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Akal Singh Sardar

Head - Oracle Technologies, Kernel Technologies
Akal Singh work as an Oracle Consultant & Instructor, He has over 12+ years of Oracle Implementation experience.
He is an Oracle Certified Master (OCM). Expertise with Databases, RAC, Data Guard, ASM, Oracle Exadata,
RMAN, Oracle Performance Tuning, Streams, Golden Gate, Security & more

Oracle 11g Grid Infrastructure & ASM
Describe the purpose and benefits of Grid Infrastructure & New features in ASM 11gR2. Understand difficulties in
managing storage systems for growing databases, describe Oracle Database 11gR2 Grid Infrastructure, Components
of 11gR2 Grid Infra, Purpose/Importance and Benefits of Grid Infrastructure. Purpose & benefits Using ASM
Storage and whats new in 11gR2 related to ASM.
Key Discussion Points
Enhancements in 11gR2
Purpose of ASM
ASM Architecture
Benefits of ASM
What's new in 11gR2 for ASM?
Who Should Attend?
Oracle DBA's, Oracle Developers

Oracle Storage Products: Automatic Storage Management

So here we will be talking about 11g R2 release in Oracle in database we have grid infra and ASM, instead of
directly going to the ASM concepts because ASM is acting as a storage here so but before we start with ASM direct
I can share few things with you.

Like let me start with the basic part generally we know about data bases Ill be drawing here and I hope you are able
to see for example this is my DB server right every organization small or big everyone want to maintain their
database, database is nothing but collection of data maintained or stored digitally.

Now in this example if Im starting my small business and I want to maintain a database for my application its a
small kind of business and I want to have a database at the backend for it I can use my desktop why I need a server
or even oracle that is the basic thing.

So yes any business organization is small to small right any small companies they can start their enterprise using a
desktop they can install any software oracle or DBMS database software and maintain the data, so why the machine,
a server or a desktop is needed they contain mainly 3 components 1 is CPU and the other one memory and disk.

When we talk about desktop and server architectures I bought a desktop with these 3 configuration in a desktop what
kind of CPU will be available generally dual core quad core now a days so let me make it as a quad core right this is
for my desktop but in case of a server the configuration will differ okay.

When you talk about memory how much RAM memory I can keep it if it is a 64 bit operating system OS and even
you have a mother board 64 bit configuration in that case it can support up to 8GB or 16GB of RAM what about the
disk? In a desk top disks normally they are available in IDE with IDE controller or SATA controller.

IDE has become outdated now, now-a-days the desktops and laptops are coming with the SATA controller to which
that IO operations happens on the disks generally if you open the desktop box and if you see there right the hard disk
which is connected to the mother board connected through a cable that is something a 3inch white cable 1 end it
goes to the mother board port that is nothing but your IDE port the other end is normally connected to your hard disk
so IDE is a parallel architecture 1 port will be there in the mother board other side there will be 2 ports that means I
can connect 2 hard disks right, generally the basic kind of mother boards in desktops or laptops specially desktops
well be getting what IDE with 2 controllers that means for each controller I can connect 2 disks the capacity is
going to be of how much 4 hard disks I can have up to 4 hard disks. This is the capacity.

Fine its a small business Im running here and I dont need more than this I can start my business so this many
companies or many small business they can run the databases on a desktop machine but here few challenges comes
forward when they think about the future growth and their business model because now a days every business they
are trying to give concepts or model called availability, they want to run their business round the clock even though
it is a very small kind of business their data is not too much high and not in big volume but still they want to give the
availability so here we are getting few factors round the clock they want to keep it nothing but it is 24/7 kind of
environment every business.

The second big challenge starts when your data grows every business the data is growing now a days right any
business data growth, just take out your mobile data is growing number of contacts are growing, messages are
growing applications are growing in that so same every business will have a growth of data but challenges comes
when data grows at this moment, Im just taking an example as I started a small business so I can easily fit into this
basic needs with the desktop configuration I have 4 hard disks but let me find out the size what is the size capacity
Im going to have in this volume so each hard disk what is the size?

