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UNITED

DIRECTOR OF ARMY AVIATION, ACSFOR


DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
BG William J. Maddox Jr.
COMMANDANT, U. S. ARMY AVIATION
SCHOOL
MG Allen M. Burdett Jr.
ASST COMDT, U. S. ARMY AVIATION
SCHOOL
COL Earl W. Fletcher
EDITOR, U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
Rlchard K. Tierney
ABOUT THE COVER
5
The U. S. Army's first computer-
ized synthetic flight training sys-
tem is now in operation at the
U. S. Army Aviation School lo-
cated at Ft. Rucker, AL. See the
SFTS story beginning on page 6.
Cover photograph by CPT Tom Greene
ARMY AVIATION
'1GESJ
SEPTEMBER 1972 VOLUME 18 NUMBER Cj
Views From Readers 1
Mission: Nightmare ~
Turbine Trainers S
Synthetic Flight Training System 6
Charlie and Danny's Write-In 1
The Power Of Positive Prevention 1
The Extra Step 1
Can These Two Puzzle Parts Solve Your
Transponder Problem?
For Tac Tickets Only
Instrument Corner
Rationale
Aviation In The French Army
What Is A Learning Center?
Checklist Sense
The Fine Line
The Turbine's 10 Commandments
Mr. Aviation
ISIS Makes Your Flying Safer
Pearl's
To Move A Mountain
Aviation Accident Prevention Forum
Broken Wing Awards
USAASO Sez
Weather Tidbits Inside Bac
The minion of the U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST is to provide Information of an opera
tional or functional nature concerning safety and aircraft accident prevention, training,
maintenance, operations, research and development, aviation medicine, and other re
lated data.
The DIGEST is an 0111 cI a I Department of the Army periodical published monthly unde
the supervision of the Commandant, U. S. Army Aviation School. Views expressed herel
are not necessarily those of Department of the Army or the U. S. Army Aviation School
Photos are U. 5. Army unless otherwise specified. Material may be reprinted provide
credit is given to the DIGEST and to the author, unless otherwise indicated.
Artieles, photos, and items of Interest on Army aviation are Invited. Direct communlca
tion is authorized to: Editor, U. S. Army Aviation Digest, Fort Rucker, Ala. 36360.
Use of funds for rrlntlng this publication has been approved by Headquarters, Depart
ment of the Army, October 1970.
Active Army units receive distribution under the pinpoint distribution system as out
lined in AR 3101. Complete DA Form 12-4 and send directly to CO, AG Publications Cen
ter, 2800 Eastern Boulevard, Baltimore, Md. 21220. For any change in distribution require
ments, initiate a revised DA Form 12-4.
National Guard and Army Reserve units under pinpoint distribution also should ~ u m i
DA Form 12-4. Other National Guard units should submit requests through their stat
adiutants general.
For those not eligible for official distribution or who desire personal copies of th
DIGEST, paid subscriptions, $4.50 domestic and $5.50 overseas, are available from th
Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. 20402
JEWS
ROM
EADERS
Sir:
The U. S. Army Transportation
School at Ft. Eustis, VA, has made
available the Aircraft Maintenance Of-
ficer Correspondence Course, which will
parallel the resident Aircraft Mainte-
nance Officer Course.
To consist of approximately 280
credit hours, the course is designed for
officers and warrant officers assigned or
anticipating assignment to aircraft main-
tenance duties. The first 18 subcourses,
of 125 credit hours, are now ready for
issue.
Titles and scopes of subcourses in the
course, as well as enrollment informa-
tion, can be found in the Transportation
School's 1972-73 correspondence course
catalog. Other courses and subcourses
covering all modes of transportation
are also described. A copy may be ob-
tained by writing the Commandant,
U. S. Army Transportation School,
ATIN: ATSTC-NE, Ft. Eustis, VA
23604.
Sir:
Information Officer
Ft. Eustis, VA 23604
The J one 1972 edition of the
DIGEST contained a letter in the
"Views From Readers" section concern-
ing a list of U. S. Army Aero Clubs.
The Fort Carson Flying Club pub-
lishes a directory of all military-affili-
ated Flying Clubs in CONUS. The 1973
edition will be published in November
1972, and will include Flying/Aero
Clubs in Europe and the Pacific.
The Flying Club Directory is more
than just a list of clubs-it provides
such information as field elevations,
SEPTEMBER 1972
fuel/POL available, maintenance facil-
ities available, hangar/tie-down space
available, etc.
The directory is available through the
Fort Carson Flying Club (Fort Carson,
CO 80913) for a nominal fee.
Any club not listed in the directory is
invited to send us a note requesting an
information sheet so they may be in-
cluded in the 1973 edition. Clubs in
Europe and the East are especially re-
quested to let us know they exist.
Sir:
CPT Louis E. Fausak
Fort Carson Flying Club
Fort Carson, CO 80913
Reference the excellent article "Ra-
dar's Role in Air Traffic Control" in
your May issue, I would like clarifica-
tion on one statement. On page 31, the
pilot states, "Radar primarily serves as
an aid to navigation," and the controller
agrees. I do not believe that Mr. Beatty
intended to leave this impression with
the reader. Air traffic control radar has
as its primary function the assistance to
the controller necessary to perform his
separation and sequencing tasks. Nav-
igation information (or radar vectors)
are supplied to the aircraft by the con-
troller in order to separate radar iden-
tified aircraft, move the aircraft through
the controller's sector as quickly as pos-
sible, or sequence aircraft in order to
achieve both separation and expeditious
movement. The majority of radar vec-
tors are supplied in terminal areas, and
rarely applied in the enroute structure.
It is both impracticable and impos-
sible for the pilot to expect to rely on
radar as a primary navigation system
for point to point flights when other
navigational methods are available,
even though satisfactory radar coverage
exists.
LTC Thomas P. Berry
Chief, Avionics Branch
Ft. Rucker, AL 36360
You're right. Radar does primarily
assist the controller to separate and
sequence aircraft. In doing this, radar
via the controller, se"es as an aid to
navigation, though it is not, we agree,
a primary navaid such as TACAN,
VOR, VORTAC, etc.
Radar vectors are frequently supplied
in the enroute structure for obtaining
operational advantage for the pilot or
when requested by the pilot. Also, on
request of the pilot and to the extent
possible, the controller will provide
pertinent information on radar-obse"ed
weather and suggest radar navigational
assistance to avoid the area then the
pilot will be vectored to the nonradar
route or to a point or fix to resume his
own navigation.
Although other navigational methods
are available, it is both practicable and
possible for the pilot to expect to rely
on radar as a primary navigation system
... loss of all airborne navigation ~
ment may occur including radio com-
munications-but hopefully your re-
ceiver still is operating. Either way, the
recommended left (total outage) or right
(receiver only) triangular patterns flown
may get you down thanks to "seeing"
the pattern with satisfactory radar
coverage. ~
1
MISSION:
t h ~ u g l h it was clear enroute, the of the mountain intended lar1ding
was obscured douds that went to the surface. As we Da:sse'd
the tower the medic that we were backwards and about to hit
the tower .. leaves and sand blew the cargo doors and we were
Steven D. Vermillion
SEPTEMBER 1972
instruments. When we passed the
radio tower on the right we were
only about 100 feet from our
touchdown point. The medic yelled
out that we were starting to move
backwards and were going to hit
the tower. Our air speed indicator
"said" 35 knots. The pilot lowered
the nose and pulled in the power.
The next thing we saw was total
darkness; the flares had gone out.
At this point we were only an
estimated 50 feet from the ground
and out of control.
As the pilot was attempting to
gain control of the aircraft I saw
the instruments indicating some-
thing unbelievable. The radio mag-
netic indicator (RMI). had gone
around at least three times, the air
speed indicator was pegged on
zero, and the rpm audio was blar-
ing in our headsets: 5600 rpm.
Along with the attitude indicator
alternating plus and minus 20 de-
grees in relation to the horizon,
our altimeter "said" that we were
100 feet below the mountain's ele-
vation. The crew chief and medic
were screaming that there were
sand and leaves coming through
the open cargo doors ... then we
were flying in the clear sky. We
quickly got the aircraft back under
control and took a few moments
to decide if we were alive. At some
point in this ordeal one of us got
out a radio transmission of what
was happening.
We were brought back into re-
ality by Dustoff operations calling
to see if we needed any assistance.
For a moment we really weren't
sure that it wasn't St. Peter herald-
ing our arrival at the Golden Gates.
After regaining our composure we
orbited the mountain looking for
another way to make the rescue.
After 5 hours we gave it up and
returned to Long Binh feeling let-
down because we couldn't com-
plete the mission. The next morn-
ing when the clouds cleared an-
other aircraft from our unit made
. the next morning when the clouds clea
other aircraft from our unit made the
our ioy we learned that the two men were
the pickup. To our joy we found
out that the two men were still
alive.
Since returning to the states I
have frequently thought back to
this mission and tried to analyze
the decisions made. Yes, I can see
errors where our inexperience
could have lead to catastrophic re-
sults. But throughout life I have
felt that it is necessary to attempt
a task in order to find out if it
can be accomplished, and when a
human life is involved this phil-
osophy burns a lot stronger.
To this date I am sure it was
only a miracle that we survived this
experience. I really can't say how
close we actually came to the top
of the mountain or exactly what
our aircraft was doing for those
few long seconds. All of the in-
struments were working correctly
and were also set properly prior
to takeoff. I suppose the only per-
son who really knows what actually
happened is the Being who was
flying as our "copilot."
Turbine Trainers
A NEW REVOLUTIONARY
concept in helicopter training
is being tested at the U. S. Army's
Primary Helicopter School at Ft.
Wolters, TX. The test program
was initiated in January of this
year and utilizes the turbined pow-
ered OH-58 Kiowa as the primary
helicopter trainer instead of the
piston powered TH-55 Osage
training helicopter. In conjunction
with the new aircraft an "individual
proficiency progression" concept
was introduced into the flight cur-
riculum which eliminates a specific
number of student flight hours for
graduation. Consequently, the stu-
dents of classes 72-25/ 26 com-
pleted primary II phase checkrides
in fewer flight hours than the Pri-
mary Helicopter School's average.
This training experiment, termed
the turbine trainer test, was con-
ceived to gather training data that
could be used in developing an
optimum program of instruction
(POI) for qualifying initial entry
rotary wing aviators. Specifically,
this test was designed to evaluate
"proficiency progression" flight and
academic curriculum concepts in
conjunction with a turbine trainer
helicopter. While it is still too early
to evaluate the initial findings of
the turbine trainer test, it does ap-
pear that it will provide data
which could have significant im-
pact upon future rotary wing
aviation training.
SEPTEMBER 1972
Captain John W. Lahey
The complete turbine trainer
test consisted of two separate test
groups. Each test group was
trained in two phases. Phase one
of the initial test group began with
classes 72-25/ 26. Students re-
ceived their complete primary heli-
copter training at Ft. Wolters in
the OH-58 turbine helicopter and
progressed through the course un-
der the proficiency progression
POI. The second phase of test 1
continued at the U. S. Army Avia-
tion School, Ft. Rucker, AL, in
early April where 16 students (8
officers and 8 warrant officers)
were randomly selected from the
two classes to begin an integrated
instrument and contact training
exclusiv.ely in the turbine powered
UH-1 Huey. Under the integrated
training concept the student is
given contact instruction in the
UH-1 aircraft at the same time he
is receiving instrument training,
thereby allowing the student's
knowledge of the aircraft and the
knowledge of instrument flight
procedures to develop together.
The second test group com-
menced with classes 72-39/ 40.
Students began training during
April at Ft. Wolters and also re-
ceived their complete primary
helicopter instruction in the OH-58
turbine helicopter under the pro-
ficiency progression POI. However,
during the second phase of test 2
at USAA VNS in late July, 16
randomly selected students from
these two classes (8 officers and 8
warrant officers) received instru-
ment and contact training in the
synthetic flight training system
(SFTS) and the UH-1 Huey.
The SFfS is the highly so-
phisticated helicopter instrument
trainer that has recently been de-
veloped for Army aviation.
Through the use of its digital com-
puters, memory cores, instructor
pilot display consoles and the
latest advancements in flight sim-
ulation devices, the SFTS can
expand the learning process in in-
strument and contact training by
providing the instructor pilot with
capabilities not available in a
training aircraft; i.e. , "freeze ac-
tion" and "instant playback." In
addition, the student's knowledge
of the aircraft is greatly improved
in that the SFTS can simulate
emergency conditions and cor-
rective actions that could not safely
be attempted in flight; i.e., gov-
ernor failure, tail rotor gear box
loss.
The information that is obtained
from the turbine trainer test could
have a far-reaching effect on the
future conduct of Army aviation
The result of this test,
as well as future tests, will be a
more proficient and more profes-
sional member of the aviation
team.
5
Synthetic Flight
Training System
Story by Maior Frederic H. Stubbs
Photographs by Captain Tom Greene
"It appears that a combination of simulator/airplane training results
in a pilot who is better trained than one trained in the airplane alone
... it becomes more and more worthwhile to utilize ground train-
ing devices, particularly aircraft simulators, for training purposes"
BATTERY-ON. Inverters-
OFF. Main fuel-ON. "Fire-
guards posted. Clear! Battery volt-
age is good. TIC-TIC-TIC ...
igniters are popping-whrrr-BOP-
BOP-BOP ... looks like a normal
start. Normal start? Far from it.
This is a flight simulator.
In the "good old days" an in-
strument flight instructor with his
SEPTEMBER 1972
orange flight suit and black base-
ball cap would wait anxiously for
his student to complete the pre-
flight inspection of the TH -13 so
that he could show this kid fresh
out of primary helicopter school
just how much he still had to learn
before he could win the title of
"aviator." Not so today ... the re-
quirement for the TH -13 instru-
-FAA
ment trainer is rapidly diminishing
because of the Army's new syn-
thetic flight training system (SFTS)
-a ground-based training device
which adds a realism to instrument
training never before even remotely
approached in any flight trainer.
In fact, it's so near the real thing
that experienced pilots feel they are
actuall y flying an aircraft.
7
What you see is what you get, and
what you get in the module cockpit
(right) is an exact replica of a UH-1 H
Huey cockpit except for the addition of
required training equipment. Depart-
ment of the Army personnel are cur-
rently being trained (left) as tech-
nicians who will have the capability of
repairing any circuit card in the sys-
tem, except for the cards in the 516
digital computer. The teletype looking
"inktronic" (below left) provides a
constant readout of the errors made
by the student during the flight
To save time and money and to
take advantage of the advanced
technology the Army has em-
barked on a training program using
high fidelity flight simulators. The
SFTS will introduce into Army
aviation training activities the lat-
est advances in flight training de-
vice design and technology. This
system will enable the Army to
conduct desired instrument and
tandardization training, to include
emergency procedures not safe to
practice in operational aircraft and
thus not able to be learned to high
proficiency levels. The emergency
procedure skills are those which
are related to .preparation of the
aviator to deal-almost in routine
fashion-with the unexpected
events which could jeopardize mis-
sion accomplishment.
The primary justification for the
procurement of the SFTS is that
the flight simulators will enhance
the training of aviators and sup-
stantially reduce training costs. The
SFTS is not restricted to the de-
sires of Mother Nature and her
outside weather conditions. All
weather conditions can be simu-
lated in the trainer. In areas where
snow, icing or continuous rain
would virtually stop all aircraft the
SFTS schedule of training would
be unaffected. After a recent re-
view of technological advances in
aircraft simulation, the Federal
Aviation Administration con-
cluded:
"It appears that a combi-
nation of simulator/airplane
training results in a pilot who
is better trained than one
trained in the airplane alone.
Simulators permit more con-
centrated training without
At first glance a person could suspect the
square box like appliances on either end
of the row (left) to be modern toploading
washing machines, but closer inspection of
one would reveal a high-fidelity looking
record changer called a disk-pack. The
disk-pack is a memory bank of all the
information required for the operation of
the SFTS. It is capable of storing 3.6
million words of which roughly one-third
is in use at this time. The remaining capa-
bility is to be used for future programs
waste of time and effort and
the trainee can be allowed to
see and correct his mistakes
without any detrimental ef-
fects on safety of flight.
Therefore, it becomes more
and more worthwhile to uti-
lize ground training devices,
particularly aircraft simula-
tors, for training purposes."
The current SFTS development
plan calls for a three phase sequen-
tial development program to satisfy
the requirements. The first phase
involved the development of one
UH-IH unit subsystem which con-
sisted of a four cockpit simulation
facility. The second phase, to be
initiated in first quarter FY 73, will
involve the development of a CH-
47 operational flight trainer (OFT)
subsystem which consists of one
cockpit with a visual device. The
CH-47 OFT, put on a subsystem,
will be the first time a visual device
has been put on a helicopter train-
ing simulator in the armed services.
An AH-IG COBRA-TOW OFf
subsystem with a visual device is
programed to be the third system,
with development starting in first
quarter FY 74.
Procurement and installation of
seven additional UH -1 H field unit
subsystems are programed for the
U. S. Army Aviation School
(USAA VNS) Ft. Rucker, AL, and
ultimately about eight more UH-l
and CH -4 7 subsystems are sched-
uled for worldwide distribution.
The U. S. Continental Army Com-
mand is evaluating the worldwide
requirement to include overseas
commands.
