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km Stone, Delhi-H!"# $%!&& Ro', Gh(i)'*-2+,++-,
Utt# .#'e&h
Project Report
S")mitte' )%1 Un'e# the 2"i'n3e o4 1
PRIYANKA SINGH Mr. Malaya Mukherjee
Electrical and Electronic En!ineerin! Mr. A.K. "hatur#edi
Year AGM
Roll nu%&er'())*+*()+, N-P" .A.RI

k% Stone/ .elhi0Hapur 1ypa Road/ Gha2ia&ad.0*)())3/
4ttar Pradeh.
-hi i to certi5y that 6M&* .RIYANKA SINGH a pre05inal year tudent o5 AJAY
ELEC/RICAL AND ELEC/RONICS ENGG* ha done #ocational trainin! 5ro% ,-

J"ne to 2+
J"l% under the o55icial !uidance o5 M#* Ml% M"khe#8ee 9 M#* A*K*
Cht"#:e'i re!ardin! Po6er Generation in -her%al Plant , N/.C DADRI*
.#o4* ;*K* .#&h# G!* C!t* .*K* Cho!# ;SM <Ret'*=
Head o5 .epart%ent Pro5. and Head O5 .epart%ent
Electrical 7 Electronic -rainin! 7 Place%ent
/)le o4 Content&
-opic Pa!e No
Introduction (