In market you can find 500GB or even 1terabyte of hard disk now a days latest is 2 terabyte of hard disks are
coming fine but let me take it as a 1 terabyte of hard disk and I can have up to 4 disks that is around how much
totally its 4TB that means I can accommodate in a desktop up to 4TB of storage that is more enough for me 16GB of
RAM and quad core what do you mean by quad core, it is nothing but 4 CPUs.

As data is growing max up to 4TB I can use my desktop but another question comes here round the clock I want to
run my business in those situations when I want to keep my database round the clock is my desktop models are they
going to help or support me because desktops they are not designed to run continuously and here round the clock
24/7 means the whole day and night the server is up what will happen if I keep my desktop round the clock on it
generates lot of heat and possibilities are there the components can damage.

In those situations problems are arising that machine can go down it can damage any component or there can be
failures, because the desktop components are not designed to run continuously 24/7 take it the CPU, mother board or
power or any other things something take your iPhone or any mobile now a days smart phones are coming up take
any smart phone and continuously play for 1 hour 2 hour a video game what happens? Lot of heat generates battery
drains fast if you play continuously every day that very soon youre ending the life of your mobile right.

Because the mobile is not designed to play the games yeah it supports that is secondary but they are not designed for
it purely, same if I want to have a contiguously running of my machine desktop components are not designed to run

So as looking at this is my requirement this is becoming a basic requirement for everyone 24/7 now a days what
banking sector, online shopping, any reservation kind of environment many businesses you can take pizza hut even
they are open 24/7 in that case their machine should be round the clock running so problem is that my desktop
machines components they wont support so what I want?
I want a robustic component in the machine so I have to choose another kind of servers, what we have in servers, so
whatever the component the memory or the disk or the CPU they are quality based they give the continuous life
giving you the similar kind of performance whatever you have on the day one till the next last day, they guarantee
you for next 3, 5 years that they will give the similar kind of performance without doubt that is the main thing.

I have to choose some quality based components if I want to run around the clock business that is okay but when my
data is growing that is another big challenge right when data is growing in that case what I need more and more
storage I can go up to 4terabyte but assume that very soonyou know jabong, flipkart this isonline marketing they
started just recently within a year or 2 but now they have lot of customers across the globe right.

So same thing here if my business has grown extensively too high and already has filled up 4 terabyte and I need
more and more storage then what a question comes in those cases what should I do I cant add more disk in my
available desktop it doesnt support so I need to choose a machine which can accommodate or provide me more
number of disksI can keep that is nothing but the servers.

If I talk about server, server can accommodate how many disks, server can have more number of disks if I look at
each and every component I have only 4 CPUs for processing right but if I want to have more number of CPUs
because as my data is growing, my business in growing is nothing but data is growing obviously the number of
customers who are accessing this data they are also growing when number of people who want to access data they
are growing they need more and more processing and I found that 4 core is not enough I need more than that then
again I have to go for a server, soin server?

Basically it starts with the 4 CPU 4 core or even you can find 8 core 8 CPUs not only 8, 16 CPUs 32 CPUs 64,
128 CPUsthis you can go on, you can go on add more number of CPUs oh really great but when we talk about
memory how big I can grow RAM because in desktop I can only have only up to 16GB, no no you can grow here
also right you can start with the 16GB, 32GB, 64GB, 128GBthis up to 1terabyte not only 1 terabyte but even 2
terabyte oracle X data right it gives you nearly 2 terabyte of RAM its too big, well talk about the disk what kind of
disks you have in the server you will be finding the SaaS disks they give you more performance more robust with
low latency and performance issues right.