The SFTS UH-l subsystem con-
sists of four cockpit modules, four
motion platforms, one computer
module and one instructor station.
The motion platform is powered by
hydraulic actuators which drive the
motion platform with the fidelity
of the actual aircraft.
Each of the four cockpit mod-
ules can be programed to perform
independently such aircraft ma-
SEPTEMBER 1972
neuvers as ground control ap-
proach, nondirectional beacon ap-
proach, instrument landing system
approach, etc. Prerecorded brief-
ings and instructions prepare the
trainee for the training mission.
Realistic, computer-controlled
demonstrations of maneuvers and
tape recorded commentaries en-
hance training value. This allows
one instructor to train four pilots
simultaneously. The closed circuit
television (CCTV) in each cockpit
permits the instructor to contin-
uously monitor and record trainee
performance. An automated, ob-
jective performance measurement
system provides for trainee evalua-
tion. A noise environment gen-
erator provides aural clues to the
trainee to simulate all sounds nor-
mally associated with the aircraft
operation. A 5-degree-of-freedom
motion system provides accelera-
tion cues in vertical, lateral, pitch,
roll and yaw axes.
The first UH-l prototype sim-
ulator model received by the Army
was located at USA A VNS. Engi-
neer testing was completed in No-
vember 1971 followed by service
testing which was completed in
January 1972. The UH-IH field
unit subsystem was considered
suitable for type classification by
the U. S. Army Test and Evalua-
tion Command (TECOM) on 17
April 1972.
During the service testing of the
SFfS a "transfer of training" study
was conducted. (All of the facts
and charts addressed in this article
were abstracted from Transfer of
Instrument Training and the Syn-
thetic Flight Training System, Dr.
Paul W. Caro, February 1972,
Human Resources Research Or-
ganization, prepared for the Office
Poetry in motion is what the SFTS
seems to be, as students put the cock-
pit module through her paces. In the
foreground is a paper tape reader
and punch used for maintaining cur-
rent and introducing new programs
of the Chief of Research and Devel-
opment, Department of the Army.)
The trainees who participated in
the SFTS test received the same
undergraduate pilot training as
their contemporaries, except that
all instrument training was admin-
istered in the SFTS instead of in
the TH-13T and the existing "blue
boxes."
Sixteen trainees participated in
this study. Using a table of random
numbers, trainees were selected
from among the 34 active Army
members who had completed the
primary phase of training of an
officer rotary wing aviator course
(110 hours contact training in the
TH-55). These trainees had no
prior instrument flight training and
had relatively little flight expe-
rience before entering the Army
pilot training program.
All instrument training was
waste of time and effort and
the trainee can be allowed to
see and correct his mistakes
without any detrimental ef-
fects on safety of flight.
Therefore, it becomes more
and more worthwhile to uti-
lize ground training devices,
particularly aircraft simula-
tors, for training purposes."
The current SFfS development
plan calls for a three phase sequen-
tial development program to satisfy
the requirements. The first phase
involved the development of one
UH-IH unit subsystem which con-
sisted of a four cockpit simulation
facility. The second phase, to be
initiated in first quarter FY 73, will
involve the development of a CH-
47 operational flight trainer (OFT)
subsystem which consists of one
cockpit with a visual device. The
CH-47 OFf, put on a subsystem,
will be the first time a visual device
has been put on a helicopter train-
ing simulator in the armed services.
An AH-IG COBRA-TOW OFf
subsystem with a visual device is
programed to be the third system,
with development starting in first
quarter FY 74.
Procurement and installation of
seven additional UH-IH field unit
subsystems are programed for the
U. S. Army Aviation School
(USAA VNS) Ft. Rucker, AL, and
ultimately about eight more UH-l
and CH-47 subsystems are sched-
uled for worldwide distribution.
The U. S. Continental Army Com-
mand is evaluating the worldwide
requirement to include overseas
commands.
The SFTS UH-l subsystem con-
sists of four cockpit modules, four
motion platforms, one computer
module and one instructor station.
The motion platform is powered by
hydraulic actuators which drive the
motion platform with the fidelity
of the actual aircraft.
Each of the four cockpit mod-
ules can be programed to perform
independently such aircraft ma-
SEPTEMBER 1972
neuvers as ground control ap-
proach, nondirectional beacon ap-
proach, instrument landing system
approach, etc. Prerecorded brief-
ings and instructions prepare the
trainee for the training mission.
Realistic, computer-con troll ed
demonstrations of maneuvers and
tape recorded commentaries en-
hance training value. This allows
one instructor to train four pilots
simultaneously. The closed circuit
television (CCTV) in each cockpit
permits the instructor to contin-
uously monitor and record trainee
performance. An automated, ob-
jective performance measurement
system provides for trainee evalua-
tion. A noise environment gen-
erator provides aural clues to the
trainee to simulate all sounds nor-
mally associated with the aircraft
operation. A 5-degree-of-freedom
motion system provides accelera-
tion cues in vertical, lateral, pitch,
roll and yaw axes.
The first UH-l prototype sim-
ulator model received by the Army
was located at USA A VNS. Engi-
neer testing was completed in No-
vember 1971 followed by service
testing which was completed in
January 1972. The UH-1H field
unit subsystem was considered
suitable for type classification by
the U. S. Army Test and Evalua-
tion Command (TECOM) on 17
April 1972.
During the service testing of the
SFfS a "transfer of training" study
was conducted. (All of the facts
and charts addressed in this article
were abstracted from Transfer of
Instrument Training and the Syn-
thetic Flight Training System, Dr.
Paul W. Caro, February 1972,
Human Resources Research Or-
ganization, prepared for the Office
Poetry in motion is what the SFTS
seems to be, as students put the cock
pi t module through her paces. In the
foreground is a paper tape reader
and punch used for maintaining cur-
rent and introducing new program.
of the Chief of Research and Devel-
opment, Department of the Army.)
The trainees who participated in
the SFfS test received the same
undergraduate pilot training as
their contemporaries, except that
all instrument training was admin-
istered in the SFfS instead of in
the TH-13T and the existing "blue
boxes."
Sixteen trainees participated in
this study. Using a table of random
numbers, trainees were selected
from among the 34 active Army
members who had completed the
primary phase of training of an
officer rotary wing aviator course
(110 hours contact training in the
TH-55). These trainees had no
prior instrument flight training and
had relatively little flight expe-
rience before entering the Army
pilot training program.
All instrument training was
The instructor operator control console (above) is capable of monitoring the ground track
of all four training modules simultaneously through flight progress displays. The instructor
can introduce from this panel any of 101 malfunctions to include the most violent-tail rotor
gear box failure. He is capable of selectively viewing and video taping cockpit activities
through closed circuit televisions which scan over 80 percent of the cockpit. He can also
give GCA approaches and landings. The audio tape cabinet (below) has five sections:
Section 1. Five minute playback recorders . .. one recorder for each cockpit ... allows the
computer to take each trainer back in time and actually re-fly the last 5 minutes of flight
for both student and instructor evaluation. Section 2. Auto pilot panel. SFTS is equipped
with an auto pilot which can maintain the heading, altitude and air speed when required .
Section 3. Audio alert panel. Recorded messages are keyed by the computer to the student's
headset asking him to check heading, alti-
tude, air speed or attitude whenever he is
flying outside the normal flight parameters.
Section 4. Communications recorder panel.
Records student VHF and UHF radio trans-
missions for the last 15 minutes of the flight
. . . as a check on proper radio procedures.
Section 5. Automatic training tapes panel.
Each cockpit has its own tape which contains
ten automatic training periods. Automatic
training is in three phases -
a. Demonstration Phase-a realistic, com-
puter-controlled demonstration of instrument
approach procedures using radio naviga-
tional aids such as VOR, ADF and ILS. The
computer makes the full approach as taped
commentaries tell the student what is hap-
pening.
b. Practice Phase-depending on which
phase of training the student is in, the com-
puter releases certain aircraft controls for
student practice, i.e., from simple turns to
approaches.
c. Adaptive Phase-the computer senses
the skill level of the student, then adjusts
the difficulty and complexity of the task to
the student. As the student's skill level in-
creases the computer automatically increases
conducted in the SFTS on a pro-
ficiency basis. Necessary instru-
ment flight-related academic in-
struction was conducted under the
supervision of each trainee's in-
structor pilot (IP) using programed
textbooks. When the IP determined
that his students met all proficiency
required for C\Il Army standard in-
strument rating, they were sched-
uled for instrument checkrides in
the SFTS.
Table 1 indicates the amount of
training received by each trainee
in the SFTS. At the end of that
training each student was given an
instrument checkride in the SFTS
by a qualified Army instrument
examiner who had not participated
in the study. The time required for
conduct of the checkride and the
checkride grade is also given in
table 1. Two students did not pass
the checkride the first time it was
administered; both returned to
their assigned IP for additional
tramIng, were given a second
checkride and passed. Table 1 in-
cludes all training and checkride
time required by these students.
Army Aviation School policy is to
assign the grade of 70 when any
checkride is passed after having
once been failed, regardless of the
quality of the recheck perform-
ance.
The mean time required for
these students to pass the required
instrument checkride in the SFTS
was 42 hours 50 minutes. Of this,
40 hours 28 minutes were devoted
to training and 2 hours 22 minutes
to evaluating student performance
during checkrides. This compares
to the total training and evaluation
time scheduled for all conven-
tionally trained students of 86
hours, 60 hours in the TH-13T,
plus 26 hours of training time in
the modified 1-CA-l simulator de-
vice.
After passing the instrument
checkride in the SFTS, these ex-
perimental trainees were judged
qualified with regard to proficiency
the operation difficulty. U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
Table 1
Training and Checkrlde Time Requirement. and
Grade. of Students In the SFTS
Training Checkrlde Total
Student Time Time Time Checkrlde
Number (Hour./Mlnute.) (Hour./Mlnute.) (Hours/Minute.) Grade
1 33/15 2/15 35/30 89
2 35/00 2/00 37/00 82
3 35/00 2/00 37/00 84
4 37/30 2/00 39/30 73
5 a 39/00 4/15 a/15 70
6 40/00 2/15 42/15 85
7 40/30 2/15 42/45 90
8 40/45 2/00 42/45 91
9 41/00 2/15 a/15 90
10 42/00 2/00 44/00 94
11 42/15 2/45 45/00 89
12 a/oo 2/00 45/00 92
13 a a/45 3/30 47/15 70
14 44/00 2/15 46/15 80
15 45/00 2/00 47/00 82
16 45/35 2/00 47/35 86
Mean 40/28 2/22 42/50 84.2
Standard
Deviation 3/41 / 38 3/47 7.6
a. Students 5 and 13 did not pass the checkride i n the SFTS the first time it
was administered. Their performance was satisfactory on a subsequent re-
check.
Table 2
Aircraft Familiarization and Checkride Time Requirements
and Grade s of Students in the UH-1
Training Checkride Total
Student Time Time Time Checkride
Number (Hours/Minutes) (Hours/Minute.) (Hours/Minute.) Grade
3/00 2/00 5/00 87
2 3/00 2/45 5/45 88
3 6/15 2/00 8/15 88
4 4/45 2/00 6/45 84
5 a 6/15 3/15 9/30 70
6 5/00 2/00 7/00 85
7 6/45 2/00 8/45 84
8 3/00 1/30 4/30 91
9 3/00 2/00 5/00 u
10 4/00 2/00 6/00 82
11 3/30 2/00 5/30 85
12 3/45 2/00 5/45 80
13 3/30 2/45 6/15 83
14 5/30 3/00 8/30 78
15 3/15 1/45 5/00 74
16 2/45 3/00 5/45 70
Mean 4/12 2/15 6/27 82.0
Standard
Deviation 1/21 /30 1/31 6.2
a. Student 5 did not pas. the checkride in the aircraft the first time it was
administered; his performance was satisfactory on a subsequent recheck.
SEPTEMBER 1972
for award of a standard instrument
rating. Present Army regulations,
however, require that such an
award be made only upon the basis
of performance during a checkride
conducted in an aircraft. There-
fore, in order to conclude the test
each trainee "transitioned" from
the SFTS to an instrument
equipped UH-IH (none of the
trainees had prior experience flying
the UH-l).
Table 2 indicates the amount of
time devoted to this aircraft fa-
miliarization activity. Transition
training was restricted to familiari-
zation with the aircraft under sim-
ulated or actual instrument condi-
tions, since it was presumed that
all necessary instrument training
had been conducted in the SFfS.
The aircraft time required for
this transition training ranged from
2 hours 45 minutes to 6 hours 45
minutes; the mean time was 4
hours 12 minutes. It should be
noted that a portion of the range
of training times was attributed to
the IP's judgment that some stu-
dents needed more aircraft famil-
iarization than did others. All of
the 16 trainees satisfactorily
passed the checkride on the first
attempt except one who passed the
second instrument checkride.
The fact that SFTS training
transfers to actual aircraft opera-
tion is not surprising since it is a
high fidelity simulator of the train-
ing aircraft. Airline experience with
transitioning pilots to new com-
mercial airline aircraft has shown
that such equipment can provide
effective training.
Because there is considerable
confidence value in actual flight,
it is not envisioned that the SFTS
will eliminate the need for some
aircraft flight instruction. However,
the test program indicates that
with properly designed equipment
and training programs, much of the
training now conducted in aircraft
could be conducted Plore efficiently
and cheaply on the ground.
11
Chorlie ond DonnY's Write-In
D ear Danny: My question con-
cerns U-21A and RU-21A
aircraft, TM 55-1520-209-10/1
(June 1971) and accompanying
checklist.
Why was the overs peed gov-
ernor check changed in the 19 June
1971 edition of the manual over
the previous publications? The
present method for checking the
governor closely resembles the
commercial King Air procedure.
We prefer the Qfiginal procedure
and would like to see it changc!d
back.
CPT A. W. A.
Danny's answer: This change in
procedure seems to have disturbed
others as well because we have
received many inquiries on this
subject.
The procedures presented in the
19 June 1972 edition of the dash
10 will be changed back to the
original method of checking the
overspeed governors. Factory rep-
resentatives tell us that one method
is as effective as the other and it
was decided to use the check as
outlined in the March 1969 ver-
sion.
A re-issue of TM 55-1510-209-
10/1 with the above correction
should appear on or about 1 Sep-
tember 1972.
Dear Danny: In looking through
the new CH-47B & C manual,
dated 10 December 1971, on page
7-29, paragraph 7-13b, I find that
it reads: "A power turbine (NIl)
overspeed condition may exist, de-
pending on power being used,
when 238 rotor rpm has been ex-
ceeded by 5 percent for more than
5 seconds."
Also on page 7-3, paragraph
7 -46b, I find a similar statement
using 233 rotor rpm.
12
Danny, wouldn't it be simpler to
use an rpm rather than require a
computation? Example: A power
turbine (NIl) overspeed condition
may exist, depending on power be-
ing used, when 249 rpm is ex-
ceeded for more than 5 seconds.
SFC J . F. S.
Danny's answer: You are correct;
it is better not to require the com-
putation. We had requested a sim-
ilar change in a couple of places
but we completely overlooked
these two. Thanks for the DA
Form 2028s, and we will see that
they get to the U. S. Army A via-
tion Systems Command for inclu-
sion in the next change to the
dash 10.
Dear Danny: In the UH-1D man-
ual (TM dated
August 1971, section VI, para-
graph 4-35, page 4-11 , it states
that in order to shut down the
engine after a complete electrical
failure, disconnect the fuel filter
quick disconnect coupling. MWO
55-1500-202-30/ 1, line 7, page 5,
dated February 1968 states to
torque that quick disconnect cou-
pling 16 to 25 feet pounds. TM
55-1520-210-20 says to hand
torque it. Our UH-1s have torqued
quick disconnects. What's right?
CW2 W. R. W.
Danny's answer: As you stated
MWO 55-1500-202-30/1, dated
February 1968, authorized the re-
moval of the original type quick
disconnect and installation of the
TM
OPERATOR'S MANUAL
DEPT OF THE ARMY
present quick disconnect. This
MWO is outdated and in error by
stating to torque the quick discon-
nect coupling 16 to 25 feet pounds.
A message is being sent out stating
to hand torque the quick discon-
nect coupling. The maintenance
manual TM 55-1520-210-20 is
correct. TM 55-1520-210-10, page
4-11, paragraph 4-35, 1, states that
the proper method for shutdown
has been changed to read: "Dis-
connect main fuel line at engine fuel
filter." This change will appear in
change 2 to TM 55-1520-210-10.
A future change will contain the
caution: "A wrench may be neces-
sary to disconnect the fuel line at
the fuel filter."
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
The Power Of Positive
AS THE BRIGADE safety officer
and his survey team members
commenced their survey of the
941 st Assault Helicopter Battalion,
the battalion commander was deep
in wishful thinking. His staff and
his three companies had worked
long and arduous hours getting pre-
pared. They refined operations
areas, repaired revetments and
even fixed the flat tire on the crash
rescue truck. The standing operat-
ing procedures got a thorough re-
habilitation, along with mainte-
nance records being shaped up.
The maintenance hangars were
Gled and had a look of efficiency
that was sure to impress the team.
As the survey continued the
battalion commander felt sure his
personnel would leave a good im-
pression. After all, the training had
been geared up this past week and
the officers and men of the 941st
should be well versed in all aspects
of the mission and operations of
the battalion.
