Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 35

Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety

NEBOSH International General Certifcate


Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health
and Safety
INTRODUCTION__________________________________________________________________________62
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF PREVENTION________________________________________________63
COLLECI!E "N# IN#I!I#$"L P%OECI!E &E"S$%ES''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6()
%OLES* C"EGO%IES "N# +E"$%ES O+ S"+E, SIGNS'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(-
GENERAL HIERARCHY OF CONTROL____________________________________________________66
ELI&IN"ION.S$BSI$ION'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(6
CH"NGING /O%0 &EHO#S'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(1
CH"NGING /O%0 P"E%NS'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(1
ISOL"ION.SEG%EG"ION'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(1
ENGINEE%ING CON%OLS''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(2
PE%SON"L P%OECI!E E3$IP&EN''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(45
REVISION QUESTION 1_________________________________________________________________611
PERMITS-TO-WORK____________________________________________________________________612
OPE%"ION O+ HE PE%&I S,SE&''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(46
HE "PPLIC"ION O+ PE%&IS''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(4)
,PIC"L PE%&IS "N# "PP%OP%I"E CI%C$&S"NCES'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(4-
SAFE SYSTEMS OF WORK_____________________________________________________________616
E&PLO,E%S7 #$IES''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(46
%OLE O+ CO&PEEN PE%SONS'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(46
/O%0E% IN!OL!E&EN''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(46
/%IEN P%OCE#$%ES''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(41
ECHNIC"L* P%OCE#$%"L "N# BEH"!IO$%"L CON%OLS''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(41
#E!ELOP&EN O+ " S"+E S,SE& O+ /O%0''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(42
SPECI+IC E8"&PLES O+ S"+E S,SE&S O+ /O%0'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(49
REVISION QUESTION 2_________________________________________________________________622
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES____________________________________________________________623
#E!ELOPING E&E%GENC, P%OCE#$%ES''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(6)
+I%S:"I# %E3$I%E&ENS''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(6-
"%%"NGE&ENS +O% CON"CING E&E%GENC, "N# %ESC$E SE%!ICES''''''''''''''''''''''''''''6(6;
E&E%GENC, CO!E% IN %EL"ION O SHI+ /O%0 "N# GEOG%"PHIC"L LOC"ION''''''''''''''''''''6(66
REVISION QUESTION 3_________________________________________________________________627
SUMMARY______________________________________________________________________________62
SUGGESTED ANSWERS TO REVISION QUESTIONS___________________________________62!
6
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 1
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
IN%O#$CION
/e ha?e seen that ris@ assessment is the identifcation of haAards and e?al=ation
of the ris@ Bhich they poseC Here Be Bill De concerned Bith the meas=res Bhich
may De ta@en to eliminate or minimise the ris@C
here are a n=mDer of >eneral principles =pon Bhich the pre?ention of accidents
and other incidents threatenin> the health and safety of Bor@ers and others is
DasedC here is also a hierarchy of methods of control* startin> from elimination
of the haAard* thro=>h controllin> the ris@ either Dy technical means applied to
the haAard itself* or Dy r=les and proced=res Bhich dictate hoB people Bor@ Bith
the haAardE and as a last resort* pro?idin> protection for the indi?id=al Bor@er
thro=>h specifc FoD trainin> and personal protecti?e eG=ipmentC
"ll these forms of control are Dro=>ht to>ether in the defnition of safe systems of
Bor@C hese systems descriDe safe Bays of Bor@in> Bith haAards and m=st De
folloBed at all timesC " special feat=re of safe systems is the permit:to:Bor@
system* Bhere the proced=res reG=ire doc=mented a=thorisations and
confrmations Bhich m=st De in place Defore Bor@ can proceed or restart after
interr=ptionC
+inally Be Bill re?ieB the importance of emer>ency proced=resC
In co?erin> these topics* the element is desi>ned to meet the folloBin> aims and
learnin> o=tcomes as specifed Dy NEBOSH for this part of the syllaD=s for the
International General CertifcateC
O?erall "ims
On completion of this element* yo= Bill ha?e @noBled>e and =nderstandin> ofH
+=ndamental strate>ies for controllin> haAards and red=cin> ris@C
he ?ario=s haAard control and ris@ red=ction methods a?ailaDleC
Specifc Intended Learnin> O=tcomes
/hen yo= ha?e Bor@ed thro=>h this element* yo= Bill De aDle toH
#escriDe the >eneral principles of control and a Dasic hierarchy of ris@
red=ction meas=res that encompass technical* Deha?io=ral and proced=ral
controlsC
#e?elop and apply safe systems of Bor@ for >eneral Bor@ acti?itiesC
EIplain the @ey elements of a safe system applied to the partic=lar sit=ations
of Bor@in> in confned spaces* lone Bor@in>* and Bor@in> and tra?ellin>
aDroadC
EIplain the role and f=nction of a permit:to:Bor@ Bithin a safe system of
Bor@C
"ssess the adeG=acy of emer>ency proced=res and pro?isionC
2 NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
GENE%"L P%INCIPLES O+ P%E!ENION
here are many diJerent Bays of red=cin> or e?en a?oidin> ris@C he folloBin>
approaches are typicalH
A"#$%$&' ($)*) KBhere?er possiDleLC
E"+,-+.$&' ($)*) /0$10 1+&&#. 23 +"#$%3% Dy carryin> o=t a ris@
assessmentC
C#&.(#,,$&' .03 ($)*) +. )#-(13* rather than ta@in> meas=res to control
the ris@ in the Bider conteIt of the Bor@placeC
A%+4.$&' /#(* .# .03 (35-$(363&.) #7 .03 $&%$"$%-+,C his applies
partic=larly to the desi>n of Bor@places* the choice of Bor@ eG=ipment and
the choice of Bor@in> and prod=ction methods* Bith a ?ieB to red=cin>
repetiti?e Bor@ and Bor@ at a fIed pace* in order to minimise eJects on
healthC
A%+4.$&' .# .310&$1+, 4(#'(3))8
R34,+1$&' .03 %+&'3(#-) 29 .03 &#&-%+&'3(#-) #( ,3)) %+&'3(#-)8
D3"3,#4$&' + 1#03(3&. #"3(+,, 4(3"3&.$#& 4#,$19C his sho=ld co?er
technolo>y* or>anisation of Bor@* Bor@in> conditions* social relationships and
the inM=ence of factors relatin> to the Bor@in> en?ironmentC
G$"$&' 4($#($.9 .# 1#,,31.$"3 4(#.31.$"3 63+)-(3) #"3( $&%$"$%-+,
4(#.31.$"3 63+)-(3)C
G$"$&' +44(#4($+.3 $&).(-1.$#&) .# /#(*3()C his co?ers specifc and
>eneral instr=ctions* incl=din> the =se of safety si>ns* trainin> and
s=per?isionC
his list does not constit=te a hierarchy* nor are the principles specifc le>al
reG=irementsC %ather* they are >=idelines on the Bay in Bhich employers sho=ld
approach the pre?ention and control of ris@sC
/e Bill loo@ at more specifc approaches Bithin these >eneral principles as Be
Bor@ thro=>h this element* D=t Be Bill de?elop tBo of the most important
aspects mentioned aDo?e frst of allC
Collecti?e and Indi?id=al Protecti?e &eas=res
Collecti?e protecti?e meas=res are those Bhich protect the Bhole Bor@place and
e?eryone Bho Bor@s there* as opposed to indi?id=al ones Bhich* nat=rally* F=st
protect sin>le indi?id=alsC
Collecti?e meas=res are Dased on containin> the haAard* =s=ally thro=>h
technical* en>ineerin> sol=tionsE for eIample* thro=>h ?entin> f=mes o=t of a
D=ildin>E D=t also thro=>h >eneral proced=res and systemsC Indi?id=al sol=tions
are Dased on specifc trainin>* proced=res and personal protecti?e eG=ipmentC
hese tBo approaches >i?e rise to the ideas of a safe place and a safe personH
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 3
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
S+73 4,+13 ( his refers to the en?ironment of the Bor@place and is one
Bhere the emphasis is on collecti?e protecti?e meas=res in the premises
Kincl=din> access.e>ressL* plant* processes* materials* systems of Bor@*
s=per?ision.trainin> and competent personnelC
S+73 43()#& ( his applies to an indi?id=al Bho* in relation to his or her
Bor@* has recei?ed adeG=ate information* instr=ction and trainin> and Bho
folloBs safe systems of Bor@* hy>iene standards and Bearin> of PPEC S=ch
people are aBare of their immediate FoD.tas@* and also the conteIt Bithin
Bhich it is performed* that is the Bider Bor@place and their felloB Bor@ersC
%oles* Cate>ories and +eat=res of Safety Si>ns
Safety si>ns are defned as those comDinin> shape* colo=r and pictorial symDols
to con?ey specifc health and safety information or instr=ctions* accordin> to
Bidely =nderstood standardsC
he standards are =s=ally international so that safety si>ns are instantly
reco>nisaDle thro=>ho=t the Borld* re>ardless of lan>=a>eC Safety si>ns are
di?ided into f?e cate>oriesH
P(#0$2$.$#&
hese are directed at stoppin> dan>ero=s Deha?io=rsE for eIample* NNo
Smo@in>O* NNot #rin@in> /aterO* NNo Na@ed Li>htsO si>nsC
he si>ns are ro=nd or circ=lar Bith the main colo=r Dein> red Kat least );P
of the area of the si>nLC hey ha?e a Dlac@ symDol or picto>ram on a Bhite
Dac@>ro=nd Bith a red Dorder and dia>onal cross DarC
F$(3-:'0.$&' 35-$463&.
