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by Ruth Anne
The First
to Food and lts Preparation
The Golden
Age Banquet
from the Fifth Century
and Customs
and Alexandel
the Great
and the Symposium
and Flour-Based
and Condiments
for Bread
and Seasonings

rom he age of Achilles to Alexander the Grea: over housand years, and such
great span of history. And not just
the courtly history of battles, plagues, kings,
:},Iants, and great oratols, but also the plodding, daily history of common people
:r),ing make h most out of life.
can 1 back ancient Greek life through s epic and rride-ranging e-
.ure, which 1 subjects, including daily life, are explored. I h lieraure rre
:rd r,realth of information about ancient Greek meals, m hose hosed by he
\I1,cenaean kings to the fantastic banquets of the ls sovereigns of h Hellenisic
:. There are thousands of passages dealing with food and dining, eyerything fom
:iquette to menu planning. We are fortunate indeed h lms 1 h auhors of
::re Hellenisic age-geographers, storytellers, chroniclers of history poets, or,
:s of ], comic r.zriters-rrroie about food, banquets, and r,vine. (Inriguingly,
J most of hese rnrriters included voluntary purging as topic.) Other scholars
:ompiled books whose sole theme \/s he kitchen and s ingrediens. We have evi_
:ence of l over t\/enty ryorks specializing cuisine of rrhich, f,
handful have suryived.
, he most important and complete of the surviving texts is the rrork of Greek
.:holar, Ahenaeus. Leaving behind his native Naucrais g, Ahenaeus moved
Rome the second century B.c. to become the librarian of Livy Larensis, rich
:,rzen, descendent ofVarro, and the \/ of immense library. This job fur
lshed the scholar urith mavelous opportunity to compile, r,rih loving care, his
lmense rrork entitled The Deipnosophists (Deipnosophisae means
::eaiise dlvided into fifeen books and dedicaed his benefacor. Wh he pages of
lle Deipnosophists, rre not find the most deailed noes b Greek food
and cookery fm he imes of Homer forrnrard, but rre are also informed about horr
much and h rras served banquets elserrhere along the Mediterranean coast.
Indeed, lre curiosiy of Greek auhors did not end t the shores of their sea, but
exended he far reaches f h l world. Megasthenes, Greek author of the
Hellenisic era lvho arived India folloving Alexander the Great, described rrhat
he Indians e and h he food rras served. I his second book, Indika ("History of
india"), he recouns h h far-off land lor,r table was set nex to each guest,
and rvas placed golden bourl filled to the brim rrith boiled rice and number
of srongly spiced me sauces.This shor.rs that even the fourth century B.C.,Indian
food rras based curry sauces.
Megashenes \/ he h \/t of distant peoples and their eating
habis. I he many diverse examined by Athenaeus, authors discussed the foods
and banques of peoples from India to Spain: Celts, Germans, Thracians, Persians,
ancien Syrians, Egypians, and Parhians.They even cite the mysterious and (as far as
he Greeks \/e concerned) uncivilized Etruscans, heir rvritings, the
Alexandrian rheoricians and grammarians ridiculed the Phoenician habit of eating
smoked fish, criiqued h cumin, and disdained Babylonian apples; and rnrhile
hey commened unfavorabiy he immorality of he effeminaie men of Babylonia,
they effused over he luxury f heir dining habits. I sum, Greek r,rriers had
explored and commened h food, cooker gardens, farms, fisheries, leavenings,
and condimens of h ld, and Athenaeus, ereading and synhesizing the
e of hese r.rriers, brough h gastronomical
facts and stories together his
anthology, ma]or r.rork th is s interesting, fluid, and easy to read today.
Our knonrledge of Greek food and g habits begins rrith the Homeric poetic cycle:
The lliad and The Odyssey. h r.rorks of course attributed to the blind t,
Homer, b f h \/ distinct time periods, something that becomes abun-
dantly clear rrhen one examines the differences h habis of hearh and home
betrreen the t poems.
begin r,vith, The lllad, men sat d ea (Ahenaeus .ff ,),lrhereas he
reclining couch r,ras used The Odyssey; such couches were
he era
of The lliad. I the firs poem, daily life r,ras conduced r,vih grea simpliciy. dinner
beneath theTrojan rralls, the men ate chunks of beef roased over open fire. his
point history meat \/s ali,rays roasted; it seems that other cooking mehods
ee knolrn. Antiphanes, Middle Comedy poet, joked h Homer never had soup
b of boiled meat plepared for his heroes.
ryas so primitive," added the comic,
he even had tripe roasted!" Goat and lamb rrere also eaten, but Priam, after his
more heroic sons lrave died, bemoans the fact that the offspring he has left are
disgraces, he liars and the dancers, . . , the plunderers of their orn people their
land of lambs and kids" (J liad 4,6-6), all probability he rnras less indignant at
heir plundering h h idea h his sons \/ere g food fit l for r,reak
females: h heroes and defendes of the country should be eating l bloody steak
and undilued e, comestibles that r,rere thought to keep soldiers strong and render
hem fi and keen for be.
The heroes of the Trojan War also consumed great loayes of bread served huge
baskes. But, according to Athenaeus, bread \/as never served at dinner, meal that
consised of beef, As beveage, red and even black rnrine rnras offered expan-
sive cups-a fact that, given the enyironment, could be said to be heroic indeed.
Cheese is menioned, though rarely, but predominantly pastoral civilization it
is natural that cheese ras made and eaten. Grated goat cheese mixed r,rith
Pramnian rrine-red, full-bodied, and heavy-rras offered to the heale Machaon
by Nesor, after the former was urounded the shoulder. This mixture \/s apparently
hgh give the body special sustenance: forerunner, perhaps, of our modern
blood ransfusions. render it more palatable and empt the rrounded hero t
s it, Machaon rvas given munch betrreen gulps of rine (Iliad
Olive 1 rras also most important. It \/s then the basic seasoning for food and
remained so 1 h end of q, ruined palaces of this period-for example,
hose alleged be from h reign of Nestor at Pylos, going back thirty-three hundred
years-\/e find races of large doloi (vats) used to hold , as 1 as clay tablets the
ancien urriing sysem of Linear ht served for bookkeeping that remote era,
Alhough flsh filled h Medierranean Sea, then as nornr, and the people of the coast
harvesed grea q, fish dlshes are completely absent from the tables of the
Trojan\hr heroes. I is h Homer ignored iis existence: The lliad, he describes
he Hellespon as sea abounding fish. This fact itself preciudes the notion that
not so much as sardine \s to be found Greek hero's table. But Homer's
descripions lack fish, but fish products, as vrell as fruits and vegetables,
alhough among the common people such lood uras surely abundantly represented
at mealtimeS.
could be conjecured h such foods \/ t considered \th of the mythicai
god-heroes, h r,rere the suff of legend. It is rrell to remember that the gods,
according to mytholog dined exclusively nectar and ambrosia; this may have led
he pIesumpion h he heroes rrere nourished by elevated foodstuffs such as
bee bread, and srong wine. There is archaeological evidence that this god-king diet
rnras, f, also h choice oreal kings and their courts during this historical period.
the remains of the vast Mycenaean throne rooms, megalons-for example, those
Mycenae and of
at Pylos-there are signs h m
r,ras principal food of the 1 rnrarriors of the Bronze Age. Large, squat benches are
arrayed around immense hearths, capacious enough for entire ; there, elborr-to-
lb, h king and his cour migh personally prepare their suppers rrhile discussing
governmen affairs. Such grand hearhs r.rere hardly the place to poach filet of sole.
When \/ come to The Odysse r.re find that life had changed considerably since the
m of The lliad. According h latest ideas, The Odyssey is retelling of eighth-
de geste
into rvhich number of later elements rvere incorporated,
Certain habits persist: one ld have cooked and served mullet to Odysseus, for
l rvhen the beleaguered heroes face starvation, as h they are stranded
Slcily, forbidden eat the cattle that l grazed there, are they foced t eat f,sh
)J l-ssey .3-58).I fact, this Sicilian episode and the deer hunt the Circe
::isode ( ) are the times Odysseus and his cre\r Tesorted to fishing and
_lnting: mention of fish appeaIs elserrhere.
: oher respecs, the world that The Odyssey descibes longer resembles that of
.:eTroianWar. For one thing, the characters ] consume their meals sprarvled
.'le famed riclinium couches, which came use h seventh to eighth cen-
,-*r1, Furhermore, he Odyssean heroes \/ere surrounded by beautiful handmaidens
rrashed h hands before eating; neither of these things occurred The liad.
, _oriculure had come into use, at least at the basic level of cultivating barley and
Orchards appeared, such as those found Scheria, the land of the Phaeaclans.
example is he splendid and culivated garden of Alcinous, rrhich both fruit and
''or-ers grer. lthaca, Odysseus's aged father, Laertes, grerv his orvn vegetables and
.alad makings, The diet \/s more varied and although roasted meat continued to be
,::e principal food, t rras longer the protagonist at the banquet f this period:
,_:e monoonous and primitive carnivorous diet of earlier times had been supplanted.
greaer variey of foods began sholr even royal ables. he same m,
:ooking became more refined: after centuries of tossing eyerything the fire,
of cooking the main dish appeared. One reads, for example,
such as
:lose offered h beloved princes of Zeus," d
dishes of ypes"; iems
::ra could possibly be referring to the simpie, primitive pieces of bloody beef
:oased the great fireplaces of the megaron. Therefore, feasting must have become
:icher and more interesting, t
aimed at nourishing and strengthening the body,
also at giving pleasure to the palate and the stomach.
is likely that many of the basic oodstuffs preseni the Golden Age of Greece rrere
aiready found the homes of the Odyssean protagonists. Yet it rras the period
lmmediately folloiving the sixth century tha veitable reyoluion dining led
\/h \/e h of as he d classical meal. This dining style rvas to last, vrith
sligh variaions, for many cenuries and inrould constitute the most popular mode of
social entertaiment the end of classical civiiization.
During he Homeric epoch, here rrere obviously not the sort of recipes that Tequired
long 1 of ingrediens and insrucions: meat s throrvn the fire, 1 likeli-
hood rnrithout much added, even sprig of rosemary. Large baskes conained
mammoh loaves of bread-unleavened, since yeast \ras not yet use. It was basically
ough life, b hen heroes rnrere also tough, and doubtless they did not \/ much
about such trifles.
The classic Goiden Age banque found its beginnings the fifh cenury B.c.
longer ras fire-roased m h reigning dish. Rather, fish triumphed the kitchen,
becoming he main dish: procession f filet f bream, bass, tuna, and lobster vrith
array of mollusks: oystels, razor clams, sea urchins-as many as one could offer,
This ras he beginning also of h golden age f the fishmonger, rvho conquered the
markets of the great City-States.
It is the sea's bounty tha preoccupies one of the most expert gastronomes of the
Hellenistic world, he Sicilian r,rrier Archesraus of Gela. The mj of his
Hedupaheia ("The
J oys
of g") is devoted to rnrhere to find and h to cook the
bes fish; kind of early Michelin guide, giving t stars. But this is mere recipe
book or gasronomic guide: is epic verse, stylized heroic hexameter, so beau-
f and sonorous h Ahenaeus declared the Hedupatheia vras the poem that r,rise
men should cherish. Wh is more, it \Mas truly useful. Before instructing the reader
horr cook slice of tuna or make pie out of odds and ends, Archestratus gives
precious advice and oulines h\/ to organize elegant and lively
leaning offer proof Hellas. . . . Let dine at single daintily-furnished
be. There should be hree or four , or at most not more than five. Else rre
should presenly have f of freebooters, robbers of victuals" (Athenaeus I.4e).
Then he moves to discuss urhat should be presented t meal, Above , one
should forget the rrreaths for the guests'heads:
c\/ yourself urith
r,rreah of h flornrers that the h"ppy earth produces and perfume

hai urith
distilled ointment."
The vrreaths aTe not incidental detail, We see these crornrns guests' heads, both
ancien frescoes and every fllm that attempts to ftanspot us back to the ancient
world. They urere integral part of these gatherings and every guest \/ore one,
Obviously, there r.rere a]so the beautiful coronets of pure gold, novr seen museums,
hh urere buried rnrith their lavishly dressed o\/nels so the latter could paticipate
h aferlife banques, vrhich they fervently believed. hese lustrous jewels
did not have the necessary curative
that flol,rer and leaf rnrreaths offered; these,
urhen placed one's temples, r.rere thought to protect the rrearer from the conse-
quences of excess indulgence, due to their perfumed fragrances. It is true that such
rrreahs, paricularly he suave, coquettish ones made of roses and
ridiculous the heads of old
and scor,rling generals, and even more so
obese poliicians. They certainly iooked most decolative rrhen placed the curls of
handsome youth or beautiful girl. But el/en the old military men and fat politicians
used them to caim their headaches and guard against intoxication from too much
urine. One famous doctor, Triphonus, explained th the flornrer wreaths were sim-

ornamental, but served to r,rard off drunkenness, migraines, and other maladies.
The fresh, green cro\/n that Dionysus alrnrays \rore his head gave immediate
respie fm the heat of rine and even, perhaps by being pressed tightly against h
temples, from headache. Roses and violets also appear to have been beneficial: roses
urere consideed polerful sedative, lvhich could instantly cure h fiercest migraines.
Other ypes of crorrns might be prescribed for specific ailmens: hose of henna, sage,
and saffron, for example, favored sleep and provided lovely, restorative repose, -
ing the \/ urho had drunk too much to arnrake refreshed and rested, It rras also
important to vratch out for harmful ones, such as carnations, which caused headaches,
or for those made fm srveet marjoram, rnrhich numbed h mind. One had choose
one'S \/Ieath wisey.
So much for the ancient
of florrers," Appropriate r,rreaths urere handed
to the guests at every banquet; later , during dinne, perfumes rnrere also dispensed,
Betrreen flornrers and perfumes, the banquet hail must have been extremely fragrant,
b even his \/ enough for h ancients. The day before gathering rnras to take
place, he dining chamber was suffused rrith scent. Alchestratus $/rote:
day long ss myrrh and fankincense (the fruits of slreet-smelling Syria) the
sof ashes of he fire." One need read this to understand the need for good tight
c\/ of around the temples.
\Me have looked h dining habis of h heroic Mycenaean Greeks, and rre have
then heard he rnrise counsel that, nine centuies later, Archestratus gave to those rrish-
ing organize h ref,ned dinners h dominated the classical urorld. great deal
of m had passed since h Trojan \Mar. Everything r.ras changed; the customs were
enriched and reflned. There rrere, of course, different types of banquets; hey varied
according h social and inellectual siatus of the participants, the host's r.realth,
and the customs and laws the various parts of Geece. of these banquets are
described h pages ofAhenaeus, from the austere dinners of philosophers to
g uredding feass, from religious festivals to solemn traditions, from sedate
family meals h were h gynaeceum (whee the heads of families dined
h mohers, rrives, daughers, and close female relatives) to r.rild, libertine,
" repasts. ] short, there r,rere meals for tastes and incomes.
\Me .l first examine he everyday meal: the regular family dinner. There are many
examples of these meals porrayed figurative art: the men are comfortably stretched
heir , r.rhile h rromen are seated chairs at the margins of the
scene. I the rnrorld f Asia as rrell as Greece, \^/omen never ate reclining
position. For this leason, rrives and girl children are alrvays shornrn upright, r,rith
heads veiled, seated chairs \/h high backs and armrests, someiimes vrith foot-
stools. Clothing rras the ms corect imaginable and even the men, contentedly rest-
ing their left elborv, rrere clohed from neck to toes as they dined (the ancient
equivalent of rvearing and tie).
scenes found grave stelai are those that repesent life beyond the grave as
uninerrupted banquet.The eternal dinner was Ceremony Testricted to the
circle; strangeIs or foreigners appeared, ryhile each and every member of
_e household s atendance. Thus, entire families \/ere depicted with their eyes
red h dead, each rnrith cup hand, crorlded into the limited space of the
:larble relief, imes, rvhen the memorial stone s insufficiently large, the men of
:ie family appear packed like sardines, h the rromen, deprived of space and need,
_::g h habiual chairs, appear to be perched like sirange birds at one corne of the
,:ic]inium. rvas imperative, horrever, that eyeryone be included r,vithin the {m
.rd h 1 r,rives and daughters be correctly seated.
]reek males generally left their wives to dine rrith the children i,vhile the ree from
,1e cs of their loved ones, indulged the unfettered bonhomie of all-male
: gaherings. These gatherings took place the andron, large room dedicated
: J his purpose that rras positioned near the entrance of the androceum, the part of
house reserved for men only.The \^/omen f the house-motheIs, rrives, daugh-
,ers, unmarried sisters-could not enter the andron for reason vhaisoever, not
.\,en clean it rrhen it IMas empty. This does not mean, hoyrever, that the dinner
lacked female companionship.
]he rromen rrho lrere permltted to enter the andron did so paid basis. They
ncluded fluiss and dancers, but most importantly \m of the oldest profession.
These rromen, horvever, \/ere not Common Street prostitutes, but rather true Courte-
sans: ref,ned, beauiful, and very costly.They dominated the social life of ancient
Greece, playing role similar to that of the legendary
J apanese
geisha. of them
reil educaed and rrere even permited d he presigious philosophy
schools of h m, Given thei b and high spiris, r.ras easy for hem to estab-
lish close ies h heir professors, becoming r,vha d lre might euphemistically
rrith benefits." Such friendships geneally granted them exra evening
classes, vrhere h lessons covered h most varied subjec m. he end of their
sudies, hese beauiful creatures rrould be equivalen oday's d
candidaes, as urell as adept at their most lucrative skills-those of the boudoir-for
he chosen

s) iheir
of he
of hese
to expect
t was
as soon
of shedding
he sreched

of' his
few excepions,The
of chambe
of them

the end
of he
often fashioned out of precious metals, accompanied importan people and emperors
their nulnerous banquets. I fifth century
ceramics, \/ see hem represened
hands. Unfortunatel we also that chamber
\/ used for purposes
liher than the obvious ones. When too much lrine overheated he amosphere, and
,erain old arguments and puckish impulses arose, he
made perfec projeciles
,Dr those .h did t agree rrith the ideas being expressed.Aeschylus, one of his
.airical comedies, imagined the Homeric heroes so drunk h during dinner h
to break their pots over each others'heads (Ahenaeus .I7c), r.rhile Sophocles,
_r The Achaeans'Dinner-Guest, \/t:
burst of anger he threrr he unsavoury
:, and missed ; and my head the vessel smashed, breahing not of balsam,
ld h unlovely smeil smote me lvih frlght" (Ahenaeus .I7d).
can also point to anotlrer scene common to these specacles, fe shorvn
art and liteature: that of drunken men mg, lvih h aid of compii-
:r handmaiden. be f from such scenes \s one benefit of he fm vomen's
role t this time.
the courtesans, musicians, and dancers-male
or female-thee rvas yet
.:]othel inteestlng group ofpeople these feass: the
or pary-crashers.
rrere men who insinuated themselves into the feas, usually h ,
often found themselves rrithout couch, forced s he floor. The
stock character at ancient Greek banquets as \l as fodder for he comedies
f that era. Some of these hangers-on r,rere famous and even tolerated to large
because among their chaacteristics \vere tl for good conversaion,
.larp r.rit, and obliging nature. It is eviden h h hese gifs, such men
ouid find themselves alone and unable to sclounge meal. potential sponger,
this path, had to demonstIate
excepional sense of humor and lvill_
-]gness to seve-only the clever, fun, and useful men \/eIe suffered and e.
be mistake to think of the Greek sponger as figure rrho hoyered he
at banquet. the contrar he s always visible and forrvard.
dedicated good portion
of his sixh book he mos famous freeloades
Greece, men capable of doing anything assure admiance ryell_laden ble.
He liss seveal by heir picuresque
nicknames:Tlhymallus he
Greedy), Corydus
(the Skyark), the Goby, the Seed Pot, the Mackerel,
and the Litte e one
(Ahenaeus 6,z3sfi). One \ called Callimedon,
oherrnrise knorn as he Lobse
Cayfish); this one \/ So uridy fond of Crustaceans
that the Athenian fishmongers
proposed erecting bronze Statue of him, ete
triumphant, clutching obster
his fis.
Generally if hese parasies could commandeeI
couch, hey urere
above g he fee of gues, praciice Common enough h one comedy r,re
rnriiness young man of good connections
being ambushed by feeoader \he he
1 recining banque. The
e shake he inruder off, using every
excuse he can h of: he banque
is 1 b finished, he says, and hesides here is
be Space his couch for anyone ese. he
iS be discour_
aged. Wh race of embarrassmen,
he says,
\/: h' m
he e. I case," he concludes
f kind of guy,"
Plato Dinners: Logicall here were also iiterary suppels, as there are every age,
Dinners among phiosophers,
iimited to men l, r,rere different
fm hose
described above, aS one might expect. They vrere certainy fl of elet merit,
to be sure, bui one ges he sense h hey hardly sparkling,
t vrrote The Repub ic (37z,c) f the sort of dinner that the de citizens of the
future might share, austere me notaby lacking meat and fish. When his com_

