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THE ROLE OF BRANDING IN

CONSUMER DECISION
MAKING:
(A CASE STUDY OF CADBURY NIGERIA PLC)
BY
SALAUDEEN, ISHOLA JAMIU
MATRIC NO: 06/66MC208
A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF
BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND
SOCIAL SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, !ARA STATE
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE RE"UIREMENT FOR THE
A!ARD OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE DEGREE IN BUSINESS
ADMINISTRATION
JUNE, 20#0
CERTIFICATION
This research work entitled The role of branding in consumer
decision making, a case study of Cadbury Nigeria Plc, has been
read and approved as meeting the requirement of the department of
business administration university of Ilorin for the award of !"c
#$ons%!
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'r! I! ! ()*I+I *ate
Pro,ect "upervisor
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*r! #'+"% "! -! )*./.'I *ate
$ead of *epartment
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P+01! )! 1! )*.*)/0 *ate
*ean of 1aculty
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.2ternal .2aminer *ate
ii
DEDICATION
This pro,ect is dedicated to )lmighty )llah for making it
possible for me to come for this first degree programme #i!e! "c%
despite all obstacles and to my noble mother 'I"" ")-)3*..N
"I(I+)T! 4ho have supported both financially and morally in
always!
iii
ACNO!LEDGEMENTS
I give every thanks and glory to )lmighty )llah for given me
the opportunity to scale through the programme without any hitch!
No human endeavour can succeed without love, support and
encouragement from certain people!
To my beloved mother 'rs! "alaudeen "ikirat you are
wonderful to the parent, i say thank you mum! 'y gratitude to my
supervisor 'r! I! ! ()*+I, who has taken his time to read through
my roughly written scripts and made useful suggestions and
corrections that have led to the production of this work!
No statement of indebtedness would be complete without
paying tribute to my father )lha, Nasir "alaudeen and my uncle 'r!
+alph ello,
I highly value the goodwill, help and cooperation of 'r!
'uhammed 'alik #aba%, 'r "alau olabode, 'r! akare )bdullahi
and my course mates, 'ustapha Ibrahim, 5badegenshin 4asiu,
"alau 0motayo, +asheed 0lukosi, and others!
iv
1inally, my thanks goes to all who have assisted me both
morally, financially and spiritually to achieve this dream! 5od bless
you all #)'.N%!
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
TITLE I
CERTIFICATION II
DEDICATION III
ACNO!LEDGEMENTS IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS VI

CHAPTER ONE
6!6 Introduction 6
6!7 0b,ective of the "tudy 8
6!9 "cope of the "tudy 8
6!: +esearch ;uestion <
6!= +esearch $ypothesis <
6!8 "tatement of +esearch Problem >
6!< -imitation of the "tudy ?
6!> "tudy Plan ?
6!? *efinition of Terms 6@

vi
CHAPTER T!O
LITERATURE REVIE!
7!@ -iterature of +eview 67
7!6 randing *ecision 69
7!7 'anufacturerAs rand 6:
7!9 Consumer ehaviour 6<
7!: Consumer uying 'otives and $abit 6>
7!= Consumer uying *ecision Process 6?
7!8 +easons for randing 79
7!8!6 To the Consumer 79
7!8!7 To the 'arketer 7:
7!< +esearch for Consumer ehaviour 7:
7!> Promotional "trategies of Cadbury Nigeria P-C, Products 7<
7!? )dvertising 7?
7!6@ Personal "elling 9@
7!66 rands as Consumer Protection 96
7!67 *efining rand .2pectation 9:
7!69 The +ole of rand )wareness 98
7!6: $ow *oes rand )wareness enefit The marketing 9<
vii
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHOLOGY
9!@ Introduction :6
9!6 +esearch *esign :6
9!7 Population of The "tudy :7
9!9 "ample )nd "ampling Technique :7
9!: +esearch Instruction :9
9!= 'ethod of *ata )nalysis ::
9!8 *ata Collection Procedure :8
9!< ;uestion )ssumption :>
9!> Balidity :?
9!? +eliability =@
9!6@ $istorical ackground of Cadbury Nigeria Plc =6
CHAPTER FOUR
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
:!6 Introduction =9
:!7 *ata Presentation and )nalysis =:
:!9 $ypothesis Testing <6
viii
CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
=!@ "ummary <:
=!6 Conclusion <=
=!7 +ecommendation <8
+eferences <>
)ppendi2C ;uestionnaire >@
ix
CHAPTER ONE
#$# INTRODUCTION
'arketing managers have realiDed the importance of
branding, while more others yet to be convinced! It is very vital
however to point out that branding has not only come a long way but
also has way to go! Cadbury Nigeria P-C is a leading manufacturing
concern in the 1ood and everages industrial sector! Its core
manufacturing business is divided into three strategic business units
namely, 1ood, *rinks and Confectionery!
) fourth business unit is the Industrial 'aterials 3nit #I'3%
which comprises our intermediate products businesses notably, the
Cereal Conversion Plant in -agos the Tomato Puree factory in Eos!
This business unit manufactures key inputs F glucose syrup,
sorghum e2tract and tomato puree to feed the three mainline
businesses, and for sale to third parties, especially in the food and
pharmaceutical industries! The heartland of this unit, the Cereal
Conversion Plant is an enduring e2ample in technological
innovation! The Company also owns a subsidiary business, "tan
1
mark Cocoa Processing Company, 0ndo! ) fully integrated e2port
oriented unit with a singular mission to be the preferred supplier of
cocoa butter, cocoa liquor and cocoa powder to select user
customers around the world! "tan mark has been granted the .2port
Processing 1actory status by the 1ederal 5overnment which no
doubt is a ma,or boost to its future success! The "tan mark
investment was clearly a strategic move to generate foreign
e2change earnings and to understand the vagaries and discipline of
international markets!
The Company wide portfolio of high quality branded products
are heavily supported with strong advertising! 0nFgoing investments
in the development of routeFtoFmarket has ensured a nationFwide
distribution coverage, and a key source of competitive advantage!
4ith the network of 6? depots, consumers in all 98 states of the
country are served products that offer real value for the money
spent! )n increasing proportion of our brands are now being offered
to the e2port markets as well!
T%& F''( D)*+,-:
2
The 1ood drinks range consists of ourn vita #the nourishing
food drink fortified with e2tra vitamins and minerals for total vitality%
Pronto #NigeriaAs favorite chocolate drink% +ichoco #a rich, tasty food
beverage% These brands have collectively maintained market
leadership in their category!
C'+.&/0*'+&)1:
The Confectionery range features such household names as
Tom Tom, 5oody 5oody, utter mint, The Trebor range #-uckies,
Trebor Peppermint 0riginal #TP0%, 'alta "weet 1ruities, 5inger
0range, (offstick, Tofi Chocolate Gclairs Eollies -ollipos #in banana,
orange and 'alta -ollipops%! This range straddles principally the
hard candy, compressed sweets and lollipop segments in which they
have a distinctive leadership!
F''(-:
The 1ood range comprises Tomapep #a choice blend of pure
tomato puree and ground pepper% and *adawa #the first and only
wholly Nigeria seasoning cube made from locust beans%! 0thers are
Cheff Tomato #the rich red puree for e2tra delicious taste% (norr
cubes #premium quality seasoning cubes in beef and chicken
3
flavours% and Cheff Peppersoup cubes #easy, tasty, convenient
pepper soup in double quick time% another pioneering effort by the
Company! They are strong number two position in this category!
)side from the unwavering commitment to making whenever
possible with locally sourced raw materials, #e2emplified by
Tomapep, Cheff, *adawa and Cheff pepper soup cubes% there has
been a deliberate effort to reFinvent the various brands to position
them for market leadership in their various segments!
The past two years have witnessed ma,or improvements in the
packaging and product delivery of ourn vita, Trebor Peppermint
0riginal and lately Chocolate Gclairs! The companyAs brands now
come with a ;uality 5uarantee, a demonstration of our commitment
to product quality standards! It is worthy of note that no other
company in Nigeria carries this guarantee on their brands! The
CompanyAs corporate social responsibility policy is e2pressed
through generous donations to and sponsorship of meaningful
endeavours in the )rts, .ducation, $ealth and "ports, and the
important needs of the society! The policy and structure of CadburyAs
corporate giving is directed by the oard!
4
eyond this, we have maintained a policy of attaining the highest
standards in environmental management! 0ur )pproach to our
corporate social responsibility spans several facets, beginning with
the creation of healthy and nutritious products for consumers!