Electrical ener!y occupie the hi!het poition in the ener!y hierarchy. It
5ind innu%era&le ue in ho%e/ indutry/ a!riculture and e#en in tranport.
-he 5act that electricity can &e tranported practically/ intantaneouly/ i
al%ot pollution 5ree at the conu%er le#el and that it ue can &e controlled
eaily %ake it #ery attracti#e a co%pared to other 5or% o5 ener!y. -he
per capita conu%ption o5 electricity in any country i an inde8 o5 the
tandard o5 li#in! o5 the people o5 that country. -he de%and o5 electrical
ener!y ha increaed rapidly in India/ particularly durin! the (3+). -he
electrical ener!y in our country i produced 5ro% #ariou ource like
ther%al 9coal0&aed: plant/ nuclear plant/ hydro po6er/ dieel plant/ !a
plant/ etc. -he ditri&ution o5 total po6er !eneration a%on! #ariou
ource i ho6n &elo6'
India; "oal Reer#e are eti%ated to &e *), &illion tonne. Preent conu%ption i a&out $<) %illion
tonne. -he cot o5 coal 5or producin! ( unit o5 electricity 9"ot o5 coal R ()))=M-: i R ).+< and 5or
Ga 9"ot o5 Ga R ,=SM": i R (.*).
A':nt2e& o4 Col 5"el
A&undantly a#aila&le in India
>o6 cot
-echnolo!y 5or Po6er Generation 6ell de#eloped.
Eay to handle/ tranport/ tore and ue
Sho#t3omin2& o4 Col
>o6 "alori5ic ?alue
>ar!e @uantity to &e Handled
Produce pollutant/ ah
.ipoal o5 ah i Pro&le%atic
Reer#e depletin! 5at
E#en thou!h the ther%al po6er !eneration ha it hortco%in!/ it account 5or the %a8i%u% contri&ution
to po6er !eneration a o5 today.
-he N-P" ha total intalled capacity o5 A)/ ($$ Me!a Batt and ha the !oal to reach the capacity o5
$)))) Me!a Batt. -oday it ha project at the 5ollo6in! place' 0
,* No#the#n #e2ion &ttion
,* Sin2#"li <?@2+++A2@?++= Me2 0tt&*
2* Rihn' <2@?++= Me2 0tt&*
B* Un3hh# <?@2,+= Me2 0tt&*
C* /n' <C@,,+= Me2 0tt&*
2* So"the#n #e2ion &ttion
,* Rm2"n'em <B@2++AB@?++= Me2 0tt&*
2* K%mk"lm <2@,??G/A,@,2+St= Me2 0tt&*
B* 0e&te#n #e2ion &ttion
,* Ko#) <B@2++AB@?++= Me2 0tt&*
2* ;in'h%nehl <D@2,+A2@?++= Me2 Ett&*
B* KE& <C@,+D G/A2@,+? S/= Me2 0tt&*
C* E&te#n #e2ion &ttion
,* 5#kk <B@2++A2@?++= Me2 0tt&*
2* Khl2on <C@2,+= Me2 0tt&*
B* /khe# <C@D+A2@,,+= Me2 0tt&*
?* Ntion 3!itl #e2ion &ttion
,* D'#i 3ol <C@2,+A 2@C-+= Me2 0tt&*
2* A"t <B@FF G/A,@,C- St= Me2 0tt&*
B* A"#i% <C@,,+ G/A2@,+D S/= Me2 0tt&*
C* 5#i')' <2@,CB G/A,@,CC S/= Me2 0tt&*
N-P" 6a contructed and dei!ned &y "entral Bater and Electricity "o%%iion and 6a handed o#er to N-P"
in (3+<. N-P" i the lar!et ther%al po6er !eneratin! co%pany in India. It 6a incorporated 6ith the o&jecti#e o5
plannin!/ pro%otin! and or!ani2in! an inte!rated de#elop%ent o5 ther%al po6er in our country. -he total capacity
o5 the N-P" .adri plant i a&out *,$3.+C MB/ 6hich include the contri&ution o5 t6o plant/ i.e. the ther%al or
coal0&aed plant and the !a0&aed plant. -he ther%al plant ha a capacity o5 C$) MB conitin! o5 $ unit o5 *()
MB capacity each and * unit o5 $3) each. -he !a0&aed plant ha a capacity o5 a&out C*3.+C MB.
-he 5uel ued in cae o5 the ther%al plant %ay&e any o5 the 5ollo6in!'
(. >.O 9li!ht dieel oil:
*. DO 95urnace oil:
A. "oal
-he 5uel 5or the !a0&aed plant i'
(. Natural !a
*. .ieel
N-P" .adri i a uni@ue plant &ecaue o5 it co%&ination o5 t6o !eneration plant/ i.e. the ther%al and the !a0
&aed plant. It ha &een #eri5ied that the o#erall cot o5 po6er !eneration i leat 5or a ther%al po6er plant.
Althou!h #ariou non0con#entional ource o5 po6er !eneration 6ith leer pollution ha#e co%e up in the recent
ti%e/ ther%al po6er !eneration uin! coal pro#e to %ake the %ark. O5 coure/ coal i a#aila&le in li%ited
@uantitie/ &ut tudie ho6 that it reer#e 6ould e8it 5or a 5e6 year.
-her%al po6er plant con#ert the heat ener!y o5 coal into electrical ener!y. "oal i &urnt in a &oiler 6hich con#ert
6ater into tea%. -he e8panion o5 tea% in tur&ine produce %echanical po6er 6hich dri#e the alternator. -he coal
handlin! plant upplie coal to the &oiler. -he ah produced in the &oiler i dipoed o55 &y the ah handlin! plant. Air
taken 5ro% the at%ophere &y the action o5 5orced or induced dra5t 5an i heated in the pre0heater 9&y the heat o5 5lue
!ae: &e5ore &ein! 5ed to the &oiler. -he 5lue !ae pa throu!h dut collector/ pre0heater and econo%i2er &e5ore
&ein! dichar!ed to the at%ophere throu!h the chi%ney. -he &oiler #apori2e 6ater into tea%/ the tea% i 5urther
heated in the uper heater and 5ed to the hi!h preure tur&ine. -he e8haut tea% i condened &y the condener and
the condenate alon! 6ith %akeup 6ater i paed throu!h econo%i2er &e5ore &ein! 5ed to the &oiler.
-he capacity o5 the ther%al po6er plant at .adri i $E*() MB and *E$3) MB. -he 5uel ued 5or the ther%al plant i
&itu%inou coal o5 !rade E and D/ 6hich account 5or C)F o5 the coal o&tained 5ro% India. 9"alori5ic #alue o5 !rade
E coalGAA,( to $*)) kcal=k!/ "alori5ic #alue o5 !rade DG*$)( to AA,) kcal=k!:
-he ther%al plant can &e di#ided into peci5ic %odule a !i#en &elo6'
(. 1oiler and it au8iliarie
*. Stea% tur&ine and it au8iliarie
A. -ur&o0!enerator and it au8iliarie
$. S6itchyard
<. H-/ >- and ." yte%
,. "oal handlin! plant
+. Ah handlin! plant
C. "irculatin! 6ater
-he plant can &e #ie6ed a &elo6'
-he %ean and tep in#ol#ed in the production o5 electricity in a coal05ired po6er tation are decri&ed
-he coal/ &rou!ht to the tation &y train or other %ean/ tra#el 5ro% the 3ol hn'lin2 !lnt &y
con#eyer &elt to the coal &unker/ 5ro% 6here it i 5ed to the !"l:e#i(in2 mill& 6hich !rind it a 5ine a
5ace po6der. -he 5inely po6dered coal %i8ed 6ith pre0heated air i then &lo6n into the )oile# &y 5an
called .#im#% Ai# 5n 6here it &urn/ %ore like a !a than a a olid in con#ectional do%etic or
indutrial !rate/ 6ith additional a%ount o5 air called econdary air upplied &y 5o#3e' D#4t 5n* A the
coal ha &een !rounded o 5inely the reultant ah i alo a 5ine po6der. So%e o5 thi ah &ind to!ether to
5or% lu%p 6hich 5all into the &h !it& at the &otto% o5 the 5urnace. -he 6ater @uenched ah 5ro% the
&otto% o5 the 5urnace i con#eyed to pit 5or u&e@uent dipoal or ale. Mot o5 ah/ till in 5ine particle
5or% i carried out o5 the &oiler to the !#e3i!itto#& a dut/ 6here it i trapped &y electrode char!ed 6ith
hi!h #olta!e electricity. -he dut i then con#eyed &y 6ater to dipoal area or to )"nke#& 5or ale 6hile
the cleaned 5lue !ae pa on throu!h ID 5n to &e dichar!ed up the 3himne%.
Mean6hile the heat releaed 5ro% the coal ha &een a&or&ed &y the %any kilo%etre o5 tu&in! 6hich line
the &oiler 6all. Inide the tu&e i the )oile# 4ee' Ete# 6hich i tran5or%ed &y the heat into the tea%
at hi!h preure and te%perature. -he tea% uper0heated in 5urther tu&e 9Super Heater: pae to the
t"#)ine 6here it i dichar!ed throu!h the no22le on the tur&ine &lade. Hut a the ener!y o5 the 6ind
turn the ail o5 the 6ind0%ill/ o the ener!y o5 the tea%/ trikin! the &lade/ %ake the tur&ine rotate.
"oupled to the end o5 the tur&ine i the rotor o5 the !enerator I a lar!e cylindrical %a!net/ o that 6hen
the tur&ine rotate the rotor turn 6ith it. -he rotor i houed inide the tator ha#in! hea#y coil o5 copper
&ar in 6hich electricity i produced throu!h the %o#e%ent o5 the %a!netic 5ield created &y the rotor. -he
electricity pae 5ro% the tator 6indin! to the tep0up tran5or%er 6hich increae it #olta!e o that it
can &e tran%itted e55iciently o#er the po6er line o5 the !rid.
-he tea% 6hich ha !i#en up it heat ener!y i chan!ed &ack into 6ater in the 3on'en&e# o that it i
ready 5or re0ue. -he condener contain %any kilo%etre o5 tu&in! throu!h 6hich the cold 6ater i
contantly pu%ped. -he tea% pain! around the tu&e looe the heat and i rapidly chan!ed &ack to
6ater. 1ut the t6o lot o5 6ater 9i.e. &oiler 5eed 6ater 7 coolin! 6ater: %ut NE;ER MIG. -he coolin!
6ater i dra6n 5ro% the ri#er/ &ut the &oiler 5eed 6ater %ut &e a&olutely pure/ 5ar purer than the 6ater
6e drink/ i5 it i not to da%a!e the &oiler tu&e. "he%itry at the po6er tation i lar!ely the che%itry o5
-o condene the lar!e @uantitie o5 tea%/ hu!e and continuou #olu%e o5 coolin! 6ater i eential. In
%ot o5 the po6er tation the a%e 6ater i to &e ued o#er and o#er a!ain. So the heat 6hich the 6ater
e8tract 5ro% the tea% in the condener i re%o#ed &y pu%pin! the 6ater out to the coolin! to6er. -he
3oolin2 toEe#& are i%ply concrete hell actin! a hu!e chi%ney creatin! a drau!ht
9natural=%echanically aited &y 5an: o5 air. -he 6ater i prayed out at the top o5 to6er and a it 5all
into the pond &eneath it i cooled &y the up6ard drau!ht o5 air. -he cold 6ater in the pond i then
circulated &y !"m!& to the condener.
.#in3i!le o4 the Stem .oEe# .lnt
-he 6orkin! principle o5 a tea% plant i &aed upon the Rankine cycle. Generally tea% i taken a the
6orkin! %ediu% due to it a&ility to &e readily ta&le. -he 5lo6 o5 tea% in the plant can &e #ery eaily
undertood &y the 5lo6 dia!ra% o5 the plant.