Glaucon emaks h seemed h he \^,/eIe be served relishes he
austele meas, t contradicts
him: hey vroud be given such deiicacies as t, oives
(Recipe 6), and cheese, as e as m,
the wid hyacinth bubs that needed
great de of artifice to he them ose their bitte flavor and render them edibe
me, t assured G, $/aS to be finished ofrrith treats Such aS
frgs, chickpeas, and fava beans. Saed
rih such gasronomica
e, he guesS rrould
pass he me afer dinner, seaied around, he fire, roasiing me beries and acorns,
rvhie they sipped, obviousy great moderation,
\/ateIed r,rine. What more d
one ask of life?
,, Supper: Continuing the realm of philosophers, \/ have descripion of
_, .'l-r, equally sumptuous banquet given by Parmeniscus the Cynic. The dinne
., leld he home of Cebes of Cyzicus, during h feast of Dionysos inAhens
156-8). From ht r.re understand, there r.rere nine
Parmeniscus, there rras the o\^/nel of the house, plus six cynics, and Carneius
.:, rivers of lentil soup rere served (Recipe 5).They had barely finished it
another type of lentil soup arrived (Recipe I6);next came lenils seasonedrrih
::. t this point, one of the guests, being Cynic and herefore feeiing d
:cspise the shabbiness of life, had reached the end of his paience.
J umping
r-ith his hands upraised to the heavens, he prayed that Zeus .d punish he
responsible for drornrning them lentils.Tlvisting the knife furher, pres-
the host, h r,ras responsible for the misdeed, and one gues-joined
: .]e prayer. One Cynic, horrever, came to the defense of h lorvly , chiding
named Plutarch (not the historian Plutarch of later c):"e,

of fair Alexandria, Plutarch, have been brought food, and your
,,. is ll of lentil dishes" (Athenaeus
Certainly true, but probably also the
vhy poor Plutarch had had enough of them.
one should t belittle the lentil: this greatly economical legume played
:-,:or role feeding the less r.rell-off. It seems th he drar.rback rras h
:.Ll h iingered the eater's breath, lrhich some apparently (or perhaps apoc-
: :lraliy) tried to ameliorate by adding fragrances, Ss of Phoenicia gave hese
' ,:ds to his characte
J ocasta:
rrish t give

t\ some r,rise advice; .rhen

, . lenil-soup don't pour perfume" (Athenaeus

I6oc). Regarding fragrance
:.'1 soup, there s even Greek poverb, used rrhen one r,ranted to indicae h
lething has gone amiss. Thus, theatrical piece by Sopaer, characer exclaims,
of lthaca is here; as the saying goes, the perfume is the soup. Have
, xage, my soul!" case, ientii soup may have made for bad breath, but it
.:red he pulpose of filling the stomach, and lentil soup is alrvays very tasty. Let
forge h Esau transferred his birthigh
of lentils.
f 1 the ypes f banquets, the uredding banquet \/ the most
and {ee {m
restrictions, and rre 1 present pair of exampes.
One describes the rvedding dinner
of miser, r,rhie he oheI exempifies
marriage feas given by very eh mem_
ber of royal family, as open-handed
as the miser rvas penurious,
the comedy Unveiling of the Bride (Kock
a,64ad-e), Euangelus
pTeSenS the misery head of house as he orders his save about:
Father: td

to Set fou tabes for the rromen and six for the men; the dinner
is to be compete, and t thing must be acking. We \^/ant the wedding to be
bt one.You don't need to ask questions of anyone ese; ' te

thing, keeping my eye

the he. As to the f,sh,

shal buy lthe kinds

e; for tlre meat CourSeS

have got veal, young So\^/S, sucking_pigs,
Cook's boy (aside):What braggart this damned fellorr is!
Cook: there, Dromon!
Father: Lydlan sauce, some egg, nice meal-cake, , ,
The lredding feas hosed by Caranus \/ enirely differen sor of affair, banque
served according t the Customs of Alexander he Great's homeand. hat Countr
he bride and groom received gifs from friends, b he h also gave gifs he
guess. This cusom persised he l9oos, Greece and elseyrhele: guess ball
or grand dinner alr.rays ef vrih SouveniT.
he gifs parceled he parici_
pants Caranus's banquet \/ere mere trinkets,
Tureny guess-a selec and arisocraic
group-came to this littie feast, rryhich rras
desined go dovn hisory, Everyhing
abou / e\/h and exraordinary,
and described grea del Ahenaeus's
fourth book: the luxurious furnish-
lngs, he richness of he foods and \/ines, he eeme h brighened he meal,
and, above l, he gifs offered he guess.The
distrlbuion of these trifles began
i.mmediaely; indeed,, he guess had barely sprar.rled heir couches vrhen each
gift of silver cup, as well as golden c\ of inestimable value h lra
he guest's head arrival.The rain of precious gifts seemed never
:.:c: having barely emptied their cups, they vrere each offered bronze Corinhian
, ompletely covered lrith a large loaf of bread. Arfuliy placed on op of he bread
::- chickens, ducks, doves, geese, and every kind ofmeat. Each guest accepted his
:.'. of food and, after tasting the delicacies, passed lrem heir d slaves.
he next course s served, and each guest \/s presented dth anoher large
].::, this time silyer and covered urith focaccia (Recipe ), ivhiclr were dis-
roas kid goats (Recipe ), geese, specially and individually designed sand-
h pigeons, doves, parridges, and other wild game. Once again, after the
_.ss sampled these dishes, tlrey r.rere passed to the slayes. Wherr he guess had
:.:- h fill, h rrashed their hands,
:}s point, each guest s offered flora1 cro\\In, b render he gif more las-
each rras also given another golden cro\yn, as heavy and valuable as he firs.Then
various toasts. The guests rrere oyerrrhelmed by the excitemen, and even more
the flutists, singers, and Rhodian sambuca players enered. The girls appeaed
be naked, but may merely have been dressed very transparen unics, When he
_:ists left, succession f ner-r girls arived, each carrying
one silver, he
:,irer gold, held together by golden band and cg lier of perfume. These
.-so rrere given to the guests. After this, huge, heavy, gold-plaed silver rays arrived,
:lch bearing pig stuffed with 1 sorts of delicacies: thushes, ducks, rrarblers, h
lvith egg, oysters, and perirvinkles. As alrvays, each gues uras given his ,
.:and his pig. Then follorred boiled kid g precious plaes for each e
,,lme, addiion to golden spoons.
then, as the guests asked themselves h they could manage carry home such
:jl arlay of gifts, Caranus ordeed his servants give his friends baskes and chess for
.re bread; the chests lrere fashioned from thin srips of ivory. The delighed guess
.rpiauded. Immediately, another gold crovn and more perfumes jars
:S costly as the previous gifts. Then follorred the ms lively enerainmen, ihyphallic
dancers ( honor of Dionysos), clor.rns, and nude acrobats, rvho peformed r,rith h
sharpest of sr,rords r.rhile spouting fire from their mouths.


over. I continued grand style: gifts of gold cups and r.rines
{m Thasos, Mende, and Lesbos r,rere passed out, immediately follor,red by crystal

for each gues. This

\/s t\/ cubits (8 cm) diameter and rnras sup-
ported beneath by silver , full of every type of fish and seafood imaginable
(Recipes 6-+9) \/h came yet more silver baskets, with loaves of Capadocian
bread. When h guess had morsel, they passed the rest t the siaves. Again,
h washed their hands, and, pampered, \/ere plesented rrith yet anoher
golden cup, his one as heavy and valuab]e as the others. With it came another
double vase of perfumes for each guest.
They began drink earnest. One of the guests called for gallon-sized cup, had
fllled rnrih Thasian urine urih barely drop of rrater added, and promptly drank t
dorrn, saying,
more one drinks, the f oe's \/s." Caranus, full of admira-
tion for this feat, gave him h cup and offered to do the same for urho follored
suit. tried and succeeded except for one. The lailure sat and \/ept at his lack of suc-
cess, but his host consoled him by giving him cup \^/.
Meanwhile, he m continued as hundred-man chorus sang wedding
song, follor.red by dancers dressed as Nereids and nymphs. Time passed pleasantly and
night fell. Suddenly the r.rhite linen curtains that surrounded the room flerr open. The
amazed guests rrere reaed to remarkable scene: against the dark background of the
garden, statues appeared representing Cupids, Dianas, Pans, and Hermae, and each
held t orch. As the guests marveied at this sight, they rrere each served large lrild
boar laced h silver filigree and arrayed square, golden platter. For rhaever
reason, either the beauty of h presentation the gift itseli this last and most unex-
peced gf

h guess h highest of spirits. Meanwhile, h slayes sarted
to pTepare for the Teturn home, packing the gifts into the ivory chests. The guests
arraited the Macedonian cusom of trumpets heralding the close of the banquet. Yet,
still they drank, but nornr from small cups, r.rhile comedian enteltained them. Finally
more ivory chests arrived, this time urith desserts-s\/eets of types from Cretan to
, . :,_,an-each pesented elegant box, much as sugared almonds are doled out at
ltalian and Greek weddings.The guests, grateful and overioyed, bid heir hos
. :-bl,e, i,vishing him the best from the bm of heir hears.
ro surprise, then, t hear that Hippolochus the Macedonian, one of the guess,
:. . detailed account of the banquet letter to his friend Lynceus, rvho had had
::ai-behind inAthens (Athenaeus
former teased the latter saying
rlrile Lynceus remained atAthens to celebrate the Lenaean festival, eating the tra,
, _, feast day bread, flavored rvith arugula and thyme, Hippolochus and his fellorl
carried \/ fortune from Caranus's banquet instead f trifling por-
, s, and are \^/ looking for houses or lands or slaves to buy"
:::l not 1 meals r.rere ivedding feasts, and the fare offered at cheery dinner
, iriends rryould be less elaborate. Regardless of h size of h meal, vas generally
to be mindful of expenses.
ourth-third century poet Alexis, Crateus, or The Apothecar gives us example
during his time, lrould have been considered simple menu, as rryell as
rfer the spur of the moment to those defined Greek as
of sl and
:ins"; that is to say, those intimate fiends urho rryou]d share meal of
beans and
. : of salt. I this comedy, one f he characers liss h he finds h marke
,::pare for such meal:
First, then, 1 spied oysters, r,vrapped searveed, the shop f o1d of the
Sea, and sea-rchins
8]; grabbed them; for they are the prelude to
daintlly ordered dinner. Next, came some t fish, trembling for
fear of what rvas t happen to them. But bade tlem have fears as far as was
concerned, promising that .ld'harm sing}e one, and bought large
greyfish. Then took elecric ray-fish
[Recipe 38],
being mindful hat rlhen
lady lays tender fingers it she mst suffer hurt from its thorny
touch. For the frying-pan 1 got some wrasse, sole, shrimp, jack hake, gudgeon,
perch, and sea-bream, and made the dlsh gayel than peacock. Then came some
meats-feet, snouts, and svrines'ears
9], and liver rvrapped caul; for
it is ashamed of s ovrn livid coior. professional cook shall come neal these,
even them. He will rue it, let me tell
Raher, shall myself act
as stervad, so cleverl so smoohly, and elegantly (yes, 1 shall make the dish
myself), tlrat shall cause the feasters novr and then to push their teeth into the
plates for very joy.The prepalation and composition of these foods am ready
to disclose, proclaim, and teach for nothing if anybody rrishes to learn, (Kock
.33; Athenaeus
Thus, have menu consising of seafood antipasto, boiled or roasted frsh, fried
fish, mixed grill, and, finally bit of liver net. What's more, \ find generous
cook, rrilling to shaTe his secrets.
Sometimes host spared expense and filled the table th unending variety of
dishes, From ht have read, ure note that Greek banquet betr,een the fifth and
fourth centulies B.C. \/s extremely serious dining experience, ,th so many and
such variety of offerings that even if one merely tasted ht r.ras offered, one rnrould
haye have superhuman t to reach the end, Philoxenus of Cythera

called The Banquet (PlG

3.6o;Athenaeus +.|+6-47)
lists more than thirty-five courses.
Even if many of these servings consisted of bread, sandrriches, focaccia, the list of
offerings was enough t make even Gargantua and Pantagruel blanch.
And slayes brought us table with i.el1-oiled face, another for others,
rrhile other henchmen bore third, until they filled the chamber. The tables
glistened the rays of h high-slvinging iamps, feighted rvith trenchers and
condiments delectable cruets, fuli. . . and luxuriant divers artful inventions
to pleasure life, tempting lures of the spirit. Some slaves set beside us snowy-
topped baley cakes baskets, vrhile others (brought ioaves of r,,heat).After
them flrst came t ordinary tureen, my love, but riveted vessel of huge
size; . . . glistening dish of eels to break our fast, full of conger-faced morsels
l lrould delight god
[Recipe 3I].After
this another pot f the same size
caIne , and soused ray operfect roundness.There rrere small kettles, one
containing some meat of shark
[Recipe 3],
another sting-ray
[Recipe 3].
-\other rich dish here rvas, made of squid and sepia-polyps rvith sof enacles
[Recipe 7].
After this came grey mullet hot from its contact h fire, the
lhole as large as the table, exhaling spirals of steam,Afer this came breaded
squid, my friend, and cooked pra\\Ins done brourn. Foliowing tlrese we had
flor,ver leaved cakes and fresh confections spiced, puf-cakes of wheat h fros-
ing, large as the pot.This is called the
of the feast" by

and me. Last
}rere came-he gods are my wltnesses-a monstrous slice of t
baked hot, from over the sea where it r,ras carved lvith knives from the meatiest
part f the belly
:-,-lrenus Continues his description of the meats and others CourSeS Served, So
_::lerous that the poet lost count, listing them one after the other inerminable
_:,- og: enrails, tripe, , and leg of domesic pig, kid gs cut hali the legs,
::,. ribs and head of pig (Recipes 4 and 5), and filet flavored rrith silphium
e\tinct plant also used medicinally). Nor did s here, because h narraor
..':es that rrhen these morsels were gone, the containers were rrithdralyn and
:::aced by others:
and lamb, boiled and roast, and sweees morsel f under-
:le enIails from kids and lambs mixed, such as the gods loye, . . . jugged hare, and
cockerels, and many hot portions of partidge and ring-doyes \/ere \/
..,shly laid beside us. Loaves of bread there rvere, light and nicely folded; and com-
:.:roning there came also yeiloinr honey and curds, and as for cheese...." And
,:h hs, and thankfully, the banquet ended and h guests
their hands.
'.:ge amounts of food, but one does not hear mention of vegetables, either
_, lked or Iaw, s\/eets or fruits, erren though these exised and vzere consumed
,'' good quantity. From citations of fifth-century Greek auhors rnre have record of
rich fruits and vegetables r.rere sold the Greek market of the era.
Greeks gaheIed ogeher feas, b they did not eat the same things nor did they
e he same syle everyr.rhere. Greece, fact, r.ras divided into its numerous city-
e, each

and economically independent of-and often enemies vrith-
he ohers, This independence exended to the f gastronomy and the rules
for producing one's banques. We read Diphilus's TheWomanl4/ho Left Behind Her
Husband (quoed inAhenaeus
Kock .545) th he cook, before choosing
menu, asked rrhere he guess r.rere {m. The head of the house impatiently asked
h he devil difference d make, rhich the chef explained that there
rrere differeni aSeS and manners the various cities of Greece and that to be able
please he guess, he needed t knoyr rnrhere they came from.Thus, learn that
he people f Rhodes above allloved eating
sheat-fish" (shad?) or lebias (
unidenified fish) and hey expeced be served hot, Byzantium, the other
hand, he made everyhing soup and seasoned it with quantities of absinthe
(bs), garlic, and s.
Menander his hs (again, quoted Athenaeus
32e; Kock
his fm. I his comed rrhen discussing rvhat to offer foeigner for dinner,
one of he speakers said h one had to . lrhere guest came from because it
rrould make difference h chef For example, those coming from h Greek
islands \/ accusomed g great dea1 of fish of 1 kinds, but they ate it fresh,
of h sea, and rrere herefore
at atiracted to preserved fish." If they were
obliged h uray, h rvould do so unrnriilingly; they vrould prefer
meas and highly seasoned dishes." The Arcadians, the other hand, perhaps because
he lived far from he sea, rere fascinated rrith anything marine, especially biyalves,
rhile the lonians appreciated hearty rich foods
provoke desire."
These remarks make sense if one undesiands that each city made shor.r of disap-
proving 1 that pertained to s rivals, and that each city made fun of the others.
Regional criiques, above hose made by the comedic dramatists, \/ not just
based h cusoms f each poiis but also the characteristics of its citizens. These
could be highly g and everyone took part, laughing at the Athenians,
SpaItans, theThebans, and even the Greek colonials of Syracuse andTaranum alike,
centered the regional characteristics, the preferred food choices, and h
,es and caprices of each group, and one \/s spared. Let us examine these
succession, starting with mythic Athens, the cradle of civilization and .
,\thenian menu \/s the butt of many dramatists' jokes. From their r.rritings, rve
.--.]\\-that lt rvas composed of series of bite-sized tastes, diverse but small.This cus
perslsts even today. One needs to go to l and ask for , the anise-
_.-.,ored Greek liquor, to find that one geis seies of d bies h h drink, he
=inber and quality f the offerings depending the level of he establishment. Even
]]: h recent past, Greek prohibited esablishments from serving ht
.. serving food. remember open-air locale remotest Crete, where the tables
left over from the last urar-huge, round barrels h once held fuel for h
-::rerican fleet. There, seated under the stars, we ordered glasses of and r,vached
.. he rraiter arrived, staggering under the rveight of large tray, rvhere, besides our
.:eriii there r,rere numerous plates heaped wih such foods as he Greek comedic
]:amatists lrrote about tr.renty-five hundred years ago. The menu had not changed
,-:rce the age of Pericles. t vas delicious \/ to pass afernoon, but it rras ce-
. meal t satisfy. Nevertheless, this repast, today

f h Greek aperiif if
::ultiplied several times over, d have constituted the entire ancient Athenian meal.
l-early one can assume bit of exaggeration the part of h comic r,rriers, and
:robab}y such skimpy fare rras more characterisic of eaeries h privae
.'omes. But for those rrho did not \/ home, this s rrhat the market offered and
,le comedianAlexis fromTunis, his Running Mates (Athenaeus
had t said
: ] one of his characters that he ought hire he l bes cooks h , because,
_rending t invite guest from Thessaly, he did \/ expose said gues h
.,,pical Athenian offeings:
must t strech h genleman he rack f famine by
.:ingily setting before him each little dish separately."
\long the same lines, Lynceus, The Centaur, makes fun of h dinners and heir
:umerous minute portions, so small that they rvould not even be shared r,rith friend:
Potron: For he cook sets before

large tray rvhiclr are five small plaes.
One of these holds garlic, another pair of sea-urchins, anoher sr,ree urine
sop, another cockles, he last sma]l piece of sturgeon. While am eating
his, another is eating that; and rvhile he is g th, have rrrade arvay
thls. What lvant, good sir, is both the one and the other, but my rvish is impos-
sible. For have neither five rrrouths nor five right hands. Such - as h
Seems to offer variet bu is hg at lto Satisfy the belly. For simply
bespatter my lips, don't fill them. What, then, lrave
Cook: lot of oysters.
Patron:You selve me plate of them, l by itsel{ and small one, eiher. Have