hese si>ns identify partic=lar types of eG=ipment and locationsE for
eIample* fre eItin>=isher laDels and hose reel instr=ctionsC
he si>ns are rectan>=lar or sG=are Bith the main colo=r Dein> red Kat least
;5P of the area of the si>nLC hey ha?e a Bhite symDol or picto>ram on a
red Dac@>ro=ndC
W+(&$&'
/arnin> si>ns tell people to De caref=l and ta@e preca=tions in respect of a
partic=lar haAardE for eIample* hi>h ?olta>e electricity* slippery s=rface* for@
lift tr=c@s operatin> in the area* etcC
he si>ns are trian>=lar Bith the main colo=r as yelloB Kat least ;5P of the
area of the si>nLC hey ha?e a Dlac@ symDol or picto>ram on a yelloB
Dac@>ro=nd Bith a Dlac@ DorderC
M+&%+.#(9 +1.$#&
hese instr=ct people to ta@e a specifc action or folloB a Deha?io=r* =s=ally
relatin> to Bearin> personal protecti?e eG=ipmentE for eIample* helmets*
eye protection* safety Delts and harnesses* etcC hey are circ=lar Bith a solid
Dl=e Dac@>ro=nd Bith a Bhite picto>ramC
; NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
S+73 1#&%$.$#&)
hese identify safe Deha?io=r or places of safetyE for eIample* drin@in>
Bater* emer>ency Bash rooms* emer>ency eIits* frst aid stations* etcC
he si>ns are rectan>=lar or sG=are Bith the dominant colo=r Dein> >reen Kat
least ;5P of the area of the si>nLC hey ha?e a Bhite symDol or picto>ram
on a >reen Dac@>ro=ndC
Some eIamples are shoBn in the f>=re DeloBC
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate <
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
No Unauthorised
Entry
Toxic Material Safety Boots Must
Be Worn
Emergency
Escape Route
Examples of Safety Signs
6 NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
GENE%"L HIE%"%CH, O+ CON%OL
he Dest Bay of controllin> a ris@ is to >et rid of the thin> Bhich is* or creates* the
haAard* so that there is no more ris@C HoBe?er* this is impossiDle in many
sit=ations* so some other form of controllin> the ris@ is reG=iredC his >i?es rise
to a hierarchy of control meas=res* as folloBsH
Eliminate the haAard* thro=>h elimination or s=Dstit=tionC
$se en>ineerin> controls Bhich red=ce the ris@ at so=rce and pro?ide protection
>enerally rather than indi?id=ally* thro=>h isolation.se>re>ation of the
haAard or physical controls applied directly to itC
Control the Bay in Bhich people interact Bith the haAard Dy Bor@in> patterns
and methods* or as a last resort Dy the =se of personal protecti?e eG=ipmentC
hese principles can De applied to any ris@ sit=ation and are disc=ssed here in
more detailC
Elimination and en>ineerin> controls are the most eJecti?e in red=cin> ris@* D=t
they are =s=ally more eIpensi?e and ta@e m=ch lon>er to p=t in placeC hey
sho=ld De tho=>ht of as lon>:term oDFecti?esC "ltho=>h in practice it mi>ht De
technically possiDle to achie?e total elimination of a haAard* the lar>e cost
in?ol?ed and the small Denefts oDtained may mean that it is not reasonaDle to
eIpect an employer to implement itC
Personal controls are =s=ally the cheapest option and can De p=t into operation
?ery G=ic@lyC hey sho=ld pro?ide an acceptaDle le?el of protection* D=t it is
important to rememDer that they are not permanentC heir eJect is of short
d=ration* only so lon> as the people concerned rememDer to =se themC
Elimination.S=Dstit=tion
he frst priority for control of any si>nifcant ris@ to health is to try to eliminate
completely the a>ent responsiDleC his is partic=larly tr=e in the chemical
ind=stry* Bhere many hi>hly toIic chemicals are =sedC +or certain ris@s it is
possiDle to eliminate the haAard at so=rce Dy caref=l eIamination of the Bor@
acti?ity or process* and to identify a diJerent Bay to achie?e the same ends
Bitho=t itC his often in?ol?es the s=Dstit=tion of diJerent types of eG=ipment*
s=Dstance or material for the haAardo=s oneC Note that this may not remo?e ris@
from the sit=ation completely* D=t sho=ld alBays red=ce the le?el if it is to De
BorthBhileC
+or eIample* haAardo=s s=Dstances can sometimes De replaced Bith materials
Bhich do the same FoD D=t present no ris@ to healthC &echanical de?ices s=ch as
hoists and lifts can De =sed to a?oid man=al handlin> of diQc=lt or hea?y loadsC
Caref=l desi>n of eG=ipment =sin> components Bhich >enerate less noise and
?iDration can often eliminate the ris@ of hearin> dama>eC
Impro?ements in technolo>y often present the opport=nity to replace older
haAardo=s processes or acti?ities Bith those in?ol?in> no ris@ to healthC +or
eIample* the =se of neB Bater:Dased materials s=ch as paints or adhesi?es can
eliminate completely the ris@ to health of eIpos=re to or>anic sol?entsC
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 7
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
he main oDFection to haAard elimination is =s=ally the cost* since it may in?ol?e
a radical chan>e in the Bay that the Bor@ acti?ity is carried o=tC +or that reason
the elimination of haAards as the o?erridin> >oal of the health and safety
pro>ramme m=st De D=ilt into the ris@ assessment processC he opport=nity for
elimination sho=ld De re:eIamined e?ery time an assessment is re?ieBedC
Chan>in> /or@ &ethods
In some circ=mstances* an analysis of the Bor@ process or operations may
identify specifc acti?ities Bhich contriD=te to ris@E for eIample* Dy prod=cin>
harmf=l s=Dstances or a>ents or Dy Drin>in> people into close contact Bith a
dan>ero=s oDFectC In s=ch cases* chan>in> the Bor@ method may red=ce the
ris@C
h=s* a neB method mi>ht minimise or s=ppress the >eneration of the a>ents of
concernE for eIample* Bhere harmf=l emissions of sol?ents are Dein> >enerated*
Dr=sh paintin> rather than sprayin> Bill consideraDly red=ce the le?el of airDorne
contaminantC Similarly* the =se of pressin> techniG=es rather than panel Deatin>
Bill minimise noise >enerationC
" @ey area Bhere chan>in> the Bor@ method has si>nifcant impact is Bhere
er>onomic proDlems are identifedC Health haAards arisin> from the Bay people
Bor@* s=ch as @eyDoard =se* repetiti?e acti?ities and man=al handlin>* can often
De controlled satisfactorily Dy redesi>n of the Bor@ methodC So* for eIample*
Detter desi>n of !#$ Bor@stations Bill often remo?e the imposition of aB@Bard
post=resC Similarly* a thoro=>h man=al handlin> assessment sho=ld indicate
critical acti?ities Bhere redesi>n of the Bor@ method Bill minimise the ris@ of
inF=ry to hands* Brists* Foints or Dac@C
Chan>in> /or@ Patterns
he ill:health eJects arisin> from acti?ities and haAardo=s s=Dstances in the
Bor@place are often related to the len>th of time of eIpos=re as Bell as the
se?erity of the haAardC he comDination of these tBo factors is referred to as the
NdoseOC his idea is important Bhen dealin> Bith s=ch haAards as noise* airDorne
contaminants* ?iDration* radiation* heat and man=al handlin>C
/e can =se a red=ction of eIpos=re as a means of minimisin> possiDle ill:health
eJectsC +or eIample* Bhere Bor@ers are eIposed to hi>h noise le?els or in
conditions Bhere heat stress is a ris@* it is necessary to set strict time limits on
eIpos=re to pre?ent harmC
"s a >eneral principle* Bhen a haAard eIists from a s=Dstance or a physical
a>ent* the c=m=lati?e dose sho=ld De red=ced to as loB a le?el as possiDle Dy
or>anisin> the Bor@ pattern to pro?ide periods of no eIpos=reC "nother method
is FoD rotation* Bhere the eIpos=re of any partic=lar indi?id=al is red=ced Dy
sharin> the dose Bith other Bor@ersC his method Bas often =sed in the n=clear
ind=stry* Bhere a n=mDer of Bor@ers performed a tas@ in rotation* Bith strict
control o?er len>th of time of eIpos=re in order to distriD=te the radiation
eIpos=re and ens=re that dose limits Bere not eIceededC
NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
h=s* Be can see hoB chan>in> Bor@ patterns Dy a comDination of Bor@in> time
limits* Drea@s and FoD rotation can De =sed as a method to red=ce the len>th of
time of eIpos=re and conseG=ently minimise the ris@s to healthC
Isolation.Se>re>ation
he aim here is to isolate the haAard physically so that noDody is eIposed to ris@C
otal enclos=re or containment is the Dest form of ris@ control since no one can
then De eIposed to the haAardC EIamples incl=deH
otal enclos=re of a process Bhich >enerates d=st or f=mes to pre?ent the
escape of airDorne contaminants Bhich co=ld De inhaled Dy operators in the
?icinityC
"co=stic enclos=re of a noisy machine to red=ce noise le?els and
conseG=ently the noise eIpos=re to people Bor@in> nearDyC
G=ards aro=nd mo?in> or other dan>ero=s machines* or parts of them* to
pre?ent operators comin> into contact Bith themC
/hen a Bhole area has Deen totally isolated it may still De necessary to access
eG=ipment or material Bithin that areaC he =se of roDotically:controlled* remote
handlin> systems may De incorporated* alloBin> access Bitho=t dist=rDin> the
inte>rity of the enclos=reC
If the haAard can De totally enclosed and sealed* it controls the ris@ at so=rce*
pro?idin> protection for all Bith no need for f=rther meas=resC HoBe?er* if
cleanin> or maintenance Bor@ has to De carried o=t* Bhich Bill =s=ally De the
case* the seal of the enclos=re Bill De Dro@en Bith potential ris@ for Bor@ers or
others d=rin> the operationsC $nder s=ch conditions* sometimes Bith special
ris@s Ks=ch as ionisin> radiationL* additional preca=tions Bill De necessary Bhile
the enclos=re is Dreached to protect maintenance Bor@ers or others nearDyC
In some circ=mstances* total enclos=re may not De possiDleE for eIample* access
to a process may De necessary to introd=ce raB materials or remo?e the prod=ctC
Here* remo?aDle enclos=res m=st De pro?ided Bhich Bill isolate people from the
haAard d=rin> the most dan>ero=s operations* D=t permit access as necessary for
eJecti?e operationC &o?aDle machine >=ards are one eIample of thisC
&eas=res m=st also De ta@en to red=ce ris@ Bhen the haAard is not enclosedC
his may De Dy en>ineered controls* s=ch as the =se of eIha=st Ks=ction:DasedL
?entilation to increase control o?er the release of airDorne contaminants* or
thro=>h Bor@in> proced=res and methodsC
It is often possiDle to isolate potential haAards Dy locatin> operations Bhich
present a ris@ to health in an area separate from Bhere the operators areC In this
Bay* access is restricted physically Dy placin> a Darrier aro=nd the haAardo=s
acti?ity or locatin> it in a separate roomC Perimeter fencin> or other types of
Darriers are often D=ilt aro=nd machines or areas Bhere Bor@ is Dein> carried o=tC
8:ray eG=ipment is controlled Dy Dein> physically separated from the operators*
to pre?ent eIpos=reE and the =se of controlled and separated areas is often
fo=nd Bith the =se of ionisin> radiationC
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate !
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
En>ineerin> Controls
hese in?ol?e the elimination of haAards or haAardo=s Bor@ processes at the
desi>n sta>e* Dy desi>nin> safety into plant* eG=ipment and machinery* ?ehicles*
containers* etcC* Bith proper consideration of >=ardin> and enclos=re feat=res* as
Bell as addin> special p=rpose safety eG=ipment to processes in order to remo?e
or red=ce ris@sC
#esi>nin> for Safety
Good desi>n and constr=ction sho=ld incl=de the folloBin> types of feat=resH
Operatin> controls Bhich are easy to see and =se* do not alloB machines to
De t=rned on accidentally and incorporate emer>ency stopsC
"=tomatic seals on lids and ?al?es to pre?ent accidental spilla>esC
+ail:safe de?ices Bhich do not alloB a machine to operate if there is a fa=ltC
+ire doors and other containment meas=res Bhich come into operation
a=tomatically Bhen a sensor sets oJ an alarmC
HaAard li>hts and so=nds Bhich operate in haAardo=s circ=mstances* s=ch as
Bhen a lar>e ?ehicle is re?ersin>C
!entilation Systems
hese are eIamples of additional controls =sed to red=ce ris@ from airDorne
contaminantsC Bo types are in common =seH
D$,-.$#& V3&.$,+.$#&
#il=tion ?entilation Bor@s Dy red=cin> the concentration of the haAard to an
acceptaDle le?elC his applies in tBo circ=mstancesH
/here the concentration of a harmf=l contaminant can De red=ced to DeloB
the occ=pational eIpos=re limit Dy the dil=tion methodC
/here the concentration of a MammaDle s=Dstance can De red=ced to DeloB
its loBer eIplosi?e limit Dy =sin> dil=tionC
+or eIample* the le?el of >aseo=s contaminants Kand sometimes f=mesL in the air
may De red=ced Dy chan>in> the Bhole Bor@place air o?er a >i?en period of
timeC he Bor@place air is eItracted Dy the =se of fans set in the Balls or roofC
#il=tion ?entilation has a fairly limited =se as an eJecti?e control strate>y*
altho=>h it may De =sed Bith reasonaDle s=ccess for certain types of
contaminants Kthose Bith a hi>h OEL and loB e?aporation rateL* Bhere the
escape is sloB and operators are not in close contact Bith the contamination
>eneration point* or Bhere the haAardo=s s=Dstance is carried sBiftly aBay from
the operatorC
/hen contaminants are to De remo?ed from a Bor@place =sin> dil=tion
?entilation* tBo important criteria ha?e to De consideredH
he rate at Bhich the contaminant is Dein> created or released and hence
the n=mDer of air chan>es per ho=r reG=iredC
1= NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
he position of the eItraction fansC he important factor Bhich controls the
positionin> of the eItraction fan =nit is the density of the contaminantC he
fans sho=ld De positioned in the Balls at a loB le?el for hi>h density
materials* Bhile the fan m=st De positioned hi>h on the Bor@place Balls or in
the roof for less dense materialsC
L#1+, E>0+-). V3&.$,+.$#&
" local eIha=st system operates Dy remo?in> a contaminant at or near the point
Bhere it is Dein> created or released and d=ctin> it aBay in an air MoB thro=>h
pipin> or t=Din> to a safe placeC
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 11
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
In >eneral* these systems are made =p of f?e main partsH
4 he hood or eIha=st inlet
6 #=ctin>
) +ilter or p=rifyin> system
- +an or motor
; EIha=st o=tlet
A Local Exhaust entilation System
here are a n=mDer of diJerent types of local eIha=st ?entilation system* Bhich
?ary Bith the type of hood =sed to recei?e the contaminantH
%eceptor hood systems ( s=ch as a coo@er hood Bhich draBs in air from a
>eneral area s=rro=ndin> the point at Bhich the contaminant is >eneratedC
Captor hood systems ( Dell or cone shaped hoods Bhich are placed as near
as possiDle to the contaminant >eneration point and draB aBay air directly
from the process at that pointC
+=me c=pDoards ( enclosed systems Bhich are Bidely =sed in laDoratoriesC
&=lti:hood eItraction systems in?ol?e eItractor hoods lin@ed to a common
eItraction systemC
Personal Protecti?e EG=ipment
#espite considerin> the ran>e of control meas=res o=tlined pre?io=sly* it may
still not De possiDle to red=ce eIpos=re to a ris@ doBn to an acceptaDle le?elC
$nder s=ch circ=mstances it Decomes necessary to consider protectin> the
indi?id=al rather than the Bor@in> en?ironment as a BholeC &any diJerent types
of personal protecti?e eG=ipment are a?ailaDle* s=ch as ear defenders for noiseE
>lo?es to pre?ent contact Bith s=Dstances haAardo=s to the s@inE and respiratory
protection a>ainst s=Dstances haAardo=s Dy inhalation KDreathin> inLC HoBe?er*
in the hierarchy of control meas=res* personal protecti?e eG=ipment KPPEL comes
last and is only =sed Bhen all other control meas=res ha?e Deen fo=nd
inadeG=ate in eliminatin> or controllin> the ris@C
In practice* personal protecti?e eG=ipment is often reG=ired as a temporary
meas=re =ntil more eQcient meas=res are introd=ced* or as an added control
d=rin> non:ro=tine operations s=ch as maintenanceC ConseG=ently* yo= m=st De
familiar Bith the details of its selection and =se* Bhich are co?ered in detail later
in the co=rseC
12 NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
;
- ) 6 4
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
%E!ISION 3$ESION 4
K4L /hich three >eneral principles of pre?ention are not incl=ded in the folloBin>
listR
"?oidin> ris@s KBhere?er possiDleLC
E?al=atin> ris@s that cannot De a?oided Dy carryin> o=t a ris@
assessment
"daptin> Bor@ to the reG=irements of the indi?id=alC
"daptin> to technical pro>ressC
%eplacin> the dan>ero=s Dy the non:dan>ero=s or less dan>ero=sC
#e?elopin> a coherent o?erall pre?ention policyC
K6L /hat type of si>n is represented Dy the folloBin> picto>ramsR
KiL
KiiL
KiiiL
Ki?L
K)L State* in order* the three elements of the hierarchy of controlC
K-L /hat do en>ineerin> controls doR
K;L /hen sho=ld personal protecti?e eG=ipment De =sedR
he s=>>ested ansBers are >i?en at the end of the elementC
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 13
Yellow
Green
Red
Blue
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
PE%&IS:O:/O%0
" permit:to:Bor@ system is desi>ned to ens=re that all necessary actions are
ta@en Defore* d=rin> and after partic=larly haAardo=s operationsC hese
operations are mostly related to maintenance Bor@ Bhich can only De carried o=t
if normal safe>=ards are dropped* D=t also incl=de certain ro=tine Bor@ Bhich
demands that special preca=tions De ta@enC EIamples incl=de Bor@in> Bith* or
=nderta@in> maintenance of* hi>h ?olta>e electrical eG=ipment and s=pply plant*
o?erhead tra?ellin> cranes* hot or hi>hly MammaDle materials and pipeBor@
containin> haAardo=s s=Dstances* as Bell as Bor@in> in confned spacesC
Permits:to:Bor@ are formal doc=ments specifyin> the Bor@ to De done and the
preca=tions to De ta@enC /or@ can only start Bhen safe proced=res ha?e Deen
defned and p=t into placeC he permit pro?ides a clear Britten record* si>ned Dy
a responsiDle oQcer* that all foreseeaDle haAards ha?e Deen considered and all
the necessary actions ha?e Deen ta@enC It 6-). De in the possession of the
person in char>e of the operation Defore Bor@ can commenceC
Note that a Npermit:to:Bor@ systemO sho=ld not De mista@en for a Nsafe system
of Bor@OC %ather* a safe system of Bor@ may reG=ire a permit:to:Bor@ system to
De adopted as part of its o?erall systematic control of ris@C
Operation of the Permit System
he main principles to De oDser?ed for the operation of an eJecti?e permit:to:
Bor@ system are descriDed DeloBC
HaAard E?al=ation
his means reco>nisin> e?ery type of haAard Bhich may De enco=ntered* and
then Bor@in> o=t the method of eliminatin> or o?ercomin> themC he Dest Bay
of achie?in> this in the lon> term is Dy the introd=ction of a 0+?+(% +44(+$)+,
4(#'(+663* Dy Bhich it is possiDle to form=late a ?ery lon>:lastin> system of
preca=tionsC " maFor proDlem may De that Bor@ is freG=ently performed =nder
emer>ency conditions and little time is then a?ailaDle for a detailed appraisal to
De madeC
Preca=tion Plannin>
"ll plannin> associated Bith the permit m=st De carried o=t Dy a competent
person Bho sho=ld ha?e s=Qcient detailed @noBled>e of the haAards of the
process or plant that he can form=late the plan properlyC he person m=st ha?e
the necessary position of a=thority for his or her instr=ctions to De reco>nised
and complied BithC He.she sho=ld also ha?e an adeG=ate @noBled>e of the le>al
reG=irements* and of technical terms s=ch as NisolateO* Nloc@ oJO KNloc@ o=t.ta>
o=tOL* and NDlan@ oJO* as they apply to the permit:to:Bor@ systemC
Instr=ctin> S=per?isors and Operators
Ideally* the control of permit:to:Bor@ systems thro=>ho=t the company sho=ld De
the o?erall responsiDility of one personC hat person sho=ld possess the aDility to
=nderstand Bhat haAards eIist and @noB hoB to eliminate themC He.she m=st
1; NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
ha?e s=Qcient a=thority in the or>anisation to instr=ct and ma@e
recommendations to mana>ers* s=per?isors and others on safety proced=resC
he person responsiDle m=st also ha?e a=thority to co:ordinate the eJorts of
e?eryone concerned Bith the pro?ision of safe Bor@in> conditionsC In the e?ent
of a permit Dein> iss=ed* he or she m=st ens=re that e?eryone concerned
=nderstands the terms of the permit and folloBs its instr=ctions doBn to the
smallest detailC
hese pro?isions sho=ld De eItended to any o=tside contractors Bho are in?ol?ed
and it m=st De made clear that their Bor@ers m=st not in any circ=mstances
De>in Bor@ =ntil the safety preca=tions and proced=res ha?e Deen f=lly eIplained
to themC It is ?ery important that those people responsiDle for the Bor@ sho=ld
De caref=lly Driefed Dy the person iss=in> the permitC he instr=ctions in the
permit m=st De f=lly =nderstood* Bhich is Dest achie?ed Dy direct G=estions and
ansBers in addition to the Britten BordC
Iss=in> the Permit
he permit:to:Bor@ form m=st help comm=nication DetBeen all the people Bho
are in?ol?edC It sho=ld De desi>ned Dy the company iss=in> the permit* ta@in>
into acco=nt indi?id=al site conditions and reG=irementsC Separate permit forms
