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Some Acupunctue Po!nt" #$!c$ Te%t

&' Pete De%(m%n %n( M%)!n A*+,$%-%.
!One of the things that strikes the acupuncturist who studies
Chinese herbal medicine is the great array of herbs, prescriptions and
protocols whichtreat disorders of blood. By comparison,
acupuncture may seem inadequate, and it is sometimes
said that there are only three or four acupuncture points
which are important in the treatment of blood disorders. A
careful examination of the traditional and modern
indications of the acupuncture points, traditional
commentaries and classical combinations, however,
reveals that many acupuncture points are able to nourish
blood, dispel blood stasis, clear heat from the blood or
stop bleeding. ome of the most important are listed in
this article. !he indications, discussion and classical
combinations for the points given here are concerned only
with these actions, and many other important aspects of
the use of these points are omitted.
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " #osebleed, spitting blood, coughing
blood, whee$ing, dyspnoea, cough, asthma.
D!"cu""!on According to the Discourse Into the Origins and
Development of Medicine %&!he 'ung is the delicate $ang,
neither heat nor cold is appropriate ... too hot and the fire
will melt the metal and the blood will stir%(. As early as the
Spiritual Pivot )Chapter *+, On -ot and Cold .isease/
!ianfu '012 was indicated for %&evere thirst, internal
upsurge, 'iver and 'ung struggle against each other, blood
pours from the mouth and nose%(. !his is a clear reference
to the pattern of 'iver fire attacking the 'ung. 'iver fire
rushes upwards and scorches the 'ung, in3uring the blood
vessels and giving rise to reckless pouring of blood from the
mouth and nose. At the same time there will be coughing,
which is characterised in this pattern by bouts of spasmodic
coughing with a red face.
C*%""!c%* com&!n%t!on" " Bleeding from the nose,
!ianfu '012 and -egu '. 4.15 )Ode to the 100
Re* e0%nt ! n(! c%t! on" " pi t t i ng bl ood, coughi ng
bl ood, nosebl eed, vomi t i ngblood, -eart pain, -eart
D!"cu""!on Chi$e '016 is the water and he1sea point of
the 'ung channel. 4ts principal action is to clear all
forms of heat )whether shi or xu/ from the 'ung. -eat
in the 'ung may in3ure the blood vessels and give rise
to reckless bleeding, characterised by coughing or
spitting of blood or nosebleed.
!he 'ung channel originates in the middle 3iao. As well as
being indicated for heat1induced bleeding from the 'ung, due to
its secondary action of descending tomach qi, Chi$e '016 may
also be used for vomiting blood. !he Song of Points for
Miscellaneous Diseases states uncompromisingly, %&4n cases of
vomiting blood the action of Chi$e '016 is without
!he 'ung and -eart are intimately associated in the
upper 3iao. 7ang 8hao 'i says %&!he 'ung and -eart are
mutually connected9 when there is 'ung heat it most
easily enters the -eart%( and the Spiritual Pivot )Chapter
:6/ says %&4f $ong qi does not descend, blood will stagnate
in the vessels%(. 4n the case of 'ung heat entering the
-eart there will be agitation of the -eart, and in the case
of 'ung and $ong qi deficiency there will be blood stasis
giving rise to -eart pain.
C*%""!c%* com&!n%t!on" " pitting blood, at times hot and
at times cold, tonify Chi$e '016 and disperse 7u3i '01+;
)A Systematic Classic of Acupuncture and Moxiustion/.
Re* e0%nt !n(! c%t! on" " pit ting bl ood, coughing
bl ood, vomit ing blood, agi t at ed -eart wi th -eart
pain and choppy pulse, oppressi on of the chest,
mani c raving, pul seless syndrome.
D!"cu""!on According to the Plain !uestions %&!he 'ung
governs the one hundred vessels%(, and the Classic of
Difficulties )56th .ifficulty/ states %&the vessels gather at
!aiyuan '01<%(. !his concept of the hundred vessels was
discussed more fully in "he Classic of Categories which
stated %&!he flow of the 3ingmai )channels and vessels/
must follow the qi9 the qi is dominated by the 'ung,
therefore it is the meeting of the hundred vessels%(. !hese
statements refer to the important relationship between the
qi and the blood, ex
pressed in the saying %&!he qi is the commander of
the blood%(, and the statement in "he Classic of
Categories that %&!he vessels are the pathways of
the blood qi9 the movement of the vessels is
dependent on qi%(. 4n other words, the blood moves
through the blood vessels by virtue of the movement
of qi, and in the chest and -eart region especially,
the circulation of the blood is dependent on the $ong
qi which is formed from the gu qi and air inhaled by
the 'ung. !aiyuan '01<, the -ui1=eeting point of
the vessels, is therefore an important point to
harmonise the relationship between the $ong qi and
the blood. >hen the $ong qi is deficient and fails to
circulate the blood, it will pool and stagnate in the
chest and -eart, giving rise to oppression and
fullness, agitation, -eart pain with a choppy pulse,
and in severe cases manic raving. !aiyuan '01< is
further indicated for disorders of the blood vessels in
general such as vomiting, spitting or coughing of
blood and pulseless syndrome.
C*%""!c%* com&!n%t!on" " ?ain of the 'ung and -eart,
!aiyuan '01< and 7u3i '0+; )A Systematic Classic of
Acupuncture and Moxiustion/. " @aving speech,
!aiyuan '01<, 7angxi '.4.16, Aialian '.4.B and Cunlun
B'1D; )"he #reat Compendium/.
3UJI LU+14
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " Coughing blood,
vomiting blood, blood in the urine, genital
damp itching, impotence with abdominal
D! "cu""! on 7u3 i '01 +; i s t he yi ng1 spr i ng
and f i r e poi nt of t he 'ung. Accor di ng t o
t he Cl assi c of Di f f i cul t i es ) DBt h
.i f fi cul t y/ , yi ng1 spr i ng poi nt s ar e
i ndi cat ed f or % &heat i n t he body% (, and
7u3 i '01 +; i s effect i ve t o cl ear heat
f r om bot h t he 'ung channel and t he 'ung
$ang. >hen heat , a f or m of yang excess,
ent er s t he bl ood i t may l ead t o excessi ve
and r eckl ess movement , and hence
haemor r hage.