So SaaS disk how many you can attach thatdepends on the kind of mother board you are buying in that might be you
can have 2 you can have 4 you can have 6 or 8this, no I want to have more than that because if my data is growing
more than 4terabyte now it reached around 40 terabyte in case if it is 40 terabyte I need so many disks in that right
that is about the storage as data is growing I see the servers now a days server they are coming in a different models
server they arewhich I have drawn as a blue diagram this isa tower based servers you can (( )) another kind of
servers alsothis we call them as blade servers.

Tower servers isa big box so how many disks I can keep looking at the size might be I can accommodate based on
the SaaS and controller and the number of days I can have 8, 12, 15 max again thatdepends on what type of
connectivity you are giving if you are using 15 disks you can have max but still my question remains here same my
data has grown more than 15terabyte then what should I do I have to buy extra disk keep it in a separate storage box
and attach this disk storage to my server.

Somethingif my desktop or laptop hard disk got filled upwe dump our data well attach a USB hard disk and we will
try to move our data into that similar kind of thing Im attaching another storage we call them array it is nothing buta
box which contains set of disks again they are available in different configuration we can have 4, 6, 8, 12, 22this
different disks capacity you will be getting this array.

Generally these storages shortly they are called as JBOD I hope the people who arestorage they will be knowing
what is JBOD, dont try to understand who dont know its very simple what is JBOD?

Its a just bunch of disks some extra spare addition disks Im attaching to my server when Im connecting what kind
of connector Im going to use for example I have some USB hard disk I want to connect to laptop how I will connect
I need a port on my laptop or desk topI can connect the hard disk.

So these disks Im connecting to my DB server so here you can use a SaaS controller here that inbuilt available SaaS
control external interface you can use and you can connect if you dont want that then you have other options also
here, not only SaaS even if you want you can use ISCI interface or even fiber channel interface.

They provide you high data transfer rateserver to the storage somethinga USB 2 and USB 3 how we got different
interfaces again the speed varies there similar kind we have ISCI and fiber channel connectors.

So using this Ill be connecting to my storages but there is one more problem here assume that I have upgraded my
number of CPUs4 because Im using a server I came to 16 CPUs or 32 core CPUs, processing will be done faster
and I added few more extra disks on my JBOD extra storage is attached to my server but whenever IO needs to be
done who need that data CPU need the data so it sends a request to the disk.

So in those cases the request was sent by the CPU passed by the SaaS controller if you are using FC controller or
ISCI, so FC or ISCI they are going to pass this request to the storage, so the storage also you will be having a
controller which is responsible to perform the IOs on the disk take this data bring this data and give back to the

So that means my CPU is completely busy doing the IOs on the storage passing through this channel example I
attached a USB 2 hard disk or USB 3 hard disk to my laptop when I want to copy a file will it wont be using my
desktop or server CPU to do a copy there right perform a IO on the disk yes my CPU is doing a IO on external disk
same way my server CPUs are now becoming busier because of doing more and more IOs on extra disk that is the
one big challenge.

Then slowly what happened so instead of making your data base server CPUs loaded now a days the new kind of
storages are introduced so in which you will be having the number of disks same number of disks available and even
you will have few more other additional components in there example you will have your own operating system it
contains its own operating system it contains its own management software and even it contains its own CPU right
and even they will have their own memory.

So this way whenever server want any data now server CPU will be sending the IO request to this local storage this
management server with the help his own local CPU it will perform a IO on the available disks, takes the data brings
and gives backs to this database server CPU now mean while my data base servers CPU can do other activities while
the storage CPU is performing IOs.

So now we got 2 types of storages here 1 storage we have only set of disks IO operations are taken care by my
server CPU we have another set of storage disk it contains its own local operating system management software
CPUs and memory what will happen here my database server is sending that request to this local external storage
this management software with the help of this local CPUs it is performing IO on that disk and sending back data to
the data base server.
I have good enough time while the IO operations are happening here I can perform some other activities I can work
with many other activities.