may De reG=ired for diJerent tas@s* s=ch as hot Bor@ and entry into confned
spaces* so that s=Qcient emphasis can De >i?en to the special haAards present
and the preca=tions reG=iredC HoBe?er* the n=mDer of permits iss=ed sho=ld De
@ept to the minim=m necessary to the eQcient r=nnin> of the plantC
he permit* Bhich sho=ld De completed and si>ned Dy the iss=er* m=st De >i?en
to the person in char>e of the Bor@ KBho si>ns for itLC Copies m=st also De >i?en
to any plant or site mana>ement and s=per?isory staJ Bho may De in?ol?ed*
especially Bhere it is necessary for them to De @ept informed of Bor@ pro>ressC
"n additional copy of the permit sho=ld De displayed nearDy d=rin> the time it
remains in forceC
Before /or@ Starts
Before Bor@ is commenced* the folloBin> >eneral safety preca=tions sho=ld De
oDser?ed* Bhere they applyH
Electrical or mechanical isolation of the plantC
Isolation of the machine or eG=ipment areaC
Loc@in> or Dlan@in> oJ of Bater* steam* acid* >as* sol?ent* and compressed
air s=ppliesC
Erection of scaJoldin>C
Pro?ision of temporary >=ards Kor other li@e eG=ipmentL to ma@e the FoD safeC
Chec@in> and Cancellin> Permits
&ana>ers or safety oQcers sho=ld ma@e spot chec@s to ens=re that r=les and
proced=res are Dein> folloBedC On completion of Bor@* the permit sho=ld De
ret=rned to the responsiDle person* Bho sho=ld chec@ that people and eG=ipment
ha?e Deen remo?ed from the site of Bor@ and all personnel are Barned that entry
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 1<
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
to perform controlled Bor@ is no lon>er permittedC he plant can then De
ret=rned to ser?iceC
he "pplication of Permits
Permits m=st De specifc aDo=t the type of Bor@ and the location to Bhich they
refer* and the haAards identifed and the necessary preca=tions to De ta@enC
Si>nat=res m=st De oDtained at each sta>e to confrm that the necessary Bor@
has Deen carried o=tC
he folloBin> list >i?es all the points Bhich m=st De incl=ded on a permit:to:Bor@
formH
Permit titleC
Permit n=mDerC
%eference to other rele?ant permits or isolation certifcatesC
SoD locationC
Plant identifcationC
#escription of Bor@ to De done and its limitationsC
HaAard identifcation* incl=din> resid=al haAards and haAards introd=ced Dy
the Bor@C
Preca=tions necessary ( details of all preca=tions to De ta@en* incl=din>
isolation* necessary for the FoD to De done safelyC Completion of these m=st
De confrmed Dy each person Bho carries them o=tC
Protecti?e eG=ipment necessary Bhen =nderta@in> the Bor@C
"=thorisation ( si>nat=re of the mana>er releasin> the plant for the FoD and
confrmin> that isolations ha?e Deen made. preca=tions ta@en* eIcept those
Bhich can only De ta@en d=rin> the Bor@C
#ate and time d=ration of the permitC
"cceptance ( si>nat=re confrmin> =nderstandin> of the Bor@ to De done* the
haAards in?ol?ed and the preca=tions reG=iredC his sho=ld also confrm that
the permit information has Deen f=lly eIplained to all Bor@ers in?ol?edC
EItension.shift hand:o?er proced=res ( si>nat=res confrmin> that chec@s
ha?e Deen made to ens=re that the plant remains safe to De Bor@ed =pon*
and that the neB acceptor.Bor@ers ha?e Deen made f=lly aBare of the
haAards and preca=tionsC /here an eItension to the Bor@ is in?ol?ed* a neB
eIpiry time for the permit m=st De >i?enC
Hand:Dac@ ( si>nat=res* Bith time and date* of Doth the permit recei?er and
iss=er* confrmin> that all the proced=res ha?e Deen carried o=t correctly*
the Bor@ has Deen completed and the plant is ready for testin> and
recommissionin>C
Cancellation ( si>nat=res* Bith time and date* certifyin> that the Bor@ has
Deen tested and the plant satisfactorily recommissioned* and that it has
Deen accepted Dac@ in a safe condition for prod=ction to recommenceC
16 NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
ypical Permits and "ppropriate Circ=mstances
he types of haAardo=s sit=ations in Bhich permit:to:Bor@ systems sho=ld De
=sed incl=de Bor@ in the areas o=tlined DeloBC
Hot /or@
Hot Bor@ permits are concerned Bith pre?entin> fres.eIplosions Bhere
maintenance acti?ities and other non:ro=tine Bor@ in?ol?e D=rnin> *Beldin>* =se
of a na@ed Mame* etcC he permit Bill alloB s=ch Bor@ to De performed only after
all the necessary preca=tions ha?e Deen ta@en* incl=din> testin> to chec@ for
MammaDle atmospheresC Similar tests may De reG=ired d=rin> operations as
BellC
/or@ on Electrical Systems
he haAards associated Bith electricity are freG=ently either not =nderstood or
are treated in too cas=al a mannerC Beca=se of the hi>h le?el of ris@ in?ol?ed and
the serio=s conseG=ence of sBitchin> errors and other careless mista@es* it is
essential that a comprehensi?e safety system is p=t into operation Bhene?er
Bor@ is to De started on hi>h ?olta>e eG=ipment Kin practical terms* --5 ?olts "C
or hi>herLC
"ny Bor@ on s=Dstation eG=ipment m=st De co?ered Dy a permit:to:Bor@ system
if safe Bor@in> conditions are to De ens=redC KIt is interestin> to note that the
electricity s=pply ind=stry ma@es f=ll =se of s=ch systemsCL
&achinery &aintenance
he Di>>est ris@ to maintenance Bor@ers is that they may De inF=red if machinery
is started =p Bhile Bor@ is still in pro>ressC Often this is Deca=se the men
carryin> o=t the maintenance Bor@ may De hidden from the si>ht of people at the
plant controlsC he machines may De set in motion as a res=lt of some
mis=nderstandin>* ne>li>ence or lac@ of @noBled>e and* =nless the poBer is
isolated and loc@ed oJ and cannot De reconnected Bitho=t specifc a=thority* an
accident mi>ht easily folloBC
Sometimes it is not possiDle for e?ery part of compleI machinery to De isolated
at the same time and here it Bill De necessary for the isolation to De completed
section Dy section* ta@in> eItra special careC ypical methods of isolation
incl=deH
Loc@in>:oJ sBitch handlesC
%emo?in> dri?e DeltsC
Loc@in> the cl=tchC
$sin> @ey interloc@ systemsC
he =se of @ey interloc@ systems enaDles se?eral people to Bor@ on the same
plant Bitho=t fear of one of them fnishin> Bor@ and startin> the machine*
thereDy endan>erin> the othersC Each person is s=pplied Bith a @ey* Bhich he
@eeps in his possession* and the loc@ cannot De opened =ntil all the @eys ha?e
Deen t=rnedC
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 17
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
Confned Spaces
Entry to a confned space can De eItremely haAardo=sC he folloBin>
preca=tions sho=ld De incl=ded in the permit:to:Bor@H
&echanical and.or electrical isolation of the confned spaceC
"deG=ate ?entilation to ens=re a s=Qcient s=pply of respiraDle airC
Cleanin> and p=r>in> to remo?e all haAards* partic=larly in respect of
dan>ero=s f=mes* and testin> to ens=re their aDsenceC
" specifed Bor@in> period* Bhich is not to De eIceeded in any
circ=mstancesC
If the confned space cannot De completely cleared of dan>ero=s >as* then
special Dreathin> apparat=s and lifelines m=st De Born and a resc=e standDy
team sho=ld De present to assist in the e?ent of diQc=ltiesC Entry can De
a=thorised only Dy a responsiDle personC Other meas=res Bhich may De ta@en
incl=de the =se of resc=e harness* s=itaDle protecti?e clothin>* spar@:proof tools
and li>htsC
1 NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
S"+E S,SE&S O+ /O%0
" safe system of Bor@ is a formal proced=re Bhich is Dased on a systematic
eIamination of the tas@s of a Bor@in> process in order to identify all the haAardsC
It defnes methods of Bor@in> Bhich eliminate those haAards or minimise the
ris@s associated Bith themC
he essential idea is that it is a system for dealin> Bith the haAardsC Based on
the precise identifcation of haAards and assessment of ris@s for a partic=lar tas@*
FoD or process* the system descriDes a comprehensi?e proced=re for the Bay in
Bhich people may safely interact Bith each other* and Bith the materials*
eG=ipment and plant Bhich form part of their Bor@* so the ris@s are minimisedC
he proced=re m=st De folloBed at all times in order to Bor@ safely in relation to
the haAardsC
Safe systems of Bor@ are necessary Bhene?er haAards cannot De physically
eliminated and some element of ris@ remainsC his applies to any tas@ in?ol?in>
any ris@C h=s* there is a specifed ro=tine for chan>in> the toner in a
photocopier to a?oid spilla>es and d=st contamination* F=st as there are specifc
practices for the separation of coo@ed and =ncoo@ed meats in @itchens* and
detailed proced=res for the settin> and detonation of eIplosi?es in a G=arryC In
all these sit=ations* the safe system is essential to pre?ent accidents or other
incidentsC
Employers7 #=ties
Earlier Be considered the >eneral d=ties of employers to ta@e all reasonaDle
meas=res to ens=re the safety of their Bor@forceH safe Bor@place* safe
eG=ipment.s=Dstances etcC
%e>=lations and >o?ernment a>encies may specify some of the detail that an
employer is eIpected to folloBC
he Narran>ementsO section of an or>anisation7s safety policy Bill normally
address safe systems of Bor@* estaDlishin> the >eneral >=idelines =nder Bhich
they are de?eloped and the r=les =nder Bhich they m=st De =sedC %is@
assessments m=st also consider them and loo@ at their contin=in> eJecti?eness
in practice* and anythin> that may De done to stren>then themC
%ole of Competent Persons
One of the Bays in Bhich employers meet their health and safety d=ties is
thro=>h the appointment of Ncompetent personsOC In practice* Be all @noB Bhat
constit=tes competenceE yo= can spot this Dy Bhat people @noB and hoB Bell
they do their FoDC Competence is not =ni?ersal* it is often FoD specifcC In relation
to health and safety* a competent person is one Bho Nhas s=Qcient trainin> and
eIperience or @noBled>e and other G=alitiesO to assist the employer in
compliance Bith his le>al d=tiesC his role of a competent person is central to
the de?elopment of safe systems of Bor@C /hether carried o=t Dy a specialist
health and safety practitioner or as a desi>nated responsiDility additional to other
d=ties* the competent person Bill De a leadin> f>=re in all aspects of the system*
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 1!