7u3i '01+; is indicated for bleeding disorders
affecting all three 3iao. 'ung heat may in3ure the
vessels of the 'ung causing coughing of blood,
transmit to the origin of the 'ung channel in the
tomach causing vomiting of blood, or transmit to the
-eart and thence the mall 4ntestine and Bladder
giving rise to urinary bleeding )which may be
accompanied by genital damp itching or impotence/.
C*%""!c%* com&!n%t!on" " Eomiting blood, 7u3i '01
+;, Fu$e ?12 and henmen -G1: $"he #reat
Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxiustion%& "
?ain of the penis, 7u3i '01+;, !aixi C4.12, 8hong3i
@G#2 and anyin3iao ?1D )"he #reat Compendium
of Acupuncture and Moxiustion/.
Re* e0%nt ! n(! c%t! on" " Amenorrhoea,
i rregul ar menst ruat i on, ut eri ne bl ood
**stasis due to cold.
D!"cu""!on !he name of this point, #uilai
)%H@eturn%I/ refers to its ability to restore
the menstruation to normal, and its
overriding action is to warm the lower 3iao,
most particularly the uterus in women. !he
uterus )along with the tomach and pleen
and the intestines/ belongs to that group of
the $angfu or extra fu that can suffer from
direct attack by exterior pathogenic cold )i.e.
without initially giving rise to symptoms and
signs of an exterior pattern such as chills and
fever, body aches etc./. 4n3ury of the uterus
by cold may be due to inadequate clothing or
sitting on cold ground, or over1consumption
of cold foods and drinks, especially during
menstruation or after childbirth. According to
the Plain !uestions )Chapter B* %HOn
@egulating the Channels%I/, %&Fi and blood
desire warmth and dislike cold9 when cold is
encountered they coagulate9 when warmth is
encountered they disperse and flow%(, whilst
the Spiritual Pivot says J!he qi and blood of
the human body circulate without stopping,
in the same way that the stars do in the upper
region and the rivers in the lower region.
>hen a cold pathogen comes to reside in the
channels as a guest, the blood will coagulate9
when the blood coagulates the channels do
not moveJ.
?athogenic cold entering the uterus will cause
stagnation of qi and coagulation of blood and
disrupt the function of the @en =ai and Chong
=ai, giving rise to disorders such as
amenorrhoea, irregular menstruation and
abdominal masses. Kuilai !1*< is normally
treated with warm needling to warm the uterus
and drive out pathogenic cold.
Re* e0%nt ! n(! c%t! on" " 0t eri ne bl eedi ng,
menorrhagi a, vomi t i ng bl ood, nosebl eed,
heat i l l ness wi t h nosebl eed, bl ood i n t he
uri ne, bl ood i n t he st ool s.
D!"cu""!on According to the Supplements to
Commentaries %&!he pleen gathers the blood9
when the pleen is xu it is unable to unite the
blood%(, whilst the "reatise on Disorders of
'lood says %&>hen pleen yang is xu the blood
is not gathered%(. 7inbai ?1+, the 3ing1well
point of the pleen channel, is one of the
foremost acupuncture points for strengthening
the pleen%Is function of holding blood. !his
pattern, which is usually chronic in nature, may
manifest as bleeding in any part of the body, but
most commonly in the lower 3iao, whether as
uterine bleeding or as bleeding into the urine or
stools. 4n such cases moxibustion at 7inbai ?+
is frequently employed, and it is particularly
helpful to instruct the patient in the daily use of
moxibustion at home. !he action of 7inbai ?1+
in stopping bleeding, however, is not confined
to cases of pleen deficiency, but may also be
applied where shi or xu heat enters the blood
level giving rise to reckless bleeding, especially
in the upper part of the body )nosebleed,
vomiting blood/. 4n these cases, needling is the
usual method employed
C*%""!c%* com&!n%t!on" " Bloody stools,
7inbai ?1+ and 8usanli !12D )#atherings
from Outstanding Acupuncturists%& " Bloody
dysentery, 7inbai ?1+, !ianshu !1*6,
#eiting !155, Fihai @G#1D, 8haohai C4.1D
and #eiguan ?1D $"he #reat Compendium of
Acupuncture and Moxiustion%& " Eomiting and
nosebleed, 7inbai ?1+, ?ishu B'1*;, Kanshu
B'1+B and hangwan @G#1+2 $"he #reat
Compendium of Acupuncture and
Moxiustion%& " evere and ceaseless
nosebleed, 7inbai ?1+ and >ei$hong B'15;
)Classic of Supplementing (ife )ith
Acupuncture and Moxiustion/. " -ot head and
nosebleed, 7inbai ?1+, Leiyang B'16B,
Minggu B'1D5, Cunlun B'1D; and Chengshan
B'16: $1000 Ducats%&
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " 4rregular menstruation,
uterine bleeding, uterine bleeding with di$$iness,
menorrhagia, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea,
difficult labour, failure of the lochia to descend,
post1partum di$$iness, palpitations, blurred vision,
insomnia, ec$ema, urticaria.
D!"cu""!on Along with Keshu B'1+:, Auehai
?1+; and .i3i ?1B, anyin3iao ?1D is
considered one of the most important
acupuncture points to nourish, harmonise and
cool blood and to promote and invigorate its
circulation. !his action finds its most important
application in the treatment of gynaecological
disorders, but extends to other disorders where
blood disharmony plays an important role such as
skin diseases.
>hen pl een qi or yang i s xu t her e
ma y be, i . i nadequat e f or mat i on of
bl ood ) pal pi t at i ons , bl ur r ed vi s i on,
amenor r hoea, pos t 1 par t um di $$i nes s ,
di $$i nes s as s oci at ed wi t h ut er i ne
bl eedi ng et c. / , or i i . f ai l ur e of t he
pl een t o hol d t he bl ood ) ut er i ne
bl eedi ng, menor r hagi a/ . By vi r t ue of i t s
abi l i t y t o t oni f y t he pl een qi and yang
and t o s t r engt hen t he pl een% Is abi l i t y
t o hol d t he bl ood, anyi n3 i ao ?1 D i s an
es s ent i al poi nt i n t he t r eat ment of t hes e
di s or der s , es peci al l y ut er i ne bl eedi ng
and menor r hagi a. !he f ur t her abi l i t y of
anyi n3 i ao ?1 D t o r egul at e t he pl een,
'i ver and Ci dne y channel s and t o t r eat
al l di s or der s of t he l ower abdomen
r ender s i t an i mpor t ant poi nt t o t r eat
gynaecol ogi cal di s or der s due t o bl ood
st as i s , Ci dne y def i ci enc y, phl egm1
dampnes s or 'i ver s t agnat i on.