This 2 types of storages I can name then generally they are called into 2 more different ways one is called as
intelligent the other one is called as a non-intelligent, non-intelligent is nothing but they dont have this OS
management, CPU and memory they are simply desktop (( )) attached to the server shortly we call them as a just
bunch of disk or JBOD and the intelligent storages they contain their own CPU memory and software.

Now the connectivity yeah I can use any of those so I have 2 choices ISCI or FC what is the speed, data transfer the
ISCI can do? ISCI is available with 1gigabit to 10gigabit controllers are available when you talk about FC 2gigabit,
4gigabit, 8gigabit something and even 16gigabit is the max speed for this one.

So thats why in the production people use FC fiber channel with different kind of cable fiber channel cabling
through which the servers access the storage these kind of storages or these kind of infrastructures shortly people
call them as a NAS/SAN.

Network attached storage and storage area network as data is growing day by day we need more and more disks in
data base server and when I have more disks this so Im getting different kind of storage non intelligent and
intelligent storages and Ill be forming a environment called as a NAS or SAN architecture, multiple machine or
single machine connected or storage connected over the network to the machines.

Here one more thing the database point of view if we look we have few challenges, so here we have a topic called
grid infrastructure and another is ASM, first let me try to understand the ASM because grid infrastructure is a
software they newly brought it next side by side, if you look at my database server now I upgrade myself to the
server I have more number of disks I can accommodate more number of disks locally within a server or extra few
more disks I can have in the extra storages.

So I got so many disks now how you are going to place data across the disks now tell me what is the size of each
disk maximum of 1terabyte but each disk is shown as a partition a mount point and problems are coming here if I
can have a mount point of only 1terabyte then if I have this 40, 50 disks because 40 terabyte data means around 40
disks I want, so 40 mount points will be created there who will manage them might be on one of the mount point I
have more number of files compared to the other mount point these type of challenges are raised.

Earlier DBS used to do IO tuning it means they try to move data frequently used or accessed data to some other
different devices and storages why they want to simply balance thee data across the disks balancing of data right, so
here balancing of data is required for this how I can do there are few software available called as a volume manager
because each disk is a volume manager so I have to start using a volume manager for them.

Ill take one example in the ASM, here assume that I have brought one server containing 4 hard disks in them I have
1, 2, 3, 4 hard disks in them what is the size of each hard disk I bought each hard disk of 120GB, what is the sum
ofthe disk size it became now? It became of 480GB, I want to create a C drive I selected 1 disk created a partition C
drive with 20GB, done.

How much space is available in first disk? I have nearly around 100GB so I want to create D drive here can I create
D drive with the remaining 100GB, yes you can create 100GB.

Now how much space left in the remaining disks remaining 120 three times that is around 360GB I have now here
my basic requirement what is that I have 360GB, so out of this 360GB now I want to create E drive with what size?
E drive I want to have with 160GB out of 360GB or better let me make round figure 200GB or let me better take
complete 360GB and create D drive can I do this?

Generally with the default operating system tools and utilities no, because in windows if I go to disk management I
can seethe disks are shown in blue color right click and create partition what is the partition size max you can create
nothing but the size of the hard disk what is the size? It is of only 120GB so I can have a partition of only 120 not
bigger than that.

But I want to have E drive here 160, 200 or let me take 360GB is that possible? By default no operating system says
no you cant do that but this is my requirement then if you want this 360GB then you have to go with another
software called as a volume manager.

Volume manager is going to allow you to create E drive how? By selecting one or multiple disks grouping them as a
single logical entity here so as a end user I see its a E drive right its only 1 drive for me but down the line it contains
multiple disks who is doing this all? Volume manager in that case I should use volume manager to group multiple
disks and see it as a single logical drive this is single logical drive.

Let me ask volume manager, boss is it only the one feature are you providing? No no we have few more features
available with volume manager what are those features available extra features you are providing with volume
manager, yeah I can get availability and performance with volume manager how it is possible? With the name called
Raid with the help of Raid I can avail this benefit, we have different raid right raid 0, raid 1, raid 2, raid 3, raid 4,
raid 5 there are so many different raid concepts available.