Upon conclusion of the survey
the battalion commander was in-
formed that a briefing for officers
and senior NCOs would be held
the next day at 1000 to go over
the survey results. The battalion
commander knew it was going to
be a long night.
At 0945 the following day the
officers and NCOs were standing
around discussing the survey and,
from all indications, it appeared
things went well. The clammer and
chatter stopped when the survey
team entered the mess hall. The
SEPTEMBER 1972
Captain Jon F. Langione
members of the battalion took
their seats and the brigade safety
officer stepped forward to address
the group.
"Colonel Gaines, gentlemen-
you are all awaiting the outcome
of the survey, I'm sure. Well, I've
graded the battalion excellent on
the survey as a whole."
A rumble of voices swelled
throughout the mess hall as the
men acknowledged their satisfac-
tion. The safety officer continued,
"This survey was a test to ascertain
the worth of surveys from the
highest level. The officers and men
of the 941st worked hard to pre-
pare for this inspection. After all,
you had 3 week's notice. The next
survey we make will be an unfore-
warned type of inspection. The
team will simply show up one day
and start digging. This type of in-
spection will show us a truer pic-
ture, I'm sure. Commanders will
not be afforded time to prepare
paperwork that has been falling
behind, or GI operations and main-
tenance areas, or for that matter
fix a tire that has been flat for 2
months."
When the safety officer men-
tioned the fiat tire, the battalion
commander's jaw dropped and he
twisted in his chair, hoping the
survey team wouldn't embarrass
him further.
"This is not an IG inspection,
gentlemen," the safety officer con-
tinued. "The brigade commander
will not review the survey; he de-
sires a grade of satisfactory or
Prevention
above. Only in the case of an un-
satisfactory grade does he wish to
see the survey. The same may be
desired by your group com-
mander."
The battalion commander sighed
with relief.
"I have some advice for you,"
the safety officer went on. "You
have got to have a positive attitude
toward all endeavors of the avia-
tion community. Don't cover dis-
crepancies for an inspection; cor-
rect them to prevent accidents.
Maintenance areas should be free
of hazards and clean, not to im-
press a survey team but to enhance
safety and efficiency. This battalion
has two aviators over the 90 hour
maximum and no flight surgeon
examination and release slip ap-
pear in the records. These little
things can crop up and if not cor-
rected can grow into a monster
that will take weeks to set straight.
Look to the future and prevent for
tomorrow as well as today. I call it
the power of positive prevention
and it works. Try it for a month.
I think you'll like the results.
Thank you for your attention, gen-
tlemen, and good luck in the
future."
The battalion commander in-
vited the team to stay for lunch
after the meeting concluded and
the survey team accepted. He
wanted to discover who would be
the poor devil to receive the un-
forewarned survey so he could
warn him to give him time to
prepare for the surprise survey.
13
The
EXTRA
Step
Frequently we experience a wish to have something and, if it's not
within our grasp or obtainable, then our longing for it is even
greater. That's fine when we envision luxuries ... but what about
necessities we can have, yet don't, and when an emergency occurs
without them our life is jeopardized ... how deep is the longing then?
AFTER THEIR first automobile
accident many people become
better drivers. Their accident
wakes them up to the dangers of
the road. They correct some of
their bad driving habits and be-
come more careful.
The same often happens to
aviators. Once they go down, no
matter what the cause, they seem
to become better fliers. After the
shock wears off they take a long,
hard look at themselves and start
taking that extra step that may
save their lives during a future
emergency.
I was one of those fortunate
aviators who survived his first ac-
cident. It sure changed my attitude
and the extra steps I took probably
saved my life.
The first time I went down was
after I had been in the Republic
of Vietnam for 2 months with only
about 150 hours of flying time.
I was assigned as pilot to a senior
14
Captain David L. Grieger
aircraft commander (SAC) for low
ship on a "sniffer" mission. We
were to recon an area east of
Quang Ngai on the Batangan Pe-
ninsula for a possible North Viet-
namese Army base camp.
Several klicks out we dropped
down to low level-about 50 feet
above the trees. From that point
a high ship directed our route of
flight. Shortly after crossing the
initial point we recorded several
hot spots on the sniffer equipment.
The operator ejected small white
smoke canisters, and the high ship
plotted these positions on his map.
Just after crossing a small paddy
area and flying along the crest of
a ridge, the operator remarked,
"Hot spot!" He then yelled, "Con-
tinuous hot spot!"
At that time short, sporadic
bursts of gunfire were directed at
our aircraft.
Suddenly the aircraft yawed
right and the nose pitched down. I
looked up and saw trees. The SAC
applied aft cyclic in an attempt to
clear them. I locked my shoulder
harness and hung on; it was the
only thing I could do. After clear-
ing that particular tree the aircraft
commander unsuccessfully at-
tempted to regain air speed. We
began to cartwheel violently to the
right. Our rotor blades struck a
tree and the aircraft flipped in-
verted into the trees.
The engine continued to run as
the aircraft lurched like a fish out
of water. The SAC rolled the
throttle off and secured switches
on the console. I turned off the
battery switch ... the SAC turned
it back on ... I turned it off again
... we looked at each other (his
helmet was gone) and almost simul-
taneously unlatched our seat belts
... BAM! ... headfirst into the
green house.
I saw my .38 revolver and my
camera at my right shoulder and
picked them up. Then I crawled
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
across the upper console, between
the seats, under the sniffer machine
suspended by straps from the
floor of the aircraft, out the left
cargo door, down a piece of main
rotor blade and into a small clear-
ing several feet away. All this took
a little over 15 seconds.
The high ship touched down
~ m o s t immediately in the clearing
to pick us up. No one was se-
riously hurt and luckily there was
no fire. However, had there been
one and that clearing wasn't there
for the other aircraft to land, we
SEPTEMBER 1972
would have had nothing except
our personal weapons and my
"stateside" camera.
After returning to the company
area almost all the "new guys" in
the unit surveyed their equipment
and put together makeshift survival
kits. Most, like me, attached strobe
lights, survival knives, pen flares,
etc. , with paper tape to our chicken
plates. Most of the "old guys" just
smiled for they had improvised
similar concoctions months before
.. . following similar experiences.
Several months passed and I be-
came one of the "old guys." I had
about 850 hours incountry. I was
an SAC and still wore my makeshift
survival kit, only I had added a
survival radio which I carried in
a claymore bag around my neck
when I flew.
One day we combat assaulted a
company-sized element into a
mountain landing zone (LZ).
Several hours later while discharg-
ing extractions on the resupply pad
of the LZ, the S-3 air reported a
medevac was needed for the unit
we had airlifted into the mountains.
..... of u ........ rlou.1y hurt .nd luckily th .... was no I ... .
..... "." ............... 0_ ... we .oul" ha". h ... .....
I .x ...... ur ............. pon ..... MY " ........ " ca ......
15
No urgency was involved; a man
had broken his leg climbing around
the rugged terrain. The unit was
reporting the area "cold," so I
elected to go without guns and ex-
tract the victim.
Enroute contact was established
with a forward air controller (F AC)
OV -10 pilot who had made contact
with the unit on the ground. He
advised me of the condition of the
terrain and that the injured man
was located at a bomb crater ...
the only clear area within several
hundred meters. He also advised
that the area was "cold."
I remembered several weeks ago
that we'd received substantial light
to heavy automatic weapons fire
from a nearby area so I flew en-
route at 2,500 feet.
We reached the area and flew a
left-hand high reconnaissance. De-
ciding the bomb crater was large
enough to accommodate our UH-
IH, I requested smoke. At that
instant we started receiving steady
bursts of heavy automatic weapons
fire and taking hits.
Both door gunners immediately
went hot on the position. Instan-
taneously, I lowered collective with
forward cyclic to get to the tree-
tops; I knew that UH-ls couldn't
outrun .50 caliber slUgs.
I was indicating 110 knots, div-
ing and evading to the jungle
treetops-and still receiving .50
fire. I keyed the mike and told the
FAC I was taking heavy automatic
weapons fire.
Suddenly the aircraft yawed. I
heard the low rpm audio blaring.
Segmented panel warning lights
were blinking on. I lowered the
collective' and entered autorotation.
The controls stiffened; we had to
contend with hydraulic failure too!
Now the trees were coming up
and we had no place to go except
into the treetops. I flared and
pulled up on the collective to
cushion, then we impacted the
trees indicating around 30 knots.
The main rotor separated and the
16
aircraft nosed over through the
trees. I vaguely recall clinging to
the cyclic and collective helplessly
as we crashed our way, nose first,
through the green blur.
We struck the ground on the left
nose of the aircraft and I was al-
most pinned to my seat from cabin
compression but none of us sus-
tained serious injuries. We turned
off switches and everyone left the
aircraft.
Outside there was a wall of thick
vegetation surrounding the aircraft.
The engine compartment was
steaming and fuel was trickling
from the aircraft. We looked up
and saw daylight through a very
small opening in the canopy. Sud-
denly there was a whining scream
and a flash of gray as the FAC
made a low pass over our position.
I reached for my survival radio.
It was gone! Then a vision grew in
mind, and I could see the radio
hanging uselessly above my bunk.
For the first time since I procured
it, I flew without my survival radio.
Cursing, I clambered into the
Huey and found several smoke
grenades among the debris. I
walked on the remains of the
wrecked aircraft, popped a smoke
and tossed it several feet away.
Yellow smoke billowed up and the
F AC made several passes, revving
his engines as he screamed by
overhead.
We began making plans to move
to a stream that we knew was at
the bottom of the mountain.
I realized that the .50 caliber
gun was quiet and had been since
we had been on the ground. I
suspected the NV A were moving
it. They knew the F AC probably
had fast movers orbiting close by.
I heard occasional bursts of AK
(assault automatic weapon) and
semiautomatic fire that sounded
far away. Then our attention
turned to a "metal hitting metal"
sound and brush rustling several
meters into the bush. FriendIies
couldn't have been reaching our
position this soon. The closest
friendly troops were at least several
hundred meters away. We all
looked at one another, gathered up
what we could carry and decided
to penetrate the thinest-Iooking
part of the vegetation going down-
hill. I grabbed two more smokes
and secured them to a snap-link
on my chicken plate.
Among the four of us we had
two M-16 rifles, two .38 revolvers,
two .50 caliber cans of M-16 mag-
azines, an aircraft first-aid kit and
one XM-60 door gun with a belt
of ammo containing about 150
rounds. The crew had dug most of
this out of the wreckage while I
signaled the F AC.
Sending my copilot ahead, I
considered "matching" the aircraft,
but I had a vision of burning fuel
flowing downhill after us so I
quickly discounted the idea.
We began making our way
downhill, crawling and sliding on
our backs under the vines and
brush. After about 30 minutes I
surmised we were at least halfway
down the mountain.
A jet screamed low overhead,
followed by his wingman. Panic
tore through my mind as I had
another morbid vision ... this time
of roasting in napalm or being des-
simated by a 250 pound bomb.
Whether I actually heard them
or just felt I had, I knew the NY A
had found our aircraft and were
now looking for us. We continued
down the hill. I heard the familiar
sounds of rotor discs beating the
air, but they were too far to our
right or we had traveled laterally
from our wrecked aircraft.
We broke out into a small clear-
ing about 15 feet in diameter. I
looked at my Nomex. It was ripped
and torn. I was thankful I had re-
tained my Nomex gloves. Large
ants were on all of us. I surveyed
our gear. Everything I had includ-
ing the smokes was still secured to
my chicken plate.
My copilot went ahead while the
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
rest af us set up a small perimeter
to rest. He came hurrying back and
said the stream was about 50
meters ahead so we headed for it.
As we set up positions to secure
both sides of the stream we could
see several slicks and a gun team
circling about mile up the small
valley. I popped one of the smokes
and threw it in front of us. Yellow
smoke poured from it and billowed
skyward.
Seconds later the F AC screamed
by low level in his OV-10. When
he saw us he waved his wings and
gave us a "thumbs up." We waved
back. The helicopters turned our
way. The guns formed a racetrack
pattern as one slick began a de-
scending turn toward our diminish-
ing smoke.
It was late afternoon and getting
dusk, so I removed my strobe light
and turned it on to keep our posi-
tion marked. As the slick hovered
by we jumped in and were off.
Thirty minutes later I was sitting
in the battalion flight surgeon's of-
fice gulping down a soda. Later I
heard the F AC had called air
strikes on our wrecked aircraft, de-
stroying it.
Thoughts were running through
my mind a mile a minute: The air-
craft impacted nose first so I knew
the avionics were destroyed, but
was I sure? How would the aircraft
commander to whom the aircraft
belonged feel about my getting his
ship destroyed? What if we had
been captured, or had to exchange
fire? Among other things I re-
viewed the details of our expe-
rience.
I would like to suggest to pilots
who are flying in combat or isolated
areas that they take that extra
step that may save their lives in
an emergency.
Procure a survival kit, whether
its ready-made or not. Obtain such
things as a survival knife, signal
mirror, pen flares, strobe light, .38
flare rounds, etc. If possible secure
a survival radio and don't forget
to take it along.
Fasten this gear to your
chicken plate and wear it.
When working single ship in
an isolated area maintain radio
contact with someone at all times.
When not talking on intercom keep
your selector on the frequency with
which you have known radio con-
tact; there's not much time to be
switching knobs during an emer-
gency descent.
Carry plenty of smoke gre-
nades in the aircraft.
Wear your Nomex and gloves.
The Nomex is tough and will stand
up better than fatigues. Wear the
gloves to protect your hands when
traveling through dense vegetation.
Finally, don't panic. Handle
the emergency as you've been
trained. On the ground make
sound decisions and work as a
team. Friendlies' will be looking for
you soon. Do your best to make it
easy for them to find you.
EDITOR'S NOTE: Listed below are the current Federal stock numbers and
authorization for survival equipment. If your unit doesn't have the equip-
ment, talk to supply-it is available. Remember, accident reports show that
people get out of the aircraft with what they are carrying on their person.
The removal of survival equipment and other gear, including weapons,
is an afterthought. So, ensure the equipment is worn on your person
NOMENCLA TURE
Knife, Hunting, 5-in. blade, 9V2 in. 0/ a
Knife, Pocket, one 33A" long cuHing blade
Signal Kit, Personnel, Red
FSN
7340-098-4327
5110-526-8740
1370-921-6172
1370-926-9387
8465-177-4819 .
6230-067-5209
4220-630-8714
5820-858-5721
5820-752-5278
5820-832-9158
5820-782-5308
AUTHORITY
sa 700-50
sa 700-50
CTA 50-901/2
CTA 50-901/2
CTA 50-901/2
58 700-50
CTA-50-90 1/2
TOE/TDA
TOE/TDA
TOE/TDA
TOE/TDA
Signal Kit, Personnel, (various colors)
Survival Kit, Individual, Vest Type
Light Marker-Distress
Life Preserver, Aircraft Crew
Radio Set AN/URC-l0
AN/URC-14
AN/URC-68
AN/PRC-90
SEPTEMBER 1972 17
Can These Two
Puzzle Parts Solve
Your Transponder Problem?
The author, an academic instructor with the Advanced
Subiects Branch, USAAVNS, Ft. Rucker, AL, explains the
operation of airborne transponders in easily understand-
able progression. Aviators unfamiliar with this equip-
ment will find the article interesting and enlightening
CT'S SEE, the transponder has
added the greatest element of
safety and simplification to air
traffic control since radar itself.
The electronic principle, design
and operation of this equipment is
obviously quite complex. However,
the operation of the airborne unit
by the pilot is really very simple
... if ....
If first we deal only with mode
3/ A operation and, second, if the
transponder used is a simple off-
the-shelf model (figure 1) which
has very few controls.
Since the most widespread use
of the transponder is for air traffic
control using only mode 3/ A, let's
look at that operation with a typ-
ical simple control head. Recog-
18
Richard G. Harding, DAC
nize that the transponder is an
airborne receiver/transmitter used
to send back coded reply signals
to a ground based interrogation
unit of a secondary radar system?
It is a device that only replies when
interrogated. The reply signal is
generated at the aircraft and pro-
vides a stronger signal than the
primary radar echo. Additionally,
secondary radar can overcome the
following shortcomings of the basic
system:
Aircraft reflection areas vary
with the size and configuration,
thus limiting the effectiveness of
primary radar.
Primary radar display can be
degraded by some weather condi-
tions, especially precipitation.
Ground clutter frequently im-
pairs the radar display even though
the radar equipment is equipped
with moving target indicator (MTI)
circuits to eliminate much of this.
Primary radar echoes alone
give no clue to aircraft identity
since there is no coded display of
the targets.
Secondary radar is less vulner-
able to blind spots in the antenna
coverage pattern.
Since all aircraft are not re-
quired to have transponders, air
traffic controllers will normally dis-
play both primary and secondary
targets on their scopes (figure 2).
In controlling aircraft in positive
control areas where the tran-
sponder is a required piece of
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
equipment, the controller can rid
the scope of clutter by using only
secondary radar (figure 3).
Most ATC facilities are now
using a select scope which further
enables the controller to see those
aircraft squawking a selected code
as a double slash, or an aircraft
squawking other codes of mode
3 I A as a single slash. An aircraft
without a transponder or squawk-
ing standby appears as a "skin
paint" blip (figure 4).
The double slash display [ J
changes momentarily to a stretched
pulse [ ] when a special identi-
fication circuit is activated in the
cockpit. This switch is normally
labeled irdent or liP.
