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Working with Loads on Geometry - HM-4010

For this tutorial, it is recommended that you complete the introductory tutorial, Getting Started with
HyperMesh - HM-1000. This tutorial assumes you are familiar with some of the basic tasks in
HyperMesh, such as creating collectors for example. Familiarity with the automesh panel is also useful,
although not required.

When setting up a model for analysis, boundary conditions are usually needed, whether it is constraints
or any type of loading condition. HyperMesh allows for the creation of these boundary conditions on finite
elements directly but also on geometric entities. This tutorial explains how to create loads on geometry in
HyperMesh, and how to subsequently map them to finite elements. The following topics are included:

• Creating loads and boundary conditions on geometry

• Mapping the loads from geometry to elements

• Exporting to a solver deck

• Modifying the mesh and re-mapping the loads to the new mesh

For more information on the various panels used in this tutorial, please refer to the Panels section of the
on-line help, or click the help button while in the panel to bring up its context sensitive help.

This tutorial requires about 35 minutes to complete and uses a file located in the <
install_directory>/tutorials/hm/ directory. For detailed instructions on how to locate the
installation directory <install_directory> at your site, see Finding the Installation Directory
<install_directory>.

The model file used for this tutorial is a C channel:

C-channel model in shaded mode

To retrieve the model, load the OptiStruct user profile, and create load collectors:

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In this tutorial, we will experiment with the export of the loads applied to geometry entities. Therefore, we
will need to have a template loaded. In this section, retrieve the c-channel model and load the OptiStruct
user profile. By loading this user profile, the template will be automatically loaded. We will also apply
some constraints, forces and pressure load to our model, and we will need load collectors to organize
them.
1. From the files panel select the hm file subpanel to retrieve the file
<install_directory>/tutorials/hm/c-channel0.hm .
The model geometry is of a C channel with two reinforcement ribs. The various surfaces are
organized into several component collectors.
2. Load the OptiStruct user profile using the user profile… button from the Geom page.
The model does not contain any load collectors to store the loading conditions we will create. Create
three load collectors for constraints, forces and pressure loads.
3. From the collectors panel create a loadcol with the name constraints, assign color 2, and no card
image.
4. Similarly, create two more loadcols with names pressure and forces, assign colors 10 and 15
respectively, and no card images.

Everything is now ready for us to create the different boundary conditions.

To define loads and boundary conditions on geometry:

You can apply loads to geometric entities in a way similar to the manner in which loads are applied to
mesh by using the following panels from the BCs page: forces, moments, constraints, pressures,
temperatures, flux, velocities, and accels.

In this section we will apply constraints, pressure, and forces to geometric entities in the model. Constrain
the bottom portion of the c-channel using line data. Then create pressure loads on the top surfaces.
Finally add forces at the eight corners of the surfaces defining the top of the c-channel (see image below).

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Constraints on lines, pressures on surfaces and forces on fixed points

1. From the global panel set the current loadcol to constraints.


Note constraints is displayed after loadcol: on the header bar. This indicates the current load
collector.
2. Fully constrain the bottom eight lines of the c-channel using the constraints panel from the BCs
page.
- From the BCs page select the constraints panel.

- Select the create sub-panel.

- Set the entity selector to lines.

- Select the eight lines defining the bottom portion of the c-channel.

Lines to constrain

- After size=, enter the value 1.

This is the size of the icons that will be used to represent the constraints in the graphics area.

- Uncheck the box next to label constraints.

- Constrain dof1, dof2, dof3, dof4, dof5, and dof6 by checking their respective boxes.

Dofs with a check will be constrained, while dofs without a check will be free. Dofs 1, 2, and 3 are
x, y, and z translation degrees of freedom. Dofs 4, 5, and 6 are x, y, and z rotational degrees of
freedom.

- Click create.

This applies these constraints to the selected lines. They display as a triangular icon and
checking the box for label constraints would display what degrees of freedom are constrained.
3. From the global panel set the current load collector to pressure .

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4. Apply a pressure of 25 units normal to the top three surfaces using the pressures panel.
- From the BCs page select the pressures panel.

- Select the create sub-panel.

- Set the entity selector to surfs and pick the three surfaces defining the top of the c-channel.

Surfaces to apply pressure to

- Click magnitude = and enter the value –25 for the pressure.

Specifying a negative magnitude ensures that the pressure load is pushing down on the
surfaces. By default the pressure load is created normal to the surfaces.

