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Stoichiometry CHM 11-3

EEORDONO Page 1

FUNDAMENTALS OF STOICHIOMETRY
Stoichiometry is a term used to describe quantitative relationships in chemistry.
How much? of a product is produced or reactant is consumed.
Balanced chemical equation needed.
Conversion between mass or volume to number of moles frequently needed.

RATIOS FROM CHEMICAL EQUATION

Mole ratios are obtained from the coefficients in the balanced chemical reaction.

1 mol CH
4
: 2 mol O
2
: 1 mol CO
2
: 2 mol H
2
O
These ratios can be used in solving problems:

THE MOLE
A mole is a means of counting the large number of particles in samples.
One mole is the number of atoms in exactly 12 grams of
12
C (carbon-12).
1 mole contains Avogadros number (6.022 x 10
23
particles/mole) of particles.
The mass of 6.022 x 10
23
atoms of any element is the molar mass of that element.

Molar Mass
A mole represents not only a specific number of particles but also a definite mass of a
substance as represented by its formula (O, O
2
, H
2
O, NaCl, etc).

The molar mass, M, in grams per mole, is numerically equal to the sum of the masses
(in amu) of the atoms in the formula.
DETERMINING MOLAR MASS
The molar mass of a compound is the sum of the molar masses of all the atoms in a
compound.

MOLE GRAM CONVERSION
Conversion from moles to grams and vice versa:
m = M x n
m = mass in grams
M = molar mass (g/mol)
n = amount in moles

*Molar masss allows conversion from mass to number of moles much like unit conversion
Examples:
1. How many moles are contained in 350 grams of C7H5N3O6 ?
2. How many grams are contained in 4.5 moles of Calcium Nitrate?
CALCULATIONS USING MOLES AND MOLAR MASS
Avogadros number functions much like a unit conversion between moles to number of
particles.
1 mol C
7
H
5
N
3
O
6
= 6.022 X 10
23
C
7
H
5
N
3
O
6
molecules
1.How many molecules are in 1.320 moles of nitroglycerin?
2. Calculate the mass of 4. 02 x 10
24
molecules of Ferric Carbonate.

1 mol CH
4
2 mol O
2
or
2 mol H
2
O
1 mol CH
4
2 mol H
1.0 g H
1 mol H

+ 1 mol O
16.0 g
1 mol O

= 18.0 g/mol H
2
O
Stoichiometry CHM 11-3

EEORDONO Page 2

Percent Composition from Formula
The percent composition of a compound is specified by citing the mass percents of the
elements present.
e.g. 100g sample of H
2
O, there is 11.19g of H and 88.81g of O.
11.19g H/100.00g x 100% = 11.19% H
88.81g O/100.00g x 100% = 88.81% O
EXAMPLES:
1. Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate, commonly called bicarbonate of soda, is used in
many commercial products (antacids). It has the chemical formula NaHCO
3
.
What are the mass percents of Na, H, C, and O.
2. An iron-containing mineral responsible for the red color of soils in the southeast
U.S. is limonite, which has the formula Fe
2
O
3
.
3/2 H
2
O. What mass of iron in
grams can be obtained from a metric ton (10
3
kg = 10
6
g) of limonite.
Molar Mass = [111.7 + 3(16.00) + 3/2(18.02)]g/mol = 186.7 g/mol.

EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
Empirical formulas can be determined from an elemental analysis.
An elemental analysis measures the mass percentage of each element in a compound.
The formula describes the composition in terms of the number of atoms of each element.
The molar masses of the elements provide the connection between the elemental analysis
and the formula.

STEPS IN DETERMINING EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULA
Assume a 100 gram sample size
Percentage element X sample size = mass element in compound. (e.g., 16%
carbon = 16 g carbon)
Convert mass of each element to moles using the molar mass.
Divide by smallest number of moles to get mole to mole ratio for empirical formula.
When division by smallest number of moles results in small rational fractions,
multiply all ratios by an appropriate integer to give whole numbers.

2.5 X 2 = 5, 1.33 X 3 = 4, etc.
A molecular formula is a whole number multiple of the empirical formula.
Molar mass for the molecular formula is a whole number multiple of the molar mass
for the empirical formula.
If the empirical formula of a compound is CH
2
and its molar mass is 42 g/mol, what
is its molecular formula?

EXAMPLES
1. A 25.00g sample of an orange solid contains 6.64g of potassium, 8.84g of
chromium and 9.52g of oxygen. Find the simplest formula.
2. The explosive known as RDX contains 16.22% carbon, 2.72% hydrogen, 37.84%
nitrogen, and 43.22% oxygen by mass. Determine its empirical formula.
3. Mandelic acid is an organic acid composed of carbon (63.15%), hydrogen (5.30%),
and oxygen (31.55%). Its molar mass is 152.14 g/mol. Determine the empirical and
molecular formulas of the acid.