141
OJ
141
ITl (f)
The unique design of the select
scope enables a controller to make
rapid identification of any target
by anyone of the following meth-
ods: squawking ident, changing
code or squawking standby. The
reappearance of the regular display
when the aircraft is reassigned a
code will further. confirm the
identity. This feature eliminates the
need for identifying turns, which
are necessary with nontransponder
equipped aircraft.
a
e
__ .,
" ....
(9)

By using certain codes for spe-
cial ATC operations, each con-
troller can see his transponder
equipped aircraft as a double slash,
with other aircraft in the area as a
single slash. As seen in figure 5,
all departing aircraft are assigned
code 0400 and arriving aircraft
assigned code 0200. This provides
the controller with a discrete read-
out capability to simplify control.
The code to be used will always
be assigned by the controller ex-
cept for the following, which would
be used as appropriate without
direction:
Condition
VFR below 10,000 feet
VFR 10,000 feet or above
Emergency
Two-way radio failure
Primary "skin paint" targets
Code,
1200
1400
7700
7600
___ Secondary "beacon" targets
SEPTEMBER 1972
Ground (or precipitation) cluHer
Typical Radar Display
Primary and Secondary
TRANSPONDfR
Figure 1 (above) represents some typical
simple off-the-shelf transponders which
have very few controls. Operation of
these would require little familiarization
Figure 2 (below left) shows radar picking
up targets as well as ground clutter and
precipitation; the latter is frequently re-
ported to aviators for safety of flight
Figure 3 (below), the controller can select
transponder (secondary) returns only elim-
inating clutter but there is no return from
raw IIskin paintll and standby targets
Typical Display Secondary Only
19
D_-------Decoder control
t:J-
Code 0400
_-===---,,1--- Standby
Departure Cbntrol
(same area)
Reply code indicator
Ident pulse selector
Reply monitor lamp
l+-"",*",,- Mode 3A reply code
selector switches (4)
' .... ---+to-- Function switch
Figure 4 (left), many ATC fa
cilities are now using a select
scope which has a decoder
control to enable controllers
to more readily "see" aircraft
squawking a particular code
Figure 5 (below) presents
departures assigned code
0400, left scope, while ar-
riving cUrcraft 0200, right
scope; area is identical
Arrival Control
Figure 6 (left), a typical
transponder, simple with
few controls and switches.
The appearance of the set
is uncluttered and op
eration is uncomplicated
Figure 7 (below), military
transponders APX-44 and
the APX72 ... designed
to operate on more than
one mode, dazzle aviators
The important point is: Never
squawk any other code unless di-
rected to do so by ATe.
Choosing the model shown in
figure 6 as a typical set, let's see
just how simple it can be. The
function switch:
OFF-Off.
SBY -The standby position
heats the tube filaments, keeping
the set ready for use. This position
is normally used for 3 to 5 minutes
during warmup. The standby posi-
tion should be used prior to takeoff
and after landing, and at other
times as directed.
ON-The transponder is on and
will reply with selected code to
interrogation signals from ground
radar. This is the normal position
for reply and is labeled normal
on military sets.
LO-This is a special setting
used to eliminate undesirable scope
returns caused by spurous inter-
rogation signals triggering the
transponder when the aircraft is
near the radar site. Set to LO only
by the direction of the controller.
Code selection: Set as directed
with the selector switches. Four
digits provide 4096 possible code
combinations; 7700 is the standard
emergency code.
[dent feature: When instructed
by controller to ident, momentarily
depress the ID switch button; do
not hold on. Special ident circuit
pulses will be transmitted auto-
matically for 15 to 30 seconds.
Reply-monitor lamp: This pro-
vides a visual indication of tran-
sponder operation. Set monitor
light switch to OFF if not desired.
With such a few controls and
switches, the operation is quite
simple. The following is represent-
ative of many flight situations
where the transponder is a big part
of traffic control:
i L __ . ____________________ -L_
ATC-"Army 67735, cleared as
filed, maintain 7000, departure
control frequency will be 237.5,
squawk 0400 LO just before de':'
parture."
20 U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
Pilot action-With transponder
on SBY, set code 0400 with se-
lector, place function switch to LO
just before departure. Change
function switch to ON when in-
structed to squawk normal.
In subsequent control handoffs
you will be told to change codes,
to ident or possibly to squawk
standby. With this simple control
head you can hardly go wrong.
So that brings us back to our
puzzle parts and the transponder
problem. The problem very simply
is that the military transponders
are designed to operate on more
than one mode, and the control
head is filled with all sorts of
switches and selectors to dazzle the
aviator (figure 7). Now please par-
don the repetition, but the most
widespread use of the transponder
is for air traffic control using mode
31 A (even for the military). So
let's use the puzzle parts to . make .
the APX-44 and the APX-72 as
simple as the off-the-shelf models
discussed earlier.
First, the APX-44. Set the con-
SEPTEMBER 1972
troIs as shown in figure 8. Then we
place the puzzle part mask over
the set as shown (note the sim-
ilarity now with the basic set):
The master control includes an
emergency position, but the newer
A TC radar equipment will not
recognize this feature. Set 77 in the
mode 3 window for full emergency
reply coverage.
The ident switch is labeled liP
and is spring-loaded to the off posi-
tion. As stated earlier, do not hold
on.
The mode 3 switch can be
placed to off to preclude squawking
an undesired code when making
code changes.
This set is limited to 64 possible
codes in mode 3 (civilian mode A).
When requested to squawk a four
digit code, place first two digits
only in code window.
Figure 9, the APX-72 operation is
simplified by overlaying the larger
puzzle part on the panel drawing
Figure 8, use of the
small puzzle piece to
simplify the initially
confusing APX-44 ap-
pearance. Note the
likeness to the more
simple set in figure 6
Next, the APX-72. We'll set the
controls as shown in figure 9 (left).
Now we use the large part of the
puzzle to mask off portions not
needed as shown:
The emergency position on
this set will automatically activate
code 7700.
The ident switch is identical to
the one used on the APX-44 but
is labeled ident.
The mode 3 I A switch should
be placed to out during code
changes.
The mode 3 I A code selector
is by thumb wheel and provides
for full 4096 code capability.
Okay, how's that for simplicity?
It may seem too simple. If you
have familiarized yourself with all
modes of operation you may be
looking down your nose at those
who need this gimmick, but it
works. That is the important thing,
and we don't have to remind you
of those flights where you really
felt relieved to hear, "Army 67735
. .. have you 3 miles south of
Smithville; radar contact." -..
21
LSF" 40Ul8"IDE25"Z6GF"H 66/6211401/H6
WRB 05GF"H 64/581141114/998
F" 71/68ta0011l1996/9""01
NQA 03H 115172/66/33"2/988
'IG 250CD4GF"H 121/76" 1/0"00)988
NA
ZCZCWNCLC019A II"IZ
SAUS 3 KAWN 0911210
INR 49/45/011100/985
99
OSC 191Di'130-ll13 56/49/0112G2"/982
3LV 50!D15"':D8 75/65/22"4/984/VS3Y LWR S-\ilH ALQDS
GUS 25"-al3HGF" 58/55/"""0/979
F"F"O 90(!1111l:D220-Jl5GF" 59156/0210"/984/SC :-lW VS6Y INC'lG SLOLY
LCK 250-:D5H 58/53/021"0/984
F"TK 4 51D 1 "0(J)250-;:.7 66/6"/211l2l984
HOP S0CDE 1021:250,"7;''''-- 68158/il0<,)0/987
BYH 051;3F" 71/66/2102/988/AC ENE
NBU E250dl5H
TaN 25"-'D5H 69/62/24"91985
ZCZCWNCLC2I8"A 11214<:
SAUS 6 KAWN "9110"
TIK EI""':D25210310 70/59/2""6/987
LTS E20"lD14 73/59/1304/986
F"51 16"CD250:D2i'J 72/54/16021985
5P5 13/57111111l1Ei86/H ALQ()S
DYS 100UlE25i'J;j)15 65/54/22031990
F"WH EI2I2IdlI0 13/58/20041988
GR K 3e:DE 12I".;!15R- - 1\'1/6211502/994
35M 11 IR- OCNL Y
: aft iJ!! "" U
for
Tac Tickets
Only
The author offers meaningful and timely in-
formation for tac ticket holders anxious about
preparing for the standard instrument card.
The procedures and checklists presented are
logical ... with perseverance and by follow-
ing these guidelines, any Army aviator should
pass the instrument checkride .. . "no sweat"
CW2 Paul D. Elmore
SO YOU HAVE to get your standard instrument
ticket! The word is out, and you, in a mild state
of shock, round up a few publications. Let's see,
you have an IFR Supplement, Section One, Two
Bravo, Low Altitude Instrument Approach Proce-
dures and a few DD Forms 175. After 2 hours of
"pawing" through good old DOD FLIP, you sud-
denly realize you have forgotten everything you ever
knew about instruments! Why does a 1,000+ hour
aviator suddenly feel like a dummy?
Before we proceed ask yourself these questions
(be honest now):
True or False 1. When I log "hood" time I really
get it.
True or False 2. I never try to get other pilots to
log my flight time.
True or False 3. I try to keep up with the latest
DOD FLIP publications.
True or False 4. I make practice instrument or
radar approaches every chance
I get.
True or False 5. I know the frequencies of the
flight service stations and how
to use them.
True or False 6. I have current publications on-
board during every flight-just
in case.
True or False 7. I remember how to properly
check out my ADF and VOR.
22
True or False 8. I know how to operate the AN/
APX-72 and the AN/ APX-44.
True or False 9. I knew question # 8 meant the
transponder!
True or False 10. I have not been completely hon-
est in answering the above nine
questions.
If you answered 1 through 9 "True" and 10 "False"
you probably lied, but read on anyway!
First, let me explain. I am not an instrument
examiner, nor am I an expert in instrument flight.
I am, however, an aviator who recently earned a
standard instrument rating.
Secondly, there just isn't any substitute for hard,
serious work to prepare for a standard ticket ride.
However, it does help to know what to expect dur-
ing the checkride.
A typical examination is as follows:
I. ORAL EXAMINATION (The questions will
vary greatly, but if you study for the annual
writ, practice filling out flight plans and know
minimums for destination and alternate airfields,
you are well on your way.)
II. FLIGHT PLANNING (Have current publica-
tions and don't forget a computer.)
III. COPILOT BRIEFING (Remember A.I.?)
IV. BEFORE TAKEOFF (Use a checklist for this
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
phase-navigation radios, before hover, during
hover, contact ground, etc.)
V . TAKEOFF (There is no requirement to make
an instrwnent takeoff.)
VI. ENROUTE
A. Level off checks
B. Radio calls (radar and nonradar)
C. Tracking
D. Intersection fixing
E. Holding
F. Approaches (VOR, ADF, ILS and radar)
G. Missed approaches
H. Fuel checks
1. Emergency panel and unusual attitudes
Now you're on the right track, but don't forget
the AR 95 series. Here is a "homemade" checklist
that will give you the basic library for study:
I. TM 1-225 (Navigation for Army Aviation)
2. TM 1-300 (Meteorology for Army Aviation)
3. AR 95-1,2,14,16 and 63
~ ' - ~ , - ' - - , - - - - - - - , - - - , - - - ~
: COPILOT BRIEFING :
, ,
: 1. Check qualifications: A/C & INSTRUMENT :
: 2. Brief on duties :
, ,
, When not on controls-- ,
, ,
: Copy all Info received. :
: Tune and identify all nav aides & :
: commo radios. :
: Keep position fixed on map. :
: Be prepared to take A/C and maintain :
: heading, altitude and air speed. :
, ,
, Assist in instrument approach ,
, -
: Figure time to missed approach :
- -
, Be prepared to take aircraft when _
: visual contact is made and accomplish :
: the landing. :
: Transferring control of aircraft :
: Lost commo :
, -
, Monitor engine instruments ,
, -
~ - - - ~ - , - - - - - , - - - , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
4. DOD FLIP
a. Section I, II and lIB
b. IFR Supplement
c. Enroute Charts
d. Low Altitude Instrwnent Approach Charts
5. Airman's Information Manuals, Part 1, 2, 3
and 4
PLEASE REMEMBER, THIS IS ONLY THE
BASIC LIBRARY!
A DA message says that all aviators with a tac
ticket must have a standard instrument ticket by
31 December 1972. My best advice is to get started
now, but don't try it alone. Talk to your local ex-
aminer; he's the expert. Also, ask the U. S. Army
Aviation School's Department of Nonresident In-
struction at Ft. Rucker, AL, for the package designed
to assist in preparing for the standard instrument
rating (see AVIATION DIGEST, January 1972).
I'll pass on a few checklists (below and next page)
which, if used, should help you get started. Good
luck! ~
~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ' ~ , - , ~ , ~ - ~ ~ ~ , - ~ , ~ - ' ~ ~ ~ ~
: REQUIREMENTS FOR IFR FLT :
- -
: Pitot heater :
: A/S indicator :
'AI ) , , t (sensitive _
- ,
: Tum & Bank indicator :
, ,
'Clock w/sweep second hand ,
, -
: Compass (current calibration card) :
: Attitude indicator :
, ,
: Heading indicator :
- ,
'WI ,
, ,
: Suction gauge (if necessary) :
- ,
: Power Source operational :
: AU the above must' be lighted and operational :
: Radios for two-way commo, ADF, VOR if necessary:
: Marker beacon radio if necessary :
: Current nav, approach and commo pubs available to:
: pilot in flight :
, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
, - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - ' - - - - - ~ ' - - - - - ' - ' - - - - - - - - - ' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ;
: REPORTING PROCEDURES RADAR (FLIP) :
, ,
: INITIAL CONTACT give RESUME NORMAL PROCEDURES WHEN. IN-:
: 1. ID FORMED "radar service terminated" or "lost" :
: 2. ALTITUDE'" :
: OMIT POSmON REPORTSiunless requested *Jf climbing/descending state altitude climbing/de--
: ALL POSITION REPORTS (FLIP) are still required scending to. :
, ,
~ - - - - - , - - - - - - - , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - .
SEPTEMBER 1972 23
~ ' ~ ' ~ - - ' - ' - ' - ~ ~ ' - ' ~ ' - - - ' - - - - - - - - - ' - ' - - - - ;
: HELICOPTER INSTRUMENT CHECKLIST :
- - : 1. BEFORE HOVERING: AIR TEM/MOISTURE: PITOT HEAT & :
: PUBLICATIONS: ONBOARD as desired HEAT/DEFROST :
: NA V RADIOS: CHECKED AND SET as needed ENG & TRANS INSTRUMENTS: CHECK :
: COMMO RADIOS: SET and then contact Gnd RPM FOR TAKEOFF: CHECK :
- Cont CARB HEAT: SET for climatic conditions ,
: CLOCKS: SET to tower time and RUNNING FUEL QUANTITY & T /0 TIME: RECORD :
: ALTIMETER(S): COMPUTE AND RECORD BOTH :
: 'K' FACTOR(S) CAUTION LIGHTS: CHECK :
: HDG INDICATOR(S): CHECK with magnetic AUDIO WARNING: ON (if applicable) :
: compass RADIOS: SET on first usable freq/ course :
: ATTITUDE INDICATOR(S): SET for ITO 4. LEVEL OFF CHECK :
: FORCE TI\IM &Jor CONTROL FRICTION: ENGINE RPM & POWER: SET for cruise :
: SET as desired ATTITUDE INDICATOR(S): SET for cruise :
, ANTICOLLISION LIGHT: ON HEADING INDICATOR & MAG COMP: ,
: 2. DURING HOVER: CHECK :
: VSI & ALT(S): Indicates DECREASE & IN ENG & TRANS INSTRUMENTS: Within NOR. :
: CREASE MAL RANGE :
, TURN NEEDLE, RMI, MAG COMP: TURN CARD HEAT: SET for climatic conditions '
: R & IJ CONTROL FRICTIONS: SET as desired :
: ATT INDICATOR(S): NOSE H & L, BANK FUEL CHECK: QUANTITY NOW :
L&R :
AIR SPEED INDICATOR(S): Indicates AP. AT RECHECK DUE AT (15 or 30 :
PROX o. Pitot cover removed min) 45 min reserve at :
SLIP INDICATOR: BALL FREE IN RACE & Bum out at :
FULL FLUID 5. PRELANDING CHECK: -
ENGINE & TRANS INSTRUMENTS: CHECK ENGINE RPM: SET for landing conditions :
normal range
ENGINE RPM: SET as desired
HOVER POWER: T/O POWER IS ___ _
TAKEOFF POWER: CHECK within engine
limit
3. BEFORE TAKEOFF:
A TT INDICATOR(S). RECHECK
HDG INDICATOR: CH W /MAG COMP, SET
INDEX T/O HDG
-
FUEL QUANTITY: CHECK remaining fuel _
ENG & TRANS INSTRUMENTS: WITHIN :
NORMAL RANGE :
CARD HEAT: SET for landing climatic
conditions
CONTROL FRICTIONS: SET as desired
CAUTION LIGHTS: CHECK
AUDIO WARNING: ON (if applicable)
COPILOT BRIEFING: COMPLETE
,
-
-
-
-
,
-
,
,
-
-
,
. , - - - - - - - - - , - - - - - - - - , - - - - - - - - , - - - - - - - , - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - . - - - . - - - - , - - - - - - . ~
~ - - - - , - - - - - - - - - - - - , - - - - - - - - - - . , - - - - - - - - , - - , - - - - - - - , - - - - - - - ' - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ' ;
- ,
: REPORTING PROCEDURES-NONRADAR (FLIP) :
: INITIAL CONTACT-no position report to follow DEPARTING AN ALTITUDE :
: 1. ID 2. ETA next reporting point 3. Altitude 1. ID 2. DEPARTING ALT :
: INITIAL CONTACT-Position report to follow ARRIVE HOLDING FIX/CLEARANCE LIMIT :
: 1. ID 2. Position 1. ID 2. PTA 3. REMARKS (as required) :
: POSITION REPORT-Includes departing holding fix STATION PASSAGE INBOUND :
- 1. ID 1. ID 2. (name of fix) INBOUND _
: 2. PTA MISSED APPROACH :
: 3. Type flight plan (if reporting to FSS) 1. ID 2. MISSED APPROACH 3. REMARKS:
: 4. ETA next reporting point (If requesting clearance to alternate, be prepared :
: 5. NAME only next reporting point to give alternate, route, desired altitude, ETE,:
: 6. REMARKS (as required) fuel remaining in flight time) :
- -
- - - - - - - - - . - - - - - - - - - - - , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - , ________________ - _______________________ 4
24
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
TM 1-225, dated December 1968, paragraph
14-7, states that "the final turn inbound from the
holding pattern serves as the procedure turn, so the
aviator could extend. the outbound leg to lose alti-
tude if necessary, provided he does not exceed the
10 miles prior to turning inbound." Does this give
a blanket authority for aviators to extend all hold-
ing patterns? If not, when holding at a final approach
fix (F AF) and cleared for an approach, when may
an aviator extend the holding pattern to lose alti-
tude?