"everal e2emplary activities are undertaken as well! In 6??>, ourn
vita provided free rides for school children under the ourn vita
"cholarsA 1ree us +ide! )lso, over 6@@ children were sponsored on
an e2cursion to the 1ederal Capital City, )bu,a under the ournvita
)*C ChildrenAs 'agic 1light! )nd in its pioneering effort towards
sports development in nigeria, the company recently sponsored The
Cadbury Cup quadrangular golf tournament, the first ever interFclub
gold competition among top golfs clubs in Nigeria F the essence of
which is to raise e2isting standards of the game, ,ust as it did with
football with the pioneering of the Professional 1ootball -eague, and
Table Tennis! 0ur Primary ob,ective is to grow the value of the
business for our shareholders! 'anaging for Balue to the business
philosophy which unites all our activities in pursuit of this ob,ective!
0ur approach is necessarily holistic, galvaniDing the energies of our
managers and staff in a singleFminded fashion! In line with the
5
ob,ectives of '1B, the Company has taken the following strategic
medium and long term quantitative targets areCF
5row economic profit by 6=H per annum!
+aise 0perating profit +eturn to 78H by 7@@7
"ecure a significant positive cash flow of 9H of N"B annually!
#$2 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The main ob,ective of this study is to e2amine the role of reF
branding in consumer decision making!! 0ther ob,ectives will be toCF
i! Investigate the sales and profit level as a result of +eFbranding in
Cadbury Nigeria -imited!
ii .2amine other benefit o +eFbranding consumer products in
Nigeria!
#$2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
6
The scope of this study focuses and centers around Cadbury
Nigeria P-C being one the largest in the beverage productions
business! It has also in particular focuses in public affairs
department responsible is dealing with the companyAs communities!
It is very important to note this department will be the only arm of the
companyAs that will save to a large e2tent the purpose of this
research!
#$3 RESEARCH "UESTION
The study seek to answer the following questionIF
i! 4ill the branding of Cadbury Nigeria plc, product #i!e! ournvita%
influence buying decision of consumersJ
ii! 4hy do the organiDations engage on +eFbranding of their
productsJ
iii! $ow does branding influence buying decision of consumersJ
iv! 4hat are the effects of +eFbranding of productsJ
#$4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
7
$ypothesis statement will provide a logical scientific condition to my
statistical estimate! To achieve ob,ectives stated above, the following
hypothesis will be tested!
HYPOTHESI #:
Null $ypothesis #$o%C randing has not influence the purchase level
of Cadbury products!
)lternative $ypothesis #$i%C randing has influence the purchase
level of Cadbury products!
HYPOTHESIS 2:
Null $ypothesis #$o%C randing has not improved consumer decision
making on Cadbury Nigeria plc, products!
)lternative $ypothesis #$i%C randing has improved consumer
decision making on Cadbury Nigeria P-C, products!
#$6 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLM
8
The study seeks to address the influence of branding on buying
decision of CadburyAs products which militate against the ability of
the beverages industry to fulfill their branding decision! )mong these
problems and militating factors areCF
i! Inadequate sourced to generate required funds
ii! 4eak economic or financial base
iii! "hortage of technical staff
iv! 'issF 'anagement of 'arketing +esources
v! -ow effort to generate revenue from the consumers
#$5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
9
There is some evident limitation of the study such as
3nwillingness on the part of management to give information s
regards the company in order to guard against espionage from
competitorsI this is a ma,or difficulty!
)lso, the busy schedule of the workers is another limitation which
makes it a bit difficult to carryout interviews with a many relevant
people as possible! )nother limitation of the study is the fact that the
information provided in the study will only be limited to the case
study #Cadbury Nigeria plc% and as such cannot be applicable in
another organiDation!
#$8 STUDY PLAN
The research work is made up of five chapters! The first chapter
consists of the introduction i!e! ackground to the study, The
statement of the research problem, ob,ectives of the study, research
questions, scope of the study, limitation of the study, the study Plan,
and the definition of key terms!
10
Chapter Two is the -imitation +eview 4hile Chapter Three involves
the research 'ethodology which consists the $istorical profile of the
case study, 'ethod of the data collection, Population and "ample
siDe, "ampling techniques $ypothesis and The method of data
)nalysis! Chapter 1our of the study is the *ata )nalysis and
Interpretation and Chapter 1ive consists of the "ummary,
Conclusions and +ecommendations!
#$6 DEFINITION OF EY TERMS
In carrying out survey on a particular pro,ect some of the
following key term has to be designed and it has followsCF
*$$ BRANDING:7 This is the use of a distinctive name and K or mark
on a pro,ect to differentiate it from similar competitive products! It is
a ma,or tool used by marketer to distinguish their product from
competitorAs products!
11
**$ CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR:7 This has been defined as the
decision process and physical activities that an individual are
engaged in where they evacuate, compare, acquire and use or
dispose of products and services!
***$ BUYING DECISION:7 This is defined as the ability of the
consumers to conclude and purchase a specific products and
services!
*8$ MARET SHARE:7 This is the percentage of total market that
accrues to a particular company!
12
CHAPTER T!O
2$0 LITERATURE REVIE!
Perhaps the most distractive skill of professional marketers is
their ability to create, maintain, protect and enhance brands!
'arketers say that branding is the art cornerstone of marketingL!
The )merican 'arketing )ssociation #)!'!)% defines a brand as
followCF
13
) brand name, term, sign, symbol or combination of them,
intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of
sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors! #)merica
'arketing )ssociation%! In essence, a brand identifies the sellers or
marketers! It can be a name, Trade mark, -ogo, other symbol! 3nder
trade mark -aw the seller is granted e2clusive rights to the use of
brand name in perpetuity! This brand differ from other assets such
as patent and copy right, which have e2piration dates! ) brand is
essentially a sellerAs promise to consistently deliver a specific set of
features, benefits and services to the buyers! The best brand
conveys a warranty of quality! )aker #6??6%!
2$# BRANDING DECISION
0ne of the basic tasks of Cadbury P-C is decision making on
branding! The variety decision options ope to management of
Cadbury plc covers branding and nonFbranding, manufacturerAs
branding and private branding, family and individed!
This can be diagrammed asCF
14
Branding Deci si on
Brand No Brand
Manufacturer s Brand
Family Brand
Indi vidual Brand
Combi nation
(Family and Indi vidual)
)aker M6??6N managing rand .quity
2$2 MANUFACTURER9S BRAND
15
This identifies producer with the product as the point of
purchase! The 'anufacturer initiates branding and becomes
involved in the distributionI promoting and pricing decision .2amples
of manufacturerAs brands are 5oldee, urn vital e!t!c! 'any
distributors #4hole sales and +etailers% rely on Cadbury Plc brands
because they are too small to develop their own! "uch as
distributors derive some benefit from Cadbury Plc branding which
includeCF
i Promoting by Cadbury Plc helps to reFsell products and develops
strong customers loyalty!
ii Cadbury Plc brands attract new customers and thereby enhance
dealerAs prestige!
iii *ealerAs carry fewer inventories as a result of efficiency of
manufacturers!
16
A$ FAMILY BRANDS
Cadbury Nigeria plc markets several different product product
under the same brand names! Cadbury Nigeria P-C benefits from
using a family whenever it is possible and such benefit includes!
i It is facilitate the introduction of new products as less money is
required to promote the new product #5oldee% with and already
family name!
ii It improves market share of Cadbury Nigeria P-C, "ince it is
safe to buy a new product with an established family name than
buying a product with a new name!
B$ INDIVIDUAL BRANDS
This is an alternative strategy used by Cadbury P-C where all
products do not lend themselves to sale under a family name!
17
C$ TERMS IN BRANDING DECISION OF CADBURY NIGERIA
PLC!
)ccording to "tanton #6?>:%, the following are the terms used in
branding decisionI
i! ) brand is a name, term, symbol, design or combination
therefore that identifies a Cadbury P-C product and differentiates
them from competitorAs products!
ii! ) brand name is that part of a brand that can be spoken include
letters, words, and numbers
iii! ) brand mark comprises of the element that cannot be spoken
because it is not made up of words rather than it is symbol or
design!
iv! ) brand markI This is a legal term , indicating the owners
e2clusive right to use the brand or part of the brand , and that others
are prohibited by law from using without permission!
18
v! ) trade nameI This is the fuel and legal name or an organiDation
such as Cadbury Nigeria P-C rather than the name of specific
product!
2$2 CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
19
"tanton #6?>:% sees consumer behavior as the decision,
process and physical activities that individuals engaged in which
they evaluate, compare, acquire ad use or dispose of product
service! Consumer behavior can be describe as the behavior
e2hibited by people in planning, purchase and using economic
goods and services! It is determined by economic, physical and
sociological consideration! The study of consumer behavior is
central to marketing management because success or features
depends importantly on target customers, individual and group
reactions e2pressed in the form of buying patterns! The behaviour of
consumer can be determined through behavioural research! )s a
result human behaviour is influence by comple2ity of factors among
which is branding! The variables involved can sometimes be so
many and inter meshed that it is possible to identify them separately!