Cook:Yes, ofthese

shall have second coulse. For bought them myself,
fourpence (S obols) wolth.
Patron: This hen is the one dish

shall serve by lself ha l may e alike-
not one thing, my companion another (Athenaeus
I3If-I3zc; Kock
Given these examples, it does not seem likely th Ahenians el. I f, severa
the Athenian dinner as eyen \^/orse than h of h ausere Sparans. I
dePended, moleover, the historical moment that the auhor e b. The
Athenian dining rvas probably under h rule of Solon (sixh-sevenh
B,C.), harsh legislator \/ho set sftict limits every form of luxury. He even vrroe
that one should serve economical, rustic barley bread dinner: he bread
r,nras condoned special occasions. Solon did stop here: he imposed he
citizens absolute prohibition
the purchase of impors. His fel, ciizens
him at his rvord; they t observed his laws, bu caried hem he

absurditY. Chrysippus his tract Pleasure and Good (Ahenaeus
ec h
the lYceum and the academy there rrere $/ d banques held every year.
Once, cook for one of these feasts dared t carry casserole dish desined for
Some other use, and the indignant sufferers, beiieving h he cook g of
smuggling, broke the dish into pieces. hs food dish reprsened he
of extravagance that Solon had banned, though h could be seen as
about baking dish remains mystery today. Cerainly rvas more reprehensible
:len cook, preparing dinner,
fashioned some salted meat to like
. :sh. This cook s flogged
playlng the impostor h his over-refinement."
: {RTA
,:e Sparans rvere alrvays the preferred target of types of comedians. Even tdl
:]en his ciy is menioned, one hs of he srict larnrs drafted by Lycurgus, tlre
.:sh Sparan life syle, and the famous and infamous communal table, the l place
: ,r hiclr males might take heir meals. Obligatory dining, yes, but not free;
he communal bl had nothing whatsoever to do rrith modern ideas of social
: rellare s. Thele \/s help for those urho did not rrork and could not be use-
_^. he community. t s mandated that equal portions \/ given to t meals
.:ld rras furher required that 1 participants rryould cover the expenses for the
:lairenance and upkeep of the communal table. Everyone contributed equall giving
liers of barle forty-trvo ]iters of rvine, plus certain quantity of cheese
..,d figs, and rvas also expected that each

the sum of ten Egypiian obols tor.lard
,le purchase of meat. Men could add somehing extla, as gf to he mm
. , could be purchased goods: animals h had raised or game hey had
_.rured hemselves.Those rrith flocks gave lamb and goats; others gave ringdoves,
..ese, urledoves, hrushes, blackbirds, or rabbits.The cook, rrhen serving these
:erings, announced the name of t one lrho donated it, and the donor probably
rrell-deserved round f appiause for his patriotism.
_:e daily fare was
and sparse. I rras lised full by Dicaearchus his Tripoliticus
GH z.z4z,;Ahenaeus
I4Ib):barley bread, slice of boiled pork that could not
eigh more h etto (one quarer of pound), to rvhich rras added the broh
:m boiiing he meat, and sometimes they even had olives (Recipe 6), cheese, and
figs, and rrhatever roasted meat the donors brought. top f this, they drank
. of rvine.
he end of his delicious repast, the young boys lvere given extra bit of food,
_nanced by h rrealthiest citizens, whi]e the

\/ere compensated by being
.,lowed to take portion of reeds or stra\/ to reinforce their drrye]lings. The boys' extra
:rion of food consisted f barley flour (imagine something like polenta), flavored
\/th , and the young boys avidly ate it with added bay leaf Cherving bay leaves
t the end of meal was pleasure not just reserved for the
b ancien
Geek habit. Callias (or Diocles) wroe, The Cyciopians:
come he dish of leaves,
hh means end to dinners and our dances as rryell" (Athenaeus
(Who d be able to dance such diet rrill alr.lays remain me.) Today
seems truly Sftange that the tough bay leaf rrould be attracive desser, b back
then they picked it clean.
Often these Spartan communal meals rrere dominated by famous black soup-a
local specialty as characteristic of Sparta as

is of Naples and saf{on-flavored
Iisotto is of , This dark soup seems have had disagreeabie flavor. As
relates his life of Lycugus, certain king of Pontus d sample his soup
and he sen for S chef to prepae . The king had barely put the spoon his
mouth rrhen he grimaced r,vith disgust. The cook let it be h rras his
fault hat h monarch did like h soup:
t make this broth relish,

should haye bathed yourseif first the river Eurotas"' that is, Spara's river. I seems
that the rest of the Spartans not sd hs soup, b h pleasure and
added their bread to it, g it black as coal.
Besides their food, Spartans rrere also pilloried for their s and ignoance.
Exemplary of such sport is he of Spartan i.rho, finding himself more
refined cit rvas invited to sumptuous supper, The antipaso

rvas heaped h
foods completely to him, including beauiful sea urchins (Recipe s),The
unschooled youth took one and, f of his surprised, amused, and incredulous
fellorr guests, put he r,rhole sea urchin his mouth: egg, shell, sharp spines, and
1l. Naturally \/th his first bite, he found himself arvkrrard
b, being
Spartan, he could not faler. Struggling to keep his composure, he continued to
cherry h lricked hing until he desIoyed it completely. Triumphant, though agony,
he declared:
malicious animal.You did not g me. I l, me! one hg
is certain, the future never eat another sea urchin." Never rras \ more
truly respected,
\/ said to be the most tight-fisted of the Greeks and heir meals rrere
:..,:ibed as truly miserable.The historian Cleitarchus, h firs book of his hisory
, ,:_,exander, relates that whenThebes r.ras destroyed by that king, h ciy's collecive
:, h \/s iess than
talents. Perhaps his vas the reason for their frugal meals.
, _ .ir suppers \/ scraped together fom thrion (stuffed fig leaves) (Recipe ),
- ,_<ed vegetables, anchovies, little fish (Recipe 9), sausages, ribs, and bean
::idge. This rras exactly rvhat Ataginus, son of Phrynon, served t h Persian
and fifty of his military men, r,rhen h former d hem his house.
,.archus rvrote gleefuliy:
believe that
Persians] could not have won the
and that the Greeks need not have met them battle-array at Plataea, seeing
, :,: hey already had been done to death by the food" (Athenaeus
,-_Tarantum (modern ranto) the tl coast, by cs, life q agreeable
the food s excellent.TheTarantans did bother pinching pennies and h
every day. Once month public sacriflces rrere made and the victims' roasted
,-._-t \/s eaten, bu even othe days the people \/ere t paricularly
.:, citizens poduced succulent dinners.TheTaantans f ht, r,vhile other men
: rnsidered it necessary to amass riches t l them to live luxury someday,
,:Iantans did not waste time:
themselves, th their parties and heir pleasues,

off living, but live already" (Ahenaeus
h Great (;s6-368 l,c.), one enters the Hellenisic era and
:\g and rich yorld. fact, not much is known about he dieary habits
lf Alexander except for his passion for apples, especially hose from Babylonia
youth \s rrarrior: young, good-looking, stIong
.nd capable of enduring hunger and thirst r.rithout turning hair, b also one r,vho
driven to the rvorst excesses, even rrhen he rras stili boy.This is demonstaed
he battle of the apples, rrhich Alexander and his friends filled h b h
the frui, shoved off, and using hm as projectiles, improvised lively b.
one died, but there rnrere plenty of rrounds,
Alexander may have loved good, healthy apples, but he also loved less innocuous
item: lvine. It is said he drank pure and huge quantities, ofen ending h-
oughly dunk. This vice rras blamed for both his early deah and his sexual indiffer_
ence-a failing that, hourever, did not preclude him from marrying Roxane, Oxyares'
daughter, and fathering child by her. Neverheless, rrhen Alexander moved Asia, he
left his .f behind, b he permitted his men's misresses sup and drink wh h
menfolk. t s at one of these drunken, mixed-gender enertainmens h em'
celebrated Athenian mistress, Thais, convinced Alexander to set fire Xerxes' palace.
There r.rere gleat many magnificent banquets Alexander's life. Sometimes so
many people \/ invited that there was not enough room fo hem repose
couches, and the guests ended sitting. But even these cases-as, for example,
the banquet serving over six thousand officials-the meals rvere splendid and he
guests had seats made of silver. The expenses for dinners h he offered his friends
lrere fantastically high: more than one hundred minas r.rere expended feed
seventy people. Given that mina rras r,rorth roughly
kilos of siiver, he cos
pe guest r,ras b 6-7 kilos of silve.
Alexander's fiends \/ less extravagant and hey shorved above rvhen he
invited the young conqueror dine. Agaharchides of Cnidus his Affairs
tells us that one such host had all the dessers wrapped gold leaf, Every
time the guests took one, they peeled off and tossed he gold he floor h h
other garbage to shorr their admiration for such extravagance. db he slaves
profited from this display of casual extravagance as h h deluxe garbage.
Needless to say the average person did not spend as freely his ms as
did Alexander, Menander, his comic

Drunkenness (or The Carouse), calculaes h
1arge banquet cost about one alent (Allinson
4oz;Athenaeus 4.
146 d-e):
our prosperity accords not urith the vray rrhich offbr sacrifice. For hough
he gods bring offering of tiny sheep bough for drachmas

g of silver, or U.S.
$z-8],and glad am to get so cheap;bu for flue-girls
and perfume, harp-girls, Mendean andThasian rrine, eels, cheese, and hone he cos
is almost talent
drachmas]." Menander speclf,es neiher h number of guess
nor the type of banquet, but talent (6 kg f silver) v,,ould be roughly equivalen
lour or five thousand U,S. dollars. Even today, for recepion or dinner for 100 150
guests, one could spend about this mt-wh, , he giri-fluiss, girl_
or fragrances. I rrould say that vrell-heeled hs of d d compre_
1end hese prices and see them as compalable .
bills, often horribty inflated, \/ he subjec of
hen as .
_ comedy called The with Cataract (Apeglaucomenos)
byAlexis (Kock .366;
\/ see customer r,rho refuses t

his share of social lunch if
:ae innkeeper does not
the bill iine by line. The scene seems demonsIae
, such gaherings there are those urho use the group's good faith profit hm-
.elves, as rrell as those rnrho are naturally mistrustful.
If . . .

don't render me account of each item deail,

shall not get from me trvelfth part of farhing.

say is reasonable. Bring counting-board and counters.
Name the items.
R. salt fish, f,ve farthings
: Mussels, seven farthings.
haven't cheated yet. Next!
sea urchins, ha'penny
conscience is still clean,
that wasn't there the cabbage rvhich

loudly praised?
it was really good.
paid penny for that.
Wh rvonder, were \ so loud praising it?
The cube salt-fish cost three ha'pence.
bargain, indeedl And for the endive

haven't charged
single penny!
don't know, simpleton, the state of the market, and h he
rreevil have eaten green salads.
So that's rvhy

have charged double for the salt-fish?
The fishmonger is to blame; go and ask him. Next come the conger eel,
five pence
That's t much! Name the next.
bough h baked fish for shilling.
! Like felrer-it leaves one, then rises high again.
Add the vine, of which procured more rnrhen

were drunk; three
bottles, at five pence
obols] the bottle.
According mh, grapevines, and consequently rvine, \^/ere the gifts of Dionysos.
This god hailed from Egypt, where vineyards rere already under cultivation by
B.c. some

Dionysos sailed for Greece, carrying the precious grapevine
r,rith him. Legend holds that during the journey, the divine ship uras i^,raylaid by
pirates, h bound h handsome young god chains. the
of the pirae
ship recognized the supernatural ladiance of the captive, and he begged his com-
panions offend h soliary sailor, but . So much the rnrorse for them:
Dionysos burs his chains and urned h offending pirates into dolphins. Archaeol-
ogiss have unearhed beauiful ceramic cup from the sixth centuly B.c, representing
his mh: h god seers he ship, rvhose main mast is tr,lined rrith huge vine hang-
ing ,h gIapes, rrhile h pirae-dolphins leap the rnraves.Thus Dionysos came to
the shores of Greece and introduced his plant and his rline,
Men such liking his beverage, fa stronger than today's , that they soon
began poison hemselves h . Greek authors relate that many early imbibers
ended dead, crazy or alcoholic under the influence of pure r.rine. Herodotus \/t
that the Spartan king Cleomenes, having lived among the Scythians, sa]/age
devoed srong drink and herefore to drunkenness, had begun to drink like
,:)e savages and gradually rvent mad from (Hisory 6.84).Thereafer, every me he
: _.:s rranted to be served something stlonger, they ordered the wine merchan
.:_ake 1 like h Scythians" (Athenaeus o.4z7b-c).There
rrere many rvho
],: Scyhians," t the least of whom rras the young heroAlexander
the Great
-' , after s introduced, man had already begun abuse and like mad-
,.::r, t s when man learned to dilute the wine th became as sae as
.:asing.The ancient lrriters gave several different explanations for h r,vine came
le diluted. According to one version, expounded by Phiionides his rrork Perfumes
(Athenaeus .675-), Zeus himself inervened save he alcoholics.
_,da group of men r,rere drinking strong rvine by h sea rrhen sudden sorm,
.'': by Zeus, burst them. They fled t nearby cave, leaving he remains of heir
behind the beach. \/hen
the storm \s over, he men found h he rain
-": filled their half-empty \/ goblets.This lyatered rvine, h found, rvas l
,d drink bu above l better for them. From then , at h beginning of sym-
.iun or rine-drinking ceremony, each guest \^/as given mouhful of pure rvine
.alute Dionysos, the giver of wlne: but thereafer, as h began drink dilued
,_le, h hanked Zeus the Sayior.
inother version, the Athenian king Amphictyon learned h mehod from Dionysos
._rself. The king thereafter erected statue
( is, falling-dor.vn
::,:) Dionysos at h m of the Seasons (Ahenaeus z,38c-d) and near his
.:ue he installed t to the Nymphs, h are called
t nurses of
lnysos," to remind the devotees that rrine should be tempered h .
-.lenaeus, "I
daily intercoulse, to those h mix and drink
..,,es good cheer; but if

overstep the bounds, it brings violence" (.36).
-.',r-as, therefore, \/ith diluted lrine that Greeks finished heir banques and began he
This classic after-dinner festiviy of snacking and rrine-drinking began
:h he election of
sort of master of ceremonies, part psycholo,
.,s and part social director. good symposium facilitator essenial evening's
,.cess. He r.ras supposed to help sTenghen exising friendships among h guess
and inspile e\/ ones. He rras to keep firm contoi of the conversation and head off
Ce . Fl, h Symposiarch r,ras arbiter of the number of toasts and the
d of he . I rras bes if h elected one had first-class medical knornriedge,
so h he mgh calculae hovr h rnrine rrould affect the diverse guests: the aim r.ras
that one should get so drunk that arguments and disorder ensued.
Various calculaions rrere used for diluting r,rine: formula of half rnrater and half
rrine judged be dangeous (Athenaeus .426). Other common dilutions
\/ere he
(hree parts \/ to t\/ parts \^/ine);the
(tro parts \/ater to
one of lvine);and fi he
(hree parts \/t to one of rrine). But everyone,
Pluarch included, found h hs last formula made the \e too r,reak drink, and
good for wise judges (or so the story goes).
The symposium leade needed ensule that the numbe of toasts did not exceed the
number of empied cups. According Ahenaeus, the temperate person limited him-
self hree dilued cups: one for h st, one for love, and one for dreams. At that
h m man home. Those r,rho stayed longer knevr that the fourth cup
led violence, h fifh rornrdiness, h sixth to happy drunkenness, the seventh
laugher (he Greeks called hs
black eyes"), the eighth to policeman, the ninth
biliousness, and h h s and the smashing of furniture (Athenaeus
I .36b-c).
One sory l f group of young men from Agrigentum vrho had surely arrived at
he eh cup and probably did s there. This group gathered one day for dinner
and began drink h . After rryhile, the world began to spin about
hem and h somehoyr could get to their feet. They seized the notion that
hey r.rere rireme caugh terrible storm and that the to avoid ship-
r,rreck \^/as iighen h b. Saggering to their feet, they began to throrr the furni-
ure he rrindorv. Naurally h racket drernr cror,rd, rrhich rrasied time
making off th the items flung onto the street.
When h auhoriies came he scene to investigate, they found the lads still under
h influence and sl convinced h h \/ imperiled trireme. Moreover,
h arrival of he strangers, striding across h seemed h ipplers be sea of
ossing \/aves, convinced them that they rnrere the presence of supernatural beings.
Befuddled as they were, hey could say that he marine m lvas rvreaking
]avoc their ship and to save themselves they had been obliged
he excess
;argo. Turning respectfully t the speechless magistrates, one youth explained,
r,ras so frightened h ] hide h hold and have
noved from there,"
lhe magisates realized there rras
arguing and they began depar. But
lefore they reached the door, the young men
hemselves h elders' fee,
.olemnly srvearing that if they vrere suffered to escape his errible sorm and make
rort, they urould raise altar honor of these, heir savior sea gods. Afer his
.pisode, the house r.ras foevermore as
, his tale serves to illustrate horv important it \/s h he symposiach be very e-
.i\-e t both the dilution of the ,e and the number of oass. cerain number of
:oasts \^/ere obligatory. But those days, toasts were not made honor of present
:ompany; they urere made honor of the gods or, as often aS t, Some personage
everyone admired, Theophrastus rrites his treatise drunkenness h
]ecause antiquity it s not customary to s h healh of anoher, r.las by
Ieans of the
that lovers found \/ honor heir beloved. Koabos rras
drinking game, urhich the dregs of cup r,rere flung g, usually
to Theophrastus:
Tnitially one toasted the gods . I those days the kottabos was the tool by
which lovers honored each other. I act, hey were assiduously devoed his
game, about vrhichAnacreon of Teos \/t:
hands ied gehe we

the Sicilian kottabos"

From then , alt of he ancien poems h rle
(cheerful goup songs) ae full ofreferences
this game]; I refer
he poems tha Pindar composed (PtG

. .
pleasure of love is
inspired by Aphrodite, while ] am intoxicated h Chimaros r,rine and hrow
the kotabos for Agathon."
exPlained hovr this game \/s played his Hidden from Aphrodie (Ahenaeus
: This here is the thing mean. Don't

understand? The lampstand is
kottabos. close attention. The prize is eggs and flve . . ,
; But .ht for? It seems silly. Horv ; you.shoot kotabos'?
: shorv

step by sep; rvhoever he he shoots at the

causes the
bs -
: The

mean that little thing that lies there top,
the tiny platter?
,4: Yes, that's the pan-he
becomes the lrinner.
: Hor, is one going to knorr that?
A:Wh if he just hits it,
[the ]
r,vill fall he Mans
ee rep1esening
slave] and there ]be very loud clatter.
: the gods' name, tell me, has the kottabos got Mans, attending like
s]ave? . . . Take good cup and shorl me horz

do it.
: Like good flute player, you've got to curi your fingers round the handie,
pour litt]e rvine-not
too much!-and
then shoot....
: Poseidon,
rrhat high shot you've
Later , sYmPosiasts
rvere permitted
broader range of poeic , chaices offered
t the chosen one Sentimental
declaraion of love. They lvere caed
crourns" ( Nat.Hist.
and consisted of crushing
the florrers from one's
c\/ t the rrine and offering it to one's love. toast of this kind r,ras offbred
to Mark Antony by Cleopara,
b t as act of loving kindness.
The queen rvas
offended th he alurays had se urih him, try his food before he e .
that if she truly vraned she d
succeed despie his
Cleopatra poisoned
her floral cro\vn, and then proposed
h h
the crorrn." But jus
as Antony rras about to put the cup to his lips, the
queen stopped him; she had condemned prisoner brought out and gave the latter
the rryine instead.
The poor man had barely finished drinking
r,rhen he fell dead
Antony's feet.
,\fernoons could be heady mix of food, beautiful couresans, musicians, flutiss,
and dancers of both sexes. And above l, , about rrhich the poets loved to sing,
When the poet Archilochus earned his lvage as soldier, he sang,
bread depends
my spear, from my spear comes rrine, and supported by
spear, drink,,. ."
Our final rrord comes from Euripides'Bacchus (77):
antidoe to
given as gift t mortals.\Mithout rnrine, love rrould ls and 1 other
human joys urould die."
.\t certain point the symposium ld rrind down and friends d go heir
rvays. Usually it r.ras not late when the

broke , especially r,dner.
Though one could alurays light the rooms r,rith torches, candles, and lamps, ligh uras
scarce and expensive. The life of the ancient Greeks \/s legulated by the sun: one
rose early and
to bed rlith the chickens," as the saying goes.
With dinner at end, the men retuTned to their homes and their lv-ives. f they had
not been so drunk and M/anton as to \/ande off rnrith flutist or courtesan, the
evening h had passed under the benevolen eye of Dionysus ended happily under
h of Aphrodie.
Menander, The Principal Fragments, Francis G. Allinson, trans. (Cambridge, , 93).
_\henaeus, The Deipnosophis, C. . Gulick, trans.,
vols. (Cambridge, , 969-7).
hg Lyrica, . Diehl, ed. (Leipzig, 9+9-)
Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, F,
ed. (Leiden, 93-5).
Comicorum Gaecorum FIamenta, G. Kaibel, ed. (Berlin, 899).
Comicoum Atticorum Fragmenta, . Kock, ed. (88-; repr. Utrecht, 976).
{uchenmller, G., Philetae coi reliquiae (98).
ee Lyici Graeci, Bergk, ed.,
ed. (9 4).
?lutarch, The lives of the Noble Grecians and Romans,
J ohn
Dryden, trans. (864; NerYork, 944).
Traicorum Graecorum Fragmenta, . Nauck, ed. (Gttingen, 97
e have arrived at the lecipe section, Here l
will seek flesh out the noes
jd here and
here throughout Athenaeus's The Deipnosophisk, amending
:hem at times to conform t modern tastes. Aiding us this
endeavor is he fact that Greek cuisine from he Classical era
\yas very simple. Numerous recipes, passed from generation
geneIation, have endured for centuries and come d.
us virtually unchanged. Moreover, we must not forget
ht Roman cuisine of the imperial age s derived f the