A. 1. The statement in TM 1-225 is not a blanket
statement for all holding and the rules which apply
to this procedure vary.
a. If the "holding in lieu of procedure turn"
pattern is depicted on an approach plate (figure 1),
certain conditions according to TERPS (l?eb 70)
must be met as found in paragraph 234e. The hold-
ing pattern is a 1 minute pattern and should not be
extended unless specified on the approach plate.
Also, the pattern need not be extended because
there should not be more than 300 feet to lose be-
fore crossing the F AF inbound.
b. When holding at an F AF on the procedure turn
side and no holding pattern is' depicted, an extended
SEPTEMBER 1972
outbound leg poses no problem. The aircraft must
remain within the designated procedure turn air-
space. (This is similar to the problem presented in
TM 1-225, paragraph 14-7, except the VOR in this
case is not an FAF.)
c. When a holding pattern is depicted with "1
minute" printed on it, extended legs are not au-
thorized (figure 2).
2. The clearance given and the information found
on the particular approach plate are the largest gov-
erning factors as to whether or not helding patterns
may be extended.
a. Descent from holding . profiles would be a
determining factor.
b. Holding at an F AF on the non procedure turn .
side such as arrival holding usually would require
leaving the holding pattern and . executing a pro-
cedure turn (figure 3).
3. Approach plates are under constant revision.
Small discrepancies such as the statement . "remain
within 10 NM" (which tends to contradict rules
stated above) are being removed when not applicable.
Also, when descent from holding is authorized,
many exceptions can be found where the altitude
limitations (paragraph 234e, TERPS Feb 70) have
not been complied with.
Rationale
An Instructor
The pilot who is convinced he can salvage a maneuver is attempting to
overextend his capability and may in the longrun suffer the consequences
O
N MANY OCCASIONS I've
observed from the stagefield
tower and watched an attempted
approach that was, shall we say,
somewhat less than standard or
normal. Yet, the student pilot will
insist on taking the aircraft to the
ground. "To the ground" meaning
coming to rest upright somewhere
between the intended touchdown
point and the overrun. These are
not only solo aircraft but also dual
aircraft.
The failure here was not so
much the approach itself but the
26
determination of the pilot to con-
tinue the approach without execut-
ing a go-around. The decision to
initiate a go-around rests with the
pilot. Go-around! Go-around?
Even in a student status you are
still responsible for the safe con-
duct of the flight as well as the
welfare of its crewmembers. In a
dual aircraft you are acting as the
pilot. You may not be the pilot-in-
command but you ARE, in fact,
the pilot. The denendence or re-
liance on the instructor for the
saiety of the flight should have
started to diminish on the first day
of 'solo. From that day forward,
self-decisiveness and common
sense should have become the
order of the day. This, of course,
is not the go-ahead for the in-
structor to become lax.
There are a few examples I can
recall of students attempting an
approach and after the altitude, air
speed and ideas have dwindled
down to nothingness, the student
would look over at me as if to
say, "You've got it!" Then in that
split second of time does he realize
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
that I'm glancing back at him with
a lo.o.k that says, "No. I do.n't"?
Amazing is the o.nly wo.rd to. de-
scribe the feats that the student
can perfo.rm at that o.ne particular
mo.ment. Fro.m this Po.int o.n seat-
o.f-the-pants flying beco.mes un-
co.mfo.rtable. This student is rare.
Let's take o.ne. o.f tho.se no.t-so.-
hypo.thetical situatio.ns and apply
it to. a night dual training missio.n
o.n a practice auto.ro.tatio.n. It's o.ne
o.f tho.se situatio.ns where judgment
is o.verridden by vario.us o.ther
reaso.ns lined up in favo.r o.f giving
it at least o.ne mo.re try.
Item: It's been a lo.ng day and
night. Yo.u're tired.
Ratio.nale: Well.. . I do.n't feel
to.o. bad.
Item: The cro.ss wind is repo.rt-
ing o.ver the limit fo.r this aircraft.
Ratio.nale: True, but the steady
wind is under the limit.
Item: Yo.u o.nly have abo.ut 15
ho.urs in this bird.
Ratio.nale: Yes, but I'm feeling
co.mfo.rtable and I've go.t plenty o.f
time in o.ther single engine heli-
co.pters.
6600 rpm, 1,100 po.unds, instru-
ments in the green, no. lights, bleed
air o.ff. Base. Final. Lo.ts o.f crab
to. stay lined up. Settle into. the seat
a little mo.re firmly. Over the field
bo.undary high and ho.t, lights
picking o.ut details o.f the lane.
Overrun lights flash past. The in-
structo.r knew then and there the
student had misjudged his entry
Po.int but decided to. let him ride it
o.ut to. "teach the student a lesso.n."
Pitch do.wn, thro.ttle back. Ro.to.r
in the .lo.w green, gas pro.ducer 62
percent, we're still crabbing do.wn
the runway. The instructo.r just
KNEW that the student wo.uld
reco.gnize that a po.wer reco.very
was in o.rder and almo.st in the
same train o.f tho.ught wo.ndering
why they never put relief tubes in
the UH -1 as standard equipment.
One hundred feet, decelerate and
pitch pull ... PITCH PULL!!! OH
MY GOD, I'VE GOT IT! I'VE
SEPTEMBER 1972.
GOT IT! The instructo.r had a structo.r fo.r a chat. (His vo.ice . is
tiger by the tail, but never a similar to. that o.f many instructo.rs
tho.ught o.f go.ing aro.und. "I'm go.- -so.rt o.f like gravel so.aked in .
ing to. make this dad-blamed, mule- acid.)
headed mo.nster do. what I want it "Tho.u art six kinds o.f an un-
to., co.me hell o.r high water." printable idio.t."
A burst o.fpo.wer o.n the thro.ttle "Yes, sir."
and pull in a few extra po.unds o.f "Tho.u has no.t been that brain-
to.rque. The little beast had been less since early flight schoo.I. "
properly o.utraged by such abuse "No., sir."
and no.w has the bit in her teeth. "Getting thee lined up with that
The skids' rasping so.und suddenly runway to.o.k special dispensatio.n
changes to a to.rtured yowl as the fro.m Peter himself."
tail whips aro.und. Landing lights "Yes, sir."
slash thro.ugh the blackness o.f the "Has tho.u have anything to. say
bo.o.ndo.cks. A centerline stripe in thy behalf?"
streaks lengthwise under the left "No. excuse, sir."
chin bubble. The fuss ceases ab- Lo.ng ago. an o.ld, experienced
ruptly as the aircraft go.es charging instructor o.f mine said that o.ne
o.ff the runway 90 degrees to the either lands to a runway o.r arrives
directio.n o.f landing, harvesting at it. The view fro.m the to.wer at
taxiway lights enro.ute. AU. has times reveals that we tend to. do.
sto.pped. no.thing mo.re than just arrive.
A dry vo.ice fro.m the. to.wer says, The pilo.t who is convinced that
"Y o.u're cleared fo.r that left. turn- he can salvage a maneuver is, in
off." reality, attempting to. o.verextend
Silence prevails in the co.ckpit. his capability and may in the lo.ng-
A guardian angel has made a .rare run suffer the co.nsequences. Let's
perso.nal appearance and settled ~ . m i D t let complacency override good
firmly o.n the sho.ulder of the in- ':'-;udgment and safety. ~
/
F
RENCH ARMY aviation
(A viation Legere de L' Armee
de Terre or ALAT) is very much
like its counterpart in the U. S.
Army. It is not a part of the Air
Force nor is it a separate branch
of the Army. It has the mission of
increasing the capability of the
ground forces in the fields of in-
telligence, combat and mobility.
Prior to Army aviation as we
know it today, hills, high gJ'ound
and similar vantage points were
used to observe the enemy. These,
of course, were not always satis-
factory. To improve their observa-
tion capability, the French took to
the air as early as 1794. They used
observation balloons in the battle
of Fleurus (Belgium) against the
Austrians and found them to be
satisfactory.
In the early days of World War
I, airplanes played a major role
as observers in the French Army.
It was due primarily to the reports
of "aerial observers" that General
Gallieni in 1914 decided to launch
the "Vlth Army of Maunoury"
against the right flank of "Von
Kluck's Army." This proved to be
the decisive action that gave him
the victory in the Battle of the
Marne.
Improvements made it possible
for aircraft to do more than just
observe. They soon were. engaged
in combat and fought their own
battles in the air.
After World War I the French
Air Force was created. By the out-
break of World War II, support by
the Air Force had deteriorated to
the point that only a few of the
reconnaissance squadrons had
"Army observers." The Germans,
on the other hand, had "sneaker"
units (aerial observers) adequately
adapted to the combat units. These
proved a constant restraint to
French Army units.
The lack of observer aircraft
was partially corrected in 1942
when the U. S. equipped each
artillery battalion of the French
28
"Armee d'Afrique" with two Piper
(L-4) aircraft. The pilots were Air
Force while the observers were
Army. They took part in the cam-
paigns of Italy, France and Ger-
many.
It was the endless growing need
for "above the ground" observa-
tion in the Indochina and African
campaigns that made aviation what
it is today in the French Army. In
1947 three units (mostly equipped
with Pipers) were created to do
reconnaissance and artillery ad-
justment in Indochina. The need
for these type units was so great
that they were quickly asked to
support all the fighting units, act
as guideships, perform search and
rescue missions, do radio relays
and evacuate casualties.
In 1950 the first helicopters
joined the Pipers. After that the
number of aircraft in the Indo-
china theater increased rapidly and
in 1952 an "Army Aviation Heli-
copter Group" was formed. The
Army and Air Force worked the
aircraft together and even some
women got in the act. Mrs. Valerie
Andre, an Air Force medical offi-
cer, participated as a pilot flying
medical evacuations in the combat
zone. When the French Army left
the area, helicopters had evacuated
so many people that it was said
"they were the only aircraft that
saved more lives than they de-
stroyed."
During the Algerian War,
French Army aviation was sep-
arated entirely from the Air Force.
It became known as "Light A via-
tion of the Army" instead of "Ar-
tillery Observation Light Aviation"
to better underline its mission to
support all branches.
By 1958 all combat operations
were being planned with airmobile
assaults into the very core of the
enemy sanctuaries. The number
of helicopter operations increased
and helicopter units were put in
action in all combat areas.
The SA 330 (PUMA) is being assigned
to French Army units as an assault heli-
copter in place of the obsolete CH-21 C.
This new helicopter has a speed of 140
knots. It can carry 12 fully equipped
soldiers or an external load of 5,500 Ibs
Reprinted
by permission of
TAM
(Terre Air Mer)
Paris, France
U. S. "ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
AVIATION
In The French Army
The ALAT serves all branches of the Army with observation, aHack and assault heli-
copters. To modernize the service, SA 341 (GAZELLE) helicopters and SA 330 (PUMA)
assault helicopters are being introduced. Armament consists of wire-quided SS-l1 mis-
siles, but studies are now being made to equip the aircraft with more versatile armament
SEPTEMBER 1972 29
In "Constantinois" the 2nd Heli-
copter Group consisted of 160 air-
craft of which more than 1 00 were
CH-21Cs. In Oranais and Algerois
assault helicopters were manned by
the Air Force and the Navy. The
number of units continued to grow
until there were 25 "Division Army
A viation Units" of which 15 were
mixed fixed and rotary wing air-
craft. They were spread all over
the- Algerian theater. At the same
time Army aviation units took part
in the "Suez Operation" and in the
smashing of the enemy assault
against the Bizerte Naval Air Base
in Tunisia. The number of aircraft
employed at that time was about
1,000-all of which were returned
to France with the disengagement.
The first division Army aviation
battalion was created in March
1961 . and the first Army Corps
Army aviation group in February
1969 .. By this time "Army avia-
tion" was fully integrated in the
30
"Field Maneuver" and "Territorial
Defense" forces.
French Army aviation is headed
by a general who is responsible
for the combat readiness and the
technical and tactical training of
aviation specialists. He is also the
advisor to the Army chief of staff
for all matters relative to organiza-
tion, employment and use of Army
aviation, the training of personnel
and the development of material.
Directly under this general are
SA 3305 (PUMAs) come in as a unit
Left: Alouette 115 (SA 318) are light
liaison and observation helicopters
and are used in command and con
trol, for gathering intelligence and
plotting strike areas. Below: The new
SA 341 (GAZELLE) will replace the
Alouette 115 as a light helicopter
three schools where military and
technical training is given to officers
and enlisted men:
The "Instruction Center of
Army Aviation Specialists" (Le
Center d'instruction des Special-
istes ALAT or CISALA T) is lo-
cated in Nancy. This school has
the task of basic military training
for all draftees and basic aviation
instruction of enlisted men in flight
support subjects (A TC, mechanics,
etc.).
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
The "Army Aviation Speciali-
zation School" (L'Ecole de Special-
isation de L' ALAT or EA At,AT)
in Dax provides basic pilot training
for officers and NCOs. It also gives
helicopter flight training to person-
nel of the Air Force, Navy Civil
Population Corps, Gendarmerie,
customs officers and foreign stu-
dents.
The "Application School of
Army Aviation" (L'Ecole d' Appli-
cation de L' ALAT or EA ALAT)
in Le Luc near St. Raphael teaches
advance tactical flight training
courses to the UTTAS-SA 330
(PUMA) helicopter.
Between the Army aviation
command and the field units are
intermediate units such as Army
aviation groupments and Army
aviation corps commands which
ensure technical control of aviation
personnel. In addition, Army avia-
tion corps commanders are ad-
visors to the commanding general
of the Army corps for Army
aviation employment. In the Field
Maneuver Forces there are two
types of units. First, there .is in
each division a division aviation
battalion (GALDIV) with four
platoons:
Two liaison observation pla- '
toons each with 10 Alouette lIs
(SA 318). Their missions are liai-
son, command and control, and
reconnaissance.
One attack helicopter platoon
with 10 Alouette Ills (SA 3160).
Each of these helicopters has gyro-
stabilized optical devices and SS-
11 wire-guided (M-22) missiles.
These units have the task of killiBg
tanks.
One assault helicopter platoon
with 10 UTTAS-SA 330
(PUMA). The other type unit in
the Field Maneuver Forces is the
Alouette Ills are attack helicopters.
Some have gyrostabilized optical de-
vices and 55-11 (M-22) wire-guided
missiles. They can also be equipped
as rescue and ambulance helicopters
SEPTEMBER 1972
Army corps aviation group
(GALCA) composed'of three- com-
panies:
One liaison observation com-
pany of 15 Alouette lIs (T,URBO-
MECA ASTAZOU. -JET ' EN-
GINE).
One attack helicopter com-
pany of 14 Alouette Ills ' armed
with SS-lls.
One assault helicopter com-
pany of 20 UTTAS SA 330s
(PUMA).
The ALA T is now required to
serve all branches of the Army.
Its mission is very much like avia-
tion in the U. S. Army. Light heli-
copters are used in command and
control, gathering intelligence, de-
tecting nuclear targets, plotting
strike areas and monitoring the
level of poststrike . radioactivity.
Alouette lIs are used for this pur-
pose but are scheduled to be soon
replaced by SA 341s (GAZELLE);
Attack helicopters (mostly Alou-
ette Ills) in the ALA T are
equipped with SS-11 B 1 s and spe-
cial optical devices. At 3,000 meter
range they can hit and destroy any
kind of tank known to be in serv-
ice. Since this armament is limited
to antitank warfare, new designs
and studies are being made to
equip in addition -the aircraft with
more versatile armaments (20 mm '
rockets and others).