0lusanya #6?>=% asserts that any attempt at interpreting or
e2plaining consumer behaviour, in which data analysis is involved is
therefore, potential haDardous since the e2planation are related to
the phenomenon under investigation!
2$3 CONSUMER BUYING MOTIVES AND HABITS
20
)ccording to "tanton #6?>:% consumer has been defined as he
decision process and physical activities that individuals are engaged
in when they evaluate, compare, acquire and use or dispose of
products! They study of consumer therefore, is the study of what
consumers buy, where they buy it, why they buy it, how often they
buy it, and how often they use it!
) motive by 4,E, "tanton #6?>:% is defined as an internal energiDing
force that orients a person activities toward satisfying a need or
achieving a goal! It is the driving force that cause a person to take
action to satisfying a need or achieving a goal! It is driving force that
causes a person to take action to satisfy specific needs! This as a
result, is what makes Cadbury P-C to recogniDe forces that affect
consumerAs purchase action like branding product quality etc!
Consumers buying motives can be generally classified asCF
i! +ational #which, involves deliberation reasoning and selfF
approval%
ii .motional #NonFrational or involving with reasoning%
iii Conscious #without being aroused%
21
iv *ormant #)roused by marketing operation%
v Primary #which is influential in buying a particular brand%
vi "elective #which involved decision to buy a particular brand%
vii Patronage #which involves decision to regularly buy from a
particular source%
2$4 CONSUMER BUYING DECISION PROCESS
)ccording to "tanton #6?>:%, consumer buying decision process
is a ma,or aspect of consumer behaviour! It implies that buying does
not ,ust happen, rather it follows a step by step process of which
actual buying is stages! It is also true that not all decision process
lead to purchases as the individual way end the process at any
state! "tanton #6?>:%! asically a consumer buying decision process
involves five stages illustrated belowCF
22
A$ PROBLEM RECOGNITION
This is the starting point in the buying process and involves the
buyer recogniDing a problem or need! This stage occurs where the
buyer becomes aware of the gap between his actual condition and
the desired state!
This can be triggers by internal and e2ternal stimuli! The task of
companies such as Cadbury P-C is therefore to identify those
stimuli that trigger a particular need and then develop strategies that
trigged consumersA interest! )lso, where consumers are unaware of
a need, marketer can trigger of recognition of such needs through
appropriate strategies like branding, advertising etc! "tanton #6?>:%
B$ INFORMATION SEARCH
23
)fter recogniDing the problem or need, the buyer continues in the
buying decision process by searching for more information about
products that will help to solve the problem or satisfy the need! This
information search makes him to more receptive to information
and Kor actively searching or information!
Information search can take the form ofCF
i! Internal search is where buyers search their memory for
information about product branding that might solve the problem!
ii .2ternal search involves collection of information from personal
source #family, friend, neighbour acquaintances% commercial
sources #advertising, sales person, branding, packaging etc%, public
sources #mass media consumers rating organiDation% and
e2perimental sources #handling, e2amine and using the product %!
"tanton #6?>:%
C$ EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVES
24
Information search leads to the awareness of the availability of many
competitive brands! These alternative brands most be evaluated on
criteria for evaluation include need of the buyer, benefits e2pected
from the product, attributes and abilities of the alternatives to deliver
the benefit sought! "tanton #6?>:%
D$ PURCHASE DECISION
The result of the evaluation stage guides the buy in choosing the
product or brand to be bought! he also chose the seller from whom
he buys! The brand that is eventually chosen most met the buyerAs
e2pectations terms of product characteristics and ability! The
availability of the product also affects its choice and if the choice is
not available the ne2t board that is available will be chosen! 1amily,
the actual buying takes place at this stage! "tanton #6?>:%
25
E$ POST PURCHASE EVALUATION
This stage occurs after the product has been purchased! The
product has to be assessed to ascertain whether its actual
performance meets buyers e2pectation! The result of this evaluation
is an e2perience of satisfaction and dissatisfaction! The task of
marketing does no end at the purchase stage rather, it continues into
the post purchase stage! 'arketer must therefore monitor post
purchase stage as it determines whether buyer complains about the
product, tell other about the product or purchase the product again!
"tanton #6?>:%
2$6 REASONS FOR BRANDING
(otler #6??<% shows numerous reasons for branding a product! )n
understanding of these reasons brings about the importance of
branding to bout the consumer and to the marketer!
2$6$# TO THE CONSUMER
26
i! randing assure the consumer of he uniformity of the product is
buying in term of quality and performance!
ii It assists him in identify the product desire!
iii It serves as a source of information to consumers!
iv It identifies the form behind the product!
v It offers consumers to opportunity to compare products and
make a choice among available alternatives!
vi It assists consumers during repeat purchase!
vii It gives the consumers certain psychological satisfaction!
viii It bridges the gap between the manufacturerAs promotional
programmes and consummation of sales to customers!
i2 It enhance consumer welfare as consumers can get new or
improved product that come as a result of branding!
2$6$2 TO THE MARETER
i! randing afford a company the opportunity to control sale of its
products!
27
ii It aids advertising and display programme as a manufacturer can
now build his promotional company round his products!
iii It stimulate repeat purchase and other protection against product
substitution by consumers!
iv It reduces competition based on prices, rather products
development and improvement, promotion, and distribution etc are
use to competitive tools!
2$5 REASONS FOR CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
"tanton 6?>: shows the important involve predicting human
behaviour is a laborious task! This notwithstanding however, the
study is important because of each certain important functions it
performs as it can be seen form three different perspectives!
28
2$5$# The knowledge of consumer behaviour can be valuable to an
individual in making decision concerning his purchases! This will
save consumer from making unwanted or unsatisfactory purchase
arising from the influencing of some deceptive slogans! It is very
common in our society today to see sales man going around to
convince people to purchase their product, thus they usually used
big promotional activities like using a slogans that will arouse the
interest of the people! )s a result of all these consumers find
themselves buying goods and services of prices that are often
higher than those available for similar or identical items in a buying
store!
2$5$2 ) potential marketer will find the knowledge useful as he
approaches the problem of developing and implementing a
marketing strategy! The related advantage can be derived by
studying consumer behaviour are as followsC
#a% 'arketer gain better understanding of consumer needs leading
to a more effective implementation of the marketing concept!
29
#b% The marketer are able to know consumer needs through the
consumers communication!
#c% The profit position of the company may be improved by turning
real consumer needs into effectives product appeal!
#d% 'arketer could be effectively segmented into subFgroups
depending on common behaviour characteristics!
#e% The cost and resources wastage associated with new products
features are minimiDed!
2$5$2 The knowledge of consumer behaviour will have a significant
impact of the marketers and e2ecutors of public policies dealings
with marketing practices! ) number of public policies have been
instituted to regulate the selling and buying procedures! "ome of
these are essentially to protect the consumers while other are in the
interest of manufacturers of products and services! Therefore, he
study of consumer behaviour will benefit the public policy markers in
the following waysC
30
i! The gain better insight into how to provide and protect free
consumer choice!
ii They understand ways of encouraging marketer to provide better
production information!
iii They understand techniques for encouraging all consumers to
use available information to make better decision!
31
2$8 PROMOTINAL STRATEGIES OF CADBURY PLC PRODUCTS
Promotion and selling are synonymous terms although
promotion is normally preferred! "elling suggest only does not
include advertising or other methods of stimulating demand!
"tanton #6?>:% defines promotion as followingC Promotion includes
the function of )dvertising, Promotion selling, all other selling toolsL!
Promotion is the one of most important aspect of marketing
management! The buyer would have to be informed about the
e2istence of the product! The information concerning the quality,
price and after sales services of a products can only be made known
to including buyers through promotion! In the past advertising,
personal selling publicity, and sales promotion were viewed as the
only elements of promotion mi2, but today, marketers are becoming
more aware of the fact that everything an individual or an
organiDation does or says has promotional impact!
32
$orper 6?<<, in is writeFup e2plained that more and more, it is
appeared that marketing is most entirely communications, the
product communicates, the price communicate, the package
communicates, the prospects, to management and each other! )lso,
prospects, dealerAs management, competitors communicates
Cadbury plc, in carrying out its promotion, normally takes into
consideration the followingCF
i! The nature of the market as it true in most problem areas in
marketing, decision in the promotional mi2 will be greatly influence
by the nature of the market this influence is felt in least three ways!
ii 5eographical scope of the marketF personal selling may be
adequate in a small market broaden geographical, greater stress
must be placed on advertising!
iii Types of consumers! The promotional strategy is influenced by
whatever the business is aimed at ultimate consumers!
iv Concentration of the market! The total number of prospective
buyers is one consideration! The former potential buyers there are
the more effective personal selling is compare to advertising!