C*%""!c%* com&!n%t!on"
" 0terine bleeding,
anyin3iao ?1D,
7in3iao @G#1: and
7angchi M15 )"he (yric
of Standard
Profundities/. "
Ceaseless uterine
bleeding, anyin3iao
?1D, Miaoxin C4.1B,
7ingu C4.1+; and
!aichong '4E12
$Classic of
Supplementing (ife )ith
Acupuncture and
Moxiustion%& "
anyin3iao ?1D, !ongli
-G16 and Aing3ian '4E1
* $"he #reat
Compendium of
Acupuncture and
Moxiustion%& *
anyin3iao ?1D,
8ulinqi KB5+ and
8hong3i @G#12 $"he
Compendium%&DIJI SP+
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " 4rregular menstruation,
dysmenorrhoea, abdominal masses in women due
to qi and blood stasis.
D!"cu""!on .i3i ?1B is the xi1cleft point of the
pleen channel. !he xicleft points are where the qi
and blood, which flow relatively superficially along
the channels from the 3ingwell points, gather and
plunge more deeply. !he xi1cleft points in general
are indicated in the treatment of acute conditions and
pain, whilst the xi1cleft points of the yin channels
have an additional action of treating disorders of
!he pleen controls blood and its channel
enters the lower abdomen, 3oining with the @en
=ai at 8hong3i @G#12 and Kuanyuan @G#15.
.i3i ?1B has a specific and important action on
resolving blood stasis in the uterus and lower
abdomen, being indicated in the treatment of
irregular menstruation, abdominal masses in
women and dysmenorrhoea due to this
pathology. As the xi1cleft point, .i3i ?1B is
especially suited to treating acute
dysmenorrhoea, for which purpose it is often
combined clinically with -egu '.4.15. A specific
indication for this point mentioned in the
Illustrated Classic of Acupuncture Points on the
'ron+e Man is a hot flowing sensation spreading
down the inner thigh to the knee when pressure
is applied to abdominal masses in women.
C*%""!c%* com&!n%t!on" " 4rregular menstruation, .i3i
?1B and Auehai ?1+; )Ode of the 100 Symptoms/.
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " 4rregular menstruation,
dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, uterine bleeding,
clotted uterine bleeding, sudden uterine bleeding,
post1partum qi and blood deficiency, urticaria,
ec$ema, erysipelas, herpes $oster, painful hot sores,
ulceration and itching of the scrotum, blood lin.
D! "cu""! on !he name of t hi s poi nt Auehai
?1+;, l i t eral l y %&ea of Bl ood%(, refl ect s
i t s pre1emi nent rol e i n t reat i ng vari ous
di sorders at t he bl ood l evel . 4t i s
gener al l y recogni sed as havi ng t wo
pri nci pal act i ons, i . i nvi gor at i ng t he
bl ood and di spel l i ng st asi s, and i i .
cl eari ng heat f rom t he bl ood. !hese t wo
act i ons fi nd t hei r expressi on i n i t s abi l i t y
t o t reat a wi de range of gynaecol ogi cal
and dermat ol ogi cal di sorders due ei t her
t o bl ood st asi s or heat i n t he bl ood.
As far as gynaecology is concerned, normal
menstruation depends on a number of factors
including the smooth circulation of blood.
4mpairment of blood circulation and consequent
stasis may be due to stagnation or deficiency of qi,
traumatic in3ury, haemorrhage, penetration of cold,
blood deficiency, heat, chronic disease or
emotional factors, and may give rise to many
different disorders of menstruation. !hese include
dysmenorrhoea and uterin
bleeding characterised by severe fixed pain and
the discharge of dark or clotted blood, and
amenorrhoea accompanied by pain and
distention, a purple coloured tongue and a
choppy pulse. By contrast, if heat enters the
blood level, most frequently due to internally
generated heat from the 'iver or -eart, or due to
overconsumption of excessively heating foods,
then two principal conditions may arise, i. the
movement of blood may become reckless and
overflow its bounds leading to uterine bleeding,
or the heat may dry the blood leading to
amenorrhoea. 4n both cases there will be signs of
heat such as a red dry tongue and a rapid pulse.
4n fact, both the blood cooling and blood
invigorating properties of Auehai ?1+; come
together in its ability to treat uterine bleeding.
Blood heat is the most commonly seen pattern of
uterine bleeding, and as well as cooling blood,
treatment must emphasise resolving stasis, since
any pathological bleeding may lead to pooling
and stagnation of extravasated blood. !his is
expressed in the Chinese medicine saying
%&where there is haemorrhage there is stasis%( .
ome authorities further attribute blood
nourishing properties to Auehai ?1+; and
incorporate it into prescriptions for the
treatment of blood deficiency. 4n the light of
Auehai ?1+;%Is pre1eminence in invigorating
blood, this action reflects the saying in
Chinese medicine %&if blood stasis is not
transformed, new blood cannot be generated%(.
!his refers to situations either where blood
deficiency and consequent poor circulation
lead to stasis, or where blood stasis prevents
the creation of new blood. Both of these
patterns are commonly encountered in
postpartum blood deficiency.
As far as dermatology is concerned, blood
disharmony often plays a central role. !he main
dermatological patterns treated by Auehai ?1
+; are heat in the blood level characterised by
red lesions, and blood stasis characterised by
purple lesions. Auehai ?1+; may also be used
for the concomitant blood deficiency and stasis
seen for example in ec$ema with thickening of
the skin )lichenification/ or post1herpetic
neuralgia. Auehai ?1+; may also be used to
treat the manifestations of wind in skin
diseases, the most important of which is
intolerable itching. !his illustrates the Chinese
medicine saying %&to treat wind first treat the
blood9 once blood moves wind will be
Although the action of Auehai ?1+; on
invigorating and cooling blood is
classicall y confined to the two principal
areas of gynaecology and dermatology, its
application may be extended to any disorder
in the body with these pathologies.
C*%""!c%* com&!n%t!on" " 4rregular menstruation,
Auehai ?1+; and .aimai KB*D $Classic of
Supplementing (ife )ith Acupuncture and
Re* e0%nt ! n(! c%t! on" " ?ai n of t he whol e
body, weakness of t he four l i mbs,
fl acci di t y of t he l i mbs.