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
incl=din> haAard identifcation* strate>ies for red=cin> ris@ and specifcations of
Bor@in> practicesC He or she Bill share Bith mana>ement the responsiDility for
implementin> systems and monitorin> their compliance and eJecti?enessC
/or@er In?ol?ement
he competent person cannot do the FoD aloneC He or she Bill ha?e to Bor@
closely Bith the Bor@ers Bho do* or Bill De doin>* the Bor@C hey sho=ld ta@e an
acti?e part in all sta>es of Doth the de?elopment and re?ieB of safe systems of
Bor@C heir practical @noBled>e and s@ills in the tas@s pro?ide a ?al=aDle so=rce
of information aDo=t the nat=re of the ris@s* incl=din> any =n=s=al ones* and
methods of Bor@in> aro=nd themC hey can also contriD=te Dy assessin> plans
and Britten doc=mentation* and pro?ide feedDac@ on the eJecti?eness of the
system in practiceC
In?ol?ement in this Bay enaDles Bor@ers to >ain a deeper =nderstandin> of the
haAards and ris@s* and of the Bay in Bhich the safe system of Bor@ Bill minimise
those ris@sC his helps to D=ild the safety c=lt=re and reinforces commitment to
the systemC
/ritten Proced=res
he safe system of Bor@ m=st De =nderstood Dy all Bor@ers and any others Bho
may De in?ol?ed from time:to:time Ks=ch as contractorsL* and applied correctlyC
+or this to happen* it m=st De comm=nicated eJecti?ely and the Dasis of it is
Britten proced=resC
"ll systems m=st De properly doc=mented to pro?ide a precise reference for all
operatorsC It may De in the form of short notes and instr=ctions aDo=t Bhat to do
if the toner needs chan>in> in the photocopier displayed on the Ball neIt to it* or
it may ta@e the form of man=als detailin> eIactly Bhat steps to ta@e in carryin>
o=t more compleI and len>thy proced=res* s=ch as caliDratin> and settin> =p
>rindin> Bheels for =seC hese Bill form the Dasis of trainin> pro>rammesC hey
are li@ely to De accompanied Dy chec@lists for Bor@ers to =se as aids to ens=re
that all the correct steps are ta@en* and to chec@ oJ details Defore contin=in>
Bith the neIt step or startin> operationsC
/ritten doc=mentation also pro?ides the employer Bith a record of actions ta@en
in compliance Bith the le>islationC his may De essential if there is an inspection
Dy enforcement a>encies or any proceedin>s arisin> o=t of an accident at the
Bor@placeC
echnical* Proced=ral and Beha?io=ral Controls
" safe system of Bor@ Bill in?ol?e all the elements of control that Be identifed in
the >eneral hierarchy of controlH
T310&$1+,* or en>ineerin>* controls are those Bhich are applied directly to
the haAard itself in order to minimise the ris@C his may in?ol?e fencin> or
Darriers of diJerent @inds to isolate Bor@ers from the haAard as far as
possiDle* or failsafe de?ices desi>ned into eG=ipment to stop its operation if
2= NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
there is a fa=ltC It is important for the system to reco>nise s=ch controls
since they often =nderpin the safety of the Bhole operationC Similarly*
Bor@ers m=st reco>nise their importance and the need to ens=re that they
are in Bor@in> order at all timesC
P(#13%-(+, controls are those defned in the Bay in Bhich Bor@ sho=ld De
carried o=t in relation to the haAardC hey Bill specify the eIact tas@s
in?ol?ed* their seG=ence and the safety actions and chec@s Bhich ha?e to De
ta@enC h=s* there Bill De a set proced=re for operatin> a >rindin> machine*
openin> machine >=ards* chec@in> for proDlems Defore chan>in> the
Bor@piece* sec=rin> a neB Bor@piece and closin> the >=ards Defore
sBitchin> Dac@ on* and fnally Baitin> =ntil it is safe Defore openin> the
>=ards a>ainC
Often the proced=re Bill relate to the correct operation of the technical
controlsC In other instances it Bill specify mana>ement chec@s Bhich ha?e to
De made as part of the processC
@30+"$#-(+, controls relate to hoB the indi?id=al operator* or >ro=ps of
Bor@ers* act in relation to the haAardC hey Bill relate to >eneral points of
>ood safety practice in the Bor@placeE for eIample* not cons=min> dr=>s or
alcohol* not h=rryin> or c=ttin> corners* alBays reportin> defects or fa=lts*
cleanin> =p spills* etcCE and to specifc meas=res relatin> to the partic=lar
FoD* s=ch as personal protecti?e eG=ipmentC
#e?elopment of a Safe System of /or@
he process of de?elopin> a safe system of Bor@ starts Bith a ris@ assessment* in
Bhich the haAards and ris@s in?ol?ed in the ?ario=s tas@s ma@in> =p the Bor@ are
identifedC "ppropriate controls are then form=lated and introd=ced* so the Bor@
may De carried o=t in a safe and eJecti?e BayC his demands that there is a
compromise DetBeen the needs of the FoD and the safety controls Bhich are
applied* dependin> on the eItent of the ris@C
"nalysin> as@s* Identifyin> HaAards and "ssessin> %is@s
he Dasis of haAard identifcation is tas@ analysisC his has to consider all
aspects of the tas@s necessary to carry o=t the Bor@ of a defned processC he
process may De F=st one tas@ Ks=ch as operatin> a slicin> machine in a food
storeL or a Bhole series of interloc@in> tas@s in?ol?in> one or more people* s=ch
as feedin> steel sheets into pressesC +actors Bhich m=st De addressed in order
to identify haAards incl=deH
/hat is =sed and hoB it is =sed ( plant* machinery* eG=ipment* s=Dstances
handled* etcC he ris@s associated Bith each element ha?e to De assessedC
/here the tas@ is carried o=t ( the immediate and Bider en?ironment of the
FoD and the iss=es Bhich they present* s=ch as li>htin>* Beather conditions*
haAards from adFacent areas* etcC
/ho does it ( the Bor@ers* s=per?isors and possiDly other mana>ement
le?els in?ol?ed in the Bor@ process* and the le?els of trainin>* eIpertise and
other attriD=tes necessaryC
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 21
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
HoB the Bor@ is done ( the Bay in Bhich the people or person act=ally >oes
aDo=t the FoD* =sin> eG=ipment* etcC* and interactin> Bith the en?ironment
>enerally and Bith other peopleC
$neIpected e?ents ( Bays in Bhich the Bor@ may ?ary accordin> to diJerent
circ=mstancesC
he frst step on completin> this analysis is to consider Bhether any haAards can
De eliminated from the process alto>ether Dy chan>in> any feat=re of the Bor@C
/here this is not possiDle* controls Bill De reG=ired to red=ce the ris@ presentedC
Introd=cin> Controls and +orm=latin> Proced=res
he safe system Bill De defned Dy the =se of technical* proced=ral and
Deha?io=ral controls applyin> to the tas@s in?ol?ed in the Bor@C In most cases
this Bill De a simple Britten proced=re* D=t it mi>ht De a hi>hly de?eloped system
of r=les and prescriDed actionsC In certain cases Bhere there are eItreme ris@s
in?ol?ed* a formal Npermit:to:Bor@O system may De in =seC his Bo=ld De for
Bor@ processes Bhere permissions and confrmations are necessary at each
sta>e in order to proceed safely* s=ch as Bor@in> Bith hi>h ?olta>e electricityC
/e Bill co?er permits:to:Bor@ in detail laterC
"s Be noted* Doth the competent person and the Bor@ers act=ally doin> the Bor@
sho=ld De in?ol?ed in the process of identifyin> haAards and form=latin> the
control proced=resC
"ll aspects of the controls ( technical* proced=ral and Deha?io=ral ( m=st De
properly doc=mentedC
Instr=ction and rainin> in the Operation of the System
he safe system of Bor@ m=st De properly =nderstood Dy Bor@ers and applied
correctlyC his in?ol?es comm=nication* trainin>* instr=ction and s=per?isionC
hey form an essential part of the system in that only people Bho are competent
Dy means of appropriate trainin> and instr=ction may De alloBed to =nderta@e
the Bor@C
Instr=ction and trainin> has to De specifc to the Bor@ itself to ens=re that all
Bor@ers* and others* ha?e the necessary @noBled>e and s@ills to operate safely
in the defned sit=ationC It may De deli?ered Dy means of trainin> co=rses in
=sin> partic=lar eG=ipment* ?erDal instr=ctions* demonstrations* Britten
instr=ctions and notices* etcC S=per?isors Bill ha?e to monitor Deha?io=r to see
that staJ folloB instr=ctions and trainin>C
&onitorin> and %e?ieBin> the System
he safe systems sho=ld De monitored re>=larly to ens=re that they contin=e to