33
v 1uns available! +egardless of what may be the most desirable
promotion mi2, the amount of money for personal is the real
determination of mi2! Therefore, with the above the methods in the
promotional mi2 use by Cadbury P-C will be fully discussed!
2$6 ADVERTISING
)s defined by )merican 'arketing )ssociation committee on
definitions, advertising can be said to beC )ny paid form of
promotional presentation and promotion of deal goods and services
by identified sponsorL
it assists all activities involved in presenting to a group a nonF
personal oral or usual openly sponsored message regarding a
product service or idea! The message called advertisement is
discriminated through one or more media and paid for by an
identified sponsor! Their reasons for advertising includeC
)! To support personal selling to open customer door for sales
people an acquaint prospects with seller company!
34
! To increase the sales for the products!
C! .2pend the market share!
*! To build goodwill for the company and improve its reputation!
2$#0 PERSONAL SELLING
Personal selling according to .vans and erman 6?<> isC )n oral
presentation in a consideration with one more prospective purchase
for the purpose of making salesL Cadbury P-C salesmen are
involved with order getting personal! They are involved with
informing and persuading customer for the company products like
5oldee! The main ob,ectives of using the personal selling by the
company isC
)! To create awareness for the companyAs product!
! To provide adequate level of sales
C! To provide feedback information to company
*! To improve and maintains customers satisfaction!
35
The advantages derived by the company from the use of personal
selling includeC
i! provision of mandate feedback by the salesman organiDed o
electoral allotment for effective coverage in order to mistune
wastages
ii! 1le2ibility I analyDing! )lternative solution to customers needs!
iii! )lternation of message by sales persons to the need of individual
customers!
iv The attention span of the customer to be made high!
2$## BRANDS AS CONSUMER PROTECTION
) century ago, branding was in its infancy! )t that time, people still
made most of the products that they consumed #such as 5oldee,
ournvita, Chocolate% or purchased them directly from producers
who were their friends and neighbors! People had faith in the quality
and safety of the products because they knew the people who made
them!
36
)s our economy became more specialiDed a trend that, as
)dam "mith predicted, created an unprecedented degree of wealth
consumers were more removed by both distance and time from
producers! The introduction of laborFsaving machinery, which
increased productivity markedly, also dictated the concentration of
producers in a manufacturing area! Thus, the village silversmith or
baker or cobbler was replaced by a factory that produced a high
quality product at a more competitive price! Consumers valued the
potential quality consistency and savings, but they no longer knew
the people who made their products! "imilarly, as individual
consumers became more specialiDed in their roles as producers,
they themselves made even fewer of the products they consumed
and relied increasingly on other specialists to meet their material
needs!
37
In a large market, consumers do not care who makes their
products! In this sense, the market is the great equaliDer, as
producers of all races, ethnic origins, religions, and genders unleash
their creative energies to meet the needs of consumers, 4hile
consumers do not care who makes the products, they care very
much how the products perform! They want to know that the product
they purchase will meet their e2pectations!
In this consumer environment, brands play a critical role!
4hen consumers first started purchasing more food and raising less
themselves, they purchased items from a bulk bin! They had no
information about what ingredients the products contained, how safe
they were, and how they would perform! randing created the
protection that consumers demanded! The brand name signified a
level of quality and consistency consumers could trust! Thus,
ournvita, Chocolate, Gclair, and Tom Tom, instilled in consumers a
degree of confidence that their unbranded competition did not!
38
2$#2 DEFINING BRAND E:PECTATIONS
rands are effective only when the product delivers a
consistent level of quality from product to product! 'c*onaldAs
delivers the same level of quality regardless of location or time of
visit! ) consumer may choose not to dine there for a particular meal,
but that decision is not a re,ection of branding! +ather, it is an
informed decision not to consume that e2pected level of quality on a
particular occasion!
39
Consumer confidence in brands varies with the type of
product! Typically, confidence in branded goods such as
automobiles, detergents, movies, and clothing runs e2tremely high!
)fter all, standards can be defined and controlled strictly when the
product is produced entirely in one central location and can be
inspected before being presented to consumers! These brand
names deliver the highest level of consumer confidence! The
consumer may accept or re,ect the productI in either case, the
decision is made with a clear e2pectation about the performance or
level of quality of the goods!
Confidence in a product that is composed of a combination of both
good and service is somewhat reduced because part of the output
cannot be controlled in advance! ) 'c*onaldAs hamburger, bun,
lettuce, and tomato can be inspected before they arrive at a
particular franchise, but other inputs the actual cooking!
40
2$#2 THE ROLE OF BRAND A!ARENESS
41
+ossiter and Percy #6?><% describe brand awareness as being
essential for the communications process to occur as it precedes all
other steps in the process! 4ithout brand awareness occurring, no
other communication effects can occur! 1or a consumer to buy a
brand they must first be made aware of it! rand attitude cannot be
formed, and intention to buy cannot occur unless brand awareness
has occurred +ossiter O Percy #6?><%I +ossiter et al! #6??6%! In
memory theory, brand awareness is positioned as a vital first step in
building the bundleL of associations which are attached to the brand
in memory #"tokes 6?>=%! The brand is conceptualiDed as a node in
memory which allows other information about the brand to be
anchoredL to it )aker #6??6b%! The conceptualiDation of a network of
brand associations in memory with the brand as a central core has
been put forward by many others e!g! (eller 6??9I $olden #6??9%I
$olden O -utD #6??7%!
42
2$#3 HO! DOES BRAND A!ARENESS BENEFIT THE
MARETING MANAGER;
rand awareness should be an important goal of the marketing
communications efforts of a firm as it have a number of important
functions! It is widely acknowledged that without brand awareness
occurring, brand attitude and brand image cannot be formed!
$owever, equally important but less widely recogniDed is the
importance of brand awareness as a heuristic which can affect
inclusion in the consideration set, and in many situations may be
sufficient by itself to determine choice from the consideration set!
)ccording )aker #6??6a, b% argues strongly the case for brand
building and maintaining brand equityI he cites brand name
awareness as one of four ma,or brand assets which add value to the
product or service andKor its customers! Investments in brand equity
and in particular brand awareness can lead to sustainable
competitive advantages and thus to long term value! rand
awareness can add value by )aker #6??6a,b!%
6! Placing the brand in the consumerPs mind!
43
7! )cting as a barrier to entry to new unestablished brands!
9! +eassuring the customer of the organiDationAs commitment and
product quality, and
:! Providing leverage in the distribution channels #between
intermediaries and customers too, and are ,ust as suspicious as
consumers are of unknown products% )aker #6??7%
44
$owever, there is difficulty in demonstrating the value of
assets such as brand awareness to managers! )aker #6??6a%
complains the problem is that, firstly, enormous pressure e2ists for
organiDations and their brands to demonstrate shortFterm profit
results! rand managers are often given a one to three year time
horiDon and little incentive to make strategic brand building
investments! )nd secondly, demonstrating the longFterm value of
brand building is Qe2ceptionally difficultQ $ogarth #6?>@%, )aker
#6??6a%! .ven managers, who claim that they are concerned with
the brand building activities of their firm, find difficulty in gaining
support and resources for these activities! In the light of )akerPs
findings, a study by (elly #6??6% is very interesting! (elly carried out
a series of interviews with )ustralian marketing managers! 'any of
the managers he interviewed maintained that their advertising was
directed towards building the longer term effects of favourable brand
image and strong brand loyaltyL! 0ther managers were quoted as
saying that they were not looking for shortFterm resultsL but that
advertising provides them with the opportunity for corporate
branding and image building which is very much oriented to the
45
longer termL (elly #6??6 p!=!%! In other words, these managers
claimed the longFterm
goals of brandFbuilding and brand image to be of greater interest to
them than shortFterm ob,ectives such as sales! $owever this
research was based on discussion with managers, and might
obviously suffer from managers saying what they felt they should do,
rather than what they actually do, especially when talking to a
marketing academic!
46
CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2$0 INTRODUCTION:7
This chapter deals with +esearch *esign, Population of the
"tudy, "ample and "ampling Techniques, +esearch Instrument,
'ethod of *ata )nalyses, *ata Collection Procedure, ;uestionnaire
)ssumption, Balidity, +eliability and $istorical ackground of
Cadbury Nigeria Plc!
2$# RESEARCH DESIGN
This research design adopted for this study is correlation
design! Correlation survey studies include all research pro,ects in
which an attempt is made to discover or clarify relationship through
47
the use of correlation statistical method! )ccording to 1rancis #7@@:%
it is a technique use to describe relationship between two variables
in mathematical terms! It is the descriptions of the degree of which
the variables under study are relate to predict each other in a
chosen population!
