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Research Methods

To be considered true research, a project must:


gather and interpret information in a systematic fashion so as
to increase understanding of some phenomenon.


Which of the following is defined as an organized body of
concepts and principles intended to explain a particular
phenomenon?
Theory


The purpose of formal research is to:
support or fail to support the study hypotheses


Assumptions come into play:
for nearly every research study.


Well-designed research manages to minimize or avoid:
bias.


Researchers (Blank) their phenomenon of interest on the basis
of data analysis.
make inferences about.


A primary function of the methodology is to:
guide and control the acquisition of data & extract meaning
from the data that have been gathered.


A well-designed and well-conducted study:
answers some questions and raises other questions.


Reading the professional literature in the field of interest:
will enhance an individual's ability to design and conduct high-
quality research.


One indication that a piece of information is of high quality is
that the information:
is found in a juried (or refereed) research report.


A (blank) is a specific mechanism or strategy the researcher
uses to collect, manipulate, or interpret data.
Research tool


Research methodology refers to:
...


Sam wants to find high-quality research reports related to
attribution theory that have been published in professional
journals. Sam's best approach would be to:
consult an online or electronic database.


Sonya is a college freshman who has just been assigned her
first research paper, and she doesn't know how to get started
finding information. Sonya should:
consult a reference librarian.


A (blank) allows a researcher to receive news in an area of
special interest and discuss that news with others.
A List server


A (blank) allows researchers to personally correspond
practically instantly with other users around the world.
A web browser


John wants to begin using e-mail. Which of the following steps
is NOT necessary for John to get started as an e-mail user?
Obtain necessary software from the e-mail provider and load
it onto a computer.


Three of the following statements about measurement in the
research setting are accurate. Which one is NOT accurate?
Measurement is applied by researchers only to insubstantial
phenomena.


Kade has spent the past month carefully observing a group of
third graders on the playground during recess, taking note of
how the students interact with one another. On the basis of
these observations, Kade is drawing conclusions about the
interaction styles of boys and girls. This is an example of:
Inductive Logic


Kimberly knows that teenagers often do no make good decisions
in areas where they have little knowledge. She also knows that
most have little knowledge about human sexuality. Therefore,
Kimberly believes that teens are likely to make poor decisions
about sexual activity. This is an example of:
Deductive Logic


How are inferential statistics different from descriptive
statistics?
Inferential statistics allow one to draw inferences from the
sample to a target population.


(Blank) are characteristics of samples, whereas (Blank) are
characteristics of populations.
Statistics; parameters


In a normal distribution, what percentage of scores falls
between one standard deviation below the mean and one
standard deviation above the mean?
68%


Dorothy has been surveying the Munchkins to deteremine their
level of life satisification. The possible scores on the life
satiscifcation questionnaire range from 0 to 100. If Dorothy
decides to statistically compare the male and female
Munchkins on their level of satifcation, she should use a
(Blank) test.
Parametric


Here is a set of scores:
5,3,7,3,6,2,5,3
The mean of this set of scores is:
4.25


Here is a set of scores:
5,3,7,3,6,2,5,3
The median of this set of scores is:
4


Here is a set of scores:
5,3,7,3,6,2,5,3
The mode of this set of scores is:
3


The measure of central tendency that is/are appropriate for
use with nominal data is/are
the mode only.


When summarizing ordinal data, the (blank) is the most useful
measure of central tendency
median


When reporting growth data, the (blank) is the most useful
measure of central tendency.
geometric mean


When the (blank) is the measure of central tendency, the
(blank) is the most appropriate and informative measure of
dispersion.
Median; interquartile range


An exam was give to two sections of the same course. In Section
1, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation was 7. In
Section 2, the exam mean was 51 and the standard deviation
was 13. Which of the following conclusions is accurate?
Section 1 scores were less variable than Section 2.


The z-score, or standard score, allows the research to
determine:
How far a target individual's score is from the group mean.


The percentile rank allows the researcher to determine:
what percentage of individuals in the sample scored below the
target individual.


Danzell is purchasing agent for a major grocery store chain. He
has noticed over the year that the higher the outdoor
temperature, the more likely people are to buy fresh fruits.
Based on Danzell's observations, we would say there is (blank)
relationship between outdoor temperature and buying of fresh
fruit.
a positive


Frank Fitness found a correlation coefficient of -.74 between
hours of strenuous exercise each week and a standard measure
of body mass. He interprets this to mean that there is a
(blank) and (blank) relationship between hours of strenuous
exercise and body mass.
weak; negative


Three of the following factors are associated with a relatively
small standard error of the mean. Which one is NOT?
The variance in the sample is relatively large.


Seamus has determined that there is a 95% chance that the
number of people visiting the Blarney Stone in the month June
will between 1,760 and 2,025. This is a/an (blank) estimate.
interval


Statistical hypothesis testing involves testing the :
null hypothesis


On the basis of statistical findings, Ron determines that the
difference between males and females on a test of spatial
reasoning are not due merely to chance. If, in fact,there are
no gender differences in the population, Ron will have made a:
Type 1 error.