1oiler i conidered to &e the core ele%ent o5 a ther%al po6er plant. -he po6dered coal and hot air
%i8ture i paed onto the &oiler/ 6here the heat ener!y o5 co%&ution o5 coal i ued to !enerate tea%
5ro% 6ater. 1oiler/ a cloed yte% in 6hich 6ater under preure i con#erted into tea%/ i one o5 the
%ajor co%ponent o5 a ther%al po6er plant. A &oiler i al6ay dei!ned to a&or& %a8i%u% heat releaed
in the proce o5 co%&ution. -he heat i tran5erred to the &oiler &y all three %ode o5 heat tran5er/ i.e.
conduction/ con#ection and radiation. 1oiler are clai5ied into t6o type'
(. Dire tu&e &oiler
*. Bater tu&e &oiler
A. Electric &oiler
-he 1HE> &oiler unit 9, in nu%&er: ued at N-P" .adri ther%al plant i o5 6ater tu&e type in 6hich
the product o5 co%&ution 5lo6 outide 6ater tu&e and heat o5 co%&ution i paed onto 6ater/ !i#in!
tea%. .M 9.e0%inerali2ed: 6ater i 5ed to &oiler 6ith the help o5 a 1DP 91oiler Deed Pu%p:. 1DP %otor
i the &i!!et capacity 9A.<MB: %otor o5 the plant. One unit ha three 1DP %otor. At a ti%e only t6o
%otor are %ade to run and one i on tand&y. -he ,., K? upply 5ro% H- 6itch!ear i !i#en to 1DP
A typical 6ater tu&e &oiler i ho6n &elo6'

-he 6ater tu&e &oiler o5 the N-P" .adri ther%al plant ha the 5ollo6in! %ain part'
(. 1oiler 5urnace
*. 1DP
A. Econo%i2er
$. 1oiler dru%
<. "" pu%p
,. Bater 6all
+. Pri%ary con#ection uper heater
C. Secondary radiation uper heater
3. Re0heater
(). Air pre0heater

-he co%plete &oiler unit i di#ided into * pae/ 5irt pa &ein! the 5urnace area and the econd includin! con#ection
uper heater and econo%i2er.
-he &oiler 5urnace i the area 6here the pul#eri2ed coal i input and &urner are 5ired 5or it co%&ution. -he 5urnace
conit o5 pri%ary and econdary co%&ution 2one/ pri%ary &ein! near to the &urner. -he 5lue !ae produced %o#e to
the econd pa.
-he 1DP or &oiler 5eed pu%p 5eed 6ater to the econo%i2er/ 6here it i heated up due to the 5lue !ae heat. -hi hot
6ater i then 5ed to the &oiler dru%. -he hot 6ater i then pu%ped do6n throu!h pipe &y the circulatin! pu%p or cc
pu%p. -he 6ater enter the &otto% header and then co%e up throu!h 6ater 6all urroundin! the 5urnace. -hi 6ater
a!ain !oe to the dru%/ 6here 6ater and tea% !et eparated. -he tea% 5ro% dru% %o#e to the *
pa con#ection type
uper heater 6here it con#ert 5ro% 6et tea% to uperheated tea% due to 5lue !ae heat.
-he uperheated tea% %o#e to radiation type uper heater in (
pa 6here it i 5urther heated &y radiation 5ro% 5urnace.
-hi tea% i then ent to the tea% tur&ine. In &et6een the #ariou tea% tur&ine ta!e/ the partly e8panded tea% i ent
&ack to &oiler area in the re0heater/ 6here it i reheated &y radiation principle and then a!ain ent &ack to tur&ine. -hi i
done to pre#ent the da%a!e/ partly e8panded tea% can do to the tur&ine &lade.

A tea% tur&ine i a %echanical de#ice that e8tract ther%al ener!y 5ro% preuri2ed tea%/ and
con#ert it into ue5ul %echanical 6ork.
Stea% tur&ine are ued in all o5 our %ajor coal 5ired po6er tation to dri#e the !enerator or alternator/
6hich produce electricity. -he tur&ine the%el#e are dri#en &y tea% !enerated in J1oilerJ or JStea%
GeneratorJ a they are o%eti%e called.
Ener!y in the tea% a5ter it lea#e the &oiler i con#erted into rotational ener!y a it pae throu!h the
tur&ine. -he tur&ine nor%ally conit o5 e#eral ta!e 6ith each ta!e conitin! o5 a tationary &lade 9or
no22le: and a rotatin! &lade. Stationary &lade con#ert the potential ener!y o5 the tea% 9te%perature and
preure: into kinetic ener!y 9#elocity: and direct the 5lo6 onto the rotatin! &lade. -he rotatin! &lade
con#ert the kinetic ener!y into 5orce/ caued &y preure drop/ 6hich reult in the rotation o5 the tur&ine
ha5t. -he tur&ine ha5t i connected to a !enerator/ 6hich produce the electrical ener!y. -he rotational
peed i A))) rp% 5or Indian Syte% 9<) H2: yte% and A,)) 5or A%erican 9,) H2: yte%.
In typically lar!e po6er tation/ the tea% tur&ine are plit into three eparate ta!e/ the 5irt &ein! the
Hi!h Preure 9HP:/ the econd the Inter%ediate Preure 9IP: and the third the >o6 Preure 9>P: ta!e/
6here hi!h/ inter%ediate and lo6 decri&e the preure o5 the tea%.
A5ter the tea% ha paed throu!h the HP ta!e/ it i returned to the &oiler to &e re0heated to it ori!inal
te%perature althou!h the preure re%ain !reatly reduced. -he reheated tea% then pae throu!h the IP
ta!e and 5inally to the >P ta!e o5 the tur&ine.
"ain! i the outer co#er or hell o5 the tur&ine and ha di55erent dei!n peci5ication 5or the HP/ IP and
>P tea% tur&ine.

-he HP tea% tur&ine rotor i %achined 5ro% a in!le "r0Mo0? teel 5or!in! 6ith inte!ral dic.

