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Cooling Water Treatment

Fundamentals
Cooling Water Systems
Once Through
e.g large utility plants
large quantity of water required.
Water taken from plant supply, passed through
cooling system and returned to receiving body
of water.
Closed Recirculating
e.g hot and chilled water loops used for heating,
WATER WATER
OUT OUT
PROCESS PROCESS
OUT OUT
WATER WATER
IN IN
PROCESS PROCESS
IN IN
e.g hot and chilled water loops used for heating,
refrigerating and air conditioning; also critical cooling
applications.
Negligible evaporation or exposure
to atmosphere
High chemical treatment levels but economical
Heat removed from closed loop by second cooling
water cycle e.g. evaporative
Open (Evaporative)
Recirculating
Hot process water cooled by evaporation of
water in contact with air. Cooling tower designed
to maximise water / air contact. Evaporation of water
leads to an increase in the concentration of solids.
PROCESS
IN
PROCESS
OUT
OUT IN
Make up
M
E
B
R R
Water Balance In An Open Evaporative
Cooling Water System
Recirculating Cooling Water (R)
Evaporative Loss (E)
Windage Loss (W)
Environment:
Health & Safety
BLOWDOWN
(B)
MAKEUP
(M)
Holding Water
Volume (H)
Heat Exchanger
Quality
Availability &
Cost
Environment:
Chemical
Discharge
Heat Exchanger
Efficiency
Terms & Symbols Related To Water Balance In
Open Evaporative Cooling Water Systems
Recirculating Water
Quantity
R, m
3
/hr total cooling water circulated by pumps per hour
Holding Water
Volume
V, m
3
total water volume held in cooling water system including piping
and cooling water tower basin
Evaporative Lossess E, m
3
/hr water lost by evaporation per hour
Windage Loss W, m
3
/hr water lost by windage + drift
Blowdown Water B, m
3
/hr water quantity discharged per hour in order to control
concentration
Make Up Water M, m
3
/hr water supplied to the cooling system to maintain system water Make Up Water M, m
3
/hr water supplied to the cooling system to maintain system water
volume
Temperature Drop
Through Cooling
Tower
T, C difference of cooling water temperature between the cooling
tower inlet and outlet
Concentration Factor
(Cycles of
Concentration)
C
F
concentration of dissolved solids in circulating water compared
to makeup water
Retention Time T
R
time required for water to make one trip around the circulating
loop
Holding Time Index,
or Half Life
HTI represents the time required to dilute an added chemical to
50% of its concentration
time required to concentrate makeup solids by a factor of 2
an important factor for establishing effective biofouling, scale
& corrosion control programme
Calculations
Makeup M = E + B + W
Concentration Factor C
F
= [X] Circulating Water
(or Concentration Factor) [X] Makeup Water
Evaporative Losses E = R x T
H
Blowdown B = E ,
(C
F
-1)
Holding Time Index = 0.693 x V ,
Or Half Life B+W
H
H = Latent heat of water evaporation,
Approx 578 kcal/kg at 40C
As a rule of thumb
E = 1.4% x R if T = 10C
E = 0.8% x R if T = 10F
Calculation continued/...
e.g. an open recirculating system has following operating and chemical parameters.
Calculate evaporative losses, concentration factor, blowdown and makeup.
R = 3,500 m
3
/hr [Cl] make up water = 250 ppm
T = 9C [Cl] recirculating water = 750 ppm
ANSWERS
1) Evaporative Losses (E) = R x T = 55 m
3
/hr
578
2) Concentration Factor (C
F
) = 3 (from chloride analysis)
3) Blowdown (B) = E = 55 = 27.5 m
3
/hr
(C
F
- 1) 2
4) Makeup (M) = E + B = (55 +27.5) = 82.5 m
3
/hr
Problems in Cooling Water Systems
Corrosion
(mild steel,
yellow metal)
Efficiency drop in
heat exchangers
Leakage from
heat exchangers
Reduction of
materials strength
Microbiological
(algae, fungi
& bacteria)
Plugging of
heat exchangers
Scale
(Calcium carbonate
calcium phosphate
Silicates and sulphates)
Increased pump
pressure and reduction
of flow rate
Acceleration of corrosion
Dirty Appearance
Sludge
(general deposits)
These problems occur most frequently in open evaporative cooling water systems since the
dissolved solids are concentrated in the cooling water by evaporation.
Adsorption and waste
of chemicals
Estimation of Calcium Carbonate Tendency and
Corrosivity of Cooling Water
Tendency for calcium carbonate formation increases as following water
characteristics increase:
skin temperature (water temperature at heat exchanger surface)
calcium hardness (calcium concentration in the water normally expressed as
calcium carbonate)
alkalinity (bicarbonate + carbonate + hydroxide normally expressed as alkalinity (bicarbonate + carbonate + hydroxide normally expressed as
calcium carbonate
total dissolved solids (tds)
pH
Tabular methods exist to calculate pHs = pH at which calcium carbonate is at
saturation
pH - pHs = Langelier Saturation Index (LSI):
2 pHs - pH = Ryznar Stability Index (RSI) :
Index Tendency of Water
LSI RSI
2.0
0.5
0
-0.5
-2.0
<5.0
5 to 6
6 to 6.5
6.5 to 7
7 to 8
heavily scale forming
slightly scale forming
balanced or at CaCO
3
saturation
non-scaling
undersaturated
sl
Example ..
Calculate LSI and RSI of a cooling water at 60 C, pH 8.5,
calcium hardness = 100 mg/l as calcium carbonate
total alkalinity = 80 mg/l as calcium carbonate
tds = 200 mg/l
pHs = (9.3 + A + B) - (C + D)
Answer:
pHs = (9.3 + A + B) - (C + D)
From tables
pHs = (9.3 + 0.1 + 1.35) - (1.65 + 1.95) = 7.15
LSI = 8.5 - 7.15 = +1.35
RSI = 14.3 - 8.5 = 5.8
Therefore this water is slightly scale forming and a programme
is required to primarily control calcium carbonate formation
Approaches to Efficient Operation of Open
Recirculating Cooling Systems
Operation at Alkaline pH range (8.0 - 9.2)
Higher pH substantially reduces natural corrosivity
,buffer capacity provided by water reduces impact
of system upsets
BUT
deposit control becomes more difficult
stabilisation of zinc and phosphate becomes more
difficult
Properties required from additives used for
effective treatment and maintenance of open
cooling water systems
Calcium carbonate inhibition and control LSI
multifunctional inorganic scale inhibition
effective dispersancy of silt/sludge/corrosion debris
stabilisation of zinc and phosphate in alkaline programmes
robust mild steel and yellow metal corrosion inhibition
under broad operating conditions
broad spectrum biocidal properties particularly at pH 8-9
economical
non-toxic to environment
BWA Water Additives:
Product for Industrial Cooling Water Treatment
Belclene 200 Maleic homopolymer providing outstanding calcium carbonate control under
severe service conditions (high LSI)
Belclene 283 Multifunctional maleic terpolymer providing stabilisation of zinc and
phosphonates: provides effective dispension and calcium carbonate control over
broad operating conditions
Belclene 400 Sulphonated copolymer providing stabilisation of extended phosphate
programmes, zinc, phosphonates: good dispersant for ironoxide & silt/sludge.