*5D! " c u" " ! on !he na me of t he poi nt
.a ba o ?1 *+ i s ma de up of t wo
c ha r a c t e r s , % H.a % I me a ni ng gr e a t , a nd
% HBa o% I me a ni ng % Ht o wr a p% I, or
% Ht o e nve l op% I. Ac c or di ng t o t he
Spi r i t ual Pi v ot J !he gr e a t l uo of t he
pl e e n i s known a s .a ba o . . . i t
s pr e a ds i n t he c he s t a nd f l a nks . >he n
i t i s s hi t he r e i s pa i n of t he whol e
bod y. >he n i t i s xu t he hundr e d 3 oi nt s
a r e f l a c c i d. !hi s c ha nne l i s l i ke a ne t
e mbr a c i ng t he bl ood of a l l t he l uo% (.
A possible explanation of this statement from the
Spiritual Pivot is that one of the functions of the luo1
connecting channels in general is to assist in the
distribution of qi, and more especially blood, to all the
tissues of the body via the network of the minute luo1
connecting channels. ince the pleen controls blood, its
great luo1connecting channel dominates this function of
blood distribution throughout the body. >hen blood
stagnates %&there is pain of the whole body%(9 when
blood is xu and unable to nourish the tissues, %&the
hundred 3oints are flaccid%(.
3IN8I HE+6
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " -eart pain, unbearable
stabbing pain of the -eart, fullness of the chest,
palpitations, fright palpitations, sudden turmoil
disorder with cardiac pain, nosebleed, vomiting
D!"cu""!on 7inxi -G1D, the xi1cleft point of the -eart
channel )see .i3i ?1B above/ is indicated for -eart
pain due to blood stasis, and bleeding disorders due to
excessive heat agitating the blood. -owever, in terms of
both these actions, Aimen ?5, the xi1cleft point of the
?ericardium channel, is clinically more important.
Acute severe pain from blood stasis which threatens the
survival of the -eart $ang is therefore primarily treated
by using points of the ?ericardium channel, the
%Hprotector%I of the -eart. !his is reflected in the
statement in the Spiritual Pivot )Chapter :+/ %&!he
-eart is the great master of the five $ang and six fu and
the residence of the 3ing shen ... 4f the -eart is in3ured,
the shen will depart9 if the shen departs, the person will
die ... therefore the pathogenic qi that attacks the -eart
will be diverted to reside in the ?ericardium%(.
Re* e0%nt ! n(! c%t ! on" " -ear t pai n,
oppr ess i on of t he ches t wi t h
r es t l ess nes s, ches t pai n ext endi ng t o t he
back, pal pi t at i ons, i r r egul ar pul se, poor
memor y, anxi et y, weepi ng wi t h gr i ef ,
i ns omni a, exces si ve dr eami ng, abs ent 1
mi ndedness as i f i n a t r ance, del a yed
speech devel opment , coughi ng bl ood,
vomi t i ng bl ood, nos ebl eed, ni ght
sweat i ng.
D! " c u " " ! o n Ai n s h u B'1 + 6 i s t h e
b a c k 1 s h u p o i n t o f t h e -e a r t , wh e r e
t h e q i o f t h e -e a r t e ma n a t e s f r o m
t h e i n t e r i o r t o t h e b o d y s u r f a c e ,
a n d i n c o mmo n wi t h a l l t h e b a c k 1
s h u p o i n t s ) e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e o f t h e
y i n $ a n g / Ai n s h u B'1 + 6 h a s
strong action on regulating and tonifying its
corresponding $ang at the deepest level. 4t is used
equally to tonify deficiency of -eart blood and to
resolve blood stasis.
According to the Spiritual Pivot )Chapter
+B/ %(Blood is the qi of the shen%(, whilst the
Plain !uestions )Chapter B/ says %&!he -eart
is the monarch from which the shen
emanates%(. ince storage is a yin function, it
is primarily the -eart blood and yin that have
the function of nourishing the -eart and
providing the material basis for the -eart to
house the shen. Blood and yin deficiency of
the -eart may originate from physical causes
such as loss of blood, chronic illness and
overwork, or from emotional causes. Lei Bo
Aiong )+B;;1+B:</ said, %&!he seven
emotions in3ure the five yin organs selectively
but they all affect the -eart%(, whilst
according to the Plain !uestions )Chapter D*/
%&!he -eart stores the shen ... when the shen
is in excess there is ceaseless laughter, when
the shen is insufficient there is sadness%(.
>hen -eart blood or yin are deficient, the
unrooted and unanchored shen loses its
harmony and becomes restless and unquiet,
resulting in such symptoms as anxiety, poor
memory, insomnia and excessive dreaming
and weeping with grief.
!he -eart cont rol s t he pul se, and when
-eart qi i s defi ci ent and i s unabl e t o
regul at e t he bl ood, t here may be
pal pi t at i ons or i rregul ar pul se, especi al l y
i f t he -eart bl ood i s al so defi ci ent . 4n t he
l at t er case, pal pi t at i ons wi l l be more
l i kel y t o be accompani ed by anxi et y, i n
cont rast t o t he pal pi t at i ons caused purel y
by qi defi ci ency whi ch are usual l y
unrel at ed t o emot i onal changes.
According to ,ssential -eadings from the Medical
"radition, %&!hat which is stored by the -eart internally
is blood, externally it is emitted as sweat9 sweat is the
fluid of the -eart%(. Lor this reason, Ainshu B'1+6 is
also indicated for night sweating.
@eferences to the relationship between the
-eart, the blood and its vessels abound in the
classics. !he Plain !uestions says, %&All blood
pertains to the -eart%( )Chapter +;/, %&!he -eart
dominates the blood vessels of the entire body%(
)Chapter 55/, and %&!he -eart stores the qi of the
blood vessels%( )Chapter +B/. !he Classic of
Categories states %&!he vessels are the pathways
of the blood qi, the movement of the vessels is
dependent on qi%(, whilst in the Spiritual Pivot it
says %&>hen the qi of hand shaoyin channel is
exhausted, the vessels will not move, thus the
blood will not flow9 when the blood does not
flow the circulation will eventually stop ... and
the blood will die%(. !he Methods and -ules of
Medicine says %&4n chest bi, pain in the -eart
region is caused by yang deficiency and invasion
of cold%(. 4n "reatment Planning According to
Pattern Categories it says %&4n chest bi, the yang
qi of the chest does not move9 after a long time,
yin takes the place of yang%(. !he above
statements all emphasise the close relationship
between the circulation of blood in the chest and
the qi and yang of the -eart. >hen -eart yang is
deficient and unable to circulate the blood in the
chest and -eart, there may be consequential
-eart blood stasis giving rise to pain and
oppression of the chest. Ainshu B'1+6 is an
important point for all kinds of -eart and chest
pain, whether due to deficiency, stasis of blood,
or stagnation of qi or phlegm.!he action of
Ainshu B'1+6 in treating blood stasis as well as
blood deficiency, reflects its ability to treat both xu
and shi patterns of the -eart with equal effect.