-he &lade are the %ot cotly ele%ent o5 the tur&ine. -he &lade 5i8ed in tationary part are called !uide
&lade=no22le and thoe 5itted in %o#in! part are called rotatin!=6orkin! &lade. -he &lade ha#e three
%ain part'
(. Aero5oil' Borkin! part
*. Root' Dinal end
A.Shroud' Shroud are ued to pre#ent tea% leaka!e 7 to !uide tea% to ne8t et o5 %o#in! &lade.
/he )l'e& o4 m"lti &t2e t"#)ine #e &hoEn in the 4olloEin2 4i2"#e1

Stea% enthalpy i con#erted into rotational ener!y a it pae throu!h a tur&ine ta!e. A tur&ine ta!e
conit o5 a tationary &lade 9or no22le: and a rotatin! &lade 9or &ucket:. Stationary &lade con#ert the
potential ener!y o5 the tea% 9te%perature and preure: into kinetic ener!y 9#elocity: and direct the 5lo6
onto the rotatin! &lade. -he rotatin! &lade con#ert the kinetic ener!y into i%pule and reaction 5orce
caued &y preure drop/ 6hich reult in the rotation o5 the tur&ine ha5t or rotor.
Stea% tur&ine are %achine 6hich %ut &e dei!ned/ %anu5actured and %aintained to hi!h tolerance o
that the dei!n po6er output and a#aila&ility i o&tained. -hey are u&ject to a nu%&er o5 da%a!e
%echani%/ 6ith t6o o5 the %ot i%portant &ein!'
E#o&ion '"e to Moi&t"#e' 0 -he preence o5 6ater droplet in the lat ta!e o5 a tur&ine caue eroion to
the &lade. -hi ha led to the i%poition o5 an allo6a&le li%it o5 a&out (*F 6etne in the e8haut tea%L
Soli' .#ti3le E#o&ion' 0 -he entrain%ent o5 eroi#e %aterial 5ro% the &oiler in the tea% caue 6ear to
the tur&ine &lade.

-6o %ain top #al#e and t6o control #al#e are located y%%etrically.
-he %ain tea% i ad%itted throu!h the %ain tea% inlet pain! 5irt throu!h the %ain top #al#e and
then the control #al#e. Dro% the control #al#e the tea% pae to the tur&ine cain!.
-he tur&ine i alo e@uipped 6ith an e%er!ency top #al#e to cut o55 the tea% upply. -he e%er!ency
top #al#e 9ES?: i actuated &y er#o %otor controlled &y protection yte%. "ontrol #al#e are actuated
&y !o#ernin! yte% throu!h er#o %otor to re!ulate tea% upply.
1earin! are uually 5orced lu&ricated and ha#e pro#iion 5or ad%iion o5 jackin! oil. -he t6o type o5
&earin! are'
Hournal &earin!000,no.
-hrut &earin! 000(no.
-he ha5t i %ade in %all part due to 5or!in! li%itation and other technolo!ical and econo%ic reaon.
-here5ore/ couplin! i re@uired &et6een any t6o ha5t part. -hu ri!id couplin! i re@uired. Ho6e#er/
here 5le8i&le couplin! can;t &e ued due to hi!h tor@ue. Be re@uire couplin! &et6een'
>P 7 Generator
Generator 7 E8citer