fm the Greeks. We can often reconstluct dishes
menioned by various Greek authors based analogous
Roman dishes: they must merely be trimmed of the excesses
hat Apicius added during the late Roman Empire. I fact,
many of the recipes De re coquinaria, Apicius's opus mag-
num, rnrork t\/ levels: one starts \th the rich, ancient,
d recipes, vrhich are then flnished-almost as
postscript-r,rith one of the outlandish sauces so beloved
h fourih century e.o. Combining quantity of recipes
gleaned from other Greek authors-including some tha
are quite comprehensive, such as those of Archestratus of
Gela-with series of accuate and reasoned reconstuc-
s of hose that are merely hinted at, \/ end h
good idea of
rnras served ancient Greek ables.
FulI recipes here are
numbered, of the
food notes are not full
recipes, but rve have
included them to expreSS
the range and depth of
ancient Greek cooking,
The adventurous cook
can experiment with
these descriptions as
he or she sees fit!
Breads and Flour-Based Foods
V/e start rrith the principal ingredient of Greek meals, fact of
meals 11 the countries of the Meditelranean: bread. Bread
could be bought from the baker, or, if family was rich, made
and baked at home. Achestratus recommends that the bread-
maker be Phoenician or Lydian,
knovrs holv to make
daily every kind f bread, matter lrhat

order" (Athenaeus
I his Gastronom he rvries:
Firs, then, dear Moschus, will call to mind he gifts of he fair-
haired Demeter, and do thou it to heart. The best that one
may get, , the Iinest the world, cleanly sifted from the
rich fuit of barle grovls rvhere the crest of glorious Eresus
Lesbos is rrashed by the rvaves. It is whiter than snol.r from the
sky. f it be so that the gods eat barley-meal, Hermes must go and
buy it for them there. I seven-gatedThebes, too, there is good
barley, inThasos, also, and some other towns; b theirs seem
like grape-stones compared wih the Lesbian, Grasp that vlith
understanding sure. Supply yourself also rvith the round rol1
Thessaly, r,vell trvisted the maker's hand, rrhichThessalians
call krimnitas, but the rest of the rrorld calls chondrinos. Next,
recommend the scion of Tegea's finest rvhea, baked ashes.
Very fine, , is the r,rheat loaf made for the market rrhich
glorious Athens supplies molals; and the lf which comes
lrhite from the oven Erythrae, where grapes grow richly and
abounds the luxurious daintiness of the Seasons . . .
these were not the breads of the ancient Greeks. There
r.rere rrell over sixty kinds of bread, from the rough bread called
quadratus (square) by the Romans, or lodraton by the Greeks, loaf
that is divided into eight pieces rvith four cuts; t the most
refined boletus, mushroom,shaped rolls sprinkled with

seeds. It is not possible to list them 11, but \/ have cited fevr.
Where possible, rre give the recipes for them, bearing
mind that flour varies greatly from one place t the next. As for
the rest, they r-vere the simple breads from time out of mind,
lvith some supplemental ingredients.
] name means
of bread." prepare it the Greek
]ne salts, as alrvays, rvith bread dough, but later adding milk,
], lard, pepper, and wine (Athenaeus
I3d). make \/-
1ays, one could simply ask for bread dough at bakery super-
:rarket and then rvork the ingredients indicated by Athenaeus,
_ooking t very hot oven. One could also make the bread
iough at home, as fs,
31/ cups
f lour
tablespoon Salt
] tablespoon
yeast dissolved
cup u/arm \^/ater
2 tablespoons olive
2 tablespoons lard
(6 ml) ulhite ,r
(6 ml) milk
peppr to taste
]t the flour bowl, mix the salt, and make well the
,liddle, Pour the dissolved yeast and the r.rarm \/t into he
then mix gently, Transfer t floured board and knead
llouring he hands and board frequently) t the dough is
_ompact, elastic, and smooth. Put the dough oiled b,l
:nd let rise warm place. When t has doubled volume
b -3 min.), knead it, adding , lard, rrine, milk, and
fepper, and mlxing t evenly, adding flour as needed. Then set
: rise again (about minutes). Punch t dorvn and spread
]. e\Ienly oiled rectangular
let it rise once more (about
] minutes). When it has risen, cook t hot oven (47 F or
: C) for about 2 minutes, or until done the middle and
brorvn top.
Artolaganon is nothing
more than bread enriched
with , lard, and so forth,
and s therefore funda-
mentally the Same as

bianca (flat \vhite bread,

lke the thinnest focacCia
made the U,S,), It iS
probab]y similar to the
bread that is called Roman

the Romans, and
pizza-bread Lazio,
unconscious translation of
the Greek term,
These soft bread leaves
seem to be similar to the
of music" (carfa
musIca) f rom Sardinan
shepherds: very thin-
sometimes baked. some-
times fried
They are also similar to the
spaghetti that V/aS made
at Torre deI Greco until
the Second half of the last
century, vhich used hard
vheat flour, Once the
dough was made it vas
rolled out, cut, and Ieft to
dry, tv,/o StrandS together,
Thls Spaghetti V/aS
U-shaped and Iong and
had to be cut apart before
it M/as tossed into boilin9
lt is interesting to
note that some of
Ap]ciuS'S recipes, fracta
dried dough) came
to be used like our small
for example
soup or broth,
Athenaeus claims that this is none other than the Roman tracta
( of dough) (3.3d). Cato's day, it rnras made by mix-
ing alica (large spelt grains) rrith flour and v/ater. The dough was
shaped round and coated with , and \/s then placed the
oven (C De agr. 86).
4.5 lbs. (2
9) vrheat f|our
2,2 lbs. (
9) spelt seeds
Water added to make dough, about 1 cup (25
vr'ater per pound
of flour
Soak the spelt seeds rrater until they become soft. Drain them
and mash them until they make compact paste. Gradually add
the flour until it is absorbed. When the dough is the right con-
sistency-not too sticky or too dry-mark various
lines across the dough that

rrill make into strips, then roll
it out and dry over rack. Next, rub the strips lith oiled
cloth and leave them to dry the air \/armed oven.
Once dried, the strips can be used as pasta rith favolite
sauce. Or use durum (hard wheat) flour and \/ater, and con-
tinue as above, again making pasta; or

can roll them out
round and fry them 1, dusting them urith cinnamon once
they're cooled, as dessert; or cook iron grill, oyer
open flame, and serve like tortillas.
_his is light, soft bread, mentioned Aristophanes' Ecclesi-
:zusae, rvhere he rrrote,
apanthrakis are cooking." Another
:ipe is cited by Diocles of Carystus rvhen he vrrites that they
sofer than laganon. Probably says Athenaeus (3.IIob), they
:oasted these breads the fireplace ashes as was the custom 1
,\hens. nAlexandria, this bread \s consecrated to Kronos, and
, vras left the temple of that god r.rhere anyone migh help
5 cups
1 tablespoon salt
ml) sour milk
dissolved 2 tablespoons
of urarm ruater
tablespoon honey
ml) vvarm rvater
mI) olive
\1 the flour and salt and place it mound the table (or
g board), forming rryell the center. Pour the ,
sour milk, honey, \/ater, and yeast. \/ the dough the nor-
mal manner (bringing the flour t the wet ingredients and
slorvly mixing it together vrlth your hands, and then kneading
) until it is smooth and elastic. Place it rrarm place pro-
ected from dra|ts for about t, hours. Punch doinrn and knead
he risen dough again, and cut it into 2 pieces. Roll each
piece out th rolling

to make t round and roughly 6-8
inches diameier. Place them r,vell-greased baking sheet
r.rarm spot to rise again (go-+o minutes). Finally, bake them
for minutes hot oven,
F or 2 C.
\ote:To make sour milk, add
teaspoon lemon
or vine-
gar to regular milk, and stir to blend.
Today the derivative of
ths ancient Greek bread iS
not found Greece. but
Turkey, where t is called
pita, These Soft flat breadS
are filled with something
spicy and hot and rolled
llke ciqar,
Boletus breads . are oven-baked rolls shaped like mushrooms
I I3c) , These rolls r,rere probably made rvith dough
enriched th 1 and d. Before ieaving the dough to rise, the
bread vras oiled and stre\/rr \/ith

seeds. The seeds rnrould
sink into the dough as it ose, \y'heat flour rnras sprinkled
ceramic baking

before the dough vras placed it, allorr-
ing the bread to take magnificent color that Athenaeus com-
pared to smoked cheese.
The comedian Antidotus rrrote his

The Premier Danseur,
took some hot brazier-bread-rnrhy not?-and folding it
over he dipped it into sr,reet r.rine" (Athenaeus
o9c). Cobylus
The Suicide \/rote,

full of brazier bread"
(ibid.). And finally, Lynceus of Samos, his leers Diagoras,
compaIes Athenian food to that of Rhodes:
Besides, the bread sold their market is famous, and they bring
it at h beginning and the middle of banquet without stint.
And rrhen they tiled and sated lrith eating, they then intro-
duce most delightful allurement ht is called smeared
brazier-bread. It is soft and deiectable compould dipped
sweet urine, with such harmonious effect that marvelous
result come t one rnrhether he urill or ; for
as the drunken
man oten becomes sober again, so the eatel of it grours hungry
again urith its delicious flavor (Athenaeus
This seems to have been soft focaccia that was cooked the
fireplace grili. Probably this bread \/s not eaten often,
since it \/s toln trnr_o parts and soaked rine, likely mak-
ing it very spongy.

This bread \/s square the form and flavored rrith anise,
cheese, and l. It was likely harder than modern bread and more
like oyser bread (crackers) found today France and England.
Heracleides speaks of his Art of Cookery (Ahenaeus
I 4)
This bread r-ras made by adding milk,
lard to the dough (Athenaeus
I I3d). t ld
1 rolls, but h pepper.
pepper, 1, and
be like olive-
Sauces and Condiments for Bread
even the dolny leaves of tende flea-bane
again, chopping fesh pepper or Median cress" (Athenaeus
.6 6d) .
] .
(3 g)
mint leaves
. (3 g) green peppercorns (pickled)
] .
(3 g) safflower (also
cal|ed false saffron)
of salt
1 tablespoon vinegar
3 tablespoons olive
Crush the peppelcorns, mint, saffLorrer, and salt moIta Add
and vinegar and stir.
Oxygarum ( oxygaron) was sauce made with vinegar and
gaIum (the modern equivalent of garum is theVietnamese nuoc-
nam, fish sauce), t which one added other spices and scents
special receptacle called
Crush together mortar:
(15 g) black
(45 g) parsley
(3 g) caraway seeds
/ q, (1 g) celery seeds
Vietnamese fish sauce
the paste with tablespoon honey and rvhen

rnrish to
serve it, add tablespoon vinegar and teaspoon of Vietnamese
fish sauce. and serve.
Either of these sauces can be rolled into the bread made rnrith
Archestratus ahvays recommended that appetizers be seryed
h one's aperitif, vlhich ancient Greece r,vas always cup of
good rvine,
And as


r,rine let these relishes be brought to
pig's belty and boiled sow's matrix floating cumin and vinegar
and silphium; also the tender ribe of birds roased, such as he
season affbrds. But dlsregard those Syracusans, rrho drink frog-
fashion rnrithout eating anything; , yield them, bu eat
h ood tell
l other common desserts are sign of dire
poverty-boiled chick-peas, beans, appies, and dried f,gs.Yet
accept cheese-cake made Athens; ailing that, f

one rom somer,here else, go out and demand some Attic honey,
since that make your cheese-cake superb. This is the rvay
freeborn man should live, else down below the earth, even belor-

andTartarus, he should go to his desruction and lie
buied countless athoms deep (Athenaeus
Regarding hors d'oeuvres, Nicostratus wrote his The ,
flrst platter, leading the main courses, contain sea-urchin,
some ra\^/ smoked fish, capers, rvine-sop
to dip
rvine], slice f meat, and ld buib sour sauce" (Kock ,.9;
PEPPER: It rvas served rvith the appetizers, evidently to increase
one's thirst.
SALTY SNACKS: Salty appetizers \/ served before dinner,
lrith wine, also to increase the desire t drink.
ONIONS: ]t seems that onions had the same effect then as -.
fact, Homer \/rote, rrhen describing Nestor's dinner, that he
gave out onions to cherr ,th the lvine (Athenaeus .ob; ,
I .68-3).
} ,
Recipe 6
The olive r,ras, antiqulty as it is td the hors d'oeuvre par
excellence. Aristophanes, discussing appetizers, pondered pick-
]ed olives:
master, love the ladies i,vho are over-ripe or
h virginai ones with bodies firm as olives seeped brine?"
I33). exact recipe has come dornrn to us for
horr olives \\rere prepared ancient Geece, but Cato's trea-
lse agriculture rre have various Mediterranean recipes that
almost certainly sholr that olives have alr.vays been prepared as
h ae today
Cato rnrries:
the olives before they turn black. Tke
grorvths off of them and place them water bath. Change h
lvater frequently and rvhen they are rrell soaked, separate them
and oss them vinegar, adding and 7 grams of salt per
elght and one half liters of olives. When

are ready to use
them, take them out of the marinade, season them vrith fennel
and myrtle branch that has been soaked 1" (g. I7; 8).
The recipe is clear and needs explanation.
\: If

harvest or purchase

\/ olives, follorr Cato's
vater bath pocedure, changing the rvate daity for reek.
The rrater should have t least
cup of salt per gallon of r.vate
( g per 8 liters) rrhen soaking the olives. Bags or sacks of
olives are also sold ltaly, and ltallan-American markets,
saltrnrater brine. Either way, half-pound of olives, presoaked,
or purchased brine sacks, can then be put jar rvith equal
parts of 1 and vinegar and let to sit for at least rnreek, rrith
ennel and myrtle added at the end of the rveek. Rinse the olives
before serving.
of , cover them rnrith cold pickling sauce so that they
maintain thei color; rnrhen thee are enough gathered fill jar,
cover the bottom of the
j with fennel and myrtle branches th
have been prepared small kettle, take the olives out of
h pickling, torvel them dry and mix seeds, completely refill-
ing the jar. F, cover the top vrith dry anise and parts of
dry fresh mustaId and of oil,/vinega bine. Olives treated his
rvay urill last year."
Note: See Recipe 6 f the fteatment of rarnr olives. I his case,
the and vinegar solution should contain fennel and myrtle,
rnrith anise and mustard added to the brine. The olives should
remain the brine for several days to rnreek before they ae
These are the ripe, bulbous,
d black olives that are found
Sicily,They must have existed even Archestratus's day, since
he vrrites his Hedupatheia,
those mature rnrrinkled olives."
Clearly these are the same dry olives seryed toda14 and as
Archestatus's day they are best rrhen seasoned h fennel, He
explains that this is because
pious memory of Marathon
means fennel] for m, h

marathon h briny olives" (Athenaeus z.56c).


Recipe 8
The most triumphant f the appetizers are the fruits of the
Sea: Sea urchins and oystels.
best are those full of red or orange eggs. Also q good
rnrhose eggs gleam vrith gelatinous substance rnrhen
they are pulled aray {m the shell. Dress them rith honey,
mint, and parsley diced and minced, to bring out the bes fla-
vor" (Archippus Fishes),
Archippus's sauce for sea urchins:
tablespoon honey
3 tablespoons vinegar
tablSpoon mint
tablespoon parsley
Dissolve the honey the vinegar, then finely mince the parsley
and mint and mix the spices into the honey and vinegar. When
ready to eat the urchins, split them trnro, cleaning \/ the
spine. Find and clean the egg, pour dollop of the sauce the
egg he shell, and enjoy.
Some appetizers \^/ere made of ingredients that rrere reviled by
discerning eaters. Athenaeus wrote about group of authors
rrho evidentiy did love hyacinth bulbs and did not share the
beliei common at the time, that cabbage or kale proteced
against drunkenness and hangover.
say, to sauce
dishes filled \^/ith bulbs
and kale and to other
cheap relishes" (Athenaeus .64).
Basing this recipe the ancient one, \\re see that the basics are
alr.rays the same. Even if the recipe does not include method
for g \/ the terrible bitteness of the bulbs, it is evident
h render them edible, the bulbs should be boiled, h
numerous changes of urater. Then they are peeled, and sauce
is made to season them.
About hyacinth bulbs, boiled and ready
teaspoon each thyme and oregano
2 cloves of garlic, minced
1 tablespoon each honey, vinegar, and must
3 tablespoons olive
3 tablespoons minced dates
Salt to taste
sauce ingredients and pour over the bulbs, adding fresh
pepper to taste.
Recipe ro
These rose-colored bulbs, vrhich convey false innocence, aIe
actually famous aphrodisiac. This seems to have been ac-
ceped fact, going back many centuries, as Martial rrrites f h
bulbs (3.34):
that your lrife is old and your member
is dead,

can hope to use rrild hyacinth bulbs to fill
your stomach." ancient Greece the hyacinth bulb was rvidely
believed to have aphrodisiac properties; such bulbs couid
rearraken the ardor of Venus even for the most impotent of men.
Here is old proverb support of this belief:
"J us
hyacinth bulb cannot help


are not already true
man." The consumer rras thus rrarned that the hyacinth bulb
lvould do its best the battle of love, but that it was also neces-
sary for he loyer t exert himself, The belief this aphrodisiac
\\las so strongly ingrained that centuries iater, ancient Rome,
ivild hyacinth bulbs were served ner,rlyrnreds before they r.vent
their nuptial bed. One of these recipes r,vas given by Apicius
.r+.), derived from Varro. He seems not much concerned
h h bier properties of this
ecommending simply
hat one boil them without either honey or cheese as the
Greek recipe, likelihood they rvere none too tasty. Given
ht the recipe added other aphrodisiacs, such as arugula, it
seems he rras less concerned lvith flavor than rrith their ama
iory effbcts. After 11, for successful rvedding night, it was the
lesults that mattered:
those searching for the joys ofVenus,
1 rrild hyacinth bulbs \/t, and for the true honeymoon,
serve them lvlth pine nuts and sauce made by boiling arugula
and adding pepper."
] dozen d hyacinth bulbs, already cleaned and
boiled several times, or, if already marinated, rinse
the bulbs until there is more
5 .
handful of pine nuts
3 the arugula for about three minutes, then drain it and put
biender r.rith 1 teaspoon pepper. Pour the \/m green sauce
]\ er warm bulbs and add sprinkling f pine nuts.

please, at the bulb, and see r,vhat lavish expense it
requires to have its reputation-cheese, honey, sesame-seed,
, , vinegar, silphium. Taken by itself alone t is poor and
b" (Athenaeus z.6ae).
]t is not necessary to Comment Athenaeus's recipe
(. I33c-d). One can decide r,rhat quantities to use, based the
follorving directions:
turnip root,

cut thin slices,
gently cleaning \/ the undried outer skin, and after drying
hem he sun little, either dip quantity of them boiling
\rater and soak them strong brine; or again, put equal parts of
rrhite must and vinegar jar together, then plunge the slices
, having dried them off rrith salt. Often, t,

may pound
raisins and biting mustard-seeds urith pestle and add it to
them. \^/hen cream of tartar forms, and the t gro\^/s more and
more bitter, then
time to d off the pickle for those rrho
seek their dinner."
4 white turnips, cleaned
] rounded teaspoon mustard seed, crushed
(]25 ml) vinegar
Slice the turnips thinly and
t pot of boiling water for
one minute, and then rinse them and dry them, and let them
cool. Stir the other ingredients together jar and toss the
dr cooled turnip slices. Cover the jar, and let the turnips sit for
least tr,ro days. They can last about month and are served
direcly of h jar.
These are none other than the stuffed grape leaves, called
mas," that can be found everyrvhere Greece and Turke but
ancient times, {esh, tender fig leaves cailed
used instead of grape leaves. I some parts of Greece dolmas are
still made rvith fig leaves, and those lvho have tried them say
ht they are identical to those made ,th grape leaves, though
perhaps bit srreeter. Today the fillings and this rvas prob,
ably true ancient times as rvell. Certainl rice, the most com-
mon filling today did not then exist, but some other sort of
grain filling rvas used, possibly spelt.