The SA 330 '(PUMA) is being -
assigned to units as assault he-li-
copters, in place of the obsolete
CH-21C. PUMAs are capable of
flying up to 250 Km H (140 knots)
and can carry 12 fully equipped
soldiers or 2,500 Kg (5,500
pounds). Assigned to the GALDIV
and GALCA, the new aircraft are
upgrading the airmobility of these
units-making possible quick air-
lift of units, tactical deployment of
specific materials such as tactical
nuclear weapons, transportation of
heavy materials over battltfield
obstacles and medical evacuations.
In 1970 the 750 French Army
aircraft flew around 160,000 hours.
Of this, 70,000 were for schools
and the rest in tactical units for
training, field exercises and general
purpose flights.
Included in the genera] purpose
flights was that done by ALA T
task forces performing disaster
rescues in Peru, Martinique and
Pakistan.
One month in Peru, three Alou-
ette Ills made 50 medical evacua-
tions, air lifted 320 people and
transported 45 tons of material.
This was accomplished in very diffi--
cult conditions in which the air-
craft were required to fly and land
at more than 9,000 feet.
The ALA T also participated in
various civilian type activities in
France. In 1970 the organization
flew 1,250 hours in highway and
road control and traffic surveys
during the peak period of summer
32
vacation. Three helicopters have
been attached permanently to hos-
pitals at Rouen, Montpellier and
Toulouse.
Recruits may specify and be as-
signed to aviation when they enlist.
Enlisted men may also be assigned
to aviation by lateral transfer from
other services after serving 2 years
in their original branch. All en-
listed men, including NCOs, attend
initial rotary wing courses at
ESALA T in Dax. After graduating
they are assigned directly to avia-
tion units.
After being with their units for
a year, pilots return to the EA
ALA T in Le Luc for 3 weeks to
qualify as tactical pilots. This
course consists mainly of tactical
flights performed lower than 100
feet in combat environment.
With their units, pilots are ex-
pected to improve their qualifica-
tions by participating in extensive
combat qualifications. They are
able to move up to the following
positions:
Instructor pilot. To qualify
they must satisfactorily perform as
instructors in a school and/or in a
unit after a special course at Dax.
Tactical chief pilot in Alouette
Ills with missile gunnery qualifi-
cations.
Chief pilot in an assault heli-
Left: A partial view of the "Army
Aviation Specialization School" in
Dax. Basic pilot training is taught
here. Above: Aviation mechanics
at the "Material School" at Bourges
copter SA 330. Before the NCO
pilot qualifies in this type aircraft
he must be fully instrument in the
Alouette Ills and take a transition
course on the SA 330. This re-
quires about 6 months of instruc-
tion and more than 100 hours of
flight.
Officer pilots receive extended
training aimed at making them able
to adjust air and ground fire and
to command in battle. Unlike
NCOs, officers are not allowed to
a full career in Army aviation.
They must return to their branch
periodically for 2 year tours. Each
branch assumes the management
of its officers even during Army
aviation assignments.
Mechanics are trained at the
"Material School" located at
Bourges. Maintenance of all air-
craft used in the French Army are
taught at this school. At the end
of the course NCO mechanics are
assigned to Army aviation units.
French Army aviation has par-
alleled U. S. Army aviation in
many ways. It is not a separate
branch and has the same general
missions. It was unknown at the
beginning of the century, half fore-
seen at the end of W orId War II,
increasingly expanded and is now
taking a greater place in ground
combat.
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
What Is A Learning Center?
Story by Captain Lance Millonzi
Photographs by Captain Tom Greene
The sign of the times in education circles is self-paced,
individualized instruction. This is exactly where the em-
phasis is being placed at the U. S. Army Aviation School's
Learning Center located at Ft. Rucker, AL. All phases of
aviation oriented subiects are now being offered to include
air traffic control subjects and POR qualification instruction
T HIS IS USU ALLY the second question asked
by those having stumbled into the Learning Cen-
ter at the U. S. Army Aviation School (USA A VNS),
Ft. Rucker, AL. The first question generally is:
Where do we sign up for the college courses?
There are more than a few people who have con-
fused the Learning Center with. the Education Center.
In fact, it's not too farfetched to confuse the two,
since learning and education are somewhat synon-
ymous.
SEPTEMBER 1972
The Learning Center places emphasis on self-
paced, individualized instruction that is used for
additional, supplemental and remedial instruction
for courses taught at Ft. Rucker.
This concept didn't originate at Ft. Rucker, but
it has picked up increasing impetus in recent years.
About 2 years ago USAA VNS formed an ad hoc
committee to determine the feasibility of having its
own Learning Center. It was decided, due to the
large number and variety of courses taught at the
33
school, that implementation of a Learning Center
concept was needed. In January 1971, after 6
months of thorough planning and preparation, the
Learning Center opened its doors.
At first the few lessons offered were limited pri-
marily to rotary wing training with emphasis on
instrument subjects. Yet every day more lessons
are being developed for pilot transition courses,. en-
listed flight operation courses, air traffic control
(A TC) courses and the other enlisted courses taught
at the school.
Instruction at the Learning Center. offers several
different media, the most popular being in movie
format. Here the individual study carrels contain a
super 8 mm automatic sound projector which is
self -contained having a screen the size of a small
television. The film used is contained in cartridges
for ease of handling and operation, each cartridge
holds 20 minutes of uninterrupted viewing, but may
be stopped anywhere if the student needs to catch
up with his notes. The system is unique in that it
uses standard super 8 mm film and has a small
magnetic strip attached to it for the sound track.
As of now this media pertains strictly to instrument
flying, the subject area most difficult for student
aviators.
Another media commonly used is the favorite
all-American pastime: television. The Learning Cen-
ter maintains certain popular or frequently requested
lessons on video tape; also available are two video
tape players used to "broadcast" our own shows.
Students also can request any of the thousands or
more tv tapes retained by Ft. Rucker's educational
television library. The lesson is broadcasted at a
preset time, on a preset channel to be viewed in the
Learning Center on a television monitor.
While we're still on the subject of television, here's
a sneak preview of what's to come. The greatest .
developments in the audio-visual field have' been
made in color television, using small video tape re-
corders. In fact. many different institutions including
34
USAA VNS are slowly changing to this novel tech-
nological media. Small color video tape monitors,
used in conjunction with a small color TV in each
carrel, greatly increases the availability and quantity
of subject material. This allows the student to watch
his desired lesson without having to wait for other
lessons already being televised. Unfortunately, one
is not able to view "Sesame Street" or "The Electric
Company."
Another fairly new method of instruction used at
the Learning Center is the sound/slide system. The '
sound portion of the system is provided by a cassette
recorder and the slides are viewed on an ordinary
35 mm slide projector. Each sound/slide lesson
ranges in length up to 120 minutes and contains a
maximum of 140 slides. The sound/slide lessons
are easily modified for new or changed information
by substituting a new slide or a new tape. Although
most of the sound/slide lessons correspond closely
with the platform instruction, they differ in that only
pertinent subject matter is presented. Whereas most.
classes are 50 minutes long, the majority of our .
sound/slide lessons average only 15 minutes. Due
to the condensed material in these lessons they are
. very helpful for review.
One of our proudest teaching aids at the Learning
Center is an invention of one of our "genius" in-
structors. Basically, it's the cockpit section of a
UH-l Huey helicopter made up of many discarded
parts and plenty of elbow grease. The device is' used
primarily to teach the student starting and runup
procedures, but the designer has been able to simu-
late any function connected with the engine and the
electrical power system of the aircraft. This trainer
Far left: Cockpit section of UH-l Huey. is used for starting and
runup procedures. The device was designed by an innovative
instructor at the Learning Center. Center: Two students util1ze '
the same training aid for checklist familiarity training. Below:
A student operates two tape recorders with extracts from DOD
flight information publication provided by the Learning Center
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
In addition to supplementing most instructional programs conduded
at the U. S. Army Aviation School, Ft. Rucker, AL, the Learning Center
has study material for the FAA military flight competency test (below),
and data of interest to civilian and dependent college students (right)
has no doubt saved many needless and costly hours
of starting and runup in an actual aircraft. This brain-
child was in fact such a success that the Army
Participation Group of the Naval Training Device
Center is considering building a sophisticated proto-
type based on the Learning Center's training. The
device is also a great success with the students who
learn to impress their instructor pilots with their
knowledge of the cockpit. But occasionally while
students are using the trainer one wonders-because
of erratic control movements and strange gleams in
their eyes-if they aren't taking a little time out to
chase the Red Baron.
About 10 years ago the programed text became
popular in many of the school systems in the United
States. USAA VNS immediately realized the great po-
tential of this new way of teaching and quickly had
lessons incorporated into programed text for use in
classes. The Learning Center stocks about 87 differ-
ent texts covering many different subjects. The pro-
gramed texts are available to all and may be worked
in the Learning Center or in the privacy of one's
home or billet.
SEPTEMBER 1972
The Learning Center also employs the instruction
media most familiar to' us. This is the oldest form
of instruction and still the best: the instructor. The
Learning Center retains at least two instructors
available at all times. Although they may not know
everything, together they can aptly cover each sub-
ject area. If they can't find the answer they'll find
someone who can. Most of the instructors are ex-
instructor pilots well versed in instrument flying.
There also are several noncommissioned officers who
were once platform instructors and are well qualified
in the aviation maintenance field. We are proud of
our instructors; they show a definite interest in help-
ing the individual and they are never satisfied until
the student.is satisfied.
In the Learning Center's first month of operation
-J anuary 1971-attendance numbered less than
200 students. In 3 months the monthly attendance
had increased to 500 students and in less than a
year it reached 1,600 per month. In November
1971 the Learning Center reached one of its early
milestones by acquiring its 10,000th student, First
Lieutenant Walton D. Stallings Jr. The 20,000th stu-
dent used the Learning Center tacilities on 7 July
1972.
Remem ber to drop in at the Learning Center next
time you're at Ft. Rucker; it has plenty to offer.
Besides supplementary local instruction for nearly
all programs taught at the USAA VNS, it also can
help the old pilots who are studying for the annual
writ or instrument renewal.. As an additional entice-
ment, we even have a 10 cup of coffee.
35
CHECKLIST:
SENSE'
36
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
SEPTEMBER 1972
Maior Chester Goolrick
Aviation people have been known to
take pencil and shears to the
I prescribed checklist, performing
drastic surgery . ..
UNLESS YOU are one of those addle-pated souls
who like to part with their hard-earned salary
checks in the shortest possible time and the most
unprofitable way, you don't buy wrist watches, mink
coats or diamond rings from shifty-eyed strangers
who sidle up to you on street corners. When you
put solid cash into a major investment you want
an equally solid guarantee that what you are getting
is all wool and a yard wide. You're one of those
level-headed citizens who insist on kicking all the
tires before they buy a used car, even taking the
heap out for a spin to make sure its steering wheel
doesn't have a regrettable tendency to come off just
as they are turning on to the freeway.
As Ichabod C. C. (Cautious Cal) Tutwiler, the
sage of Chipmunk Falls, VT, once observed: "Feller's
got to be a goldurned fool to buy a pig in a poke."
If you stuck around 01' C. C. long enough you
might also hear him mention something about the
37
CHECKLIST SENSE
wisdom of looking before you leap, not venturing
out on ice without making sure how thick it is, and
making a point of counting the teeth of the elderly
horse you are thinking of buying. Cal wasn't born
yesterday, not by a matter of 90 years or so. He's
picked up a thing or two along the way, particularly
when it comes to keeping body and soul together
and his six-figure bankroll all in one piece and
growing.
Cal doesn't hold much 'brief for heavier-than-air
machines he has heard some people say can be
made to fly. He gave .up on the internal combustion
engine when Henry Ford stopped turning out Model
Ts, and he has never been much higher off the
ground than the elevator at the Chipmunk- Falls
First National and Corn Exchange Bank will ' take
him. All the same, if you could get him to grasp the .
idea of the absolute need for thorough and uniform
preflight checklist procedures in Army aviation he
would back you all the way. He started being cau-"
tious when he was 2 years old, after he burned his
finger on a hot stove; and he hasn't got into any-
thing since without checking it out thoroughly from
stem to' stem. '_
TCH,TCH
If every"Army aircrewman, maintenance man and
supervisor were as cautious as Cal when it comes to
checking things out, the Army aviation world would
be a happier place. Unfortunately, 'taint so. There's
just enough statistical evidence, like the part of an
iceberg which appears above the water, to show
that preflight checks are sometimes being handled
on a hit or miss basis, with the accent being on the
o
o
If every Army air crewman,
maintenance man and
supervisor were as
cautious as 01' Cal,
the aviation world would
be a happier place
I It/,:"
..Jf
miss more often than not. We . can't say how many
people are getting away' with' negligent-there's an
ugly word for you-check procedures. So far, we .
can't, that is. The list of those who haven't got "
away with it speaks for itself.
The list among other things shows that when it
We can't soy how many people are
getting away with negligence ... but the
list of those who haven't
got away with it speaks. for itself
_ ... 4 ' ~
, ~ ' , -
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
comes to preflight, what at the start seem to be
insignificant items are just as important as the ones
even your Aunt Ella would be sure to take note of.
Nearly everybody would be reluctant to take off
if a tail rotor could not be located or the instrument
panel was upside down. Take a look now at some
mishaps brought on by overlooking the not-so-minor
details:
Gradual loss of No. 2 engine oil pressure in
an RU-21D brought on a precautionary landing.
The starting point? The pilot had failed to secure
the oil cap. The oil siphoned out of the oil filler cap.
Preflight failure.
Because the pilot did not check the circuit
breakers prior to takeoff, the flap and gear circuit
on a U-8D breaker was left out. Naturally the gear
wouldn't retract. Preflight failure.
A precautionary landing was made when an
OH-6A engine oil bypass light came on. If the pilot
had bothered to check the oil level before takeoff
the light wouldn't have come on. Preflight failure.
A U-6A landed on a road strip to unload pas-
sengers, failed on its takeoff attempt and crashed
into a truck. The pilot had omitted checking the
trim settings. Preflight failure.
That should be more than enough to drive home
the point that as important-critical is a better word
-as thorough preflights are, they aren't being done
all the time and every time the way they should be.
Yet everybody knows and has been told over and
over again what a proper preflight is. What goes on
here, for Heaven's sake!
ROGUES' GALLERY
There are all kinds of answers, none of which on
close examination holds any more water than a
bucket somebody has ventilated with a 50-caliber
In the case of human nature vs.
SEPTEMBER 1972
the checklist, consider this: the
longer you practice a routine, the
less important it seems. The fact
that it is a required routine means
that it is important in the first place
-
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - , . . . . ' ~ '- .
--
39
CHECKLIST SENSE
At some points along the way, complacency
can begin to set in- and if you think
you're immune, don't worry.
You are already- complacent
machinegun. In fact, the answers all ring about as i.
true as those excuses you used to offer teacher as . to
why you weren't in school on the first day of the ,
fishing season. You are fooling nobody, includmg
yourself, when you skip or do an inadequate job
on a check because of too much pressure, not enough
time, fatigue or a idea that the checklist
isn' t all that important in the first place. You are
just another victim of human nature which we are
all burdened with from birth and which has been
getting people into hot water since Adam and Eve
found themselves on the sidewalk in front of the
locked gates of the Garden of Eden.
In this case of , human nature vs the . checklist,
consider this:
40
THE LONGER YOU PRACTICE A ROUTINE,
THE LESS IMPORTANT IT SEEMS. THE
FACT THAT IT IS A REQUIRED ROUTINE
MEANS THAT IT IS IMPORTANT IN THE
FIRST PLACE.
Here' s, one likely explanation of a widely held
(and completely wrong) belief among Army pilots
that checklists for most aircraft are too long, too
detailed and not worth the time and patience they
require in the face of an .important task which should
have been finished yesterday at the very latest. If
there is one thing most people haven't enough of,
it's patience, the sterling quality which keeps human
nature from getting completely out of hand. The
checklist is one of the first things which go out the
window when time and patience run short. In a de-
pressing number of cases, when the checklist goes
out the window so do the pilot and his crewmen,
sooner or later.
There was mention of negligence a bit back. Isn't
that a little rough? Getting up in the morning is bad
enough as it is without a man having to face himself
in the shaving mirror and admit he has been guilty
of negligence about the preflight on occasion-even
if he has got away with it as clean as a whistle so
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
far. All of us can get careless once in a while, or for-
getful, but that truly isn't the same thing as negli-
gence. Or is it? A bank cashier who forgets to lock
the vault at night because he is looking forward to
a heavy date with Miss American Pie may not be in
exactly the same category as the one who leaves it
open because he doesn't give a hoot whether the
cash assets are there in the morning or not. They
do share one thing. They might as well send out
engraved invitations to the local chapter of the
International Bank Robbers Union.
Negligence can appear in as many disguises as
the late Boris Karloff. Complacency is one. It is all
the more dangerous because it can come along as
a sinister partner with experience the way rheuma-
tism does with age and wisdom. Youngsters aren't
bothered with it. If they haven't found out for
themselves how little they know, some kind soul
usually is going to go out of his way to tell them.
You don't have to beat a novice over the head with
a baseball bat to convince him he will do well and
live a lot longer if he follows procedures and tech-
niques which have been tried and found true by
trained men who have been down the road before
him.
At some point along the way, complacency can
begin to set in-and if you think you are immune,
don't worry. You are already complacent. Once you
are complacent, or if you develop a runaway case
of it, you have already acquired the kind of attitude
which can lead you to convince yourself that check-
lists are something dreamed up by a bunch" of old
mossbacks with fuzz in their ears simply as a means
of making life tedious for Army airmen.