According to a number of classics it is an important
point to clear heat from the -eart, both shi and xu,
whilst the Illustrated Appendices to the Classic of
Categories states %&Ainshu B'1+6 is indicated for
clearing heat of the five $ang in combination with
the five $ang back1shu points%(. !his reflects the
application of five phase theory in which the -eart
pertains to sovereign fire and plays a role in
governing the fire of the whole body. >hen -eart
fire in3ures the blood vessels of the 'ung or
tomach, therefore, there may be coughing or
vomiting of blood.
C*%""!c%* com&!n%t!on" " >eeping with grief,
Ainshu B'1+6, henmen -G1:, Miexi !15+
and .aling ?1: )Classic of Supplementing (ife
)ith Acupuncture and Moxiustion/. "
=elancholy and trance1like absent1
mindedness, Ainshu B'1+6, !ian3ing M1+;
and hendao .01++ )Classic of Supplementing
(ife )ith Acupuncture and Moxiustion/. "
!rance1like mental confusion, Ainshu B'1+6,
!ian3ing M1+; and Muque @G#1+5 $"he #reat
Compendium of Acupuncture and
Moxiustion%& " =ental stupidity and dull1
wittedness, Ainshu B'1+6, henmen -G1:,
haoshang '01++ and 7ongquan C4.1+ $"he
#reat Compendium of Acupuncture and
Moxiustion%& " Agitated -eart, Ainshu B'1+6
and Muque @G#1+5 $Classic of Supplementing
(ife )ith Acupuncture and Moxiustion%& "
Coughing and spitting blood, Ainshu B'1+6,
Kanshu B'1+B, Fuepen !1+*, Muque @G#1+5
and Miuwei @G#1+6 )Classic of Supplementing
(ife )ith Acupuncture and Moxiustion/.
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " All blood diseases, epigastric pain,
fullness of the abdomen and flank, pain of the whole body,
pain of the skin, flesh and bone, stabbing pain of the -eart,
-eart pain on eating, tidal fever, night sweating, spontaneous
sweating, steaming bone syndrome, fever without sweating,
aversion to cold, mania1depression disorder, coughing blood,
vomiting blood, spitting blood, blood in the stool, urticaria, bi
of the whole body.
D!"cu""!on Keshu B'1+: is one of the eight hui1
meeting points with a specific action on the blood.
=any classics simply state that this point can be
used for %&all blood diseases%(. .isorders of blood
may be of three main kinds, blood stasis, blood
heat and blood deficiency.
4 mp a i r me n t o f b l o o d c i r c u l a t i o n
a n d c o n s e q u e n t b l o o d s t a s i s ma y b e
d u e t o v a r i o u s c a u s e s ) s e e Au e h a i
? 1 + ; a b o v e / . !h e v a r i e t y o f
s ymp t o ms t h a t b l o o d s t a s i s c a n
g i v e r i s e t o i s e x t e n s i v e , b u t o f
t h e s e t h e p r i n c i p a l o n e i s p a i n . h i
p a i n ma y b e d u e e i t h e r t o
s t a g n a t i o n o f q i o r s t a s i s o f b l o o d ,
a s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f a mo u s a d a g e
% & wh e n t h e r e i s n o mo v e me n t t h e r e
i s p a i n % ( . ? a i n d u e t o b l o o
stasis is characterised by its fixed and stabbing
nature. According to >ang Fingren, the Fing
dynasty author of Correcting the ,rrors of
Medicine, %&whenever there is pain in the abdomen
that does not move, it is blood stasis%(. !ang @ong
Chuan in the "reatise on Disorders of 'lood said
%&... >hen blood stasis is between the 3ingluo and
the $angfu the whole body is in pain ... when it is in
the upper 3iao ... there is stabbing obstinate pain of
the arm, chest and diaphragm ... when it is in the
middle 3iao there is pain of the abdomen and
flanks%(. As is clear from its indications, Keshu B'1
+: is applicable in all these cases. 4t should be noted,
however, that due to its location and its special
action on the diaphragm which intersects the upper
and middle 3iao, its main sphere of action is on these
two areas and it is less used for blood stasis in the
lower 3iao. Keshu B'1+: is also an important point
to treat various kinds of fever due to blood stasis.
!he "reatise on Disorders of 'lood states %&when
blood stasis is at the level of the pores the ying and
wei are not harmonised there is fever accompanied
by chills ... when it is half1interior half1exterior ...
there is alternating chills and fever ... when it is at
the level of the muscles and flesh there will be a
burning fever ... when it is in the 3ingluo and
$angfu ... there is necessarily steaming bone
consumption fever%(.
Keshu B'1+: is also indicated for mania1
depression disorder, and according to >ang Fingren
in Correcting the ,rrors of Medicine, %&4n the pattern
of insanity, where there is continual crying and
laughing, swearing and singing ... then the qi and
blood will coagulate in the brain%(. An alternative
explanation for this manifestation is that blood stasis
may both transform to heat and obstruct the blood
vessels, preventing nourishment from reaching the
-eart. !his combination of heat and malnourishment
may disturb the shen.