rvish to f the ancient recipe,

may use young,
fresh fig leayes or grape leaves, but there is also modernTurk-
ish recipe that suggests using cherry, apricot, or bean leaves.
Hor.reyer, grape leaves are currently the easiest to find and use,
and one hus may be spared the bother of finding them and boil
ing them just to the perfect consistency.
This filling can be used lrith type of leaf

2 grape or fig leaves, ready (either prepared
boiling fresh leaves, or from
already spiced)
17 cup
spelt or bulgur
2 cups
(,/ liter) broth or u/ater, plus extra for the
final cooking
1 teaspoon Salt
3 medium onions, sliced thickly
21/ cups
(6 g)

mI) olive
2 tablespoons butter
soften onions)

are using fresh leaves, rraslr and thoroughly clean them;
or use store-bought leaves. Toss them boiling \^/ater, remoye
them after felv moments, and put them rnrork surface. Pick
the best ones and set them aside for the dolmas. Select copper

that r,vill ll the rolls to snugly fit one next t the othe.
Use broken leaves to completely hne the bottom of the
overlapping to ensure

cover the rrhole surface; this will help
tlre rolled stuffed leaves stay put during cooking.

the grain and sa]t and cook unti] tender the broth or
\/t. \/hen this is done, pinch off small pieces of the paste,
forming them into finger-sized sausage-like rolls f filling.
suff h grape leayes, start by sreching h leaf and
placing roll of filling he cener. Fold one end and he
sides, rolling the leaf around the mixture iike cigar, making
them about , inches long by inch rvide ( by cm), making
sule to tuck the ends to pIevent leakage. If

have enough
filling for more than one layer of leaves, make another layer
1 of h filling is used . When h rolls are
cover the dolmas llith broth or \/t and and place
plate t, to \veigh dorrn the rolls during cooking. Cook
over lorr flame for about one hour, checking frequently to
make sure there is sufficient liquid the
About minutes before the rolls are done, make the sauce:
Saut the onions the butter until so|t but t brorrn. Add the
yoghurt and bit of the cooking \/ater from the dolmas, and
pour this sauce over the rolls just as

are ready to serve them.
There r,rere few surprising items among Athenaeus's appetiz-
ers. \/ may be graeful that today they have disappeared lrom
the menu, but they vrere sufficiently appreciated Ariso-
phanes' day that one of his characters exclaimed,
ens, horv yearn to eat grasshopper and cicada (cercop)
caught thin reed" (Athenaeus
I33b;Aristophanes ,Alagyrus
Kock .44).
] don't knorv whether these insects would have been cooked as
stbl clams are cooked today sker.rered three by three
sticks, floured and then fried, but even prepared this ,
vrould not be tempted to try them. Ho.ever, if anyone should
rrish to do so, feel free. InAfrica, they are often talked about and
my African assured me that
are s\/eet as
cafe latte."
Soups and Vegetables
Recipe 3
Aristophanes mentions tisane, well-knorrn barley soup that rras
highlighed one recipe sied by C and four oher versions
found De re coquinaria. the recipes based barley r.rere the
same except for Apicius's, rrhere he used various sauces.
previously cleaned barley that rnras soaked water the day
before cooking. Wash and crush the barley. Put it to cook with
w ovel high flame. When it starts t boil, add

of 1,
small fesh branch of anise, diced dried , savory, and
bit of ham and have it cook together until it becomes creamy,
_\dd coriander and salt and serve lt " (Apicius
1 .
ulhite barley
(about 4 cups)
2 tablespoons olive
] teaspoon anise
pinch of savory
pinch of chopped fresh coriander (cilantro)
thick slice of
prosciutto or ham
salt and
to taste
'" '!


,"\ ,\,
>-,'.rf;?,rab*", ,,
Recipe 4
L (coNDRoS)
rrhen making dish of goat, iamb, chicken freshly
killed, throrr fresh grain (barley)

and crush it rre]],
mixing fragrant l. When the broth is boiling vigorously,
put the rest, then cover the

lrith lid and ieaye it to
cook, covered, because that way the heavy mixture svrells, Serve
h (ablespoon)
of ner.r lvine" (Nicander
of Colophon,
fr.68 Schneider).
cup (25
ml) cooked barley
2 cups (5
mi) shredded lamb or chicken, cooked

tablespoon parsley
3 sage leaves
2 cups (5
ml) broth
cup (6
ml) olive
salt and pepper
to taste
make this polenta, one can f Athenaeus's instructions
for barley soup or isana, Recipe 3, replacing those spices and
the ham dth the above spices and mea.
The problem h hs recipe is h make properly,
one should live the countryside rrhere it is possible to get
fresh stalks of barle lrhich are not found city markets.
can, horvever, substitute rhite barley, or better yet, bulgur from
Turkey Both of these require pre-soaking
and then cooking for
some hours. It is simpler, of course, to get packaged barley, Both
bulgur and this boxed barley are ready for cooking and
equire good crushing mortar
or blender, leaving it
grainy, t fine.
Recipe 5
Aistophanes always served modest lentil soup, rnrhether
his Gerytades or his Amphiaraus (both novr lost), showing that it
must be pleasing potage. He calls it,
s\retest of delicacies"
8 cups
liters) broth
large minced leek
carrot, ] stalk of celery, and smal| , sliced
2 tablespoons vinegar
teaspoon honey
2 coriander seeds
salt and
to taste
Rinse h lentils thoroughly then put them into

lith the
broth to boil. Reduce heat and simmer for one hour, When the
hour is , skim the top, add the vegetables and leave simmer
again is cooked (about
minutes). f the soup seems
mix some cornstarch, or, better yet, pass some of
the lentils through sieve. , add the vinegar and honey. Pour
serving bourls and add good dollop of olive (about
tablespoons per serving), sprinkling coriander seeds, and salt
and pepper to taste,
seems as if Zeno vras pulling our leg urith this recipe, as he
ites h to finish off the soup, one should add coriander
seeds. This commendable precision regarding quantity is not
common ancient recipes, at least those that are not medic-
, but assuredly these coriander seeds radically change the
flavor of the soup.

Recipe 6
This soup is basically like the one above, but Chrysippus,
evidently loyed bitte flayors, recommends
serving soup com-
bining lenils and rvild hyacinth bulbs. I is doubful h hs
d be very popular recipe, but, then, there so many
varying tastes the rvorld. Apicius did not mention such soup,
nor is there equivalent today but lf


could make
the soup according t Zeno, but adding half pound of pre
pared hyacinth bulbs (see method above, at Recipe


Recipe 7
Greens and herbs used ancient times included vrild ee
(dark is best), watercress, coriander, mustard, melon,
(as 11 as the variations such as scallions and leeks), gar-
lic, and celery.
2 lbs.
kg) mixed
greens, rarhatever is season
( chose chicory,
parsley, ce|ery, chard, onions,
scallions, leeks,
teaspoon salt
3 tablespoons olive
tablespoons vinegar
Piace the cleaned gIeens cold, salted rrater and bring to boii,
making sure not to overcook them. Lift them carefully out of the
pot r-rith slotted spoon or large fork. Season them urith 1
and vinegar.
Rome, one can nornr find mixture of herbs such as those
cited the Greek recipe. This combination is generally large-leaf
lettuce, chicor arugula, urild fennel, garlic, ratercress, and
mint leaves. I have never found coriander, melon, or rnrild mus-
ard the mix, and and celery are sold separately.
Certainly, anyone rnrho rrishes could add to the list, and culti-
l-ated plants are
as acceptable as wild.
Today dishes based
field and wild herbs have
changed somervhat, or,ving
to the introduction of Nev/
plants, but they are
directiy derived from the
traditional recipes. For
example, the follovin9
recipe for "Cooked \Yater"
combines Old aiJ Nevy
World foods.
This is countTy soup, which can be served dry or soup
according to the amount of rnrater used for cooking. Belor,r is
indicative iist of herbs, but one could use almost greens that
suit your fancy.
-3 cups
(1/4to1/2Iiter) cold \^/ater per person
2 sliced
potatoes per person
] J erusalem artichoke
(or cardoon)
] bunch of chicory
bunch of salad
bunch of red

bunch of borage
2 tablespoons of lard
pepper to taste
3 or 4 cloves of
dash of sage
basil to taste
The problem is finding obliging meadorr that urili yield
of these soup ingredients. city dinreller could make his,/he
ourn list and hopefully get from the greengrocer hose ingredi-
ents not found the urild-but be prepared f some srange

looks. Be that as it may if

succeed procuring hese

items, including cardoons ( thistle-like vegetable

unknorrn the United States), here's hour to make the soup.
cold, gh salted \/ater

and then add he

When he potatoes are nearly cooked, add he greens,

cut into large pieces, Peel the

J erusalem
altichoke and chop
coarsely. The othe greens should be urashed and cleaned,
discarding tough or discolored leaves. add the lard,
peppeI, garlic, , sage, and basil and stir. Let it boil for

5 minues. Serve it boll top of slice of crusy coun-


Recipe r8
The l4loman Who Le[ Her Husband, the h, h Diphiius or
Sosippus, rrrites the follorving:
: Have

got sharp vinegar the house?
: fancy so, slave, and lve have bought rennet. this rvil]
squeeze together nice dish for them, and the salad r.rith sour
dresslng shail be served for " (Athenaeus
ml) curdled milk, buttermilk, or sour cream
tablespoon vinegar
salt and pepper
to taste
ingrediens, chil] the refrigerator,
and pour gh
over salad.
The problem i.vith making this simple dressing,
loly calories, is finding curdled milk.You can make

by adding squeeze of lemon to fresh milk, or

can use but-
termilk sour ceam, The recipe makes enough dressing for
iarge plates of salads.
Recipe 9
these viands platters vrere passed round containing
many kinds of meat prepared with water-feet, heads, ears,
bones, besides guts, tipe, and tongues, accordance rnrith the
custom shops t Alexandria called
d boiled meats \/ere mix of various pork bik: feet,
heads, cheeks, ears, tripe, intestines, and tongue, I Turke
another country that grevr and prospered under Hellenism, thee
ae e rnrhere he sole em he menu is ishkembe
shorbasi, ipe soup that seems to bea close resemblance to
Aexandrian boiled meats. It is unimportant lrhether there is
f direc e ber,reen he rnro. Wh me is he fac
that, Aexandria, there rnrere specia restaurants that served
one particular dish. Trenty yeals ago Turkey, each small
s (oseria) \/s d specialy dish, If one did
wish to patronize Occidental style restaurant, one had to
move from Iestaurant to Iestaurant order to get complete
meal. If one had strong legs, good appetite, and time to spare,
this ras diverting \ to spend afternoon or evening, do
know if hs is s true todal but sincerely hope that
Istanbul one can still move from metze place to one serving
doner kebabs, then move to fish restaurant for fried clams
pastr then to chippura, and finally end the evening rith
some loukum from great bakery.
pig's feet

pig's head
pig ears
bit of
pork or beef tripe, according to taste
heart, lungs, liver to taste
pig's tongue
1 medium , minced

finely chopped
] small carrot, sIiced
ml) chopped parsley
ml) hite aine vinegar (if
intestines are
added, double the amount of vinegar)
Fill large pot with \/ater and teaspoon of salt for each tr,vo
quarts of\/ater, and add standard soup seasonings: , ceiery,
garlic, carrots, parsley pepper, and rrhite rvine vinegar. Bring
the \^/ater to boil, then add the meats, and reduce the flame to
medium. Cook until tender (about
minutes). Serve boil*
ing hot and offer sauce irith it, such as the mt sauce
Recipe .
Note: Boiled pig can be very gamey. Using already-cooked head,
cheeks, tongue, feet, etc. from the roasted, stuffed pig Recipe
yields much better result: less fatty and more flavorful. This
is especially true of the head and feet, since they are largely fat.
The cheeks and the portion betrreen the ears and tongue have
the most meat. Our test cook declined
t use intestines.

This recipe for mint sauce is similar to the one at Recipe
rnre found this version less cloying, and more delicious.
4 tablespoons dried mint
handful of fresh mint)
pickled green peppercorns
2 teaspoons saffloiver
6 tablespoons
ml) olive
2 tablespoons vinegar
Mint is easy to find and can even be grovrn rnrindornr box,
bazaars both Turkey and Egypt, the red pistils of safflo\rer, or
saffron," are passed off the unsuspecting tourist, rnrho
believes he or she is getting genuine saffron. It is nevertheiess
delicious. Chop the spices, or crush them mortar. Whisk
the mixture into the and vinegar, and add salt to taste, Let it
sit for least hour to allor the herbs to mingle urith h
vinaigrete. Excellent with the goat and

ecipes follovring.
This recipe is from Apicius, but is evidentiy universal.
he baby goat and b it well with , then toss pep-
per, lot of salt and coriander seeds. Put it the oven, roast it
and serve it" (Apicius 8,6,8),
about 5-7
pounds (2-3
kg), skinned
and cleaned
of black
4-5 teaspoons salt

handful of coriander seeds
Place the goat large casserole, coating urell
olive , and
rubbing h salt and pepper. Before
it h oven,
sprinkle it with coriander seeds. Piace
F ( 6" C) oven
and bake, basing it wh is ornln juices
until falis off the bone
(45 minutes to one hour). Delicious urith mint sauce, Recipe 2,
Garden-style suckling pig, according to Apicius:
pig starting at the throat, rendering t something similar to
rrine skin, and fill it rrith chicken meatballs, vrild doves, and
thrushes, its l meat added into meatballs, pitted flgs, dried
and prepared rvild hyacinth bulbs, shelled snails, beet greens,
leeks, celer boiled kale tops, coriander, peppercorns, pine nuts.
top f this, add 5 hard-boiled and diced eggs, and sauce
made from liguamen (either garum or dressing from olive ,
vinegar, and spices), mixed r,rith lots of crushed pepper. Brorrn
the pig

and then put it the oven." Apicius then con-
cluded by suggesting sauces to serve r,rith t.
18-2 pound (4
kg) suckling pig
For the stuffing:
2 thrushes
can be substituted and are easier
to find), de-boned and cut into small pieces
1 small duck, de-boned and cut into small pieces
4-6 figs, diced
] cup
mI) cooked kale
(25 ml) already cooked, dried, and diced
hyacinth bulbs
(see preparation
method at
Recipe 9)
teaspoon coriander
1 cup
(25 ml) chopped leeks
1 stalk celery, chopped
2 tablespoons pine nuts
pound (5
,vheat polenta
or fine bu|gur, cooked,
cooled, and cubed
2 eggs, hard-boiled, cooled, and diced (
used 12-
larger here than ancient Greece)
ml) dressing
vinegar, and garlic)
12 oysters out of the shell
2 clams out of the shell
Fo]lor,. Apicius's instuctions above, having butcher de-bone
h pig lor
or doing it yourselfifyou are braye. Prehea h
F (3'C). Lightly mix h suffing ingrediens,
adding h eggs and dressing last. Suff he pig and serr closed.
Rub olive 1 and salt into the skin. Cook f minutes the
hot oven to seal the
juices and to broln it. Then turn oven

F (6 C) for about hour and hali or 1
comes clear rrhen pig is pricked with fork the thickest

of h high.
{ .
| -"
Recipe 3
call his rose dish rodonia and prepare t such manner
that rvhen

eat it,

t l have designated cro\/n
your head, but are also perfumed
within, treating your body to
truly complete meai. Crush the most aromatic roses the
moral, and then carefully place chicken and pig brains, de,
nerved and rveii-dressed,
rnlith egg
then season r,lith olive
, garum, pepper, and rrine, together rnrell and
\/ pot to cook over , constant flame, When the cook
opens the
everyone present
rrill smell the delicious aroma
of roses."
We incude this recipe for completeness
rather than practicalit1,
because he ingredients
are almost impossible to obtain this
day and age. Perhaps someone,
maybe larmer the Greek
can make this dish. Make sure

use homegror,n
roses aS the commercially
raised ones are heavily sprayed,
pork brains
8 .
chicken brains
2 tablespoons
few slices of and carrot
2 tablespoons
3 aromatic roses,
petals plucked and crushed
2 teaspoons
fish sauce
2 tablespoons
5 eggs, beaten
pepper to taste
Immerse the brains cold rvater for hour, then drain, The:l
place them cold salted
r,nrater mixed rvith vinegar and fe,
slices of and carrot. Bring the \/ater to boil, and h
lovrer the flame and let the mixture boil for about rveny min-
utes. As soon as the brains are cooked, put them into cold rvae:
again and r,vhen they are completely cooled dor,n, skin and de-
nerve them. Set them aside dry covering them rvith peppe:
that has been soaked Marsaa e. the brains vith th
eggs, h rose petals, the fish sauce, and little , If

do not
have brazier, rrhich could give uniform heating to the dish,
f, the Greek formula and brorrn the mixture fist, and then
press it compactly t oiied mold. Cook it doub]e-
boiler for hour, or until the mixture is hardened. test if it
is done, stick toothpick t the flan; it should come out clean.
Unmold onto plate, sprinkle rvith pepper, and serve.

Recipe 4
From various texts \/ are given to understand that pig's feet
r-rere served. Antiphanes his Thel4/oman of Corinth, rrrites:
then litle pig's foot to Aphrodite" (Athenaeus,
3.95e-f ).
hey vrere served boiied is explained by Pherecrates The Miners:
lrell-boiled" (ibid.,
same author mentioned
hem again his The Slave- acher (ibid.,
6 pig's feet
the butcher to iemove the bristles
and cut them
quarts (3 liters) \Vater
2 carrots
3 stalks of celery
2 tablespoons salt
(125 ml) white vinegar
vinegar and pepper to taste when serving
cup ( ml) \^/ater large

tablespoons of salt
and % cup (5 ml) i.rhite rnrine vinegar. Bring boil, adding
the diced vegetables, \/hen the $/ater returns to boil, add the
pig's feet, r,rell cleaned. Cook until they are 11 done and falting
ofthe bone, about 5 minutes for small pig's feet or
for large ones. When they are cool enough to touch,
meat off the bones and heap it t plate. Sprinkle with pep-
per and vinegar to taste. Serve hot rrith lots of fresh bread.
Noe:The lefover broth is good for making soup:
lenti]s and cook. The spices and meat flavor make for interest-
ing and delicious soup.