More than once you have probably heard some-
body say he has the checklist so thoroughly engraved
on his mind he could recite it backwards and for-
wards and six ways for Sunday without dropping a
stitch. His wife will tell you he can't remember a
short grocery list for the space of time it takes him
to back the car out of the garage, and that unless
she writes it down and pins it on his coat lapel he
is as likely to come home from the" store with a live
alligator as the steak she wanted.
Every now and then some near-genius who has
memorized the Encyclopedia Britannica and can spiel
it off from Alpha to Zed without missing a comma
pops up as a guest on a late night TV talk show.
The chance of the rest of us being asked to do the
same is about equal to that of being invited for a
personally escorted tour of the Great Wall of China
by Chairman Mao. If you run into trouble with a
grocery list and annually forget your wedding an-
niversary or your wife's birthday, what are the odds
that you will overlook some item in a detailed
41
CHECKLIST SENSE
checklist-particularly the 1 I-page one for test flights
with their before, during and-after provisions? Just
about zero, right?
To be sure, if you stick around Army aviation
for a while, you will become familiar with the. check-
list, even thoroughly familiar. So familiar, in fact,
that you can become an easy victim of complacency
and fall into that ho-hum attitude which can do
you in. You overlook a checklist item .at just the
moment fate decrees that it needs the kind of atten-
tion you expect from your doctor when. you have
come down with double pneumonia. No use sud-
denly remembering it after you are aloft and your
turbine starts giving off remindful of an
antique coffee grinder. '
Carelessness, or complacency, concerning the
checklist probably stems from the fact that relatively
few checks, no matter how detailed and careful, tum
up anything seriously wrong. So why bother when
the odds are with you? Why go to your dentist
twice a year? One veteran pilot who retired recently
after 6,000 hours in the air in and out of combat
noted the other day that there had been only two
times in his entire career . when a check showed
something which prevented takeoff. That's not the
point. If he hadn't spotted the trouble the first time
there wouldn't have been a second. If he hadn't
nailed it the second he never would have totaled
6,000 hours. He didn't allow complacency to hang
around his neck like a tombstone. He is puttering in
his rose garden and playing golf today because he
was a fuss-budget from start to finish when it came
to preflight.
Complacency isn't the only item on the list of
potent checklist troublemakers. The self-satisfied soul
so far gone in complacency he might as well be
walking in -his sleep has a deadly double first cousin
in the menace to society who has been persuaded
by an overdose of human nature that he not only
knows everything . he. needs to know but knows it
better than most. Operating on the usually sound
theory that no matter how good something is it
can be made- better, people in the grip of this kind
of self-hypnosis have been known to take pencil
and shears to the prescribed checklist, performing
drastic surgery which leaves them with a Readers
Digest version with more gaps in it than a 6-year-old's
- ..
. "
smile. Our feckless friends will tell you proudly that
their home-gro'wn versions not only save time but
get things done just as well. What actually gets done
in some cases is something else again. Done to a
turn you might say.
Before we found out better we used to say that
some people were born accident-prone, and some
had fairy godfathers who put in a longer working
day. That way you could explain without losing too
much sleep why pilots who had a history of accidents
or mishaps were only operating under their own
unlucky star. The only remedy was to give them a
job flying a desk where about the worst thing which
could happen to them would be catching their finger
in a stapling machine.
Sure, some people are accident prone. So are
bowling pins. The man who sets himself up to be
knocked over, who sticks his head out to be chopped
off and who allows complacency or know-it-allness
to lead him into procedures the book would never
condone, is asking for what he is sure to get. Luck
and fairy godfathers haven't anything to do with it.
You just might have a fairy godfather, at that. But
you can bet he is going to be out to lunch the day
you fall down on your preflight. A fairy godfather
., can be asked to do only so much and no more.
TUNED TO A T
Neither can an Army aircraft. Your faithful heli-
copter is no better than the man who flies and main-
tains it and if it is being asked to perform with an
oily rag lodged somewhere in its craw, something
a thorough check would have turned up along the
line, it can't be blamed if it falls down on the job.
How did the rag get there in the first place?
Generally the blame can be laid at the door of
improper maintenance procedures. Sloppy procedures
which a proper check would have caught well before
the nick of time.
Service personnel come blessed, or cursed, with
the same lavish helping of human nature as pther
mortals, including pilots. They react the same way
to fatigue, pressure, anxiety, extremes of discomfort
and dim-witted self-satisfaction.
The best of them can and do make mistakes.
All top-flight Mr. Fixits know this. Like mature
Aviation personnel come blessed, or cursed, with
the same lavish helping of human nature as
other mortals. They react the same
way to fatigue, pressure, anxiety and
dimwitted self-satisfaction
43
CHECKLIST SENSE
pilots, they are keenly aware that their capabilities
and experience have their limits and that they have
to maintain a constant, all-points lookout against
the creeping complacency and overconfidence which
can turn them into zombies before they know what
has hit them.
One thing the true expert knows and repeats to
himself when he cleans his teeth three times daily
is that while improvising is fine and dandy for a
jazz pianist at a New Year's Eve party, it's not so
hot for keeping Anny aircraft in the tip,:,top shape
they need to be. Like homemade preflight checklists,
homemade maintenance procedures which don't
stress the need for checks aren't exactly in the same
class as Mom's homemade apple pie.
Sticking to the book like a fly in a pot of honey
is the o'nly answer. Not just one of the answers.
The only answer. That and the absolutely necessary
check and supervision to see that, despite every
precaution, a mistake still hasn't somehow got into
the works ..
And foul up the works it will to a fare-thee-well
unless all service personnel and their supervisors
have a grasp of the full scope of their work and
their special problems. Proper fuel, ' to mention one
pesky instance. People who wouldn't ask their auto-
mobiles to run on kerosene, or molasses, have been
known to mix IP-4 with A VGAS, which gives U-8s
high fevers and the dry heaves. When this happens
it is as plain as the carvings on Mount Rushmore
that neither the service people nor the pilots involved
had made a check to see that they had the proper
color-coded fuel for their aircraft, a case of one of
those easily overlooked but easily checkable items
which can put an aircraft in the emergency ward
just when it is most .ne.eded.
Proper fueling . is the concern of everybody. who .
has a hand in the process. There are some .areas
in the checking procedure which are the exclusive
property of the mechanics and their supervisors. In
looking over the general state of health of the i r ~
craft in their care, the men who can honestly call
themselves expert with a capital E keep a close
lookout for such telltale signs of wear and tear or
potential trouble as defective roller bearings, cracks,
rust, corrosion, metal fatigue or part failures. Above
all, part failures. Nearly one-half of all the crashes
logged in one particuiar week were logged as caused
by part failures, a sure sign that some people some-
where weren't checking things out the way the book
prescribes.
Finally, we come to our old arch-enemy, that
dastardly arch-villain, FOD. To be fair about.-it,
foreign object damage can be caused by such diverse
44 U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
items as great homed owls, ham sandwiches and ball
peen hammers, and it can't all be blamed on me-
chanics. Everybody has a responsibility and the best
weapon is relentless check procedures with FOD
in mind. Maybe FOD, like the poor, will always be
with us but like the war on poverty, the war on FOD
can keep it under control. The mechanics and their
supervisors are the front line troops on a seek and
destroy mission.
It works. You hear about the damage undetected
foreign objects can inflict. Like the accidents which
never took place because of by-the-book checks, you
don't often hear of foreign objects which were ap-
prehended before they could cause trouble. One
example: A sharp-eyed inspector who believed in
doing his job up brown found a sheet metal bucking
bar hiding in the tail rotor drive shaft tunnel of a
UR -1 tail boom. Your guess as to what would have
happened if the bar hadn't been discovered is as
good as anybody else' s and is probably about the
same.
COMMAND PERFORMANCE
Army mechanics, service personnel and pilots,
capable and skilled as they all are, aren' t supermen.
No matter how conscientious he may be regarding
his particular job, every human being from time to
You hear a lot about the
Men who can honestly call
themselves experts keep
a close lookout for
telltale signs of wear and tear
and potential trouble
SEPTEMBER 1972
damage caused by undetected
foreign objects but ve"ry little
about the accidents which
never took place because
of by-the-book procedures
rime needs guidance, counsel, supervision and direc-
tion.
All this is an essential part of the sound, pre-
planned and well-oiled managment program which
is an essential part of every unit's operational phil-
osophy. When you start hunting for a good place to
start, you'd do well to consider that no management
program will get far off the ground unless it puts
proper and uniform checklist procedures where they
belong-near the top.
In fact, it is required. AR 95-4 stipulates, in no
uncertain terms, that unit commanders ensure that
aircrew checklists be followed in all cases to ward
45
CHECKLIST SENSE
off inadequate starting, runup, takeoff and landing.
The AR is just what it says, a regulation, and Army
regulations aren't exactly in the same class as the
kind but gentle advice you get from Dear Abby and
which you are free to take or leave alone. Try wear-
ing your uniform backward if you are one of those
people who take some convincing.
Complementing AR 95-4 is the dash 10 CL which
provides standard guides to make sure checks are
made according to the book, whether the unit is
located at Rucker, Sascatchewan, Da Nang or Due
A conscientious safety officer regards an
accident caused by an improper check as
a persElnal affront ...
West, SC. The message is loud and clear. Every unit
commander has a stated responsibility to see that. all
hands follow the checklist from top to bottom all
the way without skipping any of the wayside stops.
And the only way to do it is to do it with book in .
hand.
It is a matter of positive thinking. No mature,
normally confident p r s o n ~ who knows his job likes
to have it dinned into him night and day that he
must perform in a certain way and only that way.
But we are all human, remember? And accidents do
keep on happening in which there is a checklist
factor.
So it looks as if some gentle dinning in might not
be such a bad idea. The principal dinner-inner in an
accident prevention-conscious outfit is the full-time
safety officer who spreads the word with all the fiery
zeal of an old time backwoods preacher on the
sawdust trail. It's the safety officer's job, as the unit
commander's good right arm, to carry out the basic
steps each commanding officer is told in DA Pam-
phlet 385-1 to set about organizing his continuing
safety program. He sees to it that everybody knows
about and follows safe practices. He institutes cor-
rective measures when some unfortunates lose their
way like the little lost sheep in the song. He is as
46
nosy as a police dog when it comes to sniffing out
unsafe acts and conditions.
In industry they call this sort of around-the-shift
diligence "quality control." The manufacturers of
Old Mother Hubbard's Dog Bones are well aware
that they are tops in the dog food world because
Fido prefers their product three to one over all other
leading brands, as shown by a Gallop Poll. Old
Mother Hubbard, Inc., started out with the high
standards that took them to the top, but everybody
at the dog bone factory knows that standards have
a way of drooping like a candle in a heat wave unless
somebody is on hand night and day to see they are
maintained.
That's the way the safety officer feels about the
preflight. When it comes to the need for maintaining
the prescribed checklist standards he can talk your
ears off-and will at the drop of a helmet. You don't
even have to drop the helmet.
ALL IN THE FAMILY
A conscientious safety officer regards an accident
caused by an improper check as a personal affront,
the way the backwoods preacher used to take the
news that the deacon had fallen off the wagon again.
Despite all his missionary work, it is clear evidence
that somebody has not got the word, or, what is
worse, has failed to pay attention. It's enough to
make a grown man cry.
Parson Jones knew that the deacon's latest los-
ing bout with John Barleycorn came about because
he couldn't resist influences which hit him at his
weakest point. The deacon said it all started because
it was a cold day and his feet hurt and he thought
a little drop of something might warm him up. He
warmed up, all right. In the pokey.
Every safety officer has heard much the same
story more times than he wants to remember. He
The number one holler-guy in
an accident prevention-conscious
outfit is the full-time safety officer
who spreads the word with all the
fiery zeal of an old time backwoods
preacher on the sawdust trail
knows that you can preach safety in general and
the checklist in particular until the cows come home,
but you can't make anybody really think if he wants
to shut down his mind like an engine trying to run
on JP-4 when its diet calls for A VGAS.
The checklist is a matter of individual responsi-
bility shared by every member of the unit family, not
just the commander or the safety officer. You know
this. All the same-how often have you heard (or
CHECKLIST SENSE
said yourself when you were in a hurry to get back
to the base): "The aircraft's okay. Let's give it a
quick onceover."
Or have been handed a "revised" checklist with
the famous last words: "Never mind what they told
you at school. We do things differently out here."
Do you always insist on an oral call-out when you
are following the checklist and if you don't get oral
confirmation do you assume the worst? (In the case
of the preflight, no news is bad news.)
When a fuel 'line has been taken off and put back
in place, do you always check for leaks around the
connections?
If you are interrupted during a check, do you take
up where you left off, giving human nature a gap
wide enough to drive a beer truck through, or do you
start all over again?
Do you always make certain the book is in the
aircraft?
48
Is guesswork among the Anglo-Saxon words you
wouldn't want to use in front of a Sunday School
class?
All this is a matter for the individual, particularly
when the unit's aircraft are operating over a wide
area out in the field. The safety officer and the unit
commander share the common human inability to
be in more than two or three places at the same
instant. A large part of the time, aircrewmen and
even mechanics are on their own to a considerable
extent, and if they haven't taken the checklist as
dead seriously as the safety officer had told them to '
a thousand times in as many ways, they have a
better than average chance of winding up in the
same messy bowl of soup as the deacon.
To tell the glad truth, the picture isn't all bad;
in fact, indications are most pilots are doing a
thorough preflight job. Early this year, the National
Transportation Board reported to the FAA that the
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
. - ~ . - , . . - - I
.---.
G

,.'
SEPTEMBER 1972
flight control locking devices on the Beech 55 (the
Army's T -42A) needed modification to prevent op-
eration of the aircraft when any component of the
devices was engaged and that the fail-safe warning
wasn't doing its job. The investigation came after
three fatal civilian crashes, each caused when a
highly qualified and experienced pilot overlooked
removing gust plates before takeoff.
Through last October, Army pilots had logged
over 307,000 hours in the T -42, involving an esti-
mated 100,000 preflights. The Army has had its
troubles with the locking devices, but not a single
accident involving them has been reported, clear
proof that most people are on the ball.
Most of the people, most of the time. But what
your hard-working safety officer wants is all of the
people all of the time.
Check, as Cautious Cal might say in agreement,
and double check. 4IJ
How often have you heard-or said yourself
when you were in a hurry to get home-
"The aircraft's okay. Let's give
it a quick onceover"
otU;[

-%
1)00/::/

SOLID .l
49

SOMETIMES there are fatal aircraft accidents that
leave pilots shaking their heads and saying: "It
shouldn' t have happened. I just can't figure it out!"
What follows is a tale of one of those accidents ....
An experienced pilot briefed his three wingmen
on a routine navigation mission. After a smooth
takeoff and join-up, the flight soon coasted out in
the climb. Suddenly lead jettisoned his canopy and
a moment later made a hard 180 to head for land
about 3 miles away. His radio call was garbled, but
other members of the flight agreed that he said he
had a fire warning light as well as a DC generator-out
light. The call was so confused that one wingman
50
From April 1972 AIRSCOOP
thought he heard mention of hydraulic failure.
The deputy flight lead called for the flight to go
to guard channel. While the other flight members
followed instructions, the leader flipped the selector
the wrong way-to manual instead of guard. Be-
cause the function switch on the UHF was on main,
there was no guard monitor capability. The pilot
had thus cut himself off from the flight at the very
moment when he needed help.
From this point on, things went from bad to
worse. The pilot, thinking he was on guard channel,
announced that he had lost his canopy. He said he
had a fire warning light, that the engine was com-
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
pressor stalling, and that he was heading for land.
He added that he had a DC generator-out light and
had switched to emergency fuel. There was no doubt
that he knew he was riding a very sick bird.
But the pilot's transmissions were going out on an
air traffic control frequency and were not heard by
anyone in the flight. The A TC people answered his
call with instructions for him to go to guard. For
the next critical minute he repeated his frantic calls
--each time ATC emphatically told him the same
thing: "Go to guard channel!"
The compressor stalling stopped, but it was clear
the engine had lost almost all power-the aircraft
had sunk from 4,500 to 2,000 feet, and air speed
had bled off from 320 to 250 knots. The high sink
rate continued. At 600 feet with only 160 knots air
speed, the pilot jettisoned the external tanks and
lit the afterburner. Even max power had little effect,
and the pilot again tried to call his wingman: "Look
me over, buddy--quick!" For some time, the wing-
man had been pleading on guard channel for his
leader to eject and had even gone back to the tactical
radio frequency in hopes of regaining radio contact
-all to no avail.
The aircraft was now over land, and a few more
seconds passed before the pilot made his last trans-
mission: "The egt is 900 degrees. I'm getting out!"
But he didn't eject! He rode the aircraft in as it
wallowed and sank the last 200 feet to the ground
where it exploded.
There's a very fine line between hesitation and
indecision, between a simple human error and a
panic-induced mental blank. We can only speculate
on why this experienced pilot crossed the line.
When he first saw a fire warning light and felt
compressor stalls, he apparently jettisoned the canopy
with the intention of immediate ejection. A hard
tum to head back toward land isn't an unusual move
for a pilot flying over cold water, but it does indicate
second thoughts about quick ejection.