-ur&o0!enerator are hi!h peed %achine ha#in! hori2ontal con5i!uration. -he tur&o0!enerator i coupled
to the a%e ha5t a the tea% tur&ine and it ha the 5ollo6in! peci5ication'
/%!e' * pole cylindrical tea% tur&ine dri#en
.h&e' A phae
M0 #tin2' *() MB
Rte' .oEe# 43to#' ).C<
M;A Rtin2' *$+ M?A
Rte' &tto# 3"##ent' C,$< A
Rte' &!ee'' A))) rp%
Rte' 4#eH"en3%' <) H2
/e#minl :olt2e' (,.< K?
E44i3ien3%' 3C.<<F
Do")le &t# 3onne3tion
Stto# Ein'in2 3oolin2' .irectly de0%inerali2ed 6ater cooled
Stto# 3o#e n' #oto# 3oolin2' .irectly hydro!en cooled
-he tea% tur&ine0dri#en !enerator ha#e au8iliary yte% ena&lin! the% to 6ork ati5actorily and
a5ely. -he tea% tur&ine !enerator &ein! rotatin! e@uip%ent !enerally ha a hea#y/ lar!e dia%eter ha5t.
-he ha5t there5ore re@uire not only upport &ut alo ha to &e kept in poition 6hile runnin!. -o
%ini%i2e the 5rictional reitance to the rotation/ the ha5t ha a nu%&er o5 &earin!. -he &earin! hell/ in
6hich the ha5t rotate/ are lined 6ith a lo6 5riction %aterial like 1a&&itt %etal. Oil lu&rication i pro#ided
to 5urther reduce the 5riction &et6een ha5t and &earin! ur5ace and to li%it the heat !enerated.
$##in2 Ge# <o# /"#nin2 Ge#=
1arrin! !ear i the ter% ued 5or the %echani% pro#ided 5or rotation o5 the tur&ine !enerator ha5t at a
#ery lo6 peed 9a&out one re#olution per %inute: a5ter unit toppa!e 5or any reaon.
Once the unit i MtrippedM 9i.e./ the tur&ine tea% inlet #al#e i cloed:/ the tur&ine tart lo6in! or
Mcoatin! do6nM. Bhen it top co%pletely/ there i a tendency 5or the tur&ine ha5t to de5lect or &end i5
allo6ed to re%ain in one poition too lon!. -hi de5lection i &ecaue the heat inide the tur&ine cain!
tend to concentrate in the top hal5 o5 the cain!/ thu %akin! the top hal5 portion o5 the ha5t hotter than
the &otto% hal5. -he ha5t there5ore 6arp or &end &y %illionth o5 inche/ only detecta&le &y %onitorin!
eccentricity %eter.
1ut thi %all a%ount o5 ha5t de5lection 6ould &e enou!h to caue #i&ration and da%a!e the entire
tea% tur&ine !enerator unit 6hen it i retarted. -here5ore/ the ha5t i not per%itted to co%e to a
co%plete top &y a %echani% kno6n a Mturnin! !earM or M&arrin! !earM that auto%atically take o#er to
rotate the unit at a preet lo6 peed.
I5 the unit i hut do6n 5or %ajor %aintenance/ then the &arrin! !ear %ut &e kept in er#ice until the
te%perature o5 the cain! and &earin! are u55iciently lo6.
S/A/OR .RO/EC/ION0 -he neutral o5 tar connected 6indin! i connected to pri%ary o5 neutral
!roundin! tran5or%er/ o that earth 5ault current i li%ited &y o#er #olta!e relay.
DI55EREN/IAL .RO/EC/ION0 In cae o5 phae0to0phae 5ault !enerator i protected &y lon!itudinal
di55erential relay.
RO/OR .RO/EC/ION0 Rotor 6indin! %ay &e da%a!ed &y earth 5ault or open circuit. -he 5ield i
&iaed &y a dc #olta!e/ 6hich caue current to 5lo6 throu!h the relay 5or an earth 5ault any6here on the
5ield yte%.
O;ER S.EED .RO/EC/ION I Mechanically o#er peed de#ice that i uually in the 5or% o5
centri5u!ally operated rin! %ounted on the rotor ha5t/ 6hich 5ly out and cloe the top #al#e i5 the
peed o5 the et increae %ore than ()F
O;ER ;OL/AGE .RO/EC/ION 0 It i pro#ided 6ith an o#er #olta!e relay. -he relay i uually
induction pattern. -he relay open the %ain circuit &reak and the 5ield 6itch i5 the o#er #olta!e perit.
SEAL OIL SYS/EM IHydro!en in the !enerator i under #ery hi!h preure. -here i a poi&ility o5
thi hydro!en to co%e out o5 !ap/ 6hich i #ery ha2ardou. So/ eal oil i ued to eal the !ap o that
hydro!en doen;t co%e out.
-he e8citation yte% pro#ide the neceary 5ield current to the rotor 6indin! o5 the ynchronou
%achine. -he a%ount o5 e8citation depend on the po6er 5actor/ peed o5 the %achine and load current.
Greater thee para%eter/ %ore i the e8citation re@uired. -he e8citation yte% %ay &e a rotatin! yte%
or a tatic yte%. Rotatin! e8citation yte% %ay&e o5 5ollo6in! type'
(. "on#entional rotatin! %achine
*. Hi!h 5re@uency e8citation
A. 1ruhle e8citation yte%
K Relia&ility
K Seniti#ity and 5at repone
K Sta&ility
K A&ility to %eet a&nor%al condition
K Monitorin! and annunciation o5 para%eter
K 4er 5riendline
Dor lo6 #olta!e circuit 5ue %ay &e ued to iolate the 5aulty circuit. Dor #olta!e hi!her than A.A k?
iolation i achie#ed &y circuit &reaker.
ReH"i#ement o4 3i#3"it )#eke#'
1. A5ter occurrence o5 5ault the 6itch!ear %ut iolate the 5aulty circuit a @uickly a poi&le i.e.
keepin! the delay to %ini%u%.
2. It hould not operate 6hen an o#er current 5lo6 under healthy condition.
$&i3 !#in3i!le o4 o!e#tion o4 3i#3"it )#eke#1
"ircuit &reaker conit o5 a 5i8 contact and lidin! contact into 6hich %o#e a %o#in! contact. -he end
o5 %o#in! contact i attached to a handle that can &e %anually operated or %ay operate auto%atically 6ith
the help o5 %echani% that ha a trip coil ener!i2ed &y econdary o5 "-. 4nder nor%al condition the
econdary o5 "- i not ener!i2ed u55iciently to trip the coil &ut under 5ale condition the coil i ener!i2ed
5ully to operate the trip coil and the circuit &reaker i operated.
/%!e O4 Ci#3"it $#eke#1
MO"1 9Mini%u% oil circuit &reaker:
SD, 9Sulphur he8a5luoride circuit &reaker:
Here oil and SD, are ued to @uench the arc.
/%!e O4 Ci#3"it $#eke#1-
Ai# )#ke 3i#3"it )#eke#1
-he arc interruption proce o5 air0 &aed circuit &reaker i &aed on the natural deioni2ation o5 !ae &y
coolin! action. -he arc i reilient and can &e tretched/ and ha a reitance/ 6hich can &e increaed &oth
&y len!th and con5ine%ent. Hence the arc reitance i increaed &y tretchin! the arc and a the reitance
increae to hi!her #alue/ the hort circuit current drop to 2ero and arc i e8tin!uihed.
Reducin! the phae di55erence &et6een the yte% #olta!e and the hort circuit current aure that 6hen
the arc current i interrupted at it 2ero #alue/ the reco#ery #olta!e ha #ery lo6 #alue at it not allo6ed to
reach *0A ti%e the #alue o5 the yte% peak #olta!e/ a pheno%enon that occur in %ot cae/ 6hen arc
current i interrupted at lo6 po6er 5actor.
1. Gene#to# /#n&4o#me#' -hi i a tep up tran5or%er. -hi upply !et it pri%ary upply 5ro%
!enerator and it econdary upplie the 6itchyard 5ro% 6here it i tran%itted to !rid. -hi
tran5or%er i oil cooled. -he pri%ary o5 thi tran5or%er i connected in tar. -he econdary i
connected in delta. -hee are 5our in nu%&er.
2. Sttion /#n&4o#me#' -hi tran5or%er ha al%ot the a%e ratin! a the !enerator tran5or%er.
It pri%ary i connected in delta and econdary in tar. It i a tep do6n tran5or%er. -hee are $ in
3. Unit A"Kili#% /#n&4o#me#' -hi i a tep do6n tran5or%er. -he pri%ary recei#e 5ro%
!enerator and econdary upplie a ,., K? &u. -hi i oil cooled. -hee are C in nu%&er.
4. Ne"t#l G#o"n'e' /#n&4o#me#' -hi tran5or%er i connected 6ith upply co%in! out o5 4A-
in ta!e0*. -hi i ued to !round the e8ce #olta!e i5 occur in the econdary o5 4A- in pite o5
rated #olta!e.

A 6e kno6 that electrical ener!y can;t &e tored like cell/ o 6hat 6e !enerate hould &e conu%ed
intantaneouly. 1ut a the load i not contant there5ore 6e !enerate electricity accordin! to need i.e. the
!eneration depend upon load. -he yard i the place 5ro% 6here the electricity i ent outide. It ha &oth
outdoor and indoor e@uip%ent.

1. 14S 1AR
-he code 5or circuit &reaker i <*. An electric po6er yte% need o%e 5or% o5 6itch!ear in order to
operate it a5ely 7 e55iciently under &oth nor%al and a&nor%al condition.
"ircuit &reaker i an arran!e%ent &y 6hich 6e can &reak the circuit or 5lo6 o5 current. A circuit &reaker in
tation er#e the a%e purpoe a 6itch &ut it ha %any added and co%ple8 5eature. -he &aic
contruction o5 any circuit &reaker re@uire the eparation o5 contact in an inulatin! 5luid that er#er t6o
1. It e8tin!uihe the arc dra6n &et6een the contact 6hen circuit &reaker open.
2. It pro#ide ade@uate inulation &et6een the contact and 5ro% each contact to earth.
-he inulatin! 5luid co%%only ued in circuit &reaker are'
(. "o%preed air
*. Oil 6hich produce hydro!en 5or arc e8citation.
A. 4ltra hi!h #acuu%
$. Sulphur he8a5luoride
/he S!e3i4i3tion& o4 the 3i#3"it )#eke# "&e' #e1
RA-E. ?O>-AGE *$< K?
BI-HS-AN. ?O>-AGE ()<) K?
*< 0 $)KA
RA-E. NORMA> "4RREN- *))) A -O $))) A
RA-E. ">OSING ?O>-AGE **) ? ."
RA-E. OPENING ?O>-AGE **) ? ."