On the basis of statistical findings, Becky determines that the
difference between males and females on a test of abstract
mathematical reasoning is merely due to chance. If, in fact,
there are gender differences in a population, Becky will have
made a:
Type II error.


When writing the research report, the findings of statistical
analyses are typically reported in the (blank) section.
Results


When writing the research report, the descriptions of
instruments used for data gathering are typically included in
the (blank) section.
Method


The reference list is included in the:
End matter


Copies of the survey instruments are included in the:
Appendices


The abstract is included in the:
Front matter


In a quantitative study, the description of participants
(subjects) is included in the :
Method section


The acknowledgments are included in the:
Front matter


"Johnson eliminated three interviews from the data set due to
noncompliance on the part of the respondents" This sentence is
an example of:
Passive Voice


"The third subscale was dropped from further consideration
due to problems with internal consistency." This sentence is an
example of:
Passive Voice


The style manual of the American Psychological Association
(APA) suggests that (blank) tense be used when writing the
method section (blank) tense when presenting conclusions.
Past;present


Generally speaking, the best time to begin the literature
review associated with a specific research project is
before or during the formulation of the research problem.


If you want to find information about books available in your
local library, (blank) will probably be your best resource.
The library catalog


If you want to conduct a keyword or author search of research
reports published in professional journals, (Blank) will probably
be your best resource.
An online database


If you want to find statistics on health care spending broken
down by state, (blank) will probably be your best resource.
Government publications


If an important reference you want to include in your
literature review is checked out to another library patron, you
might:
obtain it through interlibrary loan or obtain it by asking the
library to recall the reference


If an important recent research article that you want to
include in your literature review is not owned by your library,
you might:
Obtain it through interlibrary loan.


(blank) is an example of a search engine.
Altavista.


(blank) is an example of an electronic database.
ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center)


Jane wants to search for information about the variety of
attention disorders that are seen in childhood. Which of the
following sets of keywords would best get Jane started on an
effective and efficient search?
"ADHD" "ADD" and "children"


If a researcher has completed a thorough search of the World
Wide Web:
it may be also fruitful to search an electronic database


The main purpose of the review of literature is to:
show how your study is related to, and extends, other work in
the area.


A well-structured literature review:
begins with broad/general information, then narrows the focus
to those studies most closely related to the research problem.


The review of literature can be curtailed when
you are no longer encountering new ideas or information


A well-written literature review:
emphasizes critique and synthesis of the work of others that is
related to your own research problem.


Typically, the literature review should:
emphaize how the studies being reviewed are related to the
research problem under consideration.


A good research plan, according to your textbook, includes:
includes specific sampling plan, procedures, data sources, and
analysis plan.


The basic format of the quantitative research process includes
(in part), in chronological order:
pose the question, pose a hypothesis, search the literature,
collect the data.


When considering general criteria for high-quality research
projects, universality refers to the fact that:
a well-designed research project could be carried out by any
competent researcher; it does not rely on a specific individual.


When considering general criteria for high-quality research
projects, replicability refers to the fact that:
another researcher, using the same procedures under the same
circumstances to research the same question, would obtain
comparable results.


Three of the following accurately characterize data. Which one
does NOT necessarily characterize data?
Data reveal truth.


Charlotte, an anthropologist, has been living in an Incan village
for 3 years. During that time Charlotte has become expert in
Incan weaving by observing and imitating the master weavers
in the community. For Charlotte, observing weaving constitutes
primary data.


Charlotte wrote a book about her experience as an
anthropologist living in an Incan village for 3 years and
becoming an expert weaver. Her book was widely read by other
anthropologist, including Mira, who is an expert in Navaho
weaving. For Mira, Charlotte's book constitutes:
secondary data.


Sean, a high school wrestler, has agreed to participate in a
study of cardiovascular conditioning. He is left somewhat
confused when, at the first research session, he is asked to
complete a questionnaire about commonly purchased grocery
items. Sean's confusion indicates a lack of (blank) regarding
the task.
face validity


A researcher decides to use a high school sample to test the
relationship between her new measure of empathy and a well-
established measure of interpersonal sensitivity. She finds that
the tow instruments are highly related, which supports the
(blank) of the new instrument.
Criterion validity.


Dick and Jane are studying aggression among preschool
children. Separately, they each watch a videotape of four
children interacting in a playroom and then rate each child on
the level of aggression displayed during the play session. They
compare their completed ratings and are pleased to note they
are highly similar. This is an example of (blank) reliability.
Interrater


Dr. Drive is testing a 10-question measure of achievement
motivation. He notes that if his respondents agree with the
first question, they tend to also agree with the other nine.
Likewise, if his respondents disagree with the first question,
they tend to disagree with the other nine. This is an indication
of good (blank) reliability.
Internal consistency


Professor Pickle is studying civic-mindedness among senior
citizens. She administers a survey of civic mindedness to a
senior citizen group in early April, then again in early May. By
comparing the two sets of scores, the professor can assess the
(blank) reliability of her measure of civic-mindedness.
test-retest


Three of the following are associated with quantitative
research methods. Which one is NOT?
Deductive reasoning is applied to data analysis and
interpretation.