Keshu B'1+: is an important point for
many kinds of bleeding disorders, primarily
due to blood heat or blood stasis. -eat
entering the blood level may be due to a
number of causes including constitutional
heat, exterior pathogenic heat,
overconsumption of excessively heating food
or drink, or shi or xu heat generated by
disharmony of the $angfu. >hen heat agitates
the blood it causes it to move recklessly and
burst out of the vessels giving rise to
haemorrhage that is usually acute and
profuse. Keshu B'+: is able to cool the blood
and stop bleeding, primarily from the upper
and middle 3iao )'ung and tomach/. Another
important cause of haemorrhage is blood
stasis. >hen blood is stagnant and does not
move it may be forced out of the vessels
giving rise to haemorrhage characterised by
its intermittent nature, dark purplish colour
and presence of clots. At the same time,
haemorrhage of any aetiology is itself in an
important cause of blood stasis, as blood that
is forced out of the vessels easily pools and
stagnates. !his is reflected in the saying
%&where there is haemorrhage there is
stasis%(. !he close interrelationship between
blood heat, blood stasis and haemorrhage is
further illustrated by the fact that blood heat
may condense and dry the blood giving rise
to stasis, as stated in the "reatise on Acute
,pidemic .erile Disease by >u 7ou Ce
)+D5*/ %&Because latent stagnant fire
evaporates the blood%Is fluid, the blood
simmers and forms
*Dstasis%(. !he ability of Keshu B'1+: to nourish
blood and yin is
cl earl y overshadowed i n t he cl assi cal
i ndi cat i ons by i t s abi l i t y t o resol ve bl ood
st asi s and heat . !her e are t hr ee areas,
however, t hat refl ect i t s nouri shi ng and
t oni f yi ng propert i es. !he fi rst i s i t s
abi l i t y t o t reat di sorders such as ni ght
sweat i ng and st eami ng bone syndrome
due t o severe bl ood and yi n xu. !he
second i s t he use of Keshu B'1 +: wi t h
.anshu B'1 +< whi ch forms t he cl assi cal
combi nat i on of t he %HLour Ll owers%I.
!he Lour Ll owers wer e fi rst ment i oned i n
Secret s of a .ront i er Of f i ci al by >ang
!ao ):6* A./, who di d not speci f y t he
poi nt s but descri bed rat her a compl ex
l ocat i on met hod )see bel owN/. !he
Cl assi c of Suppl ement i ng (i f e )i t h
Acupunct ure and Moxi ust i on i n t he +2t h
cent ur y fi rst defi ned t he Lour Ll owers as
Keshu B'1 +: and .anshu B'1 +< and sai d
t hat t hey domi nat ed bl ood, bei ng
i ndi cat ed )for t reat ment by moxi bust i on/
for consumpt i on di sorder mani fest i ng as
exhaust i on wi t h st eami ng bone syndrome,
ni ght sweat i ng cough, ast hma, feebl eness
and emaci at i on. !he t hi rd i s t he speci al
abi l i t y of Keshu B'1 +: t o t reat bl ood
defi ci ency al l i ed t o bl ood st asi s. 4t has
l ong been underst ood t hat fol l owi ng
haemorrhage, t he consequent bl ood st asi s
pr event s t he format i on of new bl ood. !hi s
i s refl ect ed i n t he sayi ng, %&i f bl ood
st asi s i s not t ransformed, new bl ood
cannot be generat ed%( and t he st at ement
by !ang @ong Chuan %&4n vomi t i ng bl ood,
nose bl eeds and bl ood i n t he st ool , t he
bl ood l eaves t he channel s9 any bl ood t hat
has l eft t he channel s i s separ at ed and no
l onger connect ed wi t h t he bl ood t hat
nouri shes t he ent i re body . . . t hi s bl ood i s
unabl e t o augment wi t h good bl ood, t hus
t he t ransformat i on of new bl ood i s
hi ndered%(. At t he same t i me, by pool i ng
out si de t he channel s, bl ood st asi s may
l ead di rect l y t o bl ood defi ci ency as
suffi ci ent bl ood i s no l onger avai l abl e t o
nouri sh t he body. !hus bl ood st asi s may
not onl y be t he cause of, but may be t he
end resul t of bl ood defi ci ency.
!he a ct i on of Kes hu B'1 +: on bi
s yndr ome, commonl y r e f e r r ed t o as
wi nd1 damp i n Chi nes e medi ci ne, whi ch
af f ect s t he whol e body r ef l ect s i t s
act i on of r egul at i ng bl ood. ?r ol onged
bi s yndr ome ma y gi ve r i s e ei t her t o
bl ood s t as i s or bl ood de f i ci enc y. !he
i mpor t ance of t r eat i ng t he bl ood i n
s uch cas es i s r ef l ect ed i n t he s a yi ng
% & t o t r eat wi nd f i r s t t r eat t he bl ood9
once bl ood moves wi nd wi l l be
di s pel l ed% (.
N!he method of locating these points described
in the Secrets of a .rontier Official ):6* A./ is
as follows, a piece of string is tied around the
neck, with a knot made at the level of Miuwei
@G#1+6. >hen the string is allowed to fall down
the back, the knot will then lie on the vertebral
column at the crossing point of two diagonal
lines the end of each of which leads to one of the
four points.
#EI1HON5 BL+44
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " ?ain and stiffness of
the lumbar spine, heaviness of the lumbar
region and buttock, nosebleed, clove sore )ding
chuang/, erysipelas
D!"cu""!on An alternative name for >ei$hong B'1
5;, used in a number of classics, is /uexi )Blood Ai1
Cleft/. According to the Inner Classic taiyang
channel is abundant in blood. !his not only explains
the powerful effect of bleeding >ei$hong B'15; to
move blood stasis in acute lumbar sprain, but also
its ability to cool the blood in cases of nosebleed
and a variety of skin disorders, in which case the
point may also be bled. 4nterestingly, the only other
channel abundant in blood according to the Inner
Classic is the 3ueyin channel, and this may help to
explain certain similarities between >ei$hong B'1
5; )the he1sea point of the Bladder taiyang channel/
and Fu$e ?12 )the he1sea point of the ?ericardium
3ueyin channel/. Both points are bled to clear heat
from the blood level and are used in the treatment of
in3ury by summer1heat, sudden turmoil disorder
with heat of the four limbs, ceaseless thirst,
vomiting and diarrhoea.
C*%""!c%* com&!n%t!on" " evere and incessant
nosebleed, >ei$hong B'15; and 7inbai ?1+
)1000 Ducats/. " Carbuncles on the back, needle
>ei$hong B'15; and Mian3ing KB1*+, and place a
slice of garlic on the carbuncle and burn moxa. 4f
there is no pain, then moxa until there is pain9 if
there is pain, moxa until there is no pain, the more
moxa the better )"he #reat Compendium of
Acupuncture and Moxiustion/.
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " Amenorrhoea, irregular
menstruation, dysmenorrhoea, delayed
menstruation with epigastric pain on onset of
menstruation, prolapse of the uterus.