Let me take the widely used that is raid 0 raid 1 and raid 5, if we talk about raid 0 here what is raid 0 means raid 0 is
nothing but stripping what is raid 1? Raid 1 is nothing but mirroring and raid 0 is stripping okay so raid 0 stripping
and mirroring what do you mean by stripping?

So whatever data you write into any of these disks it gets stripped acrossthe 3 example 360GB I created this E drive
selectingthe disks Im writing 15MB file so 3 time 5 MB it was written tothe 3 disks example Im writing A B C, so
A is written here example Im telling the content B content is written here somethinga C content means data is
stripped acrossthe disks this is actually a big challenge for every (( )) previous version when they are using the
normal file system they need to monitor in which disk right in which drive we have more number of disk who are
doing lot of IOs they try to differentiate them and try to move some of the highly used disk to some other drives to
balance the IO operation amongbut here automatically data was written tothe disks parallel this is improving the
performance so this is a indication for my performance here Im gaining performance in this.

So I have option here performance and availability benefits how? With the name called Raid, raid 0 is nothing but it
is giving me the performance for me it is the performance symbol what about raid 1? Raid 1 is nothing but mirroring
means I have a question here in case one of the disk is failed can you access my content A B C example the last disk
got collapsed or failed so I cant access the C content it is unavailable to the user, data is not available.

In mirroring what happens? Whatever content written to 1 disk it is written to another disk A B was written to
another disk B C was written to another disk, C data is getting mirrored why? In case example the last disk got failed
still I can access my A B and Cthe first one right data is availablethe other disk and still my data base can run users
can still work even if one of the disk fails, so it is giving me the availability kind of feature by doing mirroring data
right we have raid 5 what is raid 5? It is nothing but parity.

Parity means example your bad luck multiple disks are failed in that case more than one disk fail example 2 in that
case can you access data no so what happens here A A another A copy is written in a compressed order in another
disk, B and B another B was written in a compressed order in another disk C and C one more compressed data was
written to another disk.

Why even though both are lost still I can get the data that is nothing but raid 5 kind of architecture so this is also
giving me the availability so I got performance, availability with raid 0 1 and 5.

So lookshere people are started using this volume manager why because their number of disks are growing
manageability is becoming difficult performance problems are raising so people are started using volume manager to
group multiple disks as a single logical entity and gain performance and availability on that one simply it looks likes
a giving a business, when oracle database is growing it is giving a business when oracle database is growing its is
giving a business volume managers so oracle they came with a concept here saying boss why should I give
business to them? Let me have my own business so they came with a new component called ASM Automatic
Storage Management.

So what it will do? ASM is claiming it can givethe benefits and feature whatever the volume managers capable of let
me compare here as a volume manager here I created E drive can I do the same thing with ASM as oracle says yes
you can get that with ASM I can create a single logical entity by grouping this multiple disks what we call it shortly?
We call it as a disk group.

Here we call E drive D drive and here in ASM we call it as a disk group by grouping multiple disks as a single
logical entity is it only one in ASM do we have this performance and availability features yes we have those so by
default ASM disk groups perform data stripping means data will be stripped acrossdisks means by default Im
getting the performance here, so you dont have a choice that you uncheck or check this stripping by default
internally oracle will stripe data acrossthe disk in a disk (( )) okay that is the situation.

What will be the availability that means by default Im getting the performance okay accepted but what about
availability? Yes you can get the availability you have a choice you have to choose the options called redundancy if
I go with the redundancy I have 3 choices in this what are those?

One let me name it as a if you want mirroring yes I can get the mirroring that is called normal, what is normal it is
samethe raid one it is nothing but mirroring here I can see so normal will maintain how many copies here normal is
going to maintain 2 copies sameraid one so what is the other option I have one more option called high what high
will do in high you can have 3 copies it is similar to raid 5 okay.