- Toggle the display of the pressures from magnitude % = to uniform size =.

An arrow is used for the graphical display of pressure loads. The size of the arrow can be input
as a value or as a percentage of the actual pressure load applied. We choose to specify its
length as a certain number.

- Click uniform size = and enter the value 1.

This is the size the arrows will have in the graphics area.

- Uncheck the box next to label loads.

We choose not to display the actual value of the pressure load in the graphics area.

- Click create.

This applies the pressure loads to the selected surfaces. They are represented with an arrow as
well as a label. This label can be template based (PLOAD4 here) or follow the HyperMesh
terminology (P) as specified in the modeling sub-panel of the options panel.
5. From the global panel set the current load collector to forces.
6. Creates forces at the 8 corners of the three top surfaces with a magnitude of 15 units in the negative

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z direction using the forces panel.
- From the BCs page select the forces panel.

- Select the create sub-panel.

- Set the entity selector to points and select the eight fixed points defining the corners of the
c-channel’s top surfaces.

Fixed points to apply forces to

- Set the coordinate system toggle to global system.

- Click the vector definition switch and select uniform size =.

- Click uniform size = and enter the value 1.

- Uncheck the box next to label loads.

- Click magnitude = and enter the value –15.

The minus sign is used to specify a direction opposite to the one we will select in the next step.

- Click the direction definition switch below magnitude =, and select z-axis.

- Click create.

This creates a number of point forces, with the given magnitude in the z-direction, to be applied
to the fixed points selected.

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Loads on geometry

Note If you sent some loads into the wrong load collector, use the organize panel on loads to move
them into the right collector.
In this section we created various types of loads on various geometric entities: lines, surfaces and fixed
point. The ultimate goal is to have these loading conditions applied to finite elements. We will now create
these elements.

To generate elements on the surfaces:

Use the automesh panel to create a quad dominant (mixed) mesh. The elements generated will be
organized into their surfaces’ component collectors to avoid the need of setting current component
collectors.
1. Create a mixed mesh with an element size of 0.25 units on the surfaces displayed using the
automesh panel.
- From the 2D page select the automesh panel.

- Select the create mesh sub-panel.

- Set the entity selector to surfs.

- Click surfs and select displayed.

- Check the box next to reset meshing parameters to:.

- After element size =, enter the value 0.25.

- Set the element type to mixed.

- Click the toggle to switch from elements to current comp to elements to surface’s comp.

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This ensures that the elements created go into the surface’s component collector.

- Set the meshing mode to automatic.

In this mode HyperMesh will automatically generate a mesh on the surfaces based on the
element size and the type of elements selected. No further user input is required or can be
supplied.

- Click mesh.

2. Use the Disp page of the macro menu to set the graphics engine Gfx: to performance Per.

Meshed c-channel

In this section we quickly created a shell mesh on the surfaces. We can now try to map the loads that
were applied to geometric entities onto these finite elements.

To map the loads from geometry to elements:

A load collector, just like component collectors, can store both loads on geometry and loads on finite
elements. These two types of loads are separate and independent, and can therefore be manipulated
independently. At this time, our load collectors contain loads only in their geom side. By mapping these
loads on geometry onto finite elements and using our existing loadcols, we will also populate their elems
side.

In this section, use the load on geom panel to map the loads from the geometric entities (to which the
geometric loads are applied) to the mesh associated with these geometric entities for the constraints
and pressure load collectors.
1. Map the constraints in the constraints loadcol to the mesh using the load on geom panel.
- From the BCs page select the load on geom panel.

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- Click loadcols and check the box next to constraints from the list of load collectors.

- Click select.

- Click Map loads.

The constraints previously applied to the lines are now also applied to the nodes of the mesh
associated to these lines. These constraints are placed in the same load collector as the ones
applied to the geometry, only in the elems portion.

Constraints mapped to the elements

2. Repeat the steps above to map the pressure loadcol to the mesh.
The pressure loads previously applied to the surfaces are now mapped to the nodes associated to
these surfaces. These pressure loads are placed in the same load collector as the ones applied to
the geometry.

To export the model to a solver deck:

When exporting the model using an export template, only the loads on mesh are exported. These loads
on mesh may have been applied directly to the mesh, mapped from geometry to the mesh, or both. The
export sub-panel of the files panel allows you to export loads to an ASCII solver-specific file (according
to the loaded export template). The loads are exported as mesh loads.