Recipe 5
slD G,S F
Pig's feet can also be served smoked, and this case they are
served covered melted, smoked cheese. This dish was once
readily available Rome: one had to go to store special-
izing porchetta dei Castel]i, pig stuffed and roasted rrhole,
highly saled and spiced, rrhich vras served at festivals and food
sands 11 over ltaly. But recently it has become harde to find.
6 smoked
pig's feet
pound (3 g) grated smoked cheese
1 tablespoon olive
Put the pig's feet oiled

and cover it vrith cheese. Cook
or about minutes hot oven (about
F or C) to
the cheese to melt.
Aistophanes mentions tongue list of altenatives to
anchovies (Athenaeus
t there is information as to
holv they \/ere prepared. Probably they were boiled and then
flavored r,rith some garum (fish sauce).
_\lso mentioned by Aristophanes (Athenaeus, ibid.) is laundry
s of internal organs: liver, inrild boar kidneys, ibs, tongue,
spleen, and piglet tripe, 11 slaughtered autumn, vrhich he
recommends be served vrith hot rolls. Dioxippus Foe to Pimps
paunch, and entrails" (ibid., Iooe),
yhile Eubulus, he Deucalion, lists chicken livers, gus, lungs,
and tripe.
This dish is mentioned by Alexis The from Pontus, making
fun of he oraor Callimedon, who r,vas nicknamed
(or Crayfish) because of his greediness:
man is vrilling
die for his countr but Cal]imedon the Crayfish rrould doubtless
submit to death for boiled sow's paunch" (Athenaeus
Boiled sor.v's belly lvas served irith sauce based vinegar and
silphium. Keep mind that silphium ( longer found) had
flavor like garlic. So time, obtaining sorv's belly and
vishing t eat it-t\/o things that seem improbable to me-it
rrould do to mix vinegar, mixed rvith crushed garlic and perhaps
b of , s, and pepper (ibid.,
I of Science,
Sopater rvriies:
slice of sorr's matrix t over cooked, r,rith
pungen brine-and-vine8ar Sauce inside" (ibid.,
This rras the of sorr that had miscarried. t rras consid-
ered especially tasty and it rras mentioned by Hipparchus, he
author of the Egyptian liiad (Athenaeus
. I ) .
The enraiis of lamb, goats, pigs, and oher domesicaed
animals rrere eaten antiquity, and many are sti]l seryed
today. Hor.rever, although they rvere considered delicious de]i,
cacies former times, sornr's and breasts are not eaien
today. For these foods, we have Apicius's recipes and rre knor-
that normally l \/s eaten boiled and accompanied by
sauce similar to the one listed Recipe 4 for boiled pig's fee.
lrhereas solr's breasts, once boiled, vrere sprinkled r,vith salt,

skever, and roasted or grilled or stuffed lrith

of god's
best." Even if rre rranted to try these dishes today rvhich db.
it i,vould be impossible given the mechanized meat-processing
systems: after the animal is completely emptied and the parts
butchered, it
not be possible to locate the or breasts
of sornr.
,\ccording to Daphnus of Ephesus, Archestratus took trip
the world" to grati his palate as rrell as his more basic
appetites. (We must bear mind that his
r,ras limited
: Greece, Magna Graecia, the Bosporus, and part of the coast of
Asia Minor.) his return, he counsels friend as to rrhere
: eat and rvhat to order:
Eat, dear Moschus, slice of Sicilian tunny, cut at the time rrhen
it should be salted
But he shabar, elish from Pontus, ]
rvould consign to the lorrest regions, as rrell as l h paise it.
For ferr there be among mortals rryho knour that it is poor and
insipid morsel. Take, horvever, mackerel hree days out f the
,vater, before it enters the pickle and rrhile it is still nerv ihe
and l half-cued. And if thou go to the sacred city of glo-
rious Byzantium, eat again,
slice of horaion; foI it is
good and luscious, (Athenaeus
I6f- 7)
Then he goes to list the mollusks, explaining rvhere
: find the best ones:
Aenus produces large mussels, Abydus oystels, Parium crabs;
Mitylene scallops. Ambracia, too, supplies very many, and along
rlith them monstlous. . . . and Messene's \/ frith h
shal g giant lrhelk, Ephesus also the smooth cockles, not t
be despised. Calchedon gives oystes but as for perir-vinkles
("heralds") may Zeus confound them, rrhether they come from
the sea or the assembly, excepting one man . That man is my
comrade, his home is Lesbos of the luscious glapes, and his
name is Agathon (Archestratus, quoted Athenaeus
3. 9zd-e.)
Recipe 6
yourself lobster, the kind
has long clarvs, and
heavy urithal, vrith feet that are small, and but slowly crarls he
h land. s of them, and the best of q, are
h Lipari Islands; yet the Hellespont also gahers many"
(Archesraus, quoted Athenaeus
o4f- ).
4 live lobsters, about pound (4
3 tablespoons olive
tablespoon vinegar
pinch of oregano
3 tablespoons salt
pepper to taste
Make marinade from the , vinegar, olegano, and salt and
pepper, and put t aside. Slice the live lobsters half and put
hm cook grill. As they cook baste them
rnrih the marinade. Check often to see if they are cooked (
minutes they should turn red the shell);too much
cooking makes them tough and inedible.
Recipe 7

ever manage to get to lasus, city of the Carians,

rnrill get good-sized shrimp. But it is rare the market,
rrhereas Macedonia and Ambracia thee ae plenty" (Athen-
2 lbs.
9) shrimp
lots of for frying
salt to taste
Put about
cup ( 5 ml) of frying

and when t is
very hot but not smoking, toss the shrimp. Fry them for 6-7
minutes, stilring frequently and gently.
Recipe 8
As for the amia, prepare that he autumn, rrhat time the Pleiad
is settlng, and way thou likest. Why need recite it for
hee rvord for rnlord? For thou canst possibly spoil it even if
hou so desire. Still, if thou insist, dear Moschus, being
insiruced here also is the best r,vay to dress hat fish, rvrap
fig-ieaves urith very iittle marjoram, cheese, nonsenseI
J ust
place it tenderly figJ eaves and tie them top with
sfting; then push under hot ashes, bethinking thee wisely of
ihe m
t is done, and burn it not. Let it come to ihee
{m lovely tm ifthou desire the best, yet get rvhat
is good even if it be caught somerrhere neal this place here.
is poolel the farther thou goest from the Hellespontine
Sea, and f thou jouney ovel the glorious coulses of the briny
Aegean main, it is longer the same, but utterly belies my
earlier praise (Archestratus quoed Athenaeus
.,7 8- c).
2 pounds ( 9) tuna, cut into pieces
grape leaves to hold the tuna
4 teaspoons fine salt
2 pinches of marjoram
Make rood fire and let it bun dor,rn to embers. the
chunks of fish lvith the salt and mar]oram, then ro1l them
the leaves, like burrltos, so that the mixture is secure inside.
Using due caution, place the rolls top of the ashes, let-
g hem cook about
minutes t side, being careful not to
burn them.
Ligurian red and Sicilian nerilborn transparent
Sardine sprats or young sardines
Sea anemones from Sardinia
Count small fry as abomination, except the Athenian; mean
gonos, urhich the lonians call
still found today
Sicily, where many old Magna Graecian habits are preserved,
palticularly the terms for sea life; the little f,sh called nunnata
(newborn) are calied grommo, r,vhich means mucousy] and accept
it rvhen it is caught fresh the sacred arm of Phalerum's
beautiful bay.That rvhich is found ocean-rrashed Rhodes is
good, if be native. And if

desire to ase it,

he same m get at the malket some nettles-sea anemones
crornred lvith leafy tenacles. Mixing them with it, bake it

have made sauce the fagrant tops of choice
greens mixed 1, (Archestatus, quoted Ahenaeus
d h bes \/ tase these tiny fish (gonos) vras
to cook them herb sauce.
Archestratus also recommended sea anemones. Given tha
oday these animals are sold fish markets, one vrould have
t find them oneself at the seashoIe. But remembel to \/e
gloves and be careful t keep them far from the eyes. Once
harvested and r.rashed carefully under running irater, insert
finger t the opening \/here the anemone \/s attached to the
rock to remove bits of stone that might remain its bodi,
cavity. After that, clean the anemones again running \/t
to rid them of traces of sand and let them marinate h
vinegar. disciple of Archestratus added that, given the
small amount of heat needed to these little fish and
anemones, it was enough
to toss ihem into

that had
begun t sizzle.
Recipe 9
2 lbs. (] kg) fish eggs, baby sardines, and smelt
lieu of transparent gobies,
sardine eggs,
and anemones)
salt to taste
for frying

of thyme
of rosemary
pinch of oregano
, minced
Chop h fish small bites after cleaning thoroughly and rins-
ing salt \/ater. Heat the 1, add the spices and , and
h the onions are brovrned, add the fish, t the fist sign of
sizzling, take them out, and serve them immediately,
boiled ray the season of mid-rvinter, r,.ith cheese and
silphium . And so, r.rhatever offspring of the ocean have
flesh that is not too fat should be dressed this way"
And aiso,
stralt r.vooded 1,
contains the glorious iatus, rronderful food" (Athenaeus
3 lbs,
(2 9) thornback ray or skate
1 gaIlon (5 liters) of \^/ater
1 cup (25 ml) vinegar
3 tablespoons coarse Salt

2 carrots
2 stalks of celery
2 bay leaves
1 stalk of parsley
tablespoon pepper
grated pecorino cheese
2 garlic
cloves, minced
One eats the vrings and liver of the ray, It is good boiled.
but l lvhen very fresh.
t the \vater, vinegar, salt, and the spices, except th
pepper, rrhich is added the last ten minutes, t

enough to hold the ray. Put the ray and cook over lorr flame.
siovrly bringing the

to boil and then lorvering h flame
bit more, controlling the cooking. After minues, add he
pepper.The ray should be done 5- minutes after the sauc
boiis: the meat 1 be coming arvay from the cartilage. Put it
plate, and remoye the skin (if necessary). the cheese -,
the minced garlic and sprinkie over the ray. Let the dish sit for
fe\/ minutes, so the flavors have chance to blend.



Sicyon, dear frierd,

have the lread of coger eel, t,
vigorous, and large; also the belly parts...
and later,
can catch nice conger-eel, lrhich is as mucl superior to
other fishes as the fattest tunny
is superior to the poor-
est cro\/-fish" (Alrenaeus
pralse 11 eels, to be sure; bt much tle best is the eel caught
th part of the sea rrlrich is opposite the strais of Rhegium.

citizen of Messina, have the advartage over 11 other
mortals, for

can put such food as that

iips. And

the Copaic and Strymonian eels bear very mighty repute for
excellence; for they are large and r,.onderfully at. I general, it
is my belief h he eel is king of l
l feas and
guides he rvay pleasure, though is tlre fish which
nature las given scrotum" (Athenaeus
7.z98e-f ).
Here Athenaeus is er.ldently talking about adult eels heir
nigration to their sparvnirg grounds the Sargasso Sea;
the rest f tle time, adult eels live rivers, lakes, and ponds.
3 lbs. (2 9) of eel, heads and beIly

(5 liters) of rvater
] cup (25
ml) vinegar
3-4 tablespoons sea salt
] carrot
2 stalks of celery
2 bay leaves
1 staIk of parsley
6 tablespoons
2 tablespoons vinegar
2 cloves garlic,
] stalk of minced parsley
large pinch
of oregano
One eats the head and belly of the eel, since the rest is noth-
ing but spines.
Slice and chop the vegetables, and add them to he vrater.
Add s, peppercorns, and vinegar, and, lastly, the cut-up eel.
Bring to boil and cook for about minutes. Serve bowls with
\/m crusty bread, and add the basting sauce for taste.


have tail-cut from the she-tunny-the large she-tunn
repeat, lrhose mothe-city is Byzantium. Slice it and roast it
rightly sprinkling just little salt, and buttering it \/h ,
ihe slices hot, dipping them t sauce piquante; they are nice
eyen if

\/t to eat them
like the deathless gods
form and stature" (Archestratus, quoted inAthenaeus
The ancient Greeks used vinegar as r,,re rrould \/ use lemon
juice. When lemons rrere first imported, Greeks and Romans
considered them useful to protect rnrool from moths, as
plevenative against snakebites, and as the best antidote to
kind of poison. Unfortunately, it never dar.rned them hat the
lemon could have alimentary value.
21/ lbs,
kilos) of tuna
3 tablespoons fine salt
3 tablespoons olive
vinegar to sprinkle over the top
before eating
superb is mixture of vinegar, , and garlic)
For this recipe there is little to add to rrhat Archestratus stated
above. the olive and salt over the fish and cook at about
F ( C) for
minues, depending s hickness.
It is done when the skin is crisp and the tuna comes arvay from
the bone, juicy but not bloody. It can also be cooked directly
the grill, fl, for about
minutes per side.
for the citharus
if it be rrhie and hard and large,
it leaves clean salt r,rater and boil it" (Arclre
straus, quoed Athenaeus

have lage and r.rhite brill, boil it this manner:
4 lbs.
kg) of brill, turbot, sole, or flounder
2 gallons (5 liters) of \^/ater
(25 ml) vinegar
2 tablespoons coarse salt

2 carrots
2 celery stalks
2 bay leaves
stalk of
grape leaves
Put the cut fish into grape leaves and tie them securely vrith
kitchen string, Next chop the vegetables and put them iarge
cooking pot rvith the cold \/t, the spices, and the vinegar.
Place the rvrapped fish the mixture and sloivly bring the rvater
to simmer; \/atch it carefully to see that the rvater does
not boil violently. A|ter 5 minutes, check to see if the fish is
cooked, as it will depend h thick the fish pieces are. When
done, take the fish meat out of the leaves, discarding the leaves.
Pour the sauce oyer the fish and serve, sprinkling wh vinegar,
f more flavor is desired.
For less labor-intensive verslon, place the fish directly
the stelr pot, vithout the leaf wrapping.
if it be red appearance, and not too large, bake it f

have sabbed its body th sraight knife, freshly sharp-
ened. Then smear it rrith bde of cheese and l. For it
likes t see people who spend mone and it is prodigal" (Arche-
stratus, quoted Athenaeus
2 small turbot, about 21/ lbs. (1.4
kg) altogether
4 teaspoons Salt
6 .
grated parmesan
or sardo cheese
plenty of olive
Gut and clean the fish as necessaly. Prelreat the oven to
before you're ready to bake, salt the fish. Using
sharp knife, make series of cuts both sides of the spine
and fill them .t grated cheese and 1. Slatlrer the fistr rrith 1
and bake it well-greased

minutes. Also delicious
grilled thc barbeue.

\.. }


This recipe \/s for types of dogfish, such as marlin or blue
shark, or mahi-mahi the United States.
this city of

should buy the belly-slices of the
dog-shark, cu from h hollolv palts be]o\. Then spinkle them
h caarvay,seed and little salt, and bake. nothing else,
my friend, it, unless it be yellola l. But afteT it is baked,

may hen fetch sauce and 1 hose condiments r,vhich go
th . t rrhatsoever

stew r.lithin the ribs f the holiovr
casserole, mix lrater from sacred spring, nor wine-vinegar,
b simply

ovel it 1 and dry caraway and some fagrant
leaves 1 togethe. Cook it over the hot embers rvithout letting
the flame h it and stir it diligently lest

scorch . not many mortals knorv of hs heavenly viand
consent tO eat it-a]l those mortals, hat is, h poSSeSS the

soul f the booby-bird, and are smitten rvith palsy because.
as they say, the creature is man-eater. But evey fish loyes
human flesh if it can but get it" (Archestratus, quoed
2-3 lb.
9) slice of smooth dogfish or mahi-mahi
3 teaspoons Salt
6 tablespoons olive
of carararay seeds
This fish is cooked the griil. Bathe the piece or pieces abui-
dantly rvith 1 and sprinkle them rrith salt and cara\/ay seeds,
then place it the grill. I some dishonest restaurants dog-
fish is cooked this rvay and passed off as syrordfish, alhougt
the particular taste of dogfish cannot be concealed from the
can serve it rvith sauce rather than the cararvay seeds:
one of the best is Sicilian pickling, from the nalive environs :
Achesratus himself, This dressing is made by mixing 1, vine-
gar, oregano, felr cloves of gaiic, and bit of r.vater. Regard-
ing Archestratus's comment about such fish eating men, don'i
be impressed: although the dogfish is the shark family it is
completely innocuous fish and vrould never dream of bitlng
anyone. Athenaeus adds that this fish is the same one the Romans
called tursio.
and ltaly under h rraves of the narrow
s, liyes h lamprey
eel] called the floater. f ever be
caugh, buy it, for it is wonderful food" (Athenaeus
3 lbs,
(].5 kg) moray eel or yellow
handful of lovage
lots of oregano
large pinch of mint

1 glass of dry white vine

enough \rater to cover th eel
2 teaspoons honey
27 teaspoons salt
Crush togethe the sauce ingredients mortar. Clean the eel
rell and place t
cover it with the sauce, rretting it as
necessary inrith r,rine or $/ater. Cover the eel urith this mixture,
then add enough ]/ater t cover the eel. Cook it lornr flame
it is urell done. There should be bit of sauce remaining.
electric ray stevred , r,rine, fragrant herbs with bit
of grated cheese" (Archesratus, quoted Ahenaeus
It 11 be difficult to taste this dish as one nevel sees electric eel
the market. Horrever, should

manage to find it, here is
the recipe:
4 lbs.
kg) of electric ray
4 teaspoons salt
small glass of dry white
handful of , celery, parsley,
and carrots
to flavor the broth
31/ .
(1 g) grated cheese
Cook slor.rly terracotta pot rvith salt, r,rine, 1, and herbs.
adding the grated cheese at the last minute. Archestratus prob
ably r.vould have used pecorino cheese, not having parmesan
available, but t is best rrith parmesan.You choose. Cover the ra
lvith the cheese and r,vhen it has baely meited, take it out of the

and serve.
rnrhen thou comest to Byzantium, get slice of sr.rord-fish,
the join right lrom the tail. This fish is also good he
sraigh hard by the edge of Peiorum's
21/ lbs. (2 9) swordfish
3 teaspoons salt
3 tablespoons olive
vinegar to taste
This is quite similar to Recipe
by Archestratus. Get slices of
swordfish about inch thick, and roast them the grill,
adding b of sal and per slice. Grill about 2 ms per
side; do not over- or undercook. Serve as is, th spritz of
vinegar (or lemon), or rrith the f].g dressing: olive 1,
vinegar, salt, oregano, clove of garlic, mixed th bit of
\/ater; shake it , or stir with branch of oregano.
inThasos buy the sculpin
fish], if be big-
ger than thine arm's length (Athenaeus
7.gzo.f 1,
This recipe is from Apicius:

21/zlbs, (].5
kg) scorpion fish

3 teaspoons salt

of olive

] packet (
, or 3

teaspoon cumin

/ater to cover the fish

Archestatus suggests buying scorpion fish longer h

arm (b inches or
cm). Clean it and place

urith h rest of he ingrediens, rnrell ground and dis-

solved the and little rrater. Cover the flsh th waer. ald
cook about 5 minutes after the \/atel has come t boil, or

until h flesh comes ar,ray from the bone. Take he fish and

cook the liquid until it hickens, adding b of

Calchedon by the sea bake the mighty parrot-fish,
after rvash-
ing it urell, But Byzantium, too, thou urilt find good, and
as s size, bears back equal to h cicling shield. Dress
the rvhole as shall describe. After it has been thoroughly
eed vrith cheese and , take it and hang it hot oven and
bake . Sprinkle it uiith salt mixed rith carar,vay-seed,
and h he yellol,v , pouring its divine f
from h
hand (Archestratus,
quoted Athenaeus

fish, about 4 lbs,
6 tablespoons olive
(3 g)
4 teaspoons salt
1 teaspoon caraway seeds
large whole paIot fish. Scale, gut, and urash .
heavy pot, preferably terracotta, and cover rnrith , cheese,
s, ( is best if

make transverse
cuts both sides of the
fish and inset h salt, cheese, and these cuts,) Put the fish
h oven at
F (6 C) for
the thickness. Once cooked, put it serving dish and
sprinkle bit more salt and the carav/ay
seeds, adding
of (if

Orion is setting the heavens, and the mother of
the rnrine-bearing ciuster begins to cast arnray her tresses, then
have baked sarg
ovespread rnrith cheese, large, hot,
and rent urith pungent vinegar. For its flesh is by nature tough_
And so be mindful and dress every tough fish the same uray.
t the good fish, r,rith naturally tender, fat flesh, sprinkle rnrih
little s and baste ivith l. For it conains h iself
alone the relrard of joy" (Archestratus, quoted Athenaeus
2 bream, each about 2 lbs.
large bream, about 3 lbs. (,5
1 teaspoon table salt
grated pecorino
plenty of olive
balsamic vinegar for the table
Make three transverse cuts into each side of the fish, rubbing
little salt, and putting the cheese the cuts, and then pour e
olive over the fish. Roast it the oven (35" F or 8 C) for
2-3 minutes, or untii crispy. Serve it \/ith good quality bal-
samic vinegar.
Bream mea is quite salty. Other, more tender fish, such as
the grey mullet or bass, can be cooked similar manner vrith
more salt, and once rhile sprinkled h during baking-
Abdera, and
mid-Maroneia as lvell"
The l recipe found for making culefish black comes
from Apicius (..). Using rvhat he says as 11 as indicaions
from other Greek authors, one can leconstruct this delicacy:
tiny cuttlefish, as they are, rrith the blackness and cook
l ogeher.
and add , dressing, ,, and
1eek, and green coriander. Cook it thus." The recipe continues
th the sauce suggested by Apicius, that is, the , cooked
together th the ingredients listed above by the other authors
(milk, cheese, honey garlic, and s\/eet herbs).
Other authors speak about cuttlefish sauce probably made from
s black , h they call
Erasisraus r,rries his
of C
is made lvith cooked meat, ste\/ed rvell-beaten
blood, hone cheese, salt, caralva silphium (garlic), and vine-
gar." Glaucus of Rhodes .riies his Culinary Arts:
are deal-
ing here rrith the blood sterved vrith garlic and cooked rrine,
hone vinegar, milk, cheese, and srreet minced herbs."
2 lbs. (
9) cuttlefish
mI) olive
2 cloves garlic,
teaspoon Salt
of carararay seeds
2 teaspoons honey
llhite vinegar or lemon
ml) vghite vuine
diced feta cheese
Clean the cuttlefish, setting aside the sacs and being f]]
t to

them. Heat the lrying

and st garlic
it is golden. Remove the garlic, put the c- cuttlefish.
and fry bi \/h the salt, caraway and honey, then add h
. When it is crisp, add good sprinkling of vinegar and he
, follorred by the cheese. Continue cooking until the chees
has made soft sauce.
The Greeks held certain bizarre beliefs regarding m]], frsh
they believed rras sacred to Atemis the Virgin. If man \^/ere to
drink wine r.rhich mullet had been dipped, his sexual desire
r,vas roused, \/hereas r.rhen \/m dank the same rrine, it
irould make her calm. This potion, better than today's birth
would impede pregnancy (Athenaeus
Cooked mulle did not have the same
but it vras reserved
for gala afernoon dinners. After praising the muiiet from h
city ofTeichious the Milesian region, Achestratus continued,
Thasos buy red mullet, and

wili get one that is
not bad. Teos it is inferior, yet even it is good, Erythrae,
too, is good, rvhen caught by the shore" (Athenaeus
\/tht doubt, this fish, more than others, orres s qualiy
to rrhere comes from. certain ]ocations his fish is full of
disgusting acid.
it and place it

urith mixture of pepper, lovage,
oregano, mint, and solution of one part vine, one of
garum or and vinegar, and third part of honey and
tum.'This sauce shoujd cover the fish and rrhen t is done should
be greatly reduced" (Apicius lxc. I6).
3 lbs, (].5
9) red mullet
of pepper
1 branch of myrtle or mixture of parsley
and celery
Ieaves finely chopped
small celery stalk, minced
] sprig of parsley
2 pinches
of oregano
of mint