Three of the following are associated with qualitative research
methods. Which one is NOT?
No data are gathered as part of this approach.


Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the
internal validity of a study. Which one is NOT?
Make participants fully aware of your expected findings.


Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the
external validity of a study. Which one is NOT?
Allow flexibility in procedures and instruments.


Three of the following are techniques for strengthening the
credibility or dependability of a qualitative study. Which one is
NOT?
Exclude participants who experiences or opinions that are very
different from those of others in the study.


The requirement to keep information provided by research
participants confidential applies:
to all persons under almost all conditions


The altering of data is allowable:
under no circumstance.


Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school
students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk
compared to in an easy chair. Participants will be seniors in
local high school history classes. She hopes to publish her
findings in the History Teacher Quarterly. Does Dr. Davenport
need internal review board (IRB) approval for this study?
YES


Dr. Davenport wants to conduct a study of whether high school
students learn more efficiently while seated at a desk
compared to in an easy chair. She knows there is a large
research literature regarding similar influences on learning,
and she wants to see if the findings hold true with a group of
high school history students. Moreover, as a researcher she is
uneasy with a lack of structure. You recommend that Dr.
Davenport conduct a (blank) study.
Quantitative


Dr. Greenhill wants to know how it is that some early
adolescents come to make a connection between their personal
lifestyle and environmental problems, while others don't.
Futhermore, among those who see the connection, why do some
become committed to environmentalism while others do not? Dr.
Greenhill looks forward to probing the thought of young teens
on these issues and trying to see the questions and issues
through "14-year old eyes." You recommend that Dr. Greenhill
conduct a (blank) study.
Qualitative


Three of the following statements about measurement in the
research setting are accurate. Which one is NOT accurate?
Measurement is applied by researchers only to insubstantial
phenomena.


An ordinal scale of measurement:
communicates greater than and less than relationships.


An interval level of measurement:
incorporates equal units of measurement.


A ratio scale of measurement:
is tied to an absolute zero.


The main difference between an interval and a ratio scale is
that only one of them:
includes an absolute zero.


Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire
for use in a research project. One question asks students to
report how politically conservative they are. It includes a 7-
point scale where 1 is "not at all conservative" and 7 is
extremely conservative." This is an example of a/an:
Interval scale.


Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire
for use in a research project. One question asks students to
report their highest level of education by choosing from these
options: "some high school" "completed high school" "some
college" or "completed 4-year college degree". This is an
example of a/an:
ordinal scale.


Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire
for use in a research project. One question asks students to
report their age in years. This is an example of a/an:
Ratio scale


Professor Harris is constructing a demographic questionnaire
for use in a research project. One question asks students to
report whether they are currently living in an "urban"
"suburban" or "rural" setting. This is an example of a/an:
Nominal Scale


According to the textbook, the most effective research
proposals:
are detailed and straightforward explanations of the research
problem and methodology.


A proposal for a quantitative study typically includes these
elements in this order:
a statement of the problem, a review of the literature, an
explanation of the means for collecting data, a description of
how the study will be conducted.


A proposal for a qualitative study typically includes these
elements in this order:
A statement of the purpose of the study and its guiding
questions, an explanation of theoretical and methodological
grounding, an explanation of how the findings will fit with the
larger literature, a management plan.


Proposals for (blank) studies include methodology section.
Both quantitative and qualitative


In (blank) research proposals, the review of literature comes
late in the document in conjunction with interpretation of
data.
a qualitative


In (blank) research proposals, a specific research problem is
clearly stated at the outset of the proposal.
both quantitative and qualitative


In (blank) research proposals, a specific plan for how the data
will be handled is clearly laid out in the document.
Both quantitative and qualitative


In (blank) research proposals, specific hypotheses regarding
findings are often stated.
A quantitative


In regard to the style you will use for headings and
subheadings in the research proposal:
Disciplines often dictate the use of specific formal styles, so
you must find out what the expectations are.


Experienced writers of research proposals typically:
plan to make revisions to the first draft of the proposal.


When writing the proposal, you should assume that the reader:
knows nothing about the proposed project, so al the details
must be thoroughly explained.


When explaining how the data are to be analyzed and
interpreted:
it is best to be as detailed as possible so all contingencies
related to analysis and interpretation can be anticipated.


Research proposals that (blank) are commonly judged to be of
higher quality than proposals that do not.
favor straightforward vocabulary


Three of the following are elements in the proposal revision
process. Which one is NOT?
Avoid breaks of 24 hours or more as the material will get too
"Cold" in your mind.


The research proposal is best thought of as:
a detailed and firm contract between the researcher and
others who are involved in the research project (participants,
supervisors, funding agencies, etc.)


In which of the following settings would a qualitative study be
LEAST likely to be the appropriate approach for conducting
research?
food science laboratory