2$2 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
The study population consists of staff of Cadbury Nigeria plc
and the categories of workers in the population areC F Top 'anagers,
.2ecutive "taff, "enior "taff and Eunior "taff! Population in each
category is one hundred and one #6@6%, two hundred and thirty si2
#798% nine hundred and forty si2 #?:8% four hundred and si2 #:@8%
respectively! This amounts to one thousand si2 hundred and eighty
nine #6,8>?% staffs altogether!
S'<)/&: C=(><)1 N*?&)*= P@/ (20#0)
2$2 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNI"UE
48
These sub,ects are selected using deliberate sampling
technique or purposive technique! This is because motivation
process is typically administrative function!
)ccording to 0lusanya #7@@:%, purposive selection of a
population, there are some elements that have certain
characteristics which are considered crucial to the study at hand and
this is of vital importance to the investigation to include those
elements in the sample!
In the light of this, sample is not restricted to a particular
category of staff! $ence, staffs that are capable of providing the
needed information for the study are selected! Thus, sample for the
population comprises #=% Top 'anagers, .leven #66% .2ecutives
"taff, Twenty 1ive #7=% "enior "taff and Thirty Nine #9?% Eunior "taff!
Thus, total sample for the population is .ighty #>@%!
2$3 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
The research measurement instrument used for this research
work is employeeAs motivation questionnaire and personal interview!
49
The employeeAs motivation questionnaire is in two sections one deal
with respondent bioF data while section two deals with research
oriented questions! oth sections are .ighteen #6>% simple scale
questions on how staffs are being motivated in their present ,ob!
There responses are range fromC F "trongly )gree, )gree,
3ndecided, *isagree, and "trongly *isagree!
Personal interview was also used to gather information that is
not covered by employeeAs motivation questionnaire! This is to
complement the information needs of the research work!
2$4 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
The data analysis that will be used in this research involves
the processing of the data from the questionnaire so as to make
meaningful in interpretation! The tables were used to give a clear
view of the distribution of the responsiveness give by our respondent
to each question in the questionnaire! The data will be analyDed with
the followingCF
50
- *escriptive analysisCF This involve table and percentage! The
reason for using this kind of method is un availability of value
to be assigned to consumer decision!
- "tatistical Technique which will be added by statistical
package for the social science #"P""%! This technique is
restricted to some inferential statistical technique which
include ordinary least square of regression analysis using a
simple regression model in the formCF
/R ao S ai 2 S u
"pecially the following functional relationships!
To access the application of information technology does not
significantly affect the achievement of organiDation ob,ection!
0R 1 #Cd, Cs, 'i, ;os%
4hereCF 0R 0rganiDation ob,ectives!
C*R Consumer decision
C"R Commitment of service
'R 'otivation
51
;0"R ;uality of service by the employee!
The following linear equation were generated from the above
functional relationship!
0R a
o
S a
6
S cd S u
6
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 6
0R b
o
S b
6
cs S u
7
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF 7
0R c
o
S C
6m
S 3
9
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF9
0R d
o
S d
6
S ;0" S 3
:
FFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF:
"imilarlyCF
0Rg
o
R gT cd S g
7
cs S g
9
m S g
:
;0" S 3t
3t R .rror term!
It represents other factors that may influence dependent
variable / apart from salary, working condition and skill that are
specifically inculcated in the model!
2$6 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE
52
The accuracy of any useful information depends largely on the
primary source of information! "o this study depends mainly on the
collection and analyses of the results of records on effect if branding
in influencing buying decision from the ,ournal published annuals
reports of Cadbury Nigeria P-C, News paper and the Nigeria trade
,ournals are other basis sources of data for the pro,ect!
To construct a good pro,ects of this natural, the following
features of basic data deserve some consideration namely )ccuracy,
)vailability, +eliability consistence timeless adequate and stability of
the various data source! The basic aim of the data collection
procedure is to get worthwhile data for the problems as defined!
*ata collection is consists presenting a structure to a respondent
and recording his or her respondent! The classification of data is the
primary and the secondary data!
=$ PRIMARY DATA:7 These are the date collected for first time for
their source to solve specific and current marketing problems under
study!
53
>$ SECONDARY DATACF These are the data previously and
published either from the current investigation! Primary data should
always be used in order to prevent the use of inadequate and
absolute data which are normally associated with secondary data!
)bove principle was clearly spell out by )Dika #7@@>% in which he
said when satisfaction secondary data are not available the
researcher must collected primary dataL! In a study a combination of
both respondents and secondary data were used! ;uestions were
asked and response got various respondent and books were
checked for some other facts! )Dika #7@@>%, a researcher has two
options to choose from in seeking information they either choose
questionnaire or observation method! )ccording to Taylor, There are
two principle method of obtaining data from respondents
Communication and 0bservation!
54
Communication requires their respondents to actually provide
the data verbal respondent while 0bservation requires the recording
of the respondent passive behaviour! The most common source of
marketing is communication with respondentL! In the adopted
questionnaires method because it is appropriate in this situation
since factors which influence the analysis cannot observed!
2$5 "UESTIONNAIRE ASSUMPTION
The following assumption was held as regards the questionnaire
drawn up from the purpose of gathering information for further
analysis!
6! That respondent is willing to complete the questionnaire!
7! That information supplied on the questionnaire is true and
uncaused!
9! That the information, this gathered is the true representation
and could be conveniently used to generaliDed about the whole
population!
55
:! That such information are supplied with ma2imum of e2ternal
influence!
2$8 VALIDITY
Balidity of a measure refers to the e2tent to which the
measurement process is free from both systematic and random
error! Balidity is concern with questions that is the researcher
measuring which suppose to measure! There are four types of
validity! These areCF
#$ CONTENT VALIDITY: 7 This involves accessing the
representatives of the response elected by the measuring
instrument!
2$ CONSTRUCT VALIDITY: 7 This involves understanding the
measuring of the obtained measurements!
2$ CONCURRENT VALIDITY: 7 This involves accessing the e2tent
to which the obtained score may be used to estimate an individual
represent standing with respect to some other variables!
56
3$ PREDICTIVE VALIDITY: 7 This involves accessing the e2tent to
which the obtained score may be used to estimate in individual
future standing with respect to the criteria variable standing with four
above, I will use content validity to ascertain the e2tent to which the
information fought from the research work!
)ccording to DANALD E0 =@ Conduct validity estimate are
essentially systematic, but sub,ective evaluation of the
appropriateness of the measuring instrument for the task at handL I
have to evaluate the degree to which the items of the instruments
#;uestionnaire% sample the contents of the attitude domain that is
the ideal of the researcher topic!
2$6 RELIABITY
57
+eliability of measurement refers to the e2tent to where the
measurement process is free from random errors! +eliability is
concerned with the consistency, accuracy, and predictability of the
researcher findings! There are three ma,or methods of measuring
reliability, they are TestF+etestC )lternative forms and split half
method! 1or the purpose of this research, TestF+etest methods have
been employed! This method involves repeated measurement of the
same person or group using the same device under condition which
are ,udged to be very similar! the result of these findings is
compared to determine their similarity!
This method assures that the greater the discrepancy in
scores, the greater the random error present in the measurement
process and the lower the reliability!
2$#0 HISTORICAL BACGROUND OF CADBURY NIGERIA PLC
Cadbury Nigeria P-C operations started in the very early =@sI
in fact, it started, more or less like a trading outpost, sourcing Cocoa
as an input into chocolate factories in irmingham! ut that pro,ect
58
soon opened the way for an e2tensive market and by the end of the
decade we had already setup a packing operation for imported
manufactured goods! "o Chocolate beverages, ournvita and
pronto started being packed here in Nigeria! This operation went on
for about four years and it e2posed the potential even further! )s a
result, in the early 8@s, 6?8: more precisely, this factory was built
and started operations in Eanuary 6?8=! It started off as a company
wholly owned by Cadbury "chweppes!
The shareholding structure has changed overtime! Today,
Cadbury owns :@ percent of the company as the remaining 8@
percent is owned by Nigerians of the 8@ percentI about a third of it is
held by institutional investor while the rest is owned by individual
shareholderAs participation! These are insurance companies,
pension funds, fund managers! e!t!c!
The historical development of the business reflects the
evolution of the strategy! The focus in the early years was import
substitution! The economy was a planned economy, foreign
e2change was limited and controlled, licenses wee required for most
operations, and soon! The growth path then was import substitution
59
which meant that new product development and research where
focused on the utiliDation of local raw materials! In addition, that
strategy resulted in the creation of the cereal conversion facility
which uses sorghum grain in place of barley customer base and
channels to guarantee low cost service chains, with enhanced
consumer relations interphase!