3 tablespoons Vietnamese fish sauce (nuoc
or chopped sardine
2 tablespoons honey
1 tablespoon brandy
6 tablespoons wine
Tke vrell-cleaned mullet and put it

to fi snugly. Finely
dice he ivith 1 the herbs and the sardine, if used.
the honey rnrih h herbs and brandy and then dissolve
irine and little \/ater; add the fish sauce, f used. Pour the sauce
over the fish, and put the

the fie. Let it cook at \/ heat
t it is done, about 5 minutes. The bones should be easily
removed, and the sauce should have been reduced to become
medium-thick. Once 11 the bones are out of the fish,

the sauce over it, and serve.
the head of large tuna from the deep sea during the sum-
mer vrhen Phaeton guides his chariot fom the sun the max-
imum orbit and serve it boiling hot urith sauce. Also buy bit
of the belly cook the spit. , . ."
is none other than the albacore longfin t. Its
meat is the urhitest of the tunas and is generally the most deli-
flavored. It is certainly the most digestible. Archestraus
counsels boiling the head, obviously rater, salt, rnrine, spices,
and vinegar, and then eating it boiling h. I theWes, h head
is seldom eaten, rhereas the East, for example, China and
J apan,
he head is considered the best part of the fish and is
offered the gues of honor,
One may also grill skerers of tuna steak, marinated lightly
olive , vinegar, garlic, parsley, and oregano, rnrith good
albacore tuna head
quarts (5
|iters) of \/ater
(25 ml) vinegar
3 tablespoons sea sa|t
2 carrots
2 stalks of celery
2 bay leaves
bunch of
his book The,4rt of Cooking, Mithaecus gives recipe f cook-
ing scabbard fish f
Epicharmus states:
The beloved rib-
bon fish
fish], thin but srnreet, and requiring frre"
Mithaecus pescribes:
he insides of
ribbon-fish afer g off its head, rrash and cut slices,
and pour cheese and over them" (ibid.).
The scabbard fish is silve fish, -l/ iches (5-6 cm)
uride and little over yard ( m) long. It is not often found
today's market. One good-sized flsh should feed b four
1 or 2 scabbard fish, depending size
( g) freshly grated pecorino
olive to cover bottom of

and more for
covering the fish
salt to taste
vinegar sprinkled each piece (balsamic
is best)
Cut h fish (-3 . or
cm) portions and he botom
of roasting
then arrange the fish the
covering it
rith cheese and then more l. If

prefer, use paImesan
cheese sd of pecorino, but Puglia t is stili hought bes
to make this fish rnrith pecorino. Sprinkie bit of vinegar over the
pieces, and then put the fish
F ( 8' C) oven for about
5 minutes.
The comic r,rriter Alexis included the following recipe for stuffed
squid one of his rrorks, as reported by Athenaeus:
for the
squids, chopped heir fin, mixed 1 lard, sprinkled
them r,lith seasoning and stuffed them .lth frnely chopped
greens" (Alexi, quoted Athenaeus
4 large squid or 11/ lb,
small squid
] teaspoon salt
2 cups
(5 g) diced beet or chicory greens
2 cloves
garlic, finely minced
] bunch fresh parsley, chopped
(] g) diced fat bacon
to taste
Chop the entacles rrith the bacon, adding the garlic, parsley, and
greens, flash-fried and diced. Add pinch of pepper and ] and
then suff h squid vrith this mixture. Selr so ht the fllling
does not fall t as it cooks. t t clay pot or shallor roast-
Coa he outside rvith olive and bit of salt and cook
F ( 9 C) for haif hour.

thou go t Ambracia's happy land and chance to see he boa-
buy it and abandon t t, even though it cos
s r,veigh gold, lest haply the dread \^/h of the death]ess
ones shall breathe thee. For that fish is the florver f nec-
tar. Yet eat it or even t catch glimpse
f it r,rith h eyes
is t ordained for mortals, but it is possible for those
rvho carry their hands the holloir plaited texture of slvamp
gro\/n rope, and are skilled the practice
of tossing

eager contention,
and thror-ring the bait of sheeps' joints''

7 J d). l
Late Athenaeus \.Tites:
Aenus and Pontus buy the
pig-fish, which some mortals call sand-digger.
its head rrih
out adding seasoning;
simply place beside it pounded
and if thou crave aught else, drop t pungen
soak it .e]1 this, then make haste to e , even t
the point of choking thyself ivith thy zeal'' (Ahenaeus
As child, caught this fish urith simple joy
and bit of
bait, but never rrished to grab marsh bulrushes
or use stones
or sheep's knees. Triggerfish
are very tasty and almost ] head,
but the head has enough meat for meal.
large head of triggerfish

liters) of vvater
cup (25
mi) vinegar
2 teaspoon sea salt
2 carrots
2 stalks of celery
2 bay leaves
bunch of parsiey
3 peppercorns
Place the head cold
and bring boil and
cook rre]].Then
add the aboye spices and herbs and fresh-picked
capers. (If

do not liye rrhere the caper

use capers pickled vinegar.) Crush them mortar or


blender, and finish the sauce rrith the dd of , vinegar,
salt, and pepper.
h fat gilt-head from Ephesus, rnrhich people here
call ioniscus. it, ht nursling of the holy Selinua. Wash
rnrith care, then bake and serve it rhole even though it measure
cubis" (Archesaus, quoted Ahenaeus
3 IbS.
(1.5 9) bream
3 teaspoons fine salt
plenty of olive

generous sprinklin9 of vinegar
Even today Ephesus and its surroundings are famous for its
bream, called chippura by the Turks. t is cooked for half hour
F (6' C) rubbed vrith and salt, and served. q-
t) it vras served with spinkling of vinegar; today re could
use lemon. Either nray is simple, and simply deiicious!
Bosporus h \rhitest that sail forth; but 1 hg be
added thereto of the tough flesh of that fish rhich grorvs the
Maeotic lake
fish which may not be mentioned
verse" (Athenaeus
ms be due to the fact that
the r,rord for
did not fitArchestratus's hyme scheme.
\^/e do not knornr hol this dish ras prepared. Later ,
urhen Athenaeus discusses stulgeon, there is critique of
Archestratus and his imprecision:
rnrho affected
mode of life like that of Sardanapalus, speaking of h Rhodian
dogfish, expresses h belief h is he same as h urhich is
carried about at Roman banquets to the accompaniment of pipes
and rvreaths, the slaves rnrho bing it being crored rnrith
eaths; it is, he thinks, the fish called accipesius
the latter is smaller, longer of snout and moe tiangular than the
former, and the cheapest and smallest of them is sold f not less
than thousand drachmas" (Athenaeus
Thus, according to this telling, Archestratus mixed
Rhodian dogflsh rith sturgeon and declared it to be h fish hat
the Romans carried to the table, crovrned and serenaded with
flutes, by slaves floral cros. But it seems difficult to attrib-
ute this erlol to Archestratus, who lived the fourth century
s.c,, \rhen the Romans neyer ate fish. The manner of seryice
described Athenaeus's text appeaed the late second cen-
tury to the early third century,.o., and more precisely to the
Severian epoch, and it rnras certainly not ceremony urhich
innocuous bottom feeder such as dogfish rnrould have
been served.
Rhodes there is the dog-fish, hIesher shark. And even if

ms dir for it, if they rvon't sell it
it by force.
The Syracusans call it fat dog. Once

have got it, submit
patiently thereafter to whatever doom is decreed for
This fish is the shark most often seen by those iho live near he
Mediterranean coast. It is not dangerous, given that t feeds
mollusks and small fish. It is eaten fresh, soon after t is caugh.
Other cookbooks relating to fish do not share Archestratus's
enhusiasm. They say his flsh is inferior he smooth dogfish
and they recommend palticularly spicy recipes hide its taste-
less flavor.
thou seest fishing-frog
buy . . . and
dress the belly-piece" (Athenaeus
text says
b h something there is something off about this quoe.
, d, rve still enjoy the anglerfish, b r.re eat the ,
rrhich, being aher
is cut into large slices. Due s s-
ness, it tastes lot 1ike spiny lobster. I don't believe the under-
beily is ever used cooking.
buy large plaice
ance here.
for the elops, eat that chiefly glorious Syracuse, since it
is the best. For that fish...comes from there, its native place.
\/heefore rnrhen it is caught off the islands, or the Asian land
perchance, or off Crete, it comes to

thin and tough and
r,rave-battered" (Athenaeus
7. 3ooe).
We do not knornr exactly vrhat this fish is. Greek dictionaies
tIanslate the urord elope as
It is, hornrever, defini-
tively not sturgeon, as that flsh is hard to find Syracuse, nor
urould it end skinny and tossed back into the sea at Crete.
One can imagine that this fish may be vulpinus, h
thesher shark, vrhich often srnrims rrith its fin the surface of
the \/ and has tail as long as the rest of its bod giving it
the name
fish" Venice.
It is not easy to deduce \/hat type of fish this ras. It rnras also
called epatos, rnrhich means
Dioc]es said that it rras rock-
fish. According to Aristotle, it rnras soiitary carnivore rith sharp
teeth. According Speusippus, \/s iype of porgy. Aristole's
definiion coincides vrith Speusippus' idenification, making it
probabie that it \/s porgy. Archestratus recommended buying
it De]os or Tenos.
One is also one hndred percent sure if this refers t type
of mackerel, which is even today called
horsetail fom Carystus is the best, as geneal Carystus is
region very rich fish" (Ahenaeus
mullet seagirt Aegina, and

vrill have the company
of charming men" (Athenaeus
(oR )
for he cod, vrhich they call callaria, Anthedon nuures
goodly size, but it has, after , rather
m, and is
geneal not pleasant, at least to me; yet othels praise it very
highly; for one man likes this, another hat (Athenaeus
Archestratus did not give recipe and it is easy to see rvhy; he
did like hake, and neither do .
are best Thasos and Caria; Corfu, too,
nourishes large ones, many number" (Athenaeus
7.3I8f ).
There is recipe given for octopus, but they are still served
today, t l Greece but ltaly r.rhere fisherman catch
them near the shore and eat them rarr after pounding them and
rinsing them the sea, or, as alr-rays, boiled freshly caught,
for h salpa, shall forever
it to be poor fish. I
is most palatable urhen the grain is being harvested. it
" (Athenaeus
This fish, called saupe France, is not rrorthy of recipe.
hemt: Latln these r.rere caiied
second tables." Indeed
they rvere usually carried th orrn tables (Athenaeus
Ia.639b),These second tables rrere similar t rrhat we call today
treats. Durlng the
seating," salty food
as rell as s\/eet rras served. The difference \/s that during the
seating" full dinner s served, rrhereas during the sec-
ond guests munched l tidbits, and drank.
There ae various lists of what s served for dessert. Phil-
ippides his Mise liss:
dessert (epidorpismaa),
eggs, sesame seeds" (Kock
14.64od). Diphilus
Telesias notes
s\/eet, some myrtle-beIries, cheese-cake,
almonds" (Kock .67; Athenaeus I4.64od).
These are mentioned by Athenaeus ( 14.644f
. Amilos means
Cato r,rrites the end of his recipe for amiloi \/ht to
do th the starch:
the starch is dry, put it ner.r

and cook rnrith milk." He then makes it clear that one cooked
t until it became ceam dessert, although it is not clear
rrhether it vras made to be salty sl/eet, probably leaving that
part t the cook. the other hand, for time immemorial,
starch has been used to make creams such as mahallebi Turkey
or blanc mange Europe.
(625 ml) cups milk
2 tablespoons cornstarch
3 tablespoons su9ar
1 teaspoon
(or 1 teaspoon rose\iater)
Dissolve the sarch t cold milk. Meanrrhile,

h s
of h milk

over flame, \I/hen the milk is h, dis-
solve the sugar it and add the starch mixture. Continue cook-
ing, stirring constantly, untll it becomes pudding, about 5
minutes, making sule not t scald the bottom. Stir the
rose\rater. Usually it is put mold, and chilled for at least
minutes before serving, although it can be
bornrl and
served \/arm. ancient times, Tose\/ater \ld have been used
place of ll, and honey instead of sugar, vrhich case
use l tablespoons of sweetener, as honey is more delicate
than sugar.
Wh 1 r,re knorr about this dish (Athenaeus 4.646f
is h
this is Sicilian dessert. Given that the etymological root means
t is likely that among the ingrediens
there rrere both fresh cheese and honey.
21/ cups (5 g) ricotta cheese
these two together. It is delicious as is, or it can be put
strudel, betrreen cookies, even cone!

is fied dough dessert mentioned

by Hipponex
is this
eating francoin
birdj and rabbits,
the fried teanitas dough rrith sesame
seeds'' (PLG
term for this dessert comes from the rrord teganon, ''frying
This confirms that \/e are dealing th fied dough and that this
same dough once had sesame seeds
added. There is similar
Greek recipe d called lukumahes,
can be made by
adding grated iemon rind to the batter
and using cognac instead
of rrine.
2/ cups (5 g)

or curdled
2/ cups (25 g)
4 tablespoons
vhite vvine
of salt
li9ht for frying
cup (125
ml) honey
coId pater
ssame seeds plate (for
the dough after
the honey has been drizzled
over it)
Whisk together
the curdled
miik, ,
and s. \/hen lvell
mixed, add h flour make pase h is sf and elasic. (If
the rreather is humid,
more flour may be needed.)
Let the dough
chil] for hours h efrigerator.
iigh delp

for frying, and rrhen it begins to smoke,
drop small .rr-
fuls of dough-3-4
at time-into
the and fiy them
they srvell and are e brorrned.
them out and drain them
papeI tol.els. Heat the hone diluting
rvith little coid rrater
make medium h syrup. Slather
h fied dough
honey soak , and then roll the honeyed
b dozen.
h second volume of Semos's History
of De]os (FHG
the island of Hecate the people of Delos offer to lris
h basyniai, as they are called.They
consist ofdough from rnrheat
fl boiled with honey, to urhich are added so-calied
seeds], dried fig and three uralnus''
Most likely this treat is he forerunner
struffoli, ,.ely sweet and elegant dessert of fried
dough, held ogether h sugal fosting,
which has ancient
roos this
of Magna Graecia. t is therefore
possible to
it urith m changes.
Thee rnrere olanges
classical times: this fuit rvas introduced
from China into
Europe at later date. Lemons, the other hand, urere found
much of the classical world. one of Antiphanes'
(367 z.c,) he speaks of lemon seeds, rarity h uras js
gifed the Athenians from the Geat King,himsel
but h
I/ere not yet

of the food system. Athenaeus
affirms that
h second ,q..o., although
the lemon
had delighful
the fruit uras inedible. It rras used cupboards
aird dravvers to plotect rnrool from moths (Athenaeus
There r,ras also belief that boiling rnrhole lemon Attic honey
until the lemon completely
made syrup that both
Greeks and Romans believed to be plotection
against every
poison, if taken medicinally the morning.
3 cups (3 g)
8 eggs
2 egg yolks
2 tablespoons lard or olive for frying
of salt
cup (25
ml) honey
4-5 dates, cut pieces
dozen !/ts, chopped
Place the f rnrork surface and make rell the middle,
he eggs, egg
salt, and 1 tablespoon
of lard the mid-
dle and mix ogether to fom dough.
Roll it out rather thick,
inch, and cut into long rorvs, then cut the ror,rs into
pieces about one inch long. Fry the pieces deep frying

th hot until uniformly brovrned. Heat the honey
double boiler, and, rrhen hot, drop the fried dough and coat
well. Then pite he dough balls top of each other, making
cone. If honey remains, pour it over the top, to , the
rnrhole mass to stick together. F decorate rnrith pomegranate
seeds, dates, and nuts.Yield: about
fried balls of dough.
Menander mentions these False Heracles (Kock
and Athenaeus includes them his section plakous
(a.6aac).The Loeb edition of Athenaeus erroneously translates
this dessert as
cake. The name fact comes lrom
Greek verb that means
back itself
it not for Cato's recipe, the others
be considered valid.
The enchyti dough is
but mold; is made
by squeezing the dough tlrrough tube to fall spirals into
hot cooking lard. It \/s the oldest dessert and repre-
sentation of pastry chefs cooking it is found the tomb of
Ramses he Valley of h Kings, Egyp. I seems h hs
presentation mirrors that described by Cato and therefore rvas
ee e Creece.
This is Cato's recipe:
"Make 'enchytoi'
the same \/

but use
h h hole it to press the dough hrough, spirals,
boiling fa, about the size f tr,vo sticks. When hey are ready,
coyer them rvith honey and heat them at moderate tempera-
ture, Serve them rrith honey and s\/eet wlne" (De ag. 8).
4 .
(5 g)
ricotta cheese
]/ cups
(15 g) flour
plenty of olive or lard for frying
Make h dough and place lt cookie press or
bag, and
let fall spirals into the boiling (smoking) fat, making sure
t keep h spiral rrhole, It should be about inches (6 cm)
long. When it is brown, take it out and put it paper torveis
dry.\/hen h dough it cooked,

he pastries
cover them rvith plenty of honey, and allorr it soak . Warm
them moderate oven (3 F or C) for fe\v minutes
before serving them.
Athenaeus talks t length about this dessert. He cites Demetrius
of Scepsis; his trvelfth-century book of Trojan Battle Order, here
r,vas city named
under Plakos" (Iliad 6.g6-97).1
seems that the rrord means
urhich is to say that he
ous \\Ias squashed flat. Clearly Cato's plakous \^/as not flt, but,
although layered; t rvas probably flat t. I Greece there
\\Iere endless number of plakous and Athenaeus discusses
rrhich \/ere most delicious. The best rnrere considered those from
Paros, so that Alexis his Archilochus has one his characters

fortunae old man, dlvelling happy Paros,
rrhich country out of 11 the rvorld produces the tvro things
most fair, marble t grace the Blessed, and
for mor-
ls!" (Ahenaeus 4.644b-c). Sopaer his farce The Suios of
Bacchus (Kaibel 9,
extols the quality of Samos's plakous, lvriing,
vrhose name is
maker" (Athenaeus
Cato's recipe:
ke t pounds of lvheat flour to make h outside layer, plus
four pounds of flour and trro of spelt to make the layers. Sofen
he spelt waer and when it ls swollen, put it clean knead-
ing trough after having dried it, then make the dough. When
it is lvell mixed, slor.rly add the f pounds of flour. Then, 11
out the dough and make layers, and put them basket dry.
When hey are dr line them and clean them with cloth
soaked oliye 1, and then cook them. Next, ake the t
pounds of flour; make bread dough, mixing r.rith vrater, to make
more layers ofdough.Take 4 pounds offresh goat cheese, put
it water and make it soft, changing the \/ater at least thlee
times. Then, squeeze t, put t morta and through sieve,
and then mix lt rrith four pounds of honey. Norv, take clean