It a#e the tran5or%er and reactor 5ro% o#er #olta!e and o#er current. Be ha#e to ue the li!htenin!
arreter &oth in pri%ary and econdary o5 tran5or%er and in reactor.
A %eter i pro#ided 6hich indicate the ur5ace leaka!e and internal !radin! current o5 arreter.
,* G#een L ##e&te# i& helth%
2* Re' L ##e&te# i& 'e4e3ti:e*
In cae o5 red 6e 5irt de0ener!i2e the arreter and then do the operation.
-he code o5 earthin! 6itch i </ ,/ +.-he 6ork o5 thi e@uip%ent co%e into picture 6hen 6e 6ant to
hut do6n the upply 5or %aintenance purpoe. -hi help to neutrali2e the yte% throu!h induced
#olta!e 5ro% e8tra hi!h #olta!e. -hi induced po6er i upto *K? in cae o5 $)) K? line.
-he peci5ication o5 earthin! 6itch i'
?O>-AGE *$< K?
"4RREN- () KA
MO-OR ?O>- 9A": $(< ?O>-S
"ON-RO> ?O>- 9.": **) ?O>-S
$US $AR1
1u &ar !enerally are o5 hi!h conducti#e alu%inu% con5or%in! to IS0<)C* or copper o5 ade@uate cro
ection .1u &ar located in air Iinulated encloure 7 e!re!ated 5ro% all other co%ponent .1u &ar i
pre5era&ly co#ered 6ith polyurethane.
C"##ent /#n&4o#me# <C/=1
A current tran5or%er i a type o5 intru%ent tran5or%er dei!ned to pro#ide a current in it econdary
6indin! proportional to the alternatin! current 5lo6in! in it pri%ary
"urrent -ran5or%er .ia!ra%
(. -hey are co%%only ued in %eterin! and protecti#e relayin! in the electrical po6er indutry
6here they 5acilitate the a5e %eaure%ent o5 lar!e current/ o5ten in the preence o5 hi!h #olta!e.
*. -he current tran5or%er a5ely iolate %eaure%ent and control circuitry 5ro% the hi!h #olta!e
typically preent on the circuit &ein! %eaured.
A. "urrent tran5or%er are ued e8teni#ely 5or %eaurin! current and %onitorin! the operation o5
the po6er !rid. -he "- i typically decri&ed &y it current ratio 5ro% pri%ary to econdary. O5ten/
%ultiple "- are intalled a a MtackM 5or #ariou ue 95or e8a%ple/ protection de#ice and
re#enue %eterin! %ay ue eparate "-:. Si%ilarly potential tran5or%er are ued 5or %eaurin!
#olta!e and %onitorin! the operation o5 the po6er !rid.
C!3iti:e ;olt2e /#n&4o#me# <C;/=1

A capacitor #olta!e tran5or%er 9"?-: i a tran5or%er ued in po6er yte% to step-down extra high
voltage signals and pro#ide low voltage signals either 5or %eaure%ent or to operate a protecti#e relay. In
it %ot &aic 5or% the de#ice conit o5 three part' t6o capacitor acro 6hich the #olta!e i!nal i
plit/ an inducti#e ele%ent ued to tune the de#ice to the upply 5re@uency and a tran5or%er ued to
iolate and 5urther tep0do6n the #olta!e 5or the intru%entation or protecti#e relay a ho6n in 5i!ure

-he de#ice ha at leat 5our ter%inal/ a hi!h0#olta!e ter%inal 5or connection to the hi!h #olta!e i!nal/ a
!round ter%inal and at leat one et o5 econdary ter%inal 5or connection to the intru%entation or
protecti#e relay. "?- are typically in!le0phae de#ice ued 5or %eaurin! #olta!e in e8ce o5 one
hundred kilo#olt 6here the ue o5 #olta!e tran5or%er 6ould &e unecono%ical. In practice the 5irt
capacitor/ "(/ i o5ten replaced &y a tack o5 capacitor connected in erie. -hi reult in a lar!e #olta!e
drop acro the tack o5 capacitor that replaced the 5irt capacitor and a co%parati#ely %all #olta!e drop
acro the econd capacitor "*/ and hence the econdary ter%inal.