The all/displayed toggle allows you to determine which loads are exported.

If all is selected, all the loads on geometry that have not been mapped (if any), are mapped to loads on
mesh and all the loads on mesh are exported.

If displayed is selected, all the displayed loads on mesh (if any) are exported. All the loads on mesh
associated with the displayed loads on geometry (if any) are exported as well. If any loads on geometry

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are displayed and have not been mapped, they will automatically be mapped to loads on mesh and
exported as well.

In this section, use the display panel, disp, on the permanent menu to ensure that only the already
mapped loading conditions are exported. One load collector stores both loads on geometry and loads on
mesh. The mesh (or multiple meshes) is associated with the geometrical entities to which the loads on
geometry have been applied. Each load type is stored in a dedicated section of the same load collector.

The display panel allows separate or simultaneous visualization of loads on mesh and loads on
geometry. Turn off the display of loads applied to the geometric entities to display only the loads applied
to the mesh.
1. Use the disp panel to turn off the display of the loads applied to geometric entities.
- Select the display panel disp from the permanent menu.

- Click the upper switch and set the type of collector to loadcols.

- Next to loadcols, toggle to geoms to modify the display of the loads applied on geometry.

- Right mouse click to uncheck the boxes for constraints, pressure, and forces.

2. From the files panel select export sub-panel.


3. Set the toggle to displayed, and export the model to your working directory as an OptiStruct deck.
Since loads applied to geometry were turned off in the disp panel in the previous step, only the loads
mapped previously will be exported using the displayed option in the export sub-panel. You may
open the exported deck in any text editor to verify that no OptiStruct FORCE card has been exported
in the deck.

In this section we experimented with the behavior of the export sub-panel when it comes to loads applied
to geometry and elements. We learned that with different combinations of the all/displayed option and
loads displayed in the disp panel, we can control what information gets exported.

To modify the mesh and re-map the loads to the new mesh:

Besides the convenience they offer, loads applied to geometry give you the flexibility of re-applying them
as many times as you want to different meshes. This feature is particularly useful when remeshing a
model without deleting complicated loads or boundary conditions. After remeshing, loads or boundary
conditions that have been applied to geometrical entities can be easily remapped to the new mesh, while
loads applied to elements are automatically deleted when the elements themselves are deleted.

In this section, remesh the surfaces and re-map the loads on geometry to the new mesh.
1. Use the automesh panel to remesh all the surfaces using an element size of 0.5 units.
- From the 2D page select the automesh panel.

- Select the create mesh sub-panel.

- Click surfs and select displayed.

- After element size =, enter the value 0.5.

- Leave all other options used earlier unchanged.

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- Click remesh.

The automesher deletes the existing elements before creating a completely new set based on
the new element size. As you exit the automesh panel, the loads that were applied to the initial
mesh are removed since the elements are no longer there.

New mesh

2. Map all the loads on geometry to the new mesh using the load on geom panel.
- From the BCs page select the load on geom panel.

- Click loadcols and check the boxes next to constraints , pressure, and forces.

- Click select.

- Click Map loads.

The loading conditions initially defined for the geometric entities are now applied to the new
mesh. The various loading conditions are placed into the same load collector as the
corresponding ones applied to the geometry. Note that we did not have to display these loads to
map them.

Note Deleting geometric entities to which loads are applied will also result in the deletion of
these loads. It will not affect any loads applied to the mesh, though.

In this section we experimented with the re-mapping of loads applied to geometry onto a new mesh.
Loads applied on geometric entities can be mapped several times onto the different finite element entities
attached to these geometric entities. We took advantage of this in a situation where a mesh had to be
changed, and it saved us from having to re-create loads on the elements.

This concludes this tutorial. You may discard this model or save it to your working directory for your own
reference.

In this tutorial, we used several boundary condition creation panels to generate constraints and various

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loading conditions on geometric entities. We then experimented with the mapping of these loads on
geometry onto finite elements. We also familiarized ourselves with the rules that govern the export of
loads on geometric entities.

We did not give any consideration to the creation of specific card images that need to accompany the
various loading conditions. For more information on how to generate the various loading conditions for
different solvers, refer to the Modeling / Solver Specific section of the HyperMesh tutorials.

See HyperMesh Tutorials for a complete list of tutorials.

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