D!"cu""!on huiquan C4.16 is the xi1cleft point
of the Cidney channel )see .i3i ?1B above/.
!he Plain !uestions )Chapter +/ states, %&At the
age of fourteen, the Cidney qi of the female is
strong, the reproductive function matures, the
@en =ai flows and the Chong =ai fills, the
menses come according to their times, and she
can bear offspring%(. #ormal development of the
uterus and the @en and Chong =ai, therefore,
depend on healthy functioning of the Cidneys.
At the same time, harmonious menstruation
depends on adequate formation of blood in the
body, especially the 'iver blood which flows to
the @en and Chong =ai to form menstrual blood.
!he close relationship between the Cidneys and
'iver blood was emphasised in Master 0hang1s
Medical ,ncyclopaedia which said %&>hen the
3ing is not discharged it will return to the 'iver
and transform into clear blood%(, whilst the
Cidneys themselves play an important role in the
formation of blood, stated unequivocally in the
'ing 2i Sha 0huan %&!he source of blood is the
4f t he Ci dneys ar e def i ci ent , t hen t he
f unct i on of t he @en and Chong =ai wi l l
be di st ur bed and t he f or mat i on of bl ood
i nadequat e. hui quan C4.1 6, t he xi 1 cl ef t
poi nt of t he Ci dney channel and t hus
abl e t o t r eat di sor der s of blood, regulates the qi
and blood in the Cidney, @en and Chong channels. 4t is
indicated for a variety of menstrual disorders such as
amenorrhoea, irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhoea and
delayed menstruation, whether characterised by deficiency
)of blood or qi/ or excess )stasis of blood/.
C*%""!c%* com&!n%t!on" " Amenorrhoea with
much oppression and pain in the lower -eart
)upper epigastrium/, huiquan C4.16 and
8haohai C4.1D )1000 Ducats/. " 4rregular
menstruation, huiquan C4.16 and !ianshu
!1*6 $Ode to the 100 Patterns%&
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " 0terine bleeding,
irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhoea,
amenorrhoea, uterine prolapse.
D!"cu""!on Miaoxin C4.1B is the xi1cleft point of the 7in
Fiao =ai on the Cidney channel. !he xi1cleft points of
the yin channels have a special action of treating disorders
of blood, especially resolving blood stasis, clearing heat
from the blood and stopping bleeding. Although the 7in
Fiao =ai does not enter the uterus, like all the
extraordinary channels, it has a close relationship with the
Cidneys and originates at 8haohai C4.1D. Miaoxin C4.1B
is indicated in a variety of menstrual disorders, and most
especially uterine bleeding.
According to the Classic of the Central 3iscera
by the great -an dynasty doctor -ua !uo, the
Cidneys serve the purpose of %&wrapping the
blood%( in women. 4f the Cidneys are in3ured by
excessively early sexual activity, sexual
overindulgence, multiple pregnancies etc, then
either the Cidney yin or Cidney yang may become
deficient leading to infirmity of the @en and
Chong =ai and hence uterine bleeding. Miaoxin
C4.1B is predominantly indicated in xu patterns of
uterine bleeding, particularly in cases of Cidney
deficiency, but its status as a xi1cleft point and its
secondary action of draining damp1heat renders it
suitable in the treatment of uterine bleeding due to
blood stasis, reckless movement of hot blood and
C*%""!c%* com&!n%t!on" " Ceaseless uterine
bleeding, Miaoxin C4.1B, 7ingu C4.+;, !aichong
'4E12 and anyin3iao ?1D )Classic of
Supplementing (ife )ith Acupuncture and
Moxiustion/. " .iminished qi uterine bleeding,
Miaoxin C4.1B and -eyang B'166 )Ode to the 100
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " Abdominal
distention, oedema of the abdomen,
diarrhoea, constipation, masses below the
umbilicus, painful masses, cutting pain
below the umbilicus, irregular
menstruation, uterine bleeding, blood
stasis in the uterus
acute pain due to blood stasis.
D!"cu""!on !he name of this point, iman C4.1+5,
is translated as %HLour Lullnesses%I. Although there
are different interpretations of the meaning of this
name, one opinion is that it refers to four kinds of
stagnation, qi, water, food and blood. !here are
clear indications that reflect each of these
conditions, for example abdominal distention for qi,
abdominal oedema for water, diarrhoea or
constipation for food, but overwhelmingly the
indications reflect the presence of blood stasis, for
example painful abdominal masses, cutting pain
below the umbilicus, blood stasis in the uterus etc.
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " Chest pain, -eart pain, -eart
pain with vomiting, vomiting blood, coughing blood,
nosebleed, furuncle and carbuncle, agitated -eart,
insomnia, melancholy and fear, fear of strangers,
weakness of the shen qi.
D!"cu""!on Aimen ?15 is the xi1cleft point of the
?ericardium channel )see .i3i ?1B above/.
!hrough its dual actions of invigorating blood and
moderating acute conditions, Aimen ?15 is
strongly indicated for stagnation of blood in the
chest and -eart, giving rise to pain. 4ts important
role in the treatment of -eart pain was both
emphasised in the classics and is borne out by
modern clinical practice and research. By virtue of
its ability to clear heat from the blood and stop
bleeding, Aimen ?15 is also indicated for hot
reckless bleeding in the upper 3iao giving rise to
nosebleed, and vomiting or coughing of blood.
!he second principal group of indications for
Aimen ?5 includes a variety of mental and
emotional disorders such as agitation of the -eart,
insomnia, melancholy and fear, fear of strangers
and epilepsy. !he relationship between Aimen ?15
and emotional disorders is expressed through its
effect on the blood and the -eart qi. !he -eart rules
the blood and houses the shen, and there is
therefore a reciprocal relationship between blood
and disturbance of the shen. On the one hand when
the blood is stagnant and does not flow freely,
essential nourishment will not reach the -eart and
the shen may be disrupted. On the other hand,
emotional disturbance may lead to stagnation of
blood. !he Spiritual Pivot in the chapter %HOn
Original Causes of the +;; .iseases%I states,
%&4nternally a person may be in3ured by worry and
anger9 when this occurs the qi will rush upwards9
when the qi rushes thus the six shu )points/ will not
move, the warm qi will not circulate and internally
the blood will coagulate and not scatter%(. By
resolving stasis of blood Aimen ?15 therefore is
able to restore emotional harmony.
