Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

INTRODUCTION

Why do we need to develop good learning outcomes? There are many purposes
for developing them. Good learning outcomes will lead to more learning, better
instruction, higher learner retention of learning, and even help students develop
their own organisational, critical and creative thinking skills. So, clearly defined
learning outcomes are a must for every teacher.

DEFINITIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF
LEARNING OUTCOMES
Learning outcomes has been defined in different ways, such as the following:
(a) Intended change brought about in a learner. (Popham, et. al. 1969)
(b) A statement of what students ought to be able to do as a consequence of
instruction. (Goodlad, in Popham et al., 1969)

7.1
T
T
o
o
p
p
i
i
c
c
7
7


Components
OfInstruction
LEARNING OUTCOMES
By the end of this topic, you should be able to:
1. Explain the characteristics and various other names of learning
outcomes;
2. Describe the functions of learning outcomes;
3. Identify the domains of learning outcomes; and
4. Develop effective learning outcomes..
TOPIC 7 COMPONENTS OF INSTRUCTION 113
(c) Explicit formulations of ways in which students are expected to be
changed by the education process. (Bloom, 1956)
(d) What the students should be able to do at the end of a learning period that
they could not do beforehand. (Mager, 1962)
(e) "An objective is a description of a performance you want learners to be able
to exhibit before you consider them competent. An objective describes an
intended result of instruction, rather than the process of instruction itself."
(Mager, 1975)
(f) Properly constructed education outcomes represent relatively specific
statements about what students should be able to do following instruction.
(Gallagher and Smith, 1989)

Characteristics of effective outcomes as described by Westberg and Jason (1993)
in Collaborative Clinical Education are:
Consistent with overall goals of the school;
Clearly stated;
Realistic and practical;
Appropriate for learners' stages of development;
Appropriately comprehensive;
Worthy, complex outcomes;
Not treated as if they were etched in stone; and
Not regarded as the only valuable outcomes.
7.1.1 Alternative Names of Learning Outcomes
In educational psychology, we define learning as a "change in behaviour." This is
a little confusing but if a student could not answer a question on a pre-test, then
received instruction and answered the question correctly on a post-test, it shows
a change in behaviour and learning is considered to have occurred. Other names
used for instruction outcomes include the following (Florida State University,
2008):
Learning objectives
Instruction objectives
Enabling Outcomes
Terminal Outcomes
TOPIC 7 COMPONENTS OF INSTRUCTION

114
Educational Outcomes
Curriculum Outcomes
Performance Outcomes
Operational Outcomes
Behavioural Outcomes
Intents
Aims
Competencies

PURPOSE AND FUNCTION OF LEARNING
OUTCOMES
According to Florida State University, the purpose and function of learning
outcomes are to:
Guide teachers in designing instruction;
Guide teachers in evaluation/test design (e.g. written tests, OSCE);
Guide learners in learning focus;
Guide learner in self assessment;
Inform others about what we value;
Cause careful thinking on what is to be accomplished through instruction;
Help relationships between teachers and learners because with explicit
outcomes, the instructor is viewed in a less adversarial role because students
are not forced to guess what is to be learned.
Enhance possibility of creating focused independent learning materials;
Make teaching more directed and organised;
Communicate to colleagues what you are teaching, thus enhancing
collaboration and teamwork with colleagues.
Help facilitate situations in which we want students to demonstrate
competency (The outcomes can be specified in such as way as to specify
competency);
Aid in programme evaluation;
Encourage teachers to think carefully about what is important;
7.2
TOPIC 7 COMPONENTS OF INSTRUCTION 115
Avoid unnecessary repetitions in teaching;
Bridge the gap between vague but relevant and important institutional goals
and actual instruction;
Provide visibility and accountability of decisions made by teachers and
learners;
Provide models for the creation of outcomes by students;
Help students make decisions regarding prioritising; and
Provide feedback to learners as outcomes are accomplished.

ELEMENTS OF LEARNING OUTCOMES
An learning outcomes is a statement describing a competency or performance
capability to be acquired by the learner (Arreola, 1998). There are four elements
essential to ensuring clear statements of outcomes.
(a) Audience An outcome must mention the target group of learners.
(b) Behaviour An outcome must describe the competency to be learned in
performance terms. The choice of a verb is all important here. Frequently
used terms such as know, understand, grasp and appreciate do
not meet this requirement. If the verb used in stating an outcome identifies
observable student behaviour, then the basis for a clear statement is
established. In addition, the type or level of learning must be identified for
a description of the types of learning and their levels (Arreola, 1998).
(c) Conditions An outcome should describe the conditions under which the
learner will be expected to perform in the evaluation situation. What tools,
references, or other aids will be provided or denied should be made clear
(Arreola, 1998).
(d) Degree/ Criterion An outcome should make clear how well a learner
must perform in order to be judged adequate. This can be done with a
statement indicating a degree of accuracy, a quantity or proportion of
correct responses or the like (Arreola, 1998).