So we got normal 2 copies high means 3 copies in redundancy no I dont want any mirroring because in a mirroring
double or triple the space is getting wasted, because it will maintain multiple copies I dont want that in that case
you can here external, external is nothing but Im selecting the option called none.

Oracle didnt define anyone directly none it is saying external meansthe ASM point you dont do any mirroring I
will manage or Im managing the redundancy externally at the storage level or with some other software so Im
saying ASM not to do any mirroring there is somethingdisabling the mirroring right.

So looksI gotthe features whatever the volume manager is giving ASM is also going to give me grouping the disks
and giving me the redundancy and performance they are the benefits features that are available with the ASM. Now
its your choice you want to go with a volume manager or ASM.

in this situation if Im building any server and I want to go with a volume manager whatis required for me? One is
operating system layer I need to install OS in the server then if Im planning with a volume manager I need here
what volume manager also, this volume manager is going to manage the disk example I have a storage connected to
my server I got so many disk in the storage multiple disks I have so what should I do for multiple disks, I want to
group this disk as a single logical entity so with the help of volume manager Ill be grouping these disks into 2 Ill
create this one as a 1 group the another set of disk Ill be creating as another group let me call them as disk 1
partition the other one as disk 2 partition.

Generally what we see so how I group this disk and store as a single logical entity with the help of volume manager
then on top of this Ill install oracle software oracle home getting shortly OH and I will run my oracle instance
nothing but your ORCR what it will do it will be accessing data accessing my ORCL instance placing data in disk
one or disk two but down the lane volume manager grouping multiple disk as a single logical this is one model.

But if you are coming with ASM, ASM is an instance and here I dont want to use volume manager so in that case if
I dont want to use volume manager Im removing this part I dont want to use volume manager and I want to use
ASM instance simply you can configure one more instancethis home called as ASM instance and you can use this
ASM instance to group multiple disks.
So in that case what name Ill be having here Ill be getting the names here disk group names so Ill be using here
data disk group and FRA disk group any name data 1 or data 2 yes that is also good I can use any name here data
and FRA any name.

So in this data and FRA my oracle database is going to keep their files disk one disk two D drive E drive samehere
disk group 1 disk group 2 could be any namedata and FRA who is managing this ASM.

So ASM is an instance, instance means background processes and memory so now this ASM instance will manage
this number of disks grouping them and mounting them but here startingoracle 10g this is an example Im talking
about 10g still here Im using a single oracle home and 2 instances one is ASM and another is ORCM but whenever
I want to apply a patch normally we will find lot of issues with ORC or oracle database we want to apply a patch
read me says I need to stopinstances runningthat home if it is a common home that means I need to stop my ASM
also right those are the issues coming up here.

So I need to take down the ASM here and apply the patches so every time my ASM is going to do nothing butthe
disk groups in the complete storage is going down that should not happen many dependences are there after
applying patch oh no what happened I applied a wrong patch here instead of applying 101 I applied a 102 I
corrupted (( )) can I bring my ASM up no I cant do that means interrupting the operations of my ASM why?
Because both are using a common home these kind of basic problems we call them as a single point of failures

So oracle gives a recommendation here what recommendation? Oracle is saying why are you using the same home
for both of them right then better use a separate home for ASM separate home for oracle use them separately.

So we have 2 oracle home that means in 10g on top of OS Ill be installing 1 oracle home for my ORCL the another
oracle home for ASM generally we call it as what we call this home as ASM home the other one we started calling
them as oracle home so we need 2 homes here this is recommended why? Whenever you are applying a patch and
ORCL only this home is getting effected still my ASM is up not effected the other databases if anything available in
your storage or server.