Bl ood st asi s i n the -eart most commonl y
occurs as a resul t of defi ci ency of -eart qi
and yang. !hese pat t erns frequent l y gi ve
ri se t o feel i ngs of fear, mel anchol y and
gl oomi ness, t ypi cal l y seen i n pat i ent s aft er
a myocardi al i nfarct )t he shock of whi ch
may furt her i n3 ure the -eart
*Bqi/. Aimen ?15 is able to regulate the -eart qi,
as well as the blood, and is classically indicated for
weakness of the shen qi.
Linally there may be symptoms of mental
and emotional agitation, as well as
haemorrhage, when heat enters the ying or
blood levels during febrile disease and rises
to disturb the spirit. !hus the "reatise on
4arm .erile Diseases stated, %&>hen the
ying system is invaded by heat, the blood is
consumed, the shen is disturbed and there is
insomnia%(. Aimen ?15 is able to calm the
shen in such cases by clearing heat from the
ying and blood levels.
C*%""!c%* com&!n%t!on" " -eart pain, Aimen ?15,
Fu$e ?12 and .aling ?1: )1000 Ducats/. " -eart
pain with dry heaves and agitation and fullness,
Aimen ?15 and Miquan -G1+ $Classic of
Supplementing (ife )ith Acupuncture and
Moxiustion%& " Coughing blood, Aimen ?15 and
.aling ?1: )A Systematic Classic of Acupuncture
and Moxiustion/. " Lear of people, insufficiency of
shen qi, Aimen ?15 and .a$hong C4.15 $1000
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " 4rregular menstruation,
ceaseless uterine bleeding, menorrhagia,
metrorrhagia, bloody urine, nosebleed.
D!"cu""!on .adun '4E1+ is the 3ing1well point of
the 'iver channel which encircles the genitals and
enters the lower abdomen. !hrough its action of
regulating qi in the lower 3iao .adun '4E1+ is
also indicated for a variety of disorders of both
urination and menstruation.
As far as menstrual disorders are concerned, the
'iver stores the blood, and if 'iver qi stagnation
transforms to heat and enters the blood, it will give
rise to agitation and turbulence manifesting in such
disorders as irregular menstruation, ceaseless uterine
bleeding, menorrhagia or metrorrhagia.
!he #reat Compendium of Acupuncture and
Moxiustion says %&urine red like blood, moxa
.adun '4E1+ and Kuanyuan @G#15%(. !he
important action of .adun '4E+ on stopping
excessive bleeding from the uterus therefore
extends to urinary bleeding, and according to un
i =iao, even to nosebleed, which is frequently due
to upsurging heat of the 'iver.
:U:UAN LI;+7
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " Abdominal masses in women due
to blood stasis, infertility due to blood stasis,
amenorrhoea, lower abdominal swelling, pain of the
abdomen and flank, umbilical pain.
D!"cu""!on !he 'iver stores the blood and its qi is
responsible for the smooth flow of menstruation.
>hen 'iver qi stagnates, then menstrual blood may
also stagnate. Fuquan '4E1B i
indicated in various classical sources for blood
stasis in the uterus giving rise to infertility,
abdominal masses and amenorrhoea. One
specific indication found in a number of
sources is the presence of abdominal masses
which, when pressed, induce a warm sensation
which radiates down the thigh as far as the
Fuquan '4E1B is an important point to clear damp1heat
from the lower 3iao. Clinically the combination of
dampheat and blood stasis is frequently encountered in
gynaecological disorders, and the action of Fuquan '4E1B
on both these pathogenic factors renders it particularly
suited to treating such dual disharmony.
!n(!c%t!on" "
D!"cu""!on After ascending to the vertex, the .u
=ai descends through the midline of the nose.
.a$hui .01+5 is indicated for nosebleed which
does not stop, an indication that mirrors the folk
practice of placing a key or other piece of cold
metal, or a cold sponge, at the back of the neck
to stop nosebleed.
C* %" " ! c %* c o m&! n%t ! on" " #os e bl e e d,
moxa .a $ hui .01 +5 a nd 7ame n .01 +6
) Se c r et s of t he Mas t e r of Ci nnaar
Cr ee 5 / .
Re*e0%nt !n(!c%t!on" " 0terine bleeding, irregular menstruation,
amenorrhoea, leucorrhoea, infertility, ceaseless flow of lochia after
D! "cu""! on 7in3 i ao @G#1 :, l i t er al l y
% H7in =eet i ng% I i s a meet i ng poi nt of
t he @en =ai , Chong =ai and Ci dney
channel s, t he t hr ee channel s t hat have t he
st r ongest r el at i onshi p wi t h t he ut er us.
!he @en =ai , known as t he % Hea of t he
7in Channel s% I and t he Chong =ai ,
known as t he % Hea of Bl ood% I bot h
or i gi nat e i n t he ut er us. !hei r mat ur at i on
depends on t he f l our i shi ng of t he
Ci dneys, t hus t he Pl ai n !uest i ons st at es,
% &At t he age of f our t een, t he Ci dney1 qi
of t he f emal e i s st r ong, t he r epr oduct i ve
f unct i on mat ur es, t he @en =ai f l ows and
t he Chong =ai f i l l s, t he menses come
accor di ng t o t hei r t i mes, and she can
bear of fspr i ng% (. .i sor der s of
menst r uat i on may be shi or xu, due t o
col d or heat , ext er i or pat hogens or
i nt er i or di shar mony. .ue t o t he cl ose
r el at i onshi p of 7in3 i ao @G#1 : t o t he
ut er us, however, i t may be sel ect ed t o
t r eat such di sor der s as ut er i ne bl eedi ng,
i r r egul ar menst r uat i on, amenor r hoea,
l ochi or r hagi a and i nf er t i l i t y due t o any
aet i ol ogy.
Among the numerous sources consulted for the
material presented in this article, we would
especially like tomention, +. "he Practice of
Chinese Medicine by Kiovanni =aciocia,
Churchill 'ivingstone, +<<5. *. Master 6ua78s
Classic of the Central 3iscera9 ,xcerpts from a
"ranslation of 6ua "uo78s 0hong 0ang 2ing, by
Bob Llaws, American Mournal of Acupuncture,
Eol. **, #o. *, +<<5.
!he material presented in this article is taken from
the forthcoming textbook A Manual of Acupuncture.