These four elements can be stored for easy retrieval by remembering the
mnemonic acronym ABCD (A = audience; B = behaviour; C = conditions; D =
degree).




7.3
TOPIC 7 COMPONENTS OF INSTRUCTION

116
Example:
At the end of this lesson, Form 1 Science students will be able to measure the
length of an object with the aid of a ruler correctly.
Audience - Form 1 Science students
Behaviour - Measure the length of an object.
Condition With ruler
Degree/ Criterion (implied) Measure the length of an object correctly.

THREE DOMAINS OF LEARNING
OUTCOMES
There is more than one type of learning. A committee of colleges, led by
Benjamin Bloom, identified three domains of educational activities (Florida State
University, 2008):
(a) Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge)
(i) Refers to intellectual learning and problem solving
(ii) Cognitive levels of learning include: knowledge, comprehension,
application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation
(iii) Example of outcome: The student will be able to explain the
characteristics and various other names of learning outcome.
(b) Affective: Growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude)
(i) Refers to emotions and value system of a person
(ii) Affective levels of learning include: receiving, responding, valuing,
organising and characterising by a value
(iii) Example of objective: The student will demonstrate commitment to a
group project through cooperation among the group members by
submitting the project report on time.
(c) Psychomotor: Manual or physical skills (Skills)
(i) Refers to physical movement characteristics and motor skill
capabilities that involve behaviours requiring certain levels of
physical dexterity and coordination
(ii) These skills are developed through repetitive practice and measured
in terms of speed, precision, distance, procedures or execution
techniques. Psychomotor levels include: perception, set, guided
response, mechanism, complex overt response, adaptation and
origination.
7.4
TOPIC 7 COMPONENTS OF INSTRUCTION 117
(iii) Example of outcome: The student will be able to use a scientific
calculator to solve trigonometric problems.
7.4.1 Cognitive Domain
Bloom's Taxonomy Cognitive Domain (Bloom, 1956) consists of six learning
levels knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and
evaluation. The cognitive domain is focused on intellect and knowledge
development by enhancing students thinking.
(a) Knowledge represents the lowest objective level. The need to achieve this
level is recalling or recognising information that has been learnt. Examples
of behaviour for this level are: to define, to list, to state and to identify.
According to Bloom et al (1956), examples of activities to be trained to
achieve this level are multiple-choice test; recounting of facts or statistics;
recalling a process, rule or definition; and quoting a law or procedure.
(b) Comprehension is the level of recalling or recognising the information. To
achieve this objective level, students must show the ability to interpret, to
translate and to explain a topic in their own words. Examples of behaviour
for this level are: to report, to explain, to conclude and to comment.
According to Bloom et al (1956), examples of activities to be trained to
achieve this level are explain or interpret meaning of a given scenario or
statement; suggest a treatment, reaction or solution to a given problem; and
create examples or metaphors.
(c) Application refers to the application of information that has been learnt in a
different situation. Examples of behaviour for this level are: to count, to use,
to translate and to illustrate. According to Bloom et al (1956), examples of
activities to be trained to achieve this level are put a theory into practice;
demonstrate; solve a problem; and manage an activity.
(d) Analysis is the ability to identify relationships between variables in a
system and to restructure the system with the variables given. Examples of
behaviour for this level are: to compare, to categorise, to analyse and to
examine. According to Bloom et al (1956), examples of activities to be
trained to achieve this level are identify constituent parts and functions of
a process or concept; de-construct a methodology or process; make
qualitative assessment of elements, relationships, values and effects; and
measure requirements or needs.
(e) Synthesis is the level to show the ability to integrate new and bigger parts
from small parts. This ability needs students to analyse the elements of a
piece of information and identify the relationship between each element.
From here, the students will be able to detect the explicit and implicit
TOPIC 7 COMPONENTS OF INSTRUCTION