CHAPTER FOUR
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA
3$# INTRODUCTION
In the previous chapter, attention was focused on the method
of obtaining data from related customer at 0,a Tun Tun market
60
Ilorin! This Chapter introduce the result of survey conducted in the
topic the role of branding in consumer decision making, using
Cadbury Nigeria P-C as a case study! The main instrument for data
collection is questionnaire, while statistical technique were used to
analyse the dat based on the hypothesis and some other relevant
themes given in the earlier chapter!
) covering letter introduced the questionnaire and out of
eighty #>@% questionnaire, fifty #=@% were returned by the respondent!
$ypothesis is tested using simple percentage! Interpretation,
comment were also reacted at the end of the mathematical
presentation!
3$2 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
TABLE 3$2$# AGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*( C<B<@=0*8&
61
P&)/&+0 P&)/&+0
B&@'C 20
1)-
6 #2$0 #2$0 #2$0
2#720 1)- 23 38$0 38$0 60$0
2#730 1)- 2 3$0 3$0 63$0
3#7401)- #0 20$0 20$0 83$0
4#1)- =+(
=>'8&
8 #6$0 #6$0 #00$0
TOTAL 40 #00$0 #00$0
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
T=>@& 3$2$# shows that 8 respondent constituting 67H of the
population are below 7@ years, 7: respondent which constituting :
Hof the population are between 96 U :@ years, 6@ respondent
constituting 7@H are between :6F=@years and > respondent which
constitute 68H are above =6 years!
TABLE 3$2$2 SE: DISTRIBUTION OF THE RESPONDENTS
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*( C<B<@=0*8&
62
P&)/&+0 P&)/&+0
MALE 22 33$0 33$0 33$0
FEMALE 28 46$0 46$0 #00$0
TOTAL 40 #00$0 #00$0
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
T=>@& 3$2$# shows that 77 respondent which constitute ::H of the
population are 'ale, and 7> respondent which constitute =8 V of the
population are 1emale!
63
TABLE 3$2$2 MARRITAL STATUS DISTRIBUTION OF
RESPONDENT
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*(
P&)/&+0
C<B<@=0*8&
P&)/&+0
S*+?@& 23 38$0 38$0 38$0
M=))*&( #6 22$0 22$0 80$0
D*8')/&( 3 8$0 8$0 88$0
!*+('C 6 #2$0 #2$0 #00$0
TOTAL 40$0 #00$0 #00$0
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
T=>@& 3$2$2 above indicate that 7: respondent which constitute :>H
of the population are "ingle, 68 respondent which constitute 97H
are 'arried, : respondent which constitute > H are *ivorced and 8
respondent which constitute 67 H of the population are 4idow!
64
TABLE 3$2$3 !HAT TYPE OF PRODUCT DO YOU PURCHASE
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*(
P&)/&+0
C<B<@=0*8&
P&)/&+0
ournvita 22 33$0 33$0 33$0
G'@(&& 8 #6$0 #6$0 60$0
E/@=*)&
SC&&0
#3 28$0 28$0 88$0
O0%&) 6 #2$0 #2$0 #00$0
TOTAL 40 #00$0 #00$0
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
T=>@& 3$2$3 above, it shows that ma,ority of the respondent produce
bournvita which constitute ::Vof the population, > respondent
produce 5oldee which constitute 68 V of the population, 6:
respondent which constitute 7: V of the population produces .claire
"weet, while 8 respondent which constitute 67V of the population
produce other products!
65
TABLE 3$2$4 FAMILY SIDE AND PRICE AFFORDABILITY
INFLUENCE YOUR BUING DECISION$
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*(
P&)/&+0
C<B<@=0*8&
P&)/&+0
"trongly
)gree
#0 20$0 20$0 20$0
)gree 26 42$0 42$0 52$0
U+(&/*(&( 3 8$0 8$0 80$0
D*-=?)&& 8 #6$0 #6$0 66$0
S0)'+?@1
D*-=?)&&
2 3$0 3$0 #00$0
TOTAL 40 #00$0 #00$0
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
T=>@& 3$2$4 above, it shows 78 respondent which constitute =7!@Vof
the entire, population )gree the family siDe and price affordability
influence your buying decision, : respondent which constitute > V of
the population are not certain with their option, while no respondent
66
are "trongly *isagree that family siDe and price affordability
influence your buying decision!
TABLE 3$2$6 YOU HAVE ESTABLISHED BRAND LOYALTY TO
CADBURY BEVERAGES PRODUCTS$
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*(
P&)/&+0
C<B<@=0*8&
P&)/&+0
"trongly
)gree
#8 26$0 26$0 26$0
)gree #6 22$0 22$0 68$0
U+(&/*(&( 3 8$0 8$0 56$0
D*-=?)&& #2 23$0 23$0 #00$0
S0)'+?@1
D*-=?)&&
7 7 7 7
TOTAL 40 #00$0 #00$0
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
T=>@& 3$2$6 above indicate that, 9: respondent which constitute 8> V
of the population, )gree the establishment of brand loyalty to
67
cadbury beverage product, : respondent which constitute > V of the
population are not certain with their option, while 67 respondent of
the population *isagree, and No respondent "trongly *isagree!
TABLE 3$2$5$ CADBURY PROCUCTS ARE AL!AYS BROUGHT
TO YOUR ATTENTION THROUGH PROMOTIONAL MEANS$
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*(
P&)/&+0
C<B<@=0*8&
P&)/&+0
"trongly
)gree
#0 20 20 20
)gree 20 30 30 60
U+(&/*(&( #0 20 20 80
D*-=?)&& #0 20 20 7
S0)'+?@1
D*-=?)&&
7 7 7 #00
TOTAL 40 #00$0 #00$0
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
68
T=>@& 3$2$5 above, it shows that 9@ respondent which constitute 8@V
of the population )gree that Cadbury products are always brought to
attention through promotional means, 6@ respondent which
constitute 7@ V of the population are 3ndecided, while 6@
respondent also which constitute 7@ V of the population *isagree
that Cadbury Product are not always brought to your attention
through promotional means!
TABLE 3$2$8 BRANDING OF A PRODUCT INFLUENCE THE TYPE
OF A PRODUCT TO BUY$
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*(
P&)/&+0
C<B<@=0*8&
P&)/&+0
"trongly
)gree
8 #6 #6 #6
)gree 28 56 56 62
U+(&/*(&( 2 3 3 66
D*-=?)&& 2 3 3 7
S0)'+?@1
D*-=?)&&
7 7 7 #00
TOTAL 40 #00$0 #00$0
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
69
T=>@& 3$2$8 above indicate that ma,ority of the population :8
respondent which constitute ?7 V of the population )gree that
branding of a product influence the type of a product you buy, 7
respondent which constitute : V of the entire population are no
certain about their option, and only 7 responden which constitute :
V of the population disagree, that branding of a product influence
the type of a product you buy!
TABLE 3$2$6$ CADBURY NIGERIA PROVIDES SALES SERVICE
TO ITS CUSTOMER$
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*(
P&)/&+0
C<B<@=0*8&
P&)/&+0
"trongly
)gree
8 #2$0 #2$0 #2$0
)gree #0 20$0 20$0 22$0
U+(&/*(&( #8 26$0 26$0 68$0
D*-=?)&& #2 23$0 23$0 62$0
S0)'+?@1
D*-=?)&&
3 8$0 8$0 #00$0
TOTAL 40 #00$0 #00$0
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
70
T=>@& 3$2$6 above, shows that 6> respondent which constitute
97!@Vof the )gree that Cadbury Nigeria provides after sales services
to its customer, 6> respondent which constitute 98 V of the
population are not certain above the option and 68 respondent which
constitute 97 V of the population *isagree that Cadbury Nigeria
provide after sales service to its customer!
TABLE 3$2$#0$ CADBURY NIGERIA PLC, CENTERS ON THE
PROVISION OF GOOD BRAND DECISION$
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*(
P&)/&+0
C<B<@=0*8&
P&)/&+0
"trongly
)gree
3 8$0 8$0 8$0
)gree 20 60$0 60$0 68$0
U+(&/*(&( 8 #6$0 #6$0 83$0
D*-=?)&& 3 8$0 8$0 62$0
S0)'+?@1
D*-=?)&&
3 8$0 8$0 #00$0
TOTAL 40 #00$0 #00$0
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
71
T=>@& 3$2$#0 above, indicate that 9: respondent which constitute
8>V of the population )gree that Cadbury Nigeria centers on the
provision of good brand decision, > respondent which constitute 68
V of the population *isagree that Cadbury Nigeria P-C center on the
provision of good brand decision!