Polymeric
Scale
Inhibitor
&
Dispersants
Belclene 499 Provides both phosphonate and sulphonated copolymer functionality in one
molecule; building block for new formulations
Belcor 575 Cathodic corrosion inhibitor used as basis of all-organic, zinc and phosphate band Belcor 575 Cathodic corrosion inhibitor used as basis of all-organic, zinc and phosphate band
corrosion inhibitor programmes.
Belclene 500 Building block for zinc based corrosion programmes for soft water applications


Corrosion
Inhibitors
Belcor 593 Tricarboxylic acid used in combination with Belcor 575 in closed cooling systems
Bellacide 325 Terbuthylazine for control of algae in open recirculating cooling water systems,
ornamental pools and fountains. Exhibits synergistic effect with halogen.
Bellacide 350 Quaternary phosphonium chloride with broad spectrum fast kill performance;
hard surface cleaning properties
BromiCide Hydantoin bromine release product for controlled release of biocidal hypobromous
acid.



Oxidising
&
Non-Oxidising
BioCides
LiquiBrom Sodium Bromide providing safe efficient release of biocidal hypobromous acid
when activated by a chlorine source.


Belclene Phosphonates
Belclene 640: nitrilotris (methylene phosphonic) acid
(ATMP)
Belclene 650: phosphonobutane tricarboxylic acid
(PBTC) (PBTC)
Belclene 660: 1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonic acid
(HEDP)