Now we got 2 homes butthe 11g onwards what they made? They made in a server on top of the operating system
you are going to install only one software now that is called as a grid infra, grid infrastructure is a oracles provided
software because if you look here the same oracle software installed twice one directory through which Im running
ORCL the other one in a separate directory through which Im running the ASM instance.

So when you install the grid infra it is available in 2 modes, here you have 2 choices with grid infra while doing the
installation you have one stand alone installation the other one is called as a cluster installation in a cluster
installation what I will get I will get oracle cluster software plus ASM. In the other one standard addition what I will
get Im going to have the ASM instance means if I look at this ASM home in the first diagram in 10g it is the same
oracle software I have installed in a separate directory but do I really need that sequel loader or there are many more
utilities of oracle engine not needed I doesnt need the complete software I had only few libraries bandwidths which
will help me to run this ASM instance so those penetrates libraries are taken and came out with the separate software
called grid infra but what extra it is doing just a name change no no.

Oracle says Im giving you something extra with ASM what is that we have oracle restart oracle restart is one more
component they added what oracle restart will do? Samethe cluster ware right oracle cluster what is the purpose of
oracle cluster it gives you the availability means whatever the services running in the server in cluster if they are
registered with the cluster and if they are failed are abnormally went down automatically those services are restarted
back by cluster that giving you availability.

Similar kind of component those services they added into single instances also this is a standalone machine in a
single instance machine they added the similar kind of functionality with a name called oracle restart. So oracle
restart is going to bring back your services which ever registered there but prior to 11g we dont have this how we
do? We are writing our own script or our own method to bring up those services.

So grid infrastructure we got a software in which I can have my ASM grid infrastructure consists of ASM software
for ASM plus cluster ware installation again the same grid infra available for standalone alsoI will get ASM plus
oracle restart.

For example these are the services you can see here oracle high availability service demands and many demands
these arehelping right or giving the concept of oracle restart how to know what are the services registered with
oracle restart we have a utility called CRS_start minus T option I can try it shows me here right 11g we have a
command also CRSCTL status of resources minus T in a tabular format minus T is nothing but table format it is
showing me table format whatI have here ORCL database and everything available here.

Ill show you one this oracle restart is managing let me take the first command what is the CRS_start minus T and
let me keep it in a loop, loop means Im going to close this with the codes watch n is a utility command which runs
the commands what are the commands you are mentioning in this code right it runs repeatedly okay let me enter you
can see the time on the top in this putty here it is running. So every second it is showing me the output let it be Im
opening one more duplicate session here logging as oracle and oracle I see here ORCL is running fine let me kill this
instance 3137 on the above I can see the status pick an offline but what is the target saying? it is saying still online
that means it should me always online but it went abnormally down it was detected by oracle restart and those
services are trying to bring back your data base instance up. So just wait for a couple of seconds now you see that it
was back and if I again just type ps grep pmon I see that pmon my oracle instance is up this was not there in
previous version this is the benefit of grid infrastructure on a standalone server.

That means if I install grid infrastructure on a standalone I will get the ASM instance plus oracle restart component
which gives me the availability the same grid infrastructure software is there if you install it for cluster it gives me
the cluster components cluster services plus ASM so ASM by default available in both the instances in (( )) we have
cluster in single instance standalone we have oracle restart that is the one okay.

So let me take few slides here, so you have a choice on top of operating system you can use volume manager and
some file system cluster file system or better use ASM and directly you can store your data base in the ASM right
ASM is the parallel solution given next to the volume manager.

ASM disk groups while creating components disk groups you have a choice you can define here what kind of
redundancy you want? You want normal high or external normal means 2 mirroring copies 3 mirroring copies and
here no mirroring you can choose that mirroring.
ASM Data Management

What more we have? When you go with a ASM disk group by selected few disks here and created one disk group
what is happening I can see here data was stripped across the disks its not the older scenario, in the older scenario
this is the situation data will be are hits will be happening always on specific kind of disks, but now data was divided
across also disk are going to give a life and performance to you that is another benefit of this one.