TABLE 3$2$##$ CADBURY NIGERIA PLC, LAID MORE EMPHASIS
ON THE PROVISION OF GOOD "UALITY TO CUSTOMERS$
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*(
P&)/&+0
C<B<@=0*8&
P&)/&+0
"trongly
)gree
3 8$0 8$0 8$0
)gree 20 60$0 60$0 68$0
U+(&/*(&( 8 #6$0 #6$0 83$0
D*-=?)&& 3 8$0 8$0 62$0
S0)'+?@1
D*-=?)&&
3 8$0 8$0 #00$0
TOTAL 40 #00$0 #00$0
72
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
T=>@& 3$2$## T=>@& above, shows that 9: respondent which
constitute 8>V of the population )gree that Cadbury Nigeria Plc laid
more emphasis on the provision of good quality to customers, >
respondent which constitute 68 V of the population are not certain
about the option and > respondent which constitute 68 V *isagree!
TABLE 3$2$#2$ BRANDING AFFECT CUSTOMER PURCHASING
DECISION$
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*(
P&)/&+0
C<B<@=0*8&
P&)/&+0
"trongly
)gree
3 8 8 8
)gree 32 83 83 62
U+(&/*(&( 7 7 7 7
D*-=?)&& 7 7 7 7
S0)'+?@1
D*-=?)&&
3 8 8 #00
TOTAL 40 #00 #00
73
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
T=>@& 3$2$#2 branding affect customerAs purchasing decision, all the
respondent are some about the option and only : respondent which
constitute >V of the population *isagree, that branding affect
customers purchasing decision!
TABLE 3$2$#2 CUSTOMER REALLY ENJOY THE "UALITY OF
CADBURY NIGERIA PLC$
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*(
P&)/&+0
C<B<@=0*8&
P&)/&+0
"trongly
)gree
6 #2 #2 #2
)gree 24 46 46 68
U+(&/*(&( #3 28 28 66
D*-=?)&& 7 7 7 7
S0)'+?@1 2 3 3 #00
74
D*-=?)&&
TOTAL 40 #00 #00
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
T=>@& 3$2$#2 above shows that 98 respondent which constitute =8V
of the population )gree that customers really en,oy the quality of
Cadbury Nigeria Plc, 6: respondent which constitute 7> V are not
certain about the option and only 7 respondent which constitute : V
*isagree!
TABLE 3$2$#3$ CUSTOMERS RATE THE "UALITY OF THE
CADBURY NIGERIA PLC PRODUCTS$
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*(
P&)/&+0
C<B<@=0*8&
P&)/&+0
"trongly
)gree
3 8 8 8
)gree 23 38 38 46
U+(&/*(&( #8 26 26 62
75
D*-=?)&& 7 7 7 7
S0)'+?@1
D*-=?)&&
3 8 8 #00
TOTAL 40 #00$0 #00$0
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
F)'B T=>@& 3$2$#3 above shows that 7> respondent which
constitute :>V of the population )gree that customer rate the quality
of the Cadbury Nigeria Plc product, 6> respondent which constitute
98 V are not certain about the option, and : respondent which
constitute > V *isagree!
TABLE 3$2$#4$ CUSTOMERS IMPROVE REAPT BUYING
BECAUSE OF GOOD BRANDING METHOD OF A CADBURY
NIGERIA PLC$
F)&A<&+/1 P&)/&+0 V=@*(
P&)/&+0
C<B<@=0*8&
P&)/&+0
"trongly
)gree
#3 28 28 28
76
)gree #8 26 26 63
U+(&/*(&( #6 22 22 66
D*-=?)&& 2 3 3 7
S0)'+?@1
D*-=?)&&
7 7 7 #00
TOTAL 40 #00$0 #00$0
S'<)/&: F*&@( S<)8&1 20#0
T=>@& 3$2$#4 above indicate that 97 respondent which constitute
8:V of the population )gree that customer improve repeat buying
because of good branding method of a Cadbury Nigeria Plc, 68
respondent which constitute 97 V of the population are not certain
about the option, and only 7 respondent which constitute : V of the
population *isagree that customers improve repeat buying because
of good branding method of a Cadbury Nigeria Plc!
REGRESSION:7
TABLE 3$2$#
M'(&@ S<BB=)1
!9@6
a
!@?6 !@<7 !>@9=7
'odel
6
+ + "quare
)d,usted
+ "quare
"td! .rror of
the .stimate
PredictorsC #Constant%, +)N*IN5
a!
77
-'<)/& :7 computer print out 7@6@
Table :!9!6 shows the summary of the fitted model customer
branding and consumer decision, with + square vale of @!?6 or ?6V
or ?6H This given the percentage variable in consumer decision
value e2plained by branding! This small percentage value of ?!6V
shows that the model is not adequate!
The Test of significant is shown through )N0B) Table! It
shows that the fitted model, brand and consumer decision is
significant at @!@= level of significant because from the table! The
significance at @!@9: and it is les than @!@=! the 1L calculated is
:!@>: and from the 1L is less than @!@= the 1L calculated is :!@>:
and from the 1L table, the 1L tabulated is :!@>! since the 1L
calculated is equal, the implication in that branding improve the
consumer decision making in Cadbury Nigeria Plc product! The
coefficients of the fitted model #branding% #is @!:6=I 9!@@: consumer
decision making% shows that the fitted model is negatively related!
T=>@& 3$2$2
78
M'(&@ S<BB=)1
!7<>
a
!@<< !@=> !>87<8
'odel
6
+ + "quare
)d,usted
+ "quare
"td! .rror of
the .stimate
PredictorsC #Constant%, P3+C$)".
a!
Table :!9!7 shows the summary of the fitted 'odel #randing
and Purchase% with the + square value of @!@<<! this gives the
percentage variability in purchase as being e2plained by variability in
purchase as being e2plained by branding the small percentage
value of <!<H shows that ha relationship between purchase and
branding unit adequate!
The )N0B) table gives the test of significance and it shows
that the fitted model purchase and branding is significant since our
volume calculated @!@=> is equal to @!@=! )lso the 1L calculated is
:!@6> and the 1L tabulated is :!@>! since the 1L calculated is
greater than the 1L tabulated, the Null hypothesis will be re,ected
and the alternative hypothesis will be accepted! The implication is
that branding has influence the purchase level of Cadbury products!
The coefficients of the fitted model from table :!7!9 shows the fitted
model #randing 6! 8?:I @!77: purchase%!
79
3$2 HYPOTHESIS TESTING
i $oCF randing has not influenced the purchase level of Cadbury
products!
$i CF randing has influenced the purchase level of Cadbury
product!
T=>@& 3$2$#
ANOVA
>
7!??6 6 7!??6 :!@6> !@=6
a
9=!<7? :> !<::
9>!<7@ :?
+egression
+esidual
Total
'odel
6
"um of
"quares df 'ean "quare 1 "ig!
PredictorsC #Constant%, P3+C$)".
a!
*ependent BariableC +)N*IN5
b!
Table :!9!6 is used to test the above hypothesis the result of the
regression analysis when branding is regressed with purchase
shows <!<H inadequate variability! The significant of the variable is
shows by the value of calculated 1L which is :!@6> and the value
of 1L tabulated is :!@>!
80
The tabulated 1L is equal to the calculated 1L therefore, the
alternative hypothesis will be accepted and the Null hypothesis will
be re,ected! 1rom the result of the regression, it shows well branded
products increase the purchase level of such products!
ii $oCF randing has not improve consumer decision making in
Cadbury Nigeria Plc products!
$iC F randing has improve consumer decision making on Cadbury
Nigeria Plc products!
T=>@& 3$2$2
ANOVA
>
9!@>? 6 9!@>? :!<>: !@9:
a
9@!??6 :> !8:8
9:!@>@ :?
+egression
+esidual
Total
'odel
6
"um of
"quares df 'ean "quare 1 "ig!
PredictorsC #Constant%, +)N*IN5
a!
*ependent BariableC C0N"3'.+ *.CI"I0N
b!
S'<)/& :7 P)*+0 '<0 20#0$
Table :!9!7 is used to test the above hypothesis! The result of the
regression analysis when branding is regressed with consumer
decision shows ?!6H level of variability consumer decision in
81
respect to branding! This shows that relationship between the two
variable is not adequate! The 1L tabulated is :!@> and the 1L
calculated :!@>:! since the 1L calculated is equal to the calculated
1L tabulated, the alternative hypothesis will be accepted and the
Null hypothesis will be re,ected!
82
CHAPTER FIVE
4$0 SUMMARY
The purpose of this research was to find out and e2amine how
branding has influence buying decision of the brands of Cadbury
products! It is also aimed at finding out how the branding has
improve the sales of Cadbury product such as bournvita, goldee etc!
"ummarily, the research is out to find pertinent answers to questions
likeC
F To determine whether branding has influencing buying decision at
Cadbury products!
F To determine whether branding has improved the sales of Cadbury
product!
In chapter two, e2perts view sought in different areas of
marketing that were relevant to the research! 'oreover, lot of books
83
and ,ournals were stitched to discover the views of various authors!