-he 5unction o5 the coal handlin! plant i to upply proper i2e o5 coal in uninterrupted %anner to the
&oiler unit 5or co%&ution.
-he ource o5 coal 5or N-P" .adri -her%al plant i Pipar6ar 9Hharkhand:/ ((<) k% 5ro% .adri. -he coal
i tranported &y rail/ 6here one yte% o5 6a!on and en!ine i kno6n a a rake. -he top open 6a!on
ha#e a capacity o5 appro8i%ately ,) M.-. each. -hu the capacity o5 one rake i around A$)) M.-. -he per
day re@uire%ent o5 coal i (*))) M.-. and o A0$ rake are re@uired each day. -he plant authoritie ha#e
i!ned a!ree%ent 6ith Pipar6ar 5or coal and 6ith Rail6ay 5or tranportation purpoe. -he di55erent
type o5 6a!on ued 5or tranportation are'
(. 1o80N type 96ith A 6indo6 on one ide and top open:
*. 1o80" type 96ith < 6indo6 on one ide and top open:
A. 1O1R 91o!ie open &otto% rapid dichar!e 6a!on:
-hee day 6e %otly ha#e the 1o80N type and 1O1R type o5 6a!on. Dor unloadin! the 1o80N type
6a!on/ the proce i either carried out %anually or &y uin! 6a!on tippler/ 6hich tilt the 6a!on on one
o5 it ide &y an an!le o5 (*) de!ree to drop the coal do6n into a %eh iron tructure ued 5or 5ilterin!
out 0*)) %% i2e o5 coal and droppin! it do6n on a con#eyor &elt.
02on ti!!le# &!e3i4i3tion&1
Po6er' +<HP
Rated #olta!e' $(< ?
Rated current' ()* A
Phae' A phae
Rp%' ($C) rp%
Dre@uency' <) H2
-he unloadin! procedure 5or 1O1R type include %o#in! the 6a!on on a rail track ha#in! coal track
hopper 6hich i a %eh o5 iron allo6in! coal particle o5 i2e 0*)) %% to 5ilter out. A preure i applied
to open the &otto% plate to unload coal and it 5ilter do6n to the con#eyor &elt. In &oth cae/ the &elt
5inally take the coal to the cruher houe.
/%!e& o4 "nlo'in2 o4 3ol' 0
(. $oK in <"&in2 E2on ti!!le# 4o# "nlo'in21 Dor thi %ethod/ Indian Rail6ay !rant () hour 5or
unloadin! the <C 6a!on. In thi %ethod/ Ba!on are eparated and tippled &y uin! 6a!on tippler.
-he 1eetle Deeder i ued to %o#e the 6a!on on 6a!on tippler. -he coal 5ro% the 6a!on !et
accu%ulated in -he -rack Hopper. At thi ti%eL the i2e o5 the coal i appro8i%ately A))%%.
*. $O$R' 0 Indian Rail6ay !rant only *.< hour 5or 4nloadin! <C 1O1R 6a!on. -hi i an ad#anced
technolo!y in 6hich 6e ue the co%preor yte%.
In 1otto% Open 1otto% Releae 91O1R: technolo!y the 6a!on are opened 5ro% ide. Preure i
applied &y the co%preor to open the &otto% !ate o5 the 6a!on o that the coal !et releaed o#er the
track hopper and 6a!on !et unloaded @uickly.
(. 0AGON /I..LER ' 0 -he 6a!on tippler i a %ot i%portant de#ice in ther%al po6er project. -he
Ba!on tippler turn &ack the 6a!on at (A<0de!ree an!le and the tructure o5 the 6a!on tippler i to &e
#ery hea#y. 4pper ide o5 the 6a!on i 5i8ed 6ith the %any an!le 5or upportin! the 6a!on. Bhen
the 6a!on i 5i8ed on the Plat5or% then 6hole plat5or% i turned &ack and the coal 5all do6n in the
6a!on tippler hopper. -he unloadin! ti%e o5 the Rack i ,hour. Here the type o5 the rack i 1o8 " =
1o8 N type.
0/H, $-;5, C- $C, D- DS #e the !#t& o4 the E2on ti!!le#*
*. .ADDLE 5EEDER' -hey ha#e &een intalled on con#eyor &elo6 the %anual unloadin! track
hopper. -here are , no. o5 paddle 5eeder/ A on each con#eyer. A Paddle Deeder o5 each con#eyer
%o#e to and 5ro 6ithin a li%itin! ran!e. -he rotatin! part o5 the paddle 5eeder i called a plou!h
6heel. Plou!h 6heel ha , &lade. 1y the rotation o5 the plou!h 6heel/ the coal o5 the track hopper
!et accu%ulated &et6een the &lade and i dichar!ed on the con#eyor &elo6 it. -he %ain
co%ponent o5 paddle 5eeder are'

A. ;I$RA/ING 5EEDER' -hey ha#e &een intalled &elo6 the track hopper o5 6a!on tippler. -he coal
i accu%ulated o#er the #i&ratin! 5eeder o &y !i#in! #i&ration to the #i&ratin! 5eeder 6e dichar!e
the coal 5ro% track hopper to the con#eyor. -heir %ain purpoe i to pro#ide uni5or% 5eedin! on the
con#eyor. -he #i&ratin! 5eeder conit o5 a tray to 6hich #i&rator &ody i 5i8ed on the rear end.

$. /RANS5ER .OIN/S1 - -ran5er Point i pro#ided 6ith 5lap !ate and "on#eyer. In tran5er Point the
coal i tran5erred 5ro% one con#eyer to other con#eyer.
5l! Gte1 - -he 5lap Gate i a t6o06ay de#ice. It conit o5 t6o !ate. 1oth !ate cannot
operate to!ether. 1y help o5 the 5lap Gate/ 6e chan!e the 6ay o5 coal that 5all do6n on the
Con:e%e#&1 - -he "on#eyer 1elt i a %o#in! de#ice. It tra#el on it plat5or%. -he hape o5 the
con#eyer &elt i to &e 5lat &ut on the plat5or% it i to &e in cur#e hape. -he coal 5all do6n the
con#eyer and !oe to the pri%ary "ruher Houe Plat5or%. -he capacity o5 con#eyer in Sta!e I I
i C))M-= hr. 7 in Sta!e III i (*))M- = hr.
Protectin! de#ice pro#ided to the con#eyer0
A. Oero Speed S6itch 1. Pull "ord S6itch ". 1elt S6ay S6itch
<. .RIMARY CRUSHER <RO/ARY $REAKER=1 In Pri%ary "ruher Houe/ the coal &reak in
Rotary 1reaker. Here the coal co%e 5ro% the -ran5er pointL &reak here and the tone 5all do6n to a
eparate place. "oal i con#erted 5ro% A))%% to (<)%% i2e.
Part o5 the Pri%ary "ruher Houe I a0 Rotary 1reaker &0 1elt Deeder
RO/ARY $REAKER: - -he Rotary 1reaker ha a rotatin! %echani%. It i rotated on the
ha5t. -he coal co%e 5ro% the con#eyer throu!h the Dlap Gate 5all do6n into the rotary &reaker.
-he rotary &reaker i to &e rotated and coal %o#e up and do6n and collide and hence &reak. -he
Rotary 1reaker i H.-. (+)KB ,.,K? Motor
$EL/ 5EEDER: - -he 1elt Deeder i a %all i2e o5 the con#eyer. It i ued 5or 5eedin! the
coal to the con#eyer throu!h Dlap Gate.
,. SECONDARY CRUSHER <RING GRANULA/OR=1 - In Secondary cruher Houe 5irt the
%a!netic part eparate 5ro% the coal and then 5eed to the Secondary "ruher. -hi "ruher &reak the
coal in *)%% i2e and coal i ent to the Dlap Gate and then 5eeded to the con#eyer. -he Secondary
cruher i ha%%er type. H.-. %otor are ued 5or &reakin! o5 the coal. Speci5ication are +))KB

+. CROSS $EL/ MAGNE/IC SE.RA/ORS1 - -hey 6ill re%o#e the 5errou particle/ 6hich pae
alon! 6ith the coal. It conit o5 electro%a!net around 6hich a &elt i %o#in!. It i upended 5ro%
top/ perpendicular to the con#eyor &elt at certain hei!ht. Bhene#er any iron particle pae &elo6 the
"1MS/ it i attracted &y the %a!net and tick to the cro &elt &elo6 it. -he "1MS capacity i o5
C* ME/AL DE/EC/OR1 - -he purpoe o5 intallation i to detect any %etallic piece pain! throu!h
the con#eyor. Bhene#er the piece pa &elo6 the earch coil o5 the %etal detector/ it !i#e the trip
co%%and to the con#eyor. Si%ultaneouly/ and &a! %arker 6ill 5all on the con#eyor &elt o that the
%etal can &e earched eaily and re%o#ed.
3* S/ACKERMRECLAIMER1 - It i a #ery i%portant de#ice. -he 6hole Structure o5 it i called
Super Structure. It tack the e8cei#e coal and reclai% the coal on it re@uire%ent. It i a t6o06ay
(). /RANS5ER /O0ER: Dro% here the coal i ent to the -ipper. -ran5er -o6er i pro#ided 6ith a
coal a%pler.