Should You Use ASM Mirroring Protection

So disk mirroring how it happens? I can see in this so whatever data written to one disk it is mirrored in the another
one whatever is written here it is mirrored in the another one whatever is available mirror in the another one, if we
see one of the disk fails still I can access the 3 colors 1 2 and 3 but immediately there is one more thing happens here
called rebalancing what it will do once the disk is failed or offline immediately it will crosscheck with the data it
will check that for this do we have a mirroring copy no it will maintain in another disk do we have a copy for the
other one no it will maintain a copy on this one why after sometime again if another disk fail still I can access data a
one available disk giving you more and more availability in case of a loss of disk right this is the mirroring concept
in ASM.

So I can have a single ASM instance running using which I will create a disk group 1 disk group 2this selecting
multiple disks in them and in this disk group nothing but a D drive or E drive I can say in windows are disk one or
disk two here Im calling them as a group A and group B thats all. I can keep multiple data bases data in those disks
yes D drive and E drive I have so how many data bases I can keep in that? I can create many data base as many as I
have the space available in them and I can store same kind there is only one ASM instance which can serve this
multiple disk groups and manage and multiple data bases they can store their data in these disk groups now.

ASM Key Features and Benefits

ASM key features and benefits, what is the benefits available stripes the file rather than volumes data stripping will
happen in the file level provides redundancy on the file basis enables online disk reconfiguration and dynamic
rebalancing, the disk is filled automatically rebalancing happens nothing but again data got balanced across disk this
is called rebalancing this is automatically happens online disk reconfiguration and dynamically rebalancing.

Reduces the time significantly to resynchronize the failure kind of files it is a cluster avail it is a rack environment or
a non-rack environment it understands everything is automatically install as part of the grid infrastructure.

So ASM scalability if you are going to use ASM as a volume manager, so I can have 63 disks groups in a system
10000 ASM disks 2 terabyte maximum storage for each disk 4 terabyte but this is x data kind of storages live it 40
exabyte maximum storage file system so ASM files has limit I can have up to 140 petabyte external redundancy is
222 byte your storages whatever disk groups.

So I have group of disks I have 2 groups here group A and group B multiple disks we have views in ASM through
which you can find the information how many disk groups I have I can find v$ASM_diskgroup I can see what disk
groups I have so in each disk groups how many disks Im using I can find v$ASM_disks in each disk group Im
placing some file data file or some data base related file what file those are I want to see? v$ASM files who are the
clients who are accessing them? The disk groups I can view v$ASM client his some views are there where you can
view this information.

So grid infrastructure is a software which provides you the 2 components 1 is the ASM and oracle restart in a
standalone machine and ASM lot of benefits is the similar comparison to the volume manager giving you
redundancy performance and availability kind of features.

What is ASM power limit
That is a parameter in ASM which will help while doing the rebalancing I shown a diagram one of the disk goes
offline automatically the data which is not available in another disk will get mirrored means you get a copy so that
rebalancing is done by 2 process 1 is called (( )) another is called ARB (( )) rebalancing processing another is ARB
agent for rebalancing so by default you will have only one ARB who is responsible to actually move the context one
to the other nothing but copying the content one to other whenever you do add a disk or a disk offline or anything
automatically rebalancing happens there. So by default you have only 1 ARB who do this movement of data or
copying data that was decided by this parameter ASM power limit by default ASM power limit value is one nothing
but only one ARB how many you can increase maximum up to 11, but having more ARBs will take more load and
more CPU and IO because process are trying to balance the data.
In ASM normal is nothing but R1 but R1 is nothing but
mirroring but you said that mirroring is not present in ASM
give this as clarity
Normal redundancy is same raid 1 yeah mirroring is available in that if you dont want mirroring in ASM you can
choose external, external means no mirroring we have 3 options external, normal, high external means no mirroring
normal means mirroring 2 copies high means 3 copies mirroring again.