Chapter three e2plains the method used in data collection and best
of reliability and value ability! Two hypothesis were tested and their
result are analyDed and interpreted in chapter four! Chapter five
consists of the summary, conclusion and recommendation!
4$# CONCLUSION
This pro,ect studied the role of branding in consumer decision
making! The study also shows how branding improve the sales of
Cadbury products! $aving carefully, interpreted the findings this
researcher is convinced that consumer are happy and accept
Cadbury products! These love for the products has enabled them
single it out of many products are even calling others attention to
new ones that might benefit them within Cadbury product products!
That consumer in most cases insists on the type and specific
product they want! That the brand name contributes significantly and
it serves as instruments to stimulate the consumerAs demand of
#bournvita% products of Cadbury Nigeria!
84
In the past, ma,ority of consumers would not bother
themselves about a particular brand but for many similar product
that are tested and found not suitable in the market has now
necessitate the need to concern about a particular brand and hence
the brand selection! This development has made consumers to keep
on evaluate the quality of products on brand name or producer
image as a yardstick for quality!
Consequently, the researcher believes that the Cadbury
products has to a very reasonable e2tent meet the branding needs
of its consumer which result enabled its consumers to have a
favorable buying decisions! There is no doubt that that branding as
one of the tool used in marketing to stimulate consumers
acceptance of product have contributed immensely to the buying
decision of consumers of Cadbury products especially bournvita!
'oreover, in the area of beverages, where there are many
competitors which has led to over floating of market with different
types of similar products Cadbury have continued to maintain high
quality in branding of its products!
85
4$2 RECOMMENDATIONS
The researcher recommendation would be specifically
focused on the :ps of marketing tools i!e product, place, price and
promotion since most effective marketing strategies are built around
these tools! $aving taken a critical study of the topic, I hereby
recommend as followsI
6! That Cadbury Nigeria plc should ensure that their product is
properly branded in not to discourage potential customers and
consumers totally!
7! Cadbury Nigeria plc should improve the quality of their product
in order to encourage consumers in patroniDing them! There should
be enough qualified personnelAs to provide this!
9! Cadbury Nigeria plc should embark on an e2tensive advertising
campaign since most Nigeria are not aware of their bournvita brand!
:! 'ove focus and work should be done by Cadbury Nigeria plc to
create awareness on her product especially bournvita and this could
be achieved through the followingI
86
#a% +epackaging with solid material and it should be of high quality!
#b% )dvertising as one of the communication tools in creating
awareness and introduction of the brand name in marketing strategy
and unique selling proposition!
#c% "ales promotion is another strategy that should be used by
Cadbury effective distribution is also recommended for adequate
coverage of the bournvita product! This would make the product
available in all territories!
REFERENCE
)aker *a #6??6%C Management Brand Equity, CapitaliDing on the
value of a brand name! New /ork City! *efining rand
.2pectations, .ncyclopedia!
)dam "mith and Billage "ilver "mith #6<<8%C Consumer ehaviour
#9
rd
.dition% *ryden Press, New /ork!
aker, E! 'ichaelI #6?<<%C Marketing an introductory text, 'c5raw!
$ill inc! 9
rd
.dition
87
.vans and erman #6?<>%C Retail Management Publishing Co!
)ooriach! 'acmillan Publishing Co!
$arold, 4! ! #6?<>%C Consumer Behaviour #9
rd
.dition%! *ryden
Press, New /ork City!
(eller and $olden, -utD #6??7%C The Role of Branding Awareness
(elly #7@@9%C Marketing Research, .ncyclopedia!
'arketing ulletin, 7@@9, 6:, )rticle 7! +eprinted from 'arketing
+esearch 0nFline, 6??8, 6, 6F6=!
0lusanya #7@@:%C !efining Consumer Behaviour
Philip (otlerC #6?>8%C Marketing Analysis "lanning and Control 8
th
.dition! 'arketing 'anagement, 'c5raw $ill Inc!
:
th
.dition!
Philip (otlerC #6??<%C Marketing Management, 'c5raw $ill inc! :
th

.dition!
+ossiter and Percy #6??7%C .ncyclopedia!
88
"tanton, 4C #6?>: O 6?>8%C #undamental of Marketing, 8
th
.dition
'c5raw $ill!
4orld Investment News #6???%! Published in 1orbes 'agaDine, 0ct
6>
th
Issue
httpCKK marketingFbulletinFmassey!ac!nD

89
APPENDIX
QUESTIONNAIRE
*epartment of usiness )dministration,
3niversity of Ilorin,
Ilorin,
(wara "tate!
*ear +espondent,
I am a fnal year graduating student, Department !
"usiness #dministratin, $niversity ! Ilrin% I am &riting
a resear'( n t(e rle ! )randing in 'nsumer de'isin
ma*ing+ a 'ase study ! ,ad)ury -igeria .l'%
This research is in partial fulfillment of the award of !"c!
*egree in usiness )dministration! $ence your contribution and
corporation in answering will be strictly confidential and highly
appreciated!
/ours faithfully
90

SALAUDEEN ISHOLA JAMIU
SECTION A
PERSONAL DATA
I+-0)</0*'+ 0' )&-E'+(&+0-: Please tick # % against the answer of
your choice from the alternatives provided below and fill the blank
spaces where necessary!
6! )geC #a% elow 7@ years M N #b% 76F9@years M N #c% 96F
:@years M N
#d% :6F=@years M N #e% =6 years and above M N
7! "e2C #a% 'ale M N #b% 1emale M N
9! 'arital "tatusC #a% "ingle M N #b% 'arried M N #c% *ivorced M
N #d% 4idow M N
:! .ducational ;ualificationC #a% Pry! "ch! -eaving Certificate M
N #b% ""C. M N
#c% 0N* M N #d% !"c M N #e% Illiterate M N #f% 0thers
please specify M N
91
=! Income -evelC #a% -ess than N=,@@@ M N #b% N8,@@@ U
N7=,@@@ M N
#c% N78,@@@ U N<=,@@@ M N #d% N<8,@@@ U N6@@,@@@ M N
#e% N6@@,@@@ and above M N
SECTION B
8! Cadbury product is your favourite! #a% "trongly )gree M N #b%
)gree M N
#c% 3ndecided M N #d% *isagree M N #e% "trongly *isagree
M N
<! 4hat type of product do you purchaseJ #a% ournvita M N #b%
5oldee M N
#c% .claire "weet M N #d% 0thers please specify
>! 1amily siDe and price affordability influence your buying
decision!
#a% "trongly )gree M N #b% )gree M N #c% 3ndecided M N
#d% *isagree M N #e% "trongly *isagree M N
?! /ou have established brand loyalty to Cadbury beverage
product!
#a% "trongly )gree M N #b% )gree M N #c% 3ndecided M N
#d% *isagree M N #e% "trongly *isagree M N
92
6@! Cadbury Products are always brought to your attention
through promotional means!
#a% "trongly )gree M N #b% )gree M N #c% 3ndecided M N
#d% *isagree M N #e% "trongly *isagree M N
66! randing of a product influence the type of product you buy!
#a% "trongly )gree M N #b% )gree M N #c% 3ndecided M N
#d% *isagree M N #e% "trongly *isagree M N
67! Cadbury Nigeria Plc provides after sales services to its
customer!
#a% "trongly )gree M N #b% )gree M N #c% 3ndecided
M N #d% *isagree M N #e% "trongly *isagree M N
69! Cadbury Nigeria Plc centres on the provisions of good brand
decision!
#a% "trongly )gree M N #b% )gree M N #c% 3ndecided M N
#d% *isagree M N #e% "trongly *isagree M N
6:! Cadbury Nigeria Plc laid more emphasis on the provision of
good quality to customers
#a% "trongly )gree M N #b% )gree M N #c% 3ndecided M N
#d% *isagree M N #e% "trongly *isagree M N
6=! *oes branding affects customerAs purchasing decisionJ
93
#a% "trongly )gree M N #b% )gree M N #c% 3ndecided M N
#d% *isagree M N #e% "trongly *isagree M N
68! Customers really en,oy the quality of Cadbury Nigeria Plc
Products!
#a% "trongly )gree M N #b% )gree M N #c% 3ndecided M N
#d% *isagree M N #e% "trongly *isagree M N
6<! *oes customer rate the quality of the Cadbury Nigeria Plc
productsJ
#a% "trongly )gree M N #b% )gree M N #c% 3ndecided M N
#d% *isagree M N #e% "trongly *isagree M N
6>! Customers improve repeat buying because of good branding
method of Cadbury Nigeria Plc!
#a% "trongly )gree M N #b% )gree M N #c% 3ndecided M N
#d% *isagree M N #e% "trongly *isagree M N
94