((. /I..ER: - -he -ipper i a three06ay de#ice to 5eed the coal in 1unker. It i %o#ea&le de#ice. It
%o#e on it track.
(*. $UNKER1 - Here the coal i collected 5ro% the tipper and tored. -he capacity o5 the &unker 5or
Sta!e0I i $C))M- 7 Sta!e0II i C+))M-
-he coal i pul#eri2ed into 5ine po6der in the coal %ill and reduce to a i2e o5 *))0*A) MESH 9i5 6e
conider a (E( @ inche ie#e plate ha#in! *))0*A) cro line/ then the po6dered coal 6hich can pa
throu!h uch a %eh i o5 *))0*A) MESH:. -he coal i po6dered to increae the ur5ace area 5or it
co%&ution and producin! !reater heat ener!y. PA 5an uck air 5ro% at%ophere and end it to air0
preheater to %ake it hot. -hen thi hot air 5ro% the preheater i ent 6ith hi!h preure to the coal %ill/
6here it pick up the 5ine coal po6der 6ith it and thi %i8ture i then 5ed to the &oiler 5urnace. Another
5an/ the D. 5an alo take up at%opheric air/ heat it up in the air0preheater and 5eed thi hot air to the
6ind&o8 o5 the &oiler 5or teady co%&ution o5 coal. -he D. 5an air i alo ued to upply the air to
canner 5an and i!nitor.
-he o#erall &oiler arran!e%ent 6ith it au8illarie i ho6n &elo6'
$oEl Mill moto# &!e3i4i3tion&1
-he o#erall 5lo6 dia!ra% o5 coal i
ho6n &elo6'

-hee are !enerally t6o plate type located &et6een &oiler and the chi%ney. -he precipitator i arran!ed
5or hori2ontal !a 5lo6. "ollect %a8i%u% dut 5ro% 5lue !ae.
-here are t6o induced dra5t 5an per &oiler located &et6een the electrotatic precipitator and the chi%ney.
-hee 5an are ued 5or uckin! 5lue !a 5ro% 5urnace.
-hee are tall R"" tructure 6ith in!le=%ultiple 5lue 9one 5lue per *)) MB 4nit:. -he hei!ht o5 thee
chi%ney #arie dependin! on the location coniderationL any6here &et6een (<) %. to **) %.
-hee are ued 5or upplyin! eal air to the %ill to pre#ent in!re o5 coal dut into !ear &o8 lu&rication
oil. -here are t6o 5an per &oiler 5or *))MB unit
5D 4n moto#
Aynchronou 9Induction
Phae' A phae
KB' ,, KB
RPM' ($3)rp%
Stator connection' Star
Stator current' (A<.+ A
Stator #olta!e' ,,)) ?
Rotor connection' S@uirrel
Po6er 5actor' ).C
E55iciency' 3A.$F
Ratin!' continuou
Inulation' D0cla
Bei!ht' C3+< k!
Make' 1HE>
Year' *))(
.A 4n moto#
Aynchronou 9Induction
Phae' A phae
KB' (*<) KB
RPM' ($3)rp%
Stator connection' Star
Stator current' (A<.+ A
Stator #olta!e' ,,)) ?
Rotor connection' S@uirrel
Po6er 5actor' ).C
E55iciency' 3A.$F
Ratin!' continuou
Inulation' D0cla
Bei!ht' C3+< k!
Make' 1HE>
Year' *))(

A5ter the co%plete co%&ution o5 coal ah i produced and i re%o#ed to ah handlin! plant and i
deli#ered to ah tora!e plant 5or dipoal. Dor ())F o5 coal/ there i $)F 9A*F5ly ahPCF&otto% ah: o5
Dor &otto% ah there i 6et type e#acuation yte%/ 6hile 5or 5ly ah it i dry type e#acuation yte%.
-he &otto% ah i %i8ed 6ith 6ater to %ake lurry and thi lurry i then ent to the &otto% ah hopper.
-here it take the 5or% o5 the clinker. -hee clinker are ent to the ah clinker cruher %ill 9!rinder: to
%ake 5ine po6der/ thi 5ine ah po6der i then ent to the hydro&in.
-he 5ly ah i ent to the 5ly ah hopper then 5ro% there it i ucked in &y a #acuu% yte% into the &u55er
hopper 6here it i collected in &a!. -he re%ainin! 5ly ah i eparated 5ro% the 5lue !ae &y the ESP
9Electrotatic Precipitator:. In ESP there are ha%%er 9operated &y %otor: that %ake the precipitated ah
5all do6n. Dro% the ESP it i ent to the SI>O.
Dro% hydro&in and SI>O it i ent throu!h the con#eyor to the 5inal ah tora!e 9ah %ound:.

-he tea% i ent to the condener/ there circulatin! 6ater i ued 5or the coolin! o5 tea% and
circulatin! 6ater i %ade to 5lo6 in the tu&e. .ue to the heat o5 tea% thi 6ater !et hot. Dor the
coolin! o5 thi hot 6ater coolin! to6er are ued.
-he coolin! to6er 5ollo6 natural %ethod o5 coolin! and are o5 para&olic hape. -he para&olic hape
increae the air peed 6hich cool the inco%in! 6ater. -hey !o to a hei!ht o5 a&out ((+ %. -here are
$ to6er/ one 5or each unit.

On completion of my vocational training at Thermal Power Plant, NTPC Dari, !
have reali"e the importance of one of the very #a$ic nece$$itie$ of life i.e.
electricity an learnt the vario%$ proce$$e$ neee for it$ generation an to r%n the
plant on a 24&' #a$i$.
NTPC D(D)! i$ one of the plant$ in !nia which remain %ner highe$t loa
factor for the ma&im%m %ration of time an that too operating at highe$t plant
e*ciencie$. Thi$ plant i$ a #enchmar+ in term$ of wor+ing e*ciency an
management of re$o%rce$ to all other thermal plant$ in o%r co%ntry.
The training gave me an opport%nity to clear my concept$ from practical point of
view with the availa#ility of machinery of $%ch large rating.