Bor@ eJecti?elyC E?en if the system is Bor@in> Bell* it may De that more can De
done to red=ce f=rther the le?el of ris@C S=st Deca=se a system is eJecti?e* it
does not mean it is ha?in> the optim=m eJectC /here it is not* there may De tBo
Dasic reasonsE that the circ=mstances ha?e chan>ed* or it Bas not ri>ht in the
frst placeC /hen Bor@ers fnd systems impractical* they =s=ally fnd Bays to
Bor@ aro=nd it* either Bith no eJect on the le?el of ris@ or at a hi>her le?el of ris@
KBhich they may fnd acceptaDle in the circ=mstancesLC
22 NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
In either case* chan>es may ha?e to De made to any of the technical* proced=ral
or Deha?io=ral controlsC Note that this may incl=de stren>thenin> instr=ctions*
trainin> and s=per?ision in order to ens=re compliance Bith Deha?io=ral controlsC
Specifc EIamples of Safe Systems of /or@
/e Bill pro?ide three Drief eIamples of safe systems of Bor@ hereC
/or@in> in Confned Spaces
he term NConfned SpaceO can De a little misleadin>C It is often =sed to descriDe
the comDined presence of Doth a lar>e enclosed str=ct=re "N# a ran>e of
specifc haAards s=ch as oIy>en defciency* MammaDle ?apo=rs* potential for
Moodin>* etcC It is not the confned space itself that is the proDlem* D=t the
presence of se?eral diJerent types of haAard Bithin itC In addition* NconfnedO
may not mean NsmallO e?en tho=>h this is =s=ally soC "n eIample Bill ser?e to
ma@e the pointH Bor@in> =nder>ro=nd in mines* t=nnels* seBers* etcC* Bhere
MammaDle or toIic >ases may D=ild =pC hese areas are =s=ally specifcally
re>=lated Dy >o?ernments Deca=se confned space incidents almost alBays
in?ol?e m=ltiple fatalitiesC
he controls in place Bill incl=deH
echnical ( methods of sealin> openin>s to ens=re* so far as possiDle* that
nothin> haAardo=s can >et into the confned space Bhilst there is Bor@ >oin>
on* that access ro=tes are fIed open* ?entilation systems pro?ide for Doth
remo?al of Dad air and the inp=t of >ood air* pro?ision of adeG=ate li>htin>*
etcC
Proced=ral ( prior chec@s to De made on the atmosphere Defore entry*
systems for monitorin> Bor@ers7 entry and eIit* pro?ision of emer>ency
resc=e staJ as necessary* chec@in> and a?ailaDility of emer>ency
eG=ipment* time limits on d=ration of Bor@* etcC
Beha?io=ral ( =se of safety helmets* Dreathin> apparat=s and lifelines as
necessary* fre preca=tions* etcC
he le?el of competence necessary for =nderta@in> the Bor@ Bill De specifed and
the system Bill reG=ire chec@s to De made to ens=re that only those Bith the
appropriate trainin> are alloBed to do the Bor@C Other methods of s=per?isin>
Bor@ers in confned spaces* either from o=tside or inside the same space*
necessary in order to ens=re safety Bill also De detailedC
Lone /or@in>
Lone Bor@ers are those Bho are separated Dy distance from their Bor@
collea>=es and are not in contin=o=s direct face:to:face contact Bith themC &any
people carry o=t their Bor@ in this Bay* either all the time or on a re>=lar or
occasional DasisE for eIample sales representati?esE installation* repair and
maintenance staJE cleaners and ni>ht sec=rity Bor@ers* etcC
he haAards they enco=nter mi>ht De the same as for their collea>=es Bor@in>
to>ether* D=t the ris@s can De hi>her Deca=se of the lac@ of assistance* eC>C liftin>
a hea?y oDFectC +=rthermore* if o=t of to=ch Bith Dase* they cannot notify
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 23
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
collea>=es of any proDlem* nor recei?e Barnin>sC Neither do they ha?e access to
the facilities normally a?ailaDle in the Bor@place* not only those for performin> a
tas@ D=t also ones to deal Bith emer>encies* s=ch as fres and inF=ries reG=irin>
frst aidC /here tra?el is in?ol?ed* this itself introd=ces ris@sC
echnical controls Bhich can De applied to lone Bor@ers are mainly to do Bith
ens=rin> that appropriate comm=nications are a?ailaDle to alloB the lone Bor@er
to contact collea>=es Kand they to contact himL and the emer>ency ser?ices at
all times* and the pro?ision of frst aid and fre eItin>=ishers* etcC Proced=ral
controls may incl=de lo>>in> mo?ements so that someone is aBare at all times
Bhere the lone Bor@er is* and ens=rin> any necessary preca=tions are ta@en
Defore enterin> other premises* incl=din> notifcation of his.her presence and
chec@in> for any partic=lar reG=irementsC Beha?io=ral controls Bill incl=de the
iss=e of personal protecti?e eG=ipment appropriate to the haAards li@ely to De
faced in the co=rse of the Bor@ Ks=ch as hard hats and safety Doots for ?isitin>
constr=ction sitesLC
/or@in> and ra?ellin> "Droad
In an increasin>ly T>loDal7 mar@etplace many or>anisations Bill send employees
to ?isit and Bor@ in other co=ntriesC here are ?ario=s possiDle ris@s associated
Bith Bor@in> and tra?ellin> aDroad* most notaDly sec=rity and health ris@sC
Or>anisations that send employees aDroad* Bhether for short d=ration ?isits or
for lon>er periods of Bor@* ha?e a d=ty to mana>e the health and safety aspects
of the Bor@ in eIactly the same Bay as all other =nderta@in>sC he startin> point
Bill De to de?elop a policy on international tra?el* Bhere the or>anisation clearly
reco>nises its d=ties and specifes the arran>ements that Bill De made to f=lfl
the d=tyC hese arran>ements are li@ely to co?er the folloBin> @ey topic areasH
Pre: and post:?isit Driefn>sC
Ins=rance arran>ementsC
Personal healthC
+inancial arran>ementsC
Personal sec=rityC
"ccommodationC
In:co=ntry tra?elC
Emer>ency arran>ementsC
6-:ho=r or>anisation contactsC
One of the Di>>est ris@s associated Bith international tra?el is the personal
health ris@sC It is essential that =p:to:date ad?ice is oDtained Defore tra?ellin>C
Some of the preca=tions that may need to De considered areH
!accinationC
Pre:trip medical eIaminationC
&edical ins=ranceC
rainin> on personal health careC
2; NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
Emer>ency medical pro?isionC
Post:trip medical chec@:=pC
rainin> and ad?ice m=st De pro?ided for the tra?ellin> employee to minimise the
ris@s associated Bith diseases s=ch as HI!."I#S* raDies and malariaC
Personal sec=rity iss=es m=st De addressed Bhilst tra?ellin> and Bor@in> aDroadC
In most co=ntries aro=nd the Borld this reG=ires information and perhaps trainin>
for the employee so that they can apply simple preca=tionsC hese preca=tions
Bo=ld incl=de the folloBin>H
H#.3,)H ad?ice on room inspection* room sec=rity and protection of
?al=aDles left in the hotelC
L#1+, .(+"3,H ad?ice on =se of taIis* ro=>h areas* dressin> appropriately
and a?oidin> dan>erC
D($"$&'H ad?ice on local r=les of the road* dri?in> doc=mentation* action in
the e?ent of an accidentC "d?anced dri?in> or defensi?e dri?er trainin> may
De appropriateC
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 2<
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
%E!ISION 3$ESION 6
K4L #efne a safe system of Bor@C
K6L HoB does in?ol?in> Bor@ers in the de?elopment of safe systems of Bor@
contriD=te to stren>thenin> the safety c=lt=reR
K)L /hat is the diJerence DetBeen technical* proced=ral and Deha?io=ral
controlsR
K-L /hich types of control listed in K)L are =sed in permits:to:Bor@R
K;L /hy do instr=ction* trainin> and s=per?ision form a part of safe systemsR
K6L /hat is a permit:to:Bor@R
K1L /hat three @ey points are missin> from this list of reG=irements for a permit:
to:Bor@ formR
Permit title* n=mDer and reference to other rele?ant permits or isolation
certifcatesC
SoD location* plant identifcation* description of Bor@ to De done and its
limitationsC
HaAard identifcation and preca=tions necessaryC
Si>nat=re of the mana>er releasin> the plant for the FoD and confrmin>
that isolations ha?e Deen made.preca=tions ta@en* eIcept those Bhich
can only De ta@en d=rin> the Bor@C
Si>nat=re confrmin> =nderstandin> of the Bor@ to De done* the haAards
in?ol?ed and the preca=tions reG=iredC
Hand:Dac@ ( si>nat=res* Bith time and date* of Doth the permit acceptor
and iss=er confrmin> that all the proced=res ha?e Deen carried o=t
correctly* the Bor@ has Deen completed and the plant is ready for testin>