118
structures that form the relationship between each element. Examples of
behaviour for this level are: to create, to design, to develop and to relate.
According to Bloom et al (1956), examples of activities to be trained to
achieve this level are develop plans or procedures; design solutions;
integrate methods, resources, ideas or parts; create teams or new
approaches; and write protocols or contingencies.
(f) Evaluation is the highest objective level in the cognitive domain. The
needed ability to achieve this level is to make decisions based on rational
and certain criteria. Examples of behaviour for this level are: to choose, to
criticise, to summarise and to justify. According to Bloom et al (1956),
examples of activities to be trained to achieve this level are review
strategic options or plans in terms of efficacy, return on investment or cost-
effectiveness, and practicability; assess sustainability; perform SWOT
analysis in relation to alternatives; produce financial justification for a
proposition or venture; calculate the effects of a plan or strategy; and
perform a detailed cost risk analysis with recommendations and
justifications.
7.4.2 Affective Domain
The second domain in Bloom's Taxonomy, the Affective Domain, consists of five
levels receive, respond, value, organise or conceptualise values, and internalise
or characterise values. Affective Domain is focused on feelings and emotions to
shape the students attitude.
(a) Receive is a level where students are willing to hear and willing to accept
the new experience. Examples of behaviour for this level are: to ask, to
focus, to listen and to acknowledge. According to Bloom et al (1956),
examples of activities to be trained to achieve this level are listen to
teacher or trainer; take interest in session or learning experience; take notes;
turn up; make time for learning experience; and participate passively.
(b) Respond means students react and participate actively in a chosen
phenomenon. Examples of behaviour for this level are: to react, to respond,
to clarify and to present. According to Bloom et al (1956), examples of
activities to be trained to achieve this level are participate actively in
group discussion; active participation in activity; interest in outcomes;
enthusiasm for action; question and probe ideas; and suggest
interpretation.
(c) Value is the level where students attach values and express personal
opinions. Examples of behaviour for this level are: to justify, to confront, to
argue and to criticise. According to Bloom et al (1956), examples of
activities to be trained to achieve this level are decide worth and relevance
TOPIC 7 COMPONENTS OF INSTRUCTION 119
of ideas and experiences; and accept or commit to a particular stance or
action.
(d) Organise or conceptualise values is the level where student are able to
organise and develop a value system. Examples of the behaviour for this
level are: to develop, to formulate, to relate, and to compare. According to
Bloom et al (1956), examples of activities to be train to achieve this level are
qualify and quantify personal views, state personal position and reasons,
and state beliefs.
(e) Internalise or characterise values means students are able to adopt a belief
system and philosophy in their behaviour. Examples of behaviour for this
level are: to act, to solve, to display and to practice. According to Bloom et
al (1956), examples of activities to be trained to achieve this level are self-
reliant; and behave consistently with the personal value set.
7.4.3 Psychomotor Domain
The Psychomotor Domain emphasises on skills development relating to manual
tasks and physical movement, and also concerns and covers modern social skills
such as communications and operating high-technology equipment. This domain
consists of five levels, which are imitation, manipulation, precision, articulation
and naturalisation.
(a) Imitation is the level where students are able to copy, observe and replicate
the action of another. Examples of the behaviour for this level are: to
follow, to repeat, to adhere, and to replicate. According to Bloom et al
(1956), examples of activities to be trained to achieve this level are watch
teacher or trainer and repeat action, process or activity.
(b) Manipulation means reproduce activity from instruction or memory.
Examples of behaviour for this level are: to build, to execute, to implement
and to perform. According to Bloom et al (1956), examples of activities to
be trained to achieve this level are carry out task from written or verbal
instruction.
(c) Precision is the ability to execute skill reliably and independent of help to
solve problems. Examples of behaviour for this level are: to show, to
control, to complete and to demonstrate. According to Bloom et al (1956),
examples of activities to be trained to achieve this level are perform a task
or activity with expertise and high quality without assistance or instruction;
and able to demonstrate an activity to other learners.
(d) Articulation means to adapt and integrate expertise to satisfy a non-
standard objective. Examples of behaviour for this level are: to solve, to
combine and to modify. According to Bloom et al (1956), examples of
TOPIC 7 COMPONENTS OF INSTRUCTION

120
activities to be trained to achieve this level are relate and combine
associated activities to develop methods to meet varying and novel
requirements.
(e) Naturalisation means to automate and develop unconscious mastery of an
activity, as well as related skills, at a strategic level. Examples of behaviour
for this level are: to specify, to invent, to design and to manage. According
to Bloom et al (1956), examples of activities to be trained to achieve this
level are define aim, approach and strategy for use of activities to meet
strategic need.




Learning outcomes are important as it will lead to better learning and help
students to develop their critical and creative thinking.
Good learning outcomes have their own characteristics and serve many
purposes like what had been discussed in the topic.
There are four elements to make sure clear statements of outcomes
audience, behaviour, conditions and degree/criterion (ABCD).
There are three domains of learning outcomes cognitive (knowledge),
affective (attitude) and psychomotor (skills).


Domains of Learning Outcomes Learning outcomes ABCD


1. Discuss what is Learning Outcome.
2. Discuss the difference of each domain of learning outcome.
ACTIVITY 7.1