8 inches by 8
cm by
cm] and cover it lvith bay
leaves based 1. top of this, place the large layer, exend-
ing over the sides f the
and start to make the plakous. Put
dorrn layer of douglr, cover it rrith the cream, then anothel
pastry layer and another of cream, continuing until

the dough and 11 the cream, ending rvith layer of dough
top. Then make sure l the filling is inside and c]ose it l rvih
the overhanging outside layer. Cook the plakous fire urith
big terracotta vase similal to our country soves]
around rvhich

can place coals, and even cover the chimney
lrith them. Cook long and slorvly and check evely so often to
see if it is done.When it is done, splead lots of honey over it."
(Cato De g.
2 cups
(5 g) flour
enough /ater to make dough (see
Recipe 2, Kapyria)
li9ht olive
pinch of salt
5 layers of dough
as directed or bought
r2 cups
(2 g) honey
6-8 bay leaves
Note:You can save lot of time by purchasing frozen puff pas-
try sheets, and indeed your results may be lather bette For those
vrho rrish to make their dough, first mix together r/ater
and flour, and h divide it into frve parts, roiling t the dough
very h, b half as h as pie dough. , le dry, and
once dry brush rrith and put the oven to dry again.
the ricotta and honey. Cover the bottom of baking
dish rrith bay leaves greased rrith olive and place large layer
of dough, covering the

and overlapping the sides, top
of he leaves. Then one of he iayers of dough, fi
and place of the overlapping layer. Wh-
ever dough

chose, cover it vrith layer ofricotta and honey
and continue alternating layer of dough and then layer of
ricotta/honey until the filling and the pasay are used .
h edges ofthe bottom layer over the entire dessert,
and bake
F (65 C) for -3 minues, check-
ing for eyen brorrnness. When it is golden brorrn, take it out
of the oven and bath abundantly honey.
these fried ttanitai honey"
means frying

lonic dialect] (PLG
fact, Athenaeus
this desse't
and called
and also by the lrriter of the second
of Dionysus
.7): "Have

ever rratched
to see the hot pancakes

pour honey them?''
And Cratinus,
laws, says:
the hot pancakes
the morning
(Kock I.5,), From
these excerpts
\/e See that tagenites \/e.e eaten for breakfast.
Tb have imme-
d leavening
effect, curdled
milk ras added. I the days befoe
and before m came
it \/S
easy to come by curdled
this type of pancake
is made
iith cottage
cheese or ricotta.
2 cups (5 g)
cup (6
ml) vhite e
cup (6
ml) curdled
milk (add
lemon juice
to regular
olive to grease

honey for the

the cooked pancakes
sesame seeds
first four ingedients
until smooth,
and cook small
circle greased
to brorrn
r] otr, sides. Serve
hot, rrith honey
and spinkle
of sesame

Amphiphon means
11 around" and rre that this vras
dessert served with candles as offering to Artemis. Philo-
chorus (FHG
tells us that the name of amphiphon arose
{m the fact hat this dessert rras carried to Artemis's temple
the seventeenth day of the month of Munichion (April) because
that is the day rrhen the sky is tr-rice as bright as usual. This
ritual probably involved
types of desserts, but not one
of the recipes for them rvas given (Athenaeus 4.64).
Aristophanes mentions charisios his Men of Dinneille (Kock
us anro uril] bake grace-cake
to eat
h evening comes" (Athenaeus ,66b).
Sr,rees made rrih miik and honey (Athenaeus 4.646e). The
presence of honey makes it c]ear that this rras dessert.
of h bread, like focaccia: it is identified b h
that. Pherecraes refers to t (Kock .94). Kock thinks migh
be flat cake made by slaves or diakones, or base fo plakous tha
\/s not very good, So the author did not bother t give
instructions for h, to make t. This is based quote from
began t eat the d though he already had
amphiphon" (Ahenaeus .6f).
This rnras dessert made by roasting together grain called leuke
(probably rvhie barley), chickpeas, cardamom, and small thin
breads first soaked milk and honey, and then served th
saffron sauce (Athenaeus 14.643.b).
Lynceus of Samos speaks of this dessert his Letter to Diagoas
(Ahenaeus 4.647), He states that this delicate pastry r.ras made
Rhodes and that his friend explained horr it rras made.
the recipe r.ras not given.
This rras dessert the shape of deer made for the festival
of h Elaphebolia (Ahenaeus 4.646).I
rras made from
s (today we rrould substitute durum flour), hone and
sesame seeds.
Seleucus (Athenaeus Ia.6a5d) defines this as pie made r.rith
baked cheeses, more or less similar to the French
b likely much harder and heavier, more like the breadbaskes
made into borvls today.
This is small, fied dough covered honey. So says Aeschylus.
Enkrides are also mentioned by Stesichorus (PlG
by Epicharmus; Hand,to-Mouth
Toilers by Nicophon
(Kock .779);by Arisophanes Danaids (Kock .45); and by
his Good-for,Nothings (Kock I. I68).
mentioned epichyton list of dessert breads and
focaccias his Hand-to-Mouth Toilers (Kock .778; Athenaeus
appears be fried dough, rrhich Pamphilus
vere also called attanitai. (See Recipe
This s pastry made from barley flour, served after dinner, as
explained by Philemon his AtticWords (Athenaeus 14.646b).
These rrere Syracusan s\/eets and from the name as translated it
is type of doughnut. Epichamus cites them his Earth and Sea
Ahenaeus 4.4-f).
Seleucus's Glossar this dessert is said have been made
Crete, fm grape sylup and olive (Athenaeus 4.645d).
Although flour rras not mentioned, must have been part of
the recipe.
Solon says tha this is lentil-based dessert, as referenced
his lambicVerses (PLG .58; Diehl .38;Ahenaeus 4,64f). I is
unclea rrhether this recipe used fl and lenils, or flour
made from lenils, simila to bean-flour desserts currently made

This rvas soft cookie made rrith sesame and honey as men-
tioned byAnacreon (PLG 6; Athenaeus
by Sophocles
Eris (GF 7) and by Aristophanes his The Acharnians
( 9,
This s type of flat bread that nevrlyvred gave to her hus-
band as gift. It rras cooked brazier and covered honey,
and it rnras also served to the friends of the ner.rlylveds. So states
Philitas his lrregulari4/ords (Kuchenmlter, frag.
These seem to be different than the kribanites that are mentioned
the chapter breads. Sosibius, the third chapter of
Acman, says tha they shaped like breasts and that the Spartans
served them at dinners for rromen, rrhen the young girls rrere
preparing to sing hymn of praise honor of bride
(Athenaeus 4.646).
This alludes to dessert that r,ras made rrith unrefined barley
flour (called krimnon Greek) (Athenaeus
Probably this s crunchy dessert, at least accoding to the
t editor Rocci. The name supports his guess. The 1
translaion of he phrase is:
liberally soaked h
from the humming-uringed bee" (Athenaeus
Heracleides of Syracuse recounts Institution that the last day
f the feast of Thesmophoria Syracuse, dessert made of
sesame and honey rras shaped like women's sexual organs; it
came be known as mylloi Sicily. This dessert rnras paraded
around honor of the goddess (Athenaeus
Thin bread made rnrith cheese and o1ive 1. Given that the text
uses the r,rord artos, vrhich means bread, it is evidently flour-
based recipe; is probably the pecursor of libum (Ahenaeus
\/e l knornr that this was dessert rrith delicious filling
(Athenaeus 4,646).
Demosthenes mentions this his prayer to Ctesiphonus (De
Co. 6). Harpocrates says that they are made urith dough of
roughly crushed barley and honey, rrhich is hen cooked and
coyered grapes and chickpeas (Athenaeus I4.645b). The
dOugh rn,as sreched h.
Smali desserts eaten t Kos (Athenaeus 14.646f).
This is significantly crumbly dessert. I his Good-for-Nothings,
Pherecrates says,

vrill eceive good-for-
nohing and crumbs
(Kock I.168;Ahenaeus 4.646c).
( the r,rork of Pherecrates, money the kingdom of the dead
rras called
for nothing," and rras \/th t\/ crumbs.)
These spherical svreets rere made rrith toasted sesame seeds and
honey, the Pergamon region, these desserts are still made
today (Athenaeus 14.646f
These srreets \/ere made i,rith sesame seeds and cheese fried
olive , covered vrith celery seeds (probably sd)
(Athenaeus 4.64c).It is believed the name of his dessert r,ras
given by Philoxenus of Chythera, h used complex
phrases made of other rrords, much like those German, He
rras eased by Antiphanes his Third-Rae Actors (Kock 2,,2),
\/h praises him as t of many special r,ryords
jumbled language.
These rnrere crepes made with spelt seed flour and honey
(Athenaeus .66b). Epicharmus mentions them The Mariage
of Hebe (Kaibel ). very liquid dough \/s h spread
h frying

and rrhen cooked, sprinkled top rvith
honey, sesame seeds, and fresh cheese, according to latocles'
The name leads us to believe that these rrere doughnuts
Demosthenes mentions them his prayer
honor of Cesiphon h

the Crown (De Cor. 6).
beer identified. One of the Deipnosophists, l, says
that he rrould defrniely eat
that rnrere creamy soft,
vrhich case, he rrould ask for mystilen ( piece of bread dough
baked the shape of spoon to serve as edible utensil for
eating liquids or semi-liquids. There is example of mystilen
h Museum of Cairo). The thing vre know about this
dessert is that many pine nuts rnrere mixed into it, and the nuts
rrere called by different names, ostrokis and kokkaios.
Thin bread made rrith cheese, similar to dough suggested
by Cato. These rnrere served vrith honeyed milk (Athenaeus
Condiments, Flavorings,
Antiphanes lists spices and flavorings that every ancient Greek
cook should have hand: dried grapes (raisins), s, silphium
( garlic-like bulb), cheese, thyme, sesame seeds, soda, myrrh,
cumin, hone marjoram, dates, vinegar, olives, herbs for spicy
sauces, capers, egg, salted fish, rryatercess, grape leaves, and
curdled milk,
This spice is easy to gro\/ and if the seeds are dispersed, the
plant inrill seed itself, Wild carar.ray has smai]er seeds than h
cultivated plant and also has more pronounced flavor.
CORIAN DER (Coriandrum sativum)
Both the leaves and seeds of this plant are used, but one should
be ayrae that each has distinctive flavor. It is t commonly
found but it is very popular Asia and the Ameicas.
Fresh coiander or cilanto is sold bunches, like pasley, and
the leaves simila, bui paIsley and coiander leaves have very
different flavors. It is vrell to bea mind that cetain pro-
portion of the population has almost allergic reaction to
cilanro, sr.vearing that it tastes as bad as, \/orse than, soap.
The name
comes from the Greek koris, hh means
cimex, insect, presuming similarity betureen the odor of the
bug and th of the green leaves of the plant. Coriander seeds,
hornzever, are milder and seem not to povoke the same reaction
as the leaves.
Cumin is wel]-knorn spice to both ancient and modern
peoples (l Nat. Hist. .16, . 6).
Mentioned frequently Athenaeus (see z.67c), it rras one of
the ancient Greek seasonings that he most disdained. equiv-
alent sauce is still used rnrith excellent results the cooking of
various Asian countries. This product, called nuoc-nam, is sold
many Eastern specialty food stores Europe and the Americas.
If not available,

can make this universal sauce yourself: dry
and s fish, h take the resulting liquid and add olive ,
This is called ligusticum almost the recipes from De re
coquinaria. It can be found gardening and plant stores, and
can be g\/ windor.r boxes or other garden containers. The
leaves have agreeable flavor that falls somerrhere between
celery and parsley. One could, therefore, substitute for lovage
rrith mixture of parsley and celery recipes.
MARJ oRAM (Ahenaeus .68)
(Mentha pulegium)
MYRRH (Ahenaeus .66)
Evidently combination of vinegar and honey
Probably rose-flavored
(vinegar and honey)
This is
saffron." It is sold
Egypt and is often mistaken
throughout the Middle East and
for saffron by naive tourists. t
has reddish pistils, and rrhen added to dish, gives the color,
although not the flavor, of saffron. It lvas often used antiq-
uity as dyesuff,
Silphlum is the most famous spice found antiquity, vrild

from Syria h grerv he steppes of Africa and h dis-
appeared around the time of Nero. Antiphanes, his Unhappy
lovers (Kock 2.73), teases the Syrians rrho seem to taik of noth
ing bu cabbages and silphium:
will not sail back to the place
from which \/e \^Iere carried auray, for t to say goodbye to
all-horses, silphium, chariots, silphium salks, steeple-chasers,
silphium ]eaves, fevers, and silphium juice" (Athenaeus
This makes the Syrians seem bit fixatedl
(Thymus vulgaris)
We find lists of various kinds of vinegar i,vih descriptions of
their benefits and defects. Greek rrriters calied vinegar the
of h seasonings." The philosopher Chryslppus said h h
best vinegars r,rere those from Egypt and Cnidus. the oher
hand, Aristophanes preferred vinegar from Sphettus and he also
mentioned one from Cleonae, but given that there is a
Argos, Athos, and Phocis, rre do t to \/hich region
he referred. The vinegar from Decelea r.ras also mentioned,
but t favorably. fact, the comedian Alexis (Kock .4;
Athenaeus z.67e) inrrote,
compelling me t drain four
cups f Decelean home-made vinegar
meaning the
arrful rrine of this region], \/

drag me straight through
the market."
Aeschylus, 1, 3
Agatharchides of Cnidus, 26
Alexander the Great, 25-26
Alexandria,39,60 61
Aexis, 18,1,27-8,
70, 95, 109, 0
amia, 73
amiloi, 03
morbites, 1 0,
Amphictyon, 29
ampiphon, 1 2
Alacreon, 14
mdra, 9
mglerfish, 99
Antidous, 40
Antiphanes, 3, 3 2, 68,
t06, 6_18, 0
Altony, Mark, 32
aplrrodisiacs, 49
appetizers, 49
De re coquinario, 35, 53,
meats, 63,6+,70
seafood, 86, 89, 9
Soups, 53, 56
appetizers, 44 52
Archestratus of Gela
appetizels, 44, 46
banquets, 6-7, 8
breads, 36
onseafood,6,71 7+,
Archilochus, 33
Arclrippus, 4
Aristophanes, 39, 45, 52,
53, 55, 69, 1 2-14, 0
art, 8-9
A]temis,91, 2
artolaganon, 3 7
arugula, 49
appeizels, 44-46,
banquets, 8, 10,
_2, 14
breads, 3, 36-41
The Deipnosopisk, -2, 35
desserts, 02-7
Hedupaheia, 6
lemons, 106
meats, 60, 68-70
sauces, 4-43
seafood,7 0
seasonings, 9-20
soups, 54-55
wine, 29, 30
gS, 5
tttd, 105, 1 13
Babyloia, 2
baley soup, 53, 54
basyniai, 06-7
bay leaves, 4
boiled meas, 60-6 , 68, 70
boletus breads, 40
brain pudding, 66-67
brazier bread, 40
breads, 3, 6, 36 43
bream, 88, 97, 00
Byzantium, 20
Callias. S Diocles
Ca]limedon, 1, 70
Caranus, 4
caraway seeds, 1 8
cardoons, 5 8
Carneius f Megara, 1 3
Cato, 38, 45, 53, 03,
08 0,1
Cebes of Cyzicus, 3
chamber pots, 10-
charisios, 1 2
cheese, 3, 69, 8+, 90, 94,
104, 108_10
chicken, 66-6
China, 93
Chrysippus, -3, 56, 120
Cleomenes, 28-29
Cleopara, 3
cod, 0
CondimeDts, 42-43,
18 20
coriander, 1 1 8
cost of food, 26-28
courtesans, 9 10
crepes, 7
Cree,2, 00
Cbls, 40
cubo bread, 4
Cumin, 1 8
Daphnus f Ephesus, 7
Delos, 106
Demetrius f Scepsis, 109
Demosenes, 116, 7
dessers, 02-7
Diagoras, 40
diakonion, 1 2
dice bread, 4
Dioc]es, 24, 00
Diocles ofCarystus,39
Dioxippus, 69
Diphilus, 20, 59, 02
dogfish, 82-83, 98-99
dolmas,5l 5
doughnuS, 1+,117
ecinos, 3
Egypt, 08
elapos, 1 1 3
elops, 00
empeptos, 3
ncytoi, 08
enkrides, 1 1 3
epatos, 00
Eplcharmus, 94, 13,
11+, 17
epichyOn, 1 3
epidoitron, 4
epikyklios, 4
Euangelus, 4
Eubulus, 69
Epolis, 0
fennel, 46
figleaves,5l 52
Golden Age, 6
Homel , 4-5
recipes for, 3 O
regional food, 20
flsh heads, 93, 96
flsh sauce, 43, 66, 1 9
flag fish, 00
flavorings,1l8 20
flowers, 7-8
focaccia, 37, 40
flied dough, 105-7, 1 13
ried shrimp, 72
garlic, 0
garum, 43, 64, 69, 18
g, rf /
Glaucus ofRhodes, 90
gykinas, 14
gS, 63
gobies, 74
Golden Age, 6 8
gonos, 4
1 4
gIains, 5
grape leaves, 5 -5, 80
grasshoppers, 52
greens, 57, 58
gynaecea, 8-9
Hadrian, 10
Harpocrates, 6
Hellenism, 25-26
Heracleides, 4 1
Heracleides f Syracuse, 5
Heodotus, 28 29
Hipparchus, 70
Hippolochus the
Macedonian, 7
Hlpponex, 05
honey, 50, 103
hyacinth bulbs, 48 50, 56
Iatrocles, 1 7
ims, food at,77-Z8
islkembe sorbasi, 60
O, 1 4
J apan,
93, 1 14
J erusalem
artichokes, 5 8
kapyria, 3 8
kottabos, 3 1-3 2
, 1 4
kribanai, 1 1 5
krimnits, 1 15
krota, 5
Larensis, Livy,
lebia, 100
lemons, 79, 06
lentil soups, 13, 55, 56, 68
lentils, dessets, 1 14
Ieuke, 1 1 2
ligusticum, 9,
lovage, 1 19
Llmceus, 17
Lynceus of Samos, 2-22,
mackerel, 100
Magnes, 111
mahallebi, 03
mahi-mahi, 82-83
male banques, 9-1 1
Mardonius, 25
marjorm, 19
Martial, 49
Homer , ,3-6
eclpes for, 60 70
at weddings, 5
Menmder, 0, 6-7
m, 42, 62, 119
Mithaecus, 94
mol]usks, 7
mullet, 9 -92, 100
mustard, 50
mylloi, 1 15
myrrh, 9
mystilen, 1 1 7
nanos, 1 1 5
nastos, 1 6
nee]ata, 6
Nicander of Colophon, 54
Nicophon, 1 1 3
octopus, 101
olive , 4
olives, 45-46
onions, 3,44
ormges, 106
organ mS, 69-70
, 2 1
oxygarum, 43
oxymel, 1 19
oxyrhodlnon, 1 19
paisa, 6
Pamphilus, 1 13
pm bread,41
pmcakes, 1
parasltes, 1 1-12
Parmeniscus the Cynlc,
parmesan cheese, 84, 94
Paros, 09
pallot fiSh, 87
pasta, 38
pecorino cheese, 84, 94
pepper, 44
pefumes, 7-8, 13
Pherecrates, 68, 1 2, 1 13,
Philemon, 114
Philippides, 0
Philias, 1 14
Philochorus, 2
Phi]onides, 9
phllosophers' bmquets,
Philoxenus of Cythera,
18_9, 6_17
pig's feet, 68-69
pita bread, 39
], 2
pakous, 09- 0
, 12
Plutarch (dimer guest), 13
Plutch (hisorim), 24, 30
polenta, 54
pork, 60-6 1, 64-70
5 8
psothia, 6
Ptolemy, 26
Ramses 1 108
rays, 76, 84
regional foods, 20-25
Rhodes, 20,40, 98, 99.
ricoa cheese, 104, t08,
1 09-1 0
Rocci, 15
rockfish, 100
Roman Empire, 35
roses, , 66-67
ISewater, 103
Roxane, 26
safflower, 6,119-20
sf, 62, 1 19-20
salad dressing, 59
salty foods,44, 02
sardines, 74, 5
sauces, 42-43, 62, 82, 83
scabbard fish, 94
scorpion fish, 86
Scyhims, 28-29
sea memones, 74
sea urchins, 4, 47
seafood,47, 1 O
seasonings, 1 1 8-20
Semos, 106
sesamides, 1 16
ssamouropago, 1 1 6-1 7
sharks, 99, 100
shrimp, 7
Sicily,46, 04
silphium, 70, 20
sole, 80, 99
Solon, 22, 14
Sopater,13,70, 09
Sophocles,1, 14
Sosibius, 1 1 5
soups, 24, 53 58
Sparta, 23-4, 8-29
spelt, 5
Speusippus, 100
spices, 1 1 8-0
squid, 95
stOt, 1 1 7
Stesichorus, 3
StIattis f Phoenicia, 3
stleptoi, 1 1 7
strudel, 09,10
stuffed leaves, 5 1-52
stu{fed squid, 95
sturgeon, 98, 100
suckling pig, 64-65
sweets, 7
swordfish, 85
symposium, 29-33
Syria, 0
taeiites, 1 1 1
Tarantum, 5
Thais, 6
Thebes, 5
Theophrastus, 3 1
thrion, 5 1-5 2
thyme, 20
s, 53, 54
tongue, 69
Triphonus, 7
turakinas, 1 1
b, 80-8 1
Turkey, 5, 54, 60, 97, 03
unips, 50
Yarro, 1,49
vinegar, 79, 120
vomiting, 1, 1
eiectitia, 70
wedding banquets, 14-1 7
wine, 3, 8-33, 44
weaths, 7
Zeno, 55, 56
Zeus, 29, 1 12