and recommissionin>C
Cancellation ( si>nat=res* Bith time and date* certifyin> that the Bor@
has Deen tested and the plant satisfactorily recommissioned* and that it
has Deen accepted Dac@ in a safe condition for prod=ction to
recommenceC
he s=>>ested ansBers are >i?en at the end of the elementC
26 NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
E&E%GENC, P%OCE#$%ES
Emer>encies may happen in any Bor@placeE they mi>ht incl=de serio=s personal
inF=ry* fre* eIplosion* chemical spills* toIic >as release* ?andalism* Moodin>* and
perhaps riots or terrorist acti?itiesC "nticipatin> emer>encies and plannin> yo=r
response can >reatly red=ce the eItent of inF=ries and dama>e to eG=ipment*
material and propertyC
#e?elopin> Emer>ency Proced=res
he main oDFecti?e of emer>ency proced=res is to pro?ide a temporary safe
en?ironment for Bor@ers and to limit the loss of propertyC here sho=ld De a
prepared plan spellin> o=t a co=rse of action Bhich directs people in actin>
immediately and correctly in all types of emer>enciesC
he emer>ency proced=re sho=ld o=tline the Dasic steps necessary to handle
foreseeaDle emer>encies in the Bor@placeC "ltho=>h it does not ha?e to De all:
incl=si?e* it sho=ld pro?ide appropriate >=idance on Bhat to do in an emer>encyE
for eIampleH
Clear* Britten policies Bhich desi>nate a chain of command* >i?in> the
names and FoD titles of the people Kor departmentsL Bho are responsiDle for
ma@in> decisions* monitorin> response actions and ret=rnin> operations
Dac@ to normalC
Names of those Bho are responsiDle for assessin> the de>ree of ris@ to life
and property and Bho sho=ld De notifed for ?ario=s types of emer>enciesC
Specifc instr=ctions for sh=ttin> doBn eG=ipment and prod=ction processes*
and for stoppin> D=siness acti?itiesC
E?ac=ation proced=res* incl=din> a desi>nated assemDly point o=tside the
Bor@place and a method to acco=nt for all Bor@ers* and others* after an
e?ac=ationC
Proced=res for Bor@ers Bho are responsiDle for sh=ttin> doBn critical
operations Defore an e?ac=ationC
Specifc trainin>* special eG=ipment* and practice sched=les for Bor@ers Bho
are responsiDle for resc=e operations* medical d=ties* haAardo=s sit=ations*
fre f>htin> and other responses specifc to the Bor@placeC
he preferred means of reportin> fres and other emer>enciesC
he frst step in de?elopin> an emer>ency proced=re is a ris@ assessmentC he
haAards to De identifed incl=de those at the Bor@place* and also those at nearDy
facilities Bhich may aJect itC /here haAardo=s s=Dstances are =sed* the
man=fact=rer or s=pplier sho=ld De aDle to pro?ide information aDo=t the
emer>ency and frst:aid proced=res Bhich may De necessaryC
he proced=re sho=ld co?er diJerent emer>ency sit=ations and identify
appropriate responses in all areas of the Bor@placeC It sho=ld De de?eloped in
co:operation Bith Bor@ers* and re?ieBed Bith them Bhen responsiDilities or the
plan itself chan>eC +inally* it m=st De comm=nicated clearly to Bor@ers and
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 27
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
others Bho may De aJectedC his incl=des postin> appropriate notices at @ey
locations* descriDin> proced=res in ind=ction pro>rammes KDoth for neB Bor@ers
and those ?isitin> the Bor@placeL and carryin> o=t trainin> in the proced=res
themsel?esC
+irst:aid %eG=irements
+irst aid is the immediate and temporary care >i?en to the ?ictim of an accident
or illness =ntil the ser?ices of a G=alifed medical practitioner can De oDtainedC It
can sa?e li?es and pre?ent serio=s personal harm* so e?ery Bor@place sho=ld
ha?e s=Qcient trained people a?ailaDle and s=itaDle facilities to deal Bith any
cases Bhich mi>ht occ=rC
%is@ assessments m=st De carried o=t to determine the le?el of pro?ision
reG=iredC ,o= Bill at least need a frst aid DoI and someone to call the
emer>ency ser?ices and loo@ after the frst aid eG=ipment* D=t this may ha?e to
De eItended dependin> on s=ch factors as the nat=re of the Bor@ and the
n=mDer of people in?ol?edC
%ole and rainin> of +irst "iders and Other Personnel
" frst aider is someone Bho has Deen trained to administer frst aid appropriate
to haAards of the partic=lar Bor@placeE for eIample* controllin> Dleedin>* >i?in>
artifcial respiration* etcC It is li@ely that all Bor@places Bill need at least one
G=alifed frst aiderE and Bhere the Bor@ is of a partic=larly dan>ero=s nat=re Kin
relation to the eG=ipment =sed and.or the materials handledL it may De
necessary to ha?e many moreC
he main f=nctions of frst aid areH
Preser?in> lifeC
&inimisin> the conseG=ences of an inF=ry =ntil medical help is oDtainedC
reatment of minor inF=ries Bhich Bo=ld not recei?e or do not need medical
attentionC
+irst aiders and other staJ sho=ld ne?er administer treatment Bhich they ha?e
not Deen trained to deli?erC heir role is to pro?ide initial assistance to the ?ictim
Bhile Baitin> for an amD=lance or other medical helpC his is li@ely to incl=de
separatin> the patient from the haAard and s=ch actions asH
Pre?entin> any serio=s loss of DloodC
&aintainin> Dreathin>C
"ttendin> to D=rns or scaldsC
Pre?entin> shoc@C
#ealin> Bith localised inF=ries* s=ch as those to the eyeC
It is no >ood ha?in> a frst aid or>anisation if the names of its memDers are not
@noBn to those at ris@C herefore* the folloBin> meas=res sho=ld De ta@enH
" notice m=st De prominently displayed >i?in> the nameKsL of the personKsL
in char>e* to>ether Bith the names of the G=alifed frst aidersC
2 NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
In lar>e premises* it may De necessary to ha?e more than one notice
displayed and it is =sef=l to add a reminder relatin> to the importance of
see@in> frst aid treatment for all inF=ries* hoBe?er sli>htC In addition to the
notices* each neB Bor@er sho=ld De told to Bhom he.she sho=ld >o for frst
aid treatmentC
+irst "id +acilities
"ll Bor@places m=st ha?e a frst aid @it* s=itaDly stoc@ed* as Bell as other
facilities appropriate to n=mDers of staJ and the ris@s Bhich they face in the
Bor@placeC his incl=des not only Bor@ers* D=t also contractors* ?isitors and
memDers of the p=DlicC
F$(). A$% @#>3)
+irst aid DoIes sho=ld De strate>ically sited in relation to the Bor@ areas and
sho=ld De easily seen and mar@edC If possiDle they sho=ld De sited in >ood
li>htin> and near a Bash DasinE a chair sho=ld De pro?idedC
he person in char>e of the DoI or caDinet sho=ld ma@e s=re the DoI is @ept
properly stoc@ed and in a clean* ser?iceaDle conditionC o aid stoc@ chec@s* a list
of contents is ?al=aDle and additional items sho=ld De ordered Defore the stoc@ is
=sed =pC " record sho=ld De @ept of all cases treatedC he contents of frst aid
DoIes Bill reMect the types of ris@ associated Bith the Bor@placeC Note that
medicines and taDlets sho=ld not De incl=ded* since they may only De >i?en Dy
G=alifed medical personnelC
F$(). A$% F+1$,$.$3)
+or lar>er premises a frst aid room may De pro?ided Bhere inF=red or =nBell
people can De ta@en for immediate treatmentC #ependin> on the nat=re of the
Bor@ carried o=t and the n=mDers of people in?ol?ed* the folloBin> points are
important Bhen considerin> the site for s=ch a roomH
It sho=ld ha?e adeG=ate Moor space* incl=din> s=Qcient room to manoe=?re
stretchersC
It sho=ld De in a central position* easily accessiDle to all parts of the
premises* and preferaDly on the >ro=nd Moor so that amD=lances may De
dri?en =p to the doorC It sho=ld De accessiDle to people in BheelchairsC
It sho=ld De in a G=iet place Bith >ood nat=ral li>htin> and ?entilationC
here sho=ld De an adeG=ate Baitin> area for patients and consideration
sho=ld De >i?en to patient MoB* ease of control and =se Dy the n=rsin> staJC
"rran>ements for Contactin> Emer>ency and
%esc=e Ser?ices
he arran>ements for contactin> the appropriate emer>ency or resc=e ser?ices*
s=ch as the fre Dri>ade* amD=lance ser?ice* police* en?ironmental a>ency* =tility
KBater* >as and electricityL a=thorities and local a=thorities* sho=ld De set o=t in
the or>anisation7s safety policy and emer>ency proced=reC
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 2!
