16
0.4
113
95
0.7
120
75
0.8
212
76

1.0 0.2
072 192
49 72

0
4

2.7 0.3
03 445
4.1 0.4

91

0.
1
5
0.
4
0
0.
6
4
0.
8
3
0.
9
8
0.
9
1

0.
03
5
0.
04
6
0.
08
3
0.
14
4
0.
25
1
0.
28
7

0. 0.
1 03
6 4
0. 0.
4 05
2 3
0. 0.

.4 92 89 93
5
5
5
26 5.5
7.3
.4 75 0.1 39
8 75
5 33
5
26 7.0
1 .7 36 0.1 8.3
5 49 41
2 7

0.3 11.
27
1 .0 9.8 03 28
5 15
6 45 29

AngleofAttack(deg)

V=6MPH

q
[psf]

1
2

685 814
69 72
5.5 0.9
027 076
29 65
6.8 1.6
517 087
6 17

6 07
6 6
0. 0.
8 14
7 3
1. 0.
0 25
7 0

1
6

2.4
9.5 174
319 93

1. 0.
4 37
7 2

4
0
4

0.1
0.1
0.11

Mc/4
[inlbf]
0.048
0.015
0.014

Mc/4
[ftlbf]
0.004
0.001
0.001

8

0.12

0.065

0.005

12

0.105

0.065

0.005

16

0.115

0.033

0.003

M'
cm1/4
lbf
0.0048 0.000041
0.0016 0.000013
0.0014 0.000013

0.0066 0.000067

0.0066 0.000059

0.0033 0.000032

AngleofAttack
(deg)

V=30MPH

4

2.415

0.139

0.012

0
4

2.345
2.375

0.228
0.266

0.019
0.022

0.0141 0.002900

0.0231 0.004605
0.0269

92

8

2.42

0.368

0.031

12

2.5

0.470

0.039

16

2.395

0.504

0.042

0.005437

0.0373 0.007670

0.0476 0.010118

0.0510 0.010398

AngleofAttack(deg)

V=68MPH

4

12.05

0.752

0.063

0.0761

0

11.99

1.041

0.087

0.1055

4

11.81

1.369

0.114

0.1387

8

11.94

1.780

0.148

0.1803

12

11.84

2.666

0.222

0.2700

16

11.91

2.307

0.192

0.2336

4

26.74

0.991

0.083

0

26.995

2.302

0.192

4

26.45

2.973

0.248

8

26.475

3.953

0.329

0.078025

0.107563

0.139299

0.183120

0.271941

0.236660

AngleofAttack(deg)

V=102MPH

0.1003 0.228245

0.2331 0.535245

0.3010 0.677319

0.4003 0.901529

93

12

26.77

5.976

0.498

16

27.045

8.600

0.717

0.6052 1.378176

0.8709 2.003621

94