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
Part of the response to an emer>ency is li@ely to incl=de ta@in> action to contain
the haAard* s=ch as fre:f>htin>* sh=ttin> doBn eG=ipment or >i?in> frst aidC It is
important that the proced=res sho=ld clearly set o=t the limits of s=ch actions to
De ta@en Dy Bor@ers and stress the need to Drin> in specialised assistance at the
earliest opport=nityC
he proced=re sho=ld identify indi?id=als or >ro=ps Bith specifc responsiDilities
in the e?ent of an emer>encyC It Bill De part of their role toH
%ecei?e information aDo=t incidents li@ely to >i?e rise to an emer>ency
sit=ation Kso Bor@ers m=st @noB eIactly Bho to alert in s=ch sit=ationsLC
#ecide on the initial reaction to a sit=ation* incl=din> Bhether an e?ac=ation
is necessary and then lead that response Bith other indi?id=als Bho ha?e
specifc responsiDilities =nder the proced=re Ks=ch as frst:aiders or
emer>ency fre:f>htersLC
Contact the emer>ency and resc=e ser?ices as necessary* and >i?e them an
o=tline of the incident and any special proDlems.haAards they mi>ht ha?e to
faceC
Emer>ency Co?er in %elation to Shift /or@ and
Geo>raphical Location
he safety policy and emer>ency proced=res sho=ld set o=t the necessary
arran>ements to ens=re adeG=ate co?er is in eIistence Bhene?er the main
desi>nated personnel are not a?ailaDleC It is normal practice to ha?e Dac@:=p
personnel identifed to co?er for aDsences* D=t special arran>ements ha?e to De
made in certain circ=mstances* Dased on specifc ris@ assessmentsC
his applies in partic=lar to shift Bor@* Bhere separate co?er of the
responsiDilities for emer>encies and frst aid m=st De ens=red at all timesC
/here the desi>nated person or persons carryin> o=t these roles chan>es* it is
important that notifcation is >i?en to Bor@ers of Bho holds the responsiDilities at
any >i?en timeC
Or>anisations Bho ha?e Bor@ers Bho Bor@ in remote areas or alone sho=ld
consider ma@in> special arran>ements* s=ch as pro?idin> a tBo:Bay radio and
personal frst aid @its* and or>anisin> emer>ency transport facilitiesC Contact
arran>ements Bith the main Bor@place m=st De set o=t clearlyC
3= NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
%E!ISION 3$ESION )
K4L /hat is the main oDFecti?e of an emer>ency proced=reR
K6L /hat haAards sho=ld De incl=ded in a ris@ assessment relatin> to emer>ency
proced=resR
K)L /hat is the role of those Bith specially desi>nated responsiDilities in the
e?ent of an emer>encyR
K-L /hat items sho=ld not De incl=ded in a frst aid @itR
he s=>>ested ansBers are >i?en at the end of the elementC
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 31
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
S$&&"%,
Safety controls are Dased on nine >eneral principlesH
"?oidin> ris@s KBhere?er possiDleLC
E?al=atin> the ris@s Bhich cannot De a?oided Dy carryin> o=t a ris@
assessmentC
ComDatin> the ris@s at their so=rce* rather than ta@in> meas=res to control
the ris@ in the Bider Bor@placeC
"daptin> Bor@ to the reG=irements of the indi?id=alC
"daptin> to technical pro>ressC
%eplacin> the dan>ero=s Dy the non:dan>ero=s or less dan>ero=sC
#e?elopin> a consistent o?erall pre?ention policyC
Gi?in> priority to collecti?e protecti?e meas=res o?er indi?id=al protecti?e
meas=resC
Gi?in> appropriate instr=ctions to Bor@ers* incl=din> the =se of si>ns*
trainin> and s=per?isionC
here is a hierarchy of control meas=res Bhich in?ol?e frstly eliminatin> the
haAard thro=>h its remo?al or s=Dstit=tion if possiDleC If this is not possiDle*
en>ineerin> controls sho=ld De =sed to red=ce the ris@ at so=rce and pro?ide
protection >enerally rather than indi?id=ally* thro=>h isolation.se>re>ation of the
haAard or physical controls applied directly to itC "ny resid=al ris@ sho=ld De
dealt Bith Dy control o?er the Bay people interact Bith the haAard* =sin> >i?en
Bor@in> patterns and methods or* as a last resort* personal protecti?e
eG=ipmentC
" safe system of Bor@ is a formal Britten proced=re* Bhich is Dased =pon a
systematic eIamination of the tas@s of a Bor@in> process in order to identify all
the haAards and defnes methods of Bor@in> Bhich eliminate those haAards or
minimise the ris@s associated Bith themC he system sho=ld De de?eloped Dy
competent personnel in cons=ltation Bith the Bor@ers Bho are in?ol?ed Bith the
act=al Bor@C Instr=ction* trainin> and s=per?ision form as important a part of the
system as the >eneral and specifc technical* proced=ral and Deha?io=ral controls
Bhich are appliedC Employers are =nder a >eneral d=ty to pro?ide safe systems
of Bor@ for their Bor@ersC
/here partic=larly haAardo=s operations ha?e to De carried o=t* special permit:
to:Bor@ systems may De =sed as part of the safe systemC hese are formal
arran>ements Bhich confrm that appropriate safety meas=res ha?e Deen ta@en
at each sta>e in the operation* and that the desi>nated proced=res ha?e Deen
folloBedC
Emer>ency proced=res for the safe sh=ttin> doBn of operations and the
e?ac=ation of premises m=st De in placeC Specially desi>nated personnel Bill De
>i?en specifc responsiDilities in dealin> Bith emer>encies* incl=din> co:
ordinatin>.leadin> the response to the e?ent* arran>in> for safe e?ac=ation and
32 NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
notifyin> the emer>ency and.or resc=e ser?icesC "rran>ements m=st De in place
to pro?ide co?er for s=ch personnel in the e?ent of their aDsenceC
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 33
Principles of Control in Health and Safety | Element 6
S$GGESE# "NS/E%S O %E!ISION
3$ESIONS
%e?ision 3=estion 4
K4L he three missin> principles areH
ComDatin> the ris@s at their so=rce* rather than ta@in> meas=res to
control the ris@ in the Bider Bor@placeC
Gi?in> priority to collecti?e protecti?e meas=res o?er indi?id=al
protecti?e meas=resC
Gi?in> appropriate instr=ctions to Bor@ersC
K6L KiL &andatory action ( m=st p=t litter in DinsC
KiiL ProhiDition ( not drin@in> BaterC
KiiiL Safe conditions ( drin@in> BaterC
Ki?L /arnin> ( radiation haAardC
K)L +irst* eliminate the haAard thro=>h elimination or s=Dstit=tionC
Second* =se en>ineerin> controls Bhich red=ce the ris@ at so=rce and
pro?ide protection >enerally rather than indi?id=allyC
+inally* control the Bay people interact Bith the haAard Dy Bor@in> patterns
and methods* or as a last resort Dy the =se of personal protecti?e eG=ipmentC
K-L En>ineerin> controls pro?ide plant and eG=ipment Bith D=ilt:in safety
feat=res and add partic=lar safety eG=ipment to processes in order to
remo?e or red=ce ris@sC
K;L /hen it has not Deen possiDle to eliminate the haAard or red=ce ris@ to
acceptaDle le?els Dy the =se of en>ineerin> controls* Bor@in> methods or
Bor@in> patternsC
%e?ision 3=estion 6
K4L " safe system of Bor@ is a formal proced=re Bhich res=lts from a systematic
eIamination of the tas@s of a Bor@ process in order to identify all the haAards
and defne methods of Bor@in> Bhich eliminate those haAards or minimise
the ris@s associated Bith themC
K6L In?ol?ement enaDles Bor@ers to >ain a deeper =nderstandin> of haAards and
ris@s* and of the Bay in Bhich safe systems of Bor@ Bill minimise those ris@sC
K)L echnical or en>ineerin> controls are those Bhich are applied directly to the
haAard itself in order to minimise the ris@C Proced=ral controls defne the
Bay in Bhich Bor@ sho=ld De carried o=t in relation to the haAardC
Beha?io=ral controls defne hoB the indi?id=al operator or >ro=ps of Bor@ers
m=st act in relation to the haAardC
K-L "ll of themC
3; NEBOSH International General Certifcate < %%C B=siness rainin>
Element 6 | Principles of Control in Health and Safety
K;L Beca=se only people Bho are competent Dy means of appropriate trainin>
and instr=ction may De alloBed to =nderta@e the Bor@C S=per?ision is
necessary to ens=re that staJ folloB instr=ctions and their trainin>C
K6L Permits:to:Bor@ are formal Britten doc=ments specifyin> the Bor@ to De done
and the preca=tions to De ta@enC /or@ can only start Bhen it is confrmed
that it is safe to do so* and the Bor@ m=st De carried o=t strictly accordin> to
the reG=irements of the permitC On completion* confrmation is reG=ired that
all safety meas=res ha?e Deen reinstated Defore any f=rther Bor@ can
commenceC
K1L he three missin> elements areH
Protecti?e eG=ipment necessary Bhen =nderta@in> the Bor@C
#ate and time d=ration of the permitC
EItension.shift hand:o?er proced=res ( si>nat=res confrmin> that
chec@s ha?e Deen made to ens=re that the plant remains safe to De
Bor@ed =pon* and that the neIt Bor@ers ha?e Deen made f=lly aBare of
the haAards and preca=tionsC /here an eItension to the Bor@ is
in?ol?ed* a neB eIpiry time for the permit m=st De >i?enC
%e?ision 3=estion )
K4L he main oDFecti?e of emer>ency proced=res is to pro?ide a safe
en?ironment for Bor@ers d=rin> an emer>ency and to limit the loss of
propertyC
K6L HaAards at the Bor@place* and also those at nearDy facilities Bhich may
aJect itC
K)L heir role Bill De toH
%ecei?e information aDo=t incidents li@ely to >i?e rise to an emer>ency
sit=ationC
#etermine the initial response to the sit=ation* incl=din> Bhether an
e?ac=ation is necessary* and lead that responseC
Contact the emer>ency and resc=e ser?ices as necessary* and Drief
them on the nat=re of the incident and any special proDlems.haAards
they mi>ht faceC
K-L &edicines and taDlets Ksince they may only De dispensed Dy G=alifed
medical personnelLC
< %%C B=siness rainin> NEBOSH International General Certifcate 3<