Flipping the UHF selector switch the wrong way
is not too surprising when you consider that it's
moved between manual and preset a thousand times
for every time it's switched to guard. What is startling
about this case is that the pilot never realized his
mistake. After the third time the ATC people told
him to go to guard, his reply was: "I am on guard!"
He probably switched to main to cut out extraneous
background chatter on guard. This bad habit is
SEPTEMBER 1972
routine with many pilots, but such a seemingly in-
significant move was a major contributing cause in
this accident.
The aircraft was dropping out of the sky like a
rock, and yet the pilot waited until 4,000 feet of
altitude had been lost before getting rid of the nearly
full external tanks. The aircraft was over water, so
there was no reason to worry about what the tanks
might hit. It appears that the pilot just wasn't
thinking.
The final moments of the flight pose the most
difficult questions. Why did the pilot wait until he
was well below optimum ejection altitude before
deciding to punch out? And then, once he had made
the decision, why did he change his mind and ride
the aircraft in? Many pilots have been lured to a
low altitude ejection trying to fix a sick airplane,
but this man went all the way down to 200 feet from
4,500 with no indications that power could be re-
covered. Was the problem, perhaps, an unreasonable
fear of water? Finally, faced with the prospect of
ejecting at 200 feet, did the pilot think his chances
were better for surviving a crash landing or did the
enormity of the problem simply overwhelm him?
Regardless of experience, a person can't really
know how he's going to react to a particular emer-
gency until that awful moment when he's faced with
it. Reaction to an emergency is a combination of a
person's training and knowledge along with his
ability to function under stress. The flight surgeon
on the investigation board of the accident wrote of
the pilot's "mental saturation." His many mistakes
and omissions attest to his confusion. In short, he
was not in control of his thoughts and actions.
A man's capacity for decision making varies from
day to day and even from hour to hour. Many out-
side influences, such as the situation he is in at the
moment or situations he remembers from the past,
can also affect his judgment. A more subtle influence
can be a man's hidden fear of such things as water,
fire, cold, or unusual flight attitudes. (Ed. note: I
once knew a pilot who routinely ferried single-engine
aircraft over the North Sea. Yet he had such an
over-powering fear of water that during survival
training, a direct order was required before he would
jump from a 3-foot high dock into a quiet bay-
even though he was wearing a life preserver and a
survival suit. He had recognized his fear and was
training to overcome it.)
51
THE FINE LINE
Fortunately, few aircrew members have actually
experienced an ejection. Because of this, most have
some mental reservations about it. Reluctance to
leave the warm, familiar home of the cockpit and
meet the cold unknown of the windblast is under-
standable and normal, but a moment of hesitation
can be fatal.
From time to time, every crew member should
do a little self -evaluating. How well do you know
your airplane? Sure, you can pass a check ride, but
are you confident that you can analyze and cope
with any problem that may arise? How well do you
know yourself? You may not be able to erase a
fear, but by recognizing that fear you can train
yourself to cope with it.
A positive approach to simulator training can
EVER SINCE Leonardo da Vinci started fooling
around with sketches of helicopters and advanc-
ing the theory of rotary wing flight, the one main
deterrent to proving his theory was the lack of a
suitable powerplant. Centuries after he died, the
early fixed wing and rotary wing aircraft were still
plagued by the same problem. However, with the
advent of the thirties and forties, the reciprocating
engine manufacturers began producing more reliable
pay dividends. Don't simply run through procedures.
Have the instructor develop situations to truly tax
your abilities.
Flying is a demanding business that is, by nature,
hazardous at times. Knowledge of your aircraft and
yourself can eliminate the mental blank-and save
your life.
Note: Delay in initiating ejection, or as is referred to
among Mohawk pilots, "the pause that refuses to
recover the crew safely," has been the determining
factor in nine of 15 fatalities involving Army per-
sonnel during a history of 92 ejec{ions since 1962.
These nine waited too long before ejecting, pre-
venting safe recovery. Others, like the subject of
this article, for some reason did not attempt to
eject, and also became statistics. Remember, if you
can't safely correct-ElECT!
engines with more horsepower. Powerplant produc-
tion next took a giant leap forward when the gas
turbine proved feasible.
We have taken for granted that many of these
turbines are rugged, reliable and will operate trouble-
free for thousands of hours. However, like any
engine, they cannot be abused and still be expected
to put out 100 percent. In order to give some good
rule-of-thumb tips the following Turbine 10 Com-
mandments are listed:
The Turbine's 10 Commandments
George s. Gropp
Superoisor Of Field Seroices
Aviation Power Supply, Inc.
1. Thou shalt not actuate thy starter without first verifying that thy twist grip is in full cutoff position,
lest thou melteth thy first stage turbine wheel.
2. Thou shalt not roll thy twist grip to the lightoff position without ample oil pressure, lest thou condemn
thy No. 8 bearing to eternal fire and overtemperature.
3. Thou shalt not steal thy engine's remaining life by deliberate overtemperature operation.
4. Thou shalt not covet more horsepower than thy engine is designed to give thee.
5. Thou shalt honor thy TOT, Torque and Nt Limits.
6. Thou shalt hold no other factor in higher esteem than thy engine, lest when thou needest it most,
it faileth thee.
7. Thou shalt remember that, though thy engine complaineth not, its suffering from abuse is great.
8. Thou shalt observe thy "dwell-time-at-idle" limits without fail.
9. Thou shalt maintain thy engine to the very best of thy ability lest thy negligence cost thy boss all
his worldly goods.
10. Thou shalt do unto thy engine as thou wouldst have thy engine do unto thee.
Courtesy ROTOR & WING, August 1971
52
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
you ARE AN important man. You are important
to your family, community and to the Army.
Just as it is impossible for your family to assign a
value on your importance to them, it is equally im-
possible for the Army to do so. But consider what it
would entail for the Army to replace you. Applicants
would first have to be screened for qualifications.
The selected candidate would then have to undergo
extensive and costly specialized training. Following
this, he would have to serve for months, or years, at
various assignments before he could attain the ex-
perience level and proficiency you now possess.
Quite an investment in one man, isn't it?
To protect this investment, the Army continuously
conducts research in all areas of aviation. Aircra,ft
are made more crashworthy; engines, more reliable.
Warning and escape systems are constantly being
improved. So are communications and navigational
equipment, as well as protective flight clothing and
survival gear. Flight surgeons and other skilled
medical specialists are provided to guide as well as
care for you. Training programs in all fields are
constantly monitored and updated. Some agencies
function to compile data and pinpoint problem areas
for correction. Others revise inspection requirements,
maintenance procedures, checklists and ARs. Yes,
Mr. Aviator, thousands of people in a variety of
occupations work daily to directly or indirectly
support you in safe mission accomplishment.
What is your reaction? Do you take advantage
of the time, effort, knowledge and skill expended by
others to keep you safe? Unfortunately, some pilots
SEPTEMBER 1972
Sergeant First Class Howard W. Brewer
Office for Plans and Operations
USAAAVS
do not. Although these individuals would never
dream of violating the calendar year by postponing
Christmas until the following July, they think noth-
ing of putting off a preflight inspection. They would
never embark on a hunting trip without making
certain they had an adequate supply of shells, but
they are apt to lift off on a cross-country flight
without ensuring that they have ample fuel. Results
of these kinds of actions appear regularly in the
pages of the Weekly Summary.
One aircraft crashed during takeoff. The cause?
Failure to perform a thorough preflight or use the
cockpit checklist resulted in takeoff being attempted
with an external gust lock installed.
The pilot of another aircraft performed an abrupt
flight maneuver during an unauthorized low level
flight, causing the aircraft to stall and crash.
In the span of a few days, pilots of three aircraft
had to make forced landings. In each case, the
cause was fuel exhaustion.
Following an accident that resulted in a postcrash
fire, two aircraft occupants were exposed to flames
for approximately the same length of time. One sus-
tained first- and second-degree burns over a rel-
atively small area of his body. The other received
extensive second- and third-degree burns. The first
man survived; the second did not. The difference?
The survivor was wearing a N omex flight suit and
Leather boots. The other occupant, fatigues and
jungle boots.
Obviously, a seatbelt is of no benefit if it is not
fastened, and an AR is of no value if it is not ad-
hered to. In short, the Army can provide you with
the best equipment, training and guidance available;
but it must depend on you as an individual to apply
this knowledge, follow directives and properly use
available equipment.
Yes, Mr. Aviator, you are important to many
people and in many ways. But what matters most is
not the value placed on you by others, but that
which you place on yourself.
53
THE ACRONYM ISIS is being tossed around
cargo helicopter circles these days like rice at
a wedding. Just what is ISIS? How does it work?
What benefits does it provide? To begin with, ISIS,
or integral spar inspection system, is the end product
of a military development item designed primarily
to detect cracks in CH -4 7 main rotor blade spars
and sockets, and to provide a warning in time to
prevent failures. The basic components of the sys-
tem consist of an air valve and an indicator for each
blade.
Blades to be modified are partially disassembled
and thoroughly inspected. Those which successfully
pass inspection are sealed at the outboard bulkhead,
on the blade inboard seal (socket to spar), and at
the incidence bolt hole, and an evacuation valve and
ISIS indicator are installed on the root end. Air
is then evacuated from the hollow spar to approx-
imately 13 psi below normal atmospheric pressure.
If a crack develops from any cause, sufficient vac-
uum will be lost to cause activation of the indicator.
When modified blades are installed on an aircraft,
the ISIS indicators can be readily checked from the
ground while the blades are in a static mode. An
Piston indicator incorporates push-to-test button (A) for functional check. Capped and safetied air evacuation valve (8) which should
remain intact is partially hidden by indicator assembly
54 U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
all-white indication denotes a partial vacuum within
the blade spar-and an absence of cracks. Alter-
nating black and white stripes indicate loss of
vacuum and the possibility that one or more cracks
may exist. Affected blades should be removed and
returned to depot.
For a functional check, a press-to-test button is
incorporated on the indicator. When the button is
depressed, the cylinder within the indicator housing
moves to show alternating black and white stripes
(unsafe) and when released, the indicator pops back
to all white (safe). The indicator is designed to be
functionally checked only once daily, as each time
the button is depressed, a slight amount of vacuum
is lost. The press-to-test button can be depressed
approximately 400 times before enough vacuum is
lost for the indicator to show unsafe. Overactivation
of the button (more than once daily) will lead to un-
necessary maintenance and possibly premature re-
moval of blades. Development of an improved press-
to-test unit which will retain all vacuum in the spar
when the button is depressed is under consideration.
However, details as to when this unit will be pro-
duced and incorporated are unavailable at this time.
CH-4 7 A blades are scheduled for immediate mod-
ification. Blades installed on Band C models will
Alternating white and black stripes on indicator denote the possibility
of crackson blade spar or socket. Affected blade should be returned
to depot.
SEPTEMBER 1972
Maior Edwin R. Widmer
Aircraft Accident Analysis and
Investigation Department
USAAAVS
be modified at a later date. Modifications are to be
accomplished at depot level under ECP (engineering
change proposal) action.
Aside from the obvious safety factor, ISIS provides
other advantages. It offers improved corrosion pro-
tection for the spar, since it is sealed from the
atmosphere, and permits the currently imposed
weight and air speed restrictions on CH-47 A heli-
copters to be lifted. Effect on weight and balance
is negligible. Empty weight of the aircraft increases
approximately 10 pounds with no change in center
of gravity. In addition, blade borescope inspection
requirements are eliminated on mo.dified blades, and
no scheduled maintenance is required on the integral
spar inspection system. Unscheduled maintenance
and false crack indications have been determined to
occur infrequently, and high system reliability can
be expected. In the future, we can look for all
CH-47s to be ISIS equipped, enhancing reliability
and safety-your safety! ...,
Functional check of each indicator should be limited to once daily.
Note alternating white and black stripes when push.totest button
is depressed. ISIS indicators can readily be inspected from the ground
55
,
Personal Equipment & Rescue/Survival Lowdown
SPH-4 HELMET AND VISOR
O NE OF THE more recent personnel equipment
improvements to evolve from the Army's con-
tinuous research effort is the SPH-4 helmet. Com-
pared to the APH-5 and AFH-1 helmets, the SPH-4
is more comfortable and provides improved sound
attenuation, increased head protection and greater
retention capabilities when properly fitted and re-
strained. These benefits are the result of major
modifications to the suspension system, shell con-
struction and design of the ear cups. Recent tests
show that the SPH -4 provides the best hearing pro-
tection of all helmets currently in the U. S. Armed
Forces inventory. In addition, the M-33 microphone
used on the APH-1 and APH-5 helmets has been
replaced by the improved M-87.
The SPH-4 was classified standard A in December
1969, but was issued on an established priority basis
because the procurement rate was not sufficient to
allow simultaneous issue to all pilots and crew
members. However, helmets are now available to
satisfy the Army's requirements and funded requisi-
tions for helmets and spare parts should be submitted
to the United States Support Center, Philadelphia,
P A. Subsequent to initial issue, all authorized flying
personnel reassigned in continued flying status will
retain possession of and carry their SPH -4 helmets
to their next duty station. The APH-5 and AFH-1
helmets have been declared obsolete and will be
reported as excess in accordance with AR 755-l.
At the time of initial procurement of the SPH-4,
production equipment and manufacturing techniques
produced polycarbonate visors which did not meet
military specifications for distortion of vision. As a
result, the first 20,000 SPH-4 helmets (Lot Nos.
1-25) were equipped with acrylic visors. Subse-
quently, equipment and manufacturing techniques
were improved to reduce optical distortion in the
polycarbonate visor to an acceptable level. All
SPH -4s delivered to tlie Army beginning with Lot
No. 26 were equipped with polycarbonate visors,
56
which are significantly more fire- and shatter-resistant.
For maximum protection, the polycarbonate visor
is recommended.
To determine which visor is installed in an SPH-4
helmet, remove the visor from the housing as pre-
scribed in TM 10-8415-202-13 and check the num-
ber stenciled on the side of the visor. If the visor is
clear and has number 69C2110 stenciled on it or
if the visor is neutral (tinted) and has number
69C2109 stenciled on it, the visor is polycarbonate.
If the visor is clear and has number 66C1611 sten-
ciled on it or is neutral (tinted) and has number
65C 1489 stenciled on it, the visor is acrylic. Re-
placement polycarbonate visors may be requisitioned
as follows:
Visor Lens Assy, Neutral Polycarbonate-FSN
8415-490-1196
Visor Lens Assy, Clear Polycarbonate-FSN
8415-490-1197
Current supply of polycarbonate visors should be
sufficient to prevent delay of requisitions.
Have your helmet checked by a responsible
authority and replace the acrylic visor as soon as
possible. If you cannot locate a responsible authority,
check it yourself. The most positive way to determine
which visor you have is by checking the stenciled
numbers as described above, but if no number can
be found on the visor, then look for a lot number
located inside the helmet. If the lot number is 26 or
higher, the visor should be all right. You may find
the size but no lot number stenciled. If no lot num-
ber is found, visually inspect the visor shield. If
your helmet has an old visor shield and the lot
number cannot be identified, it may have the acrylic
visor installed.
As a closing thought, Pearl reminds you that the
effectiveness of any equipment depends on its proper
use. So be sure your HELMET IS PROPERLY
FITTED, THE CHIN AND NAPE STRAPS ARE
SNUGLY FASTENED AND THAT YOU DO
NOT USE A CHIN PAD.
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
SEPTEMBER 1972
57
DEEP IN THE highlands of the Republic of
Vietnam, engineers built a small airfield. Off
one end of the runway there was a small mountain.
During the monsoon season when the fog was thick
and the clouds were low, this mountain would sud-
denly appear directly in the path of aircraft taking
off or landing. It had caused numerous mishaps and
posed a constant threat to the safety of those operat-
ing from the adjacent airfield.
One day, an aviation safety officer was assigned
to this unit. He took one look at the mountain and
said, "To make my airfield safe, this mountain must
go." Of course, he couldn't move the mountain; so
he notified the battalion aviation safety officer of the
hazard.
The battalion ASO came down, took one look
at the mountain, and said, "To make this airfield
safe, this mountain must go." But, of course, he
couldn't move the mountain either. So he called the
group ASO and told him about the problem.
The group ASO came down, looked at the
mountain and said, "To make this airfield safe, this
mountain must go." But neither could he move the
mountain; so he sent a message to the brigade ASO,
notifying him about the hazard.
The brigade ASO came down, looked at the
mountain and agreed that to make the airfield safe,
58
the mountain must go. But he couldn't move the
mountain either; so he sent a letter to the USARV
ASO with a diagram of the airfield and the small
mountain.
The USARV ASO, in turn, sent the USARV en-
gineers to survey the mountain, and even though
this was a small mountain, they couldn't move it
either. So they put a light marker on top of it. Then
the USAR V ASO had a diagram of the small airfield
placed in the tactical airdrome directory for Vietnam,
which depicted the small mountain on one end of
the runway, with the light marker on top.
All unit pilots were then assembled and explained
the hazards of the mountain. The battalion pilots
were similarly assembled and briefed, and the ob-
struction was included in the battalion hazard-to-
aircraft file. Also, as SOP, all new pilots assigned
were given thorough briefings. Finally, a message
was dispatched to all group as well as brigade pilots,
informing them of the mountain hazard. Although
the mountain couldn't be moved, it was marked and
steps taken to ensure that every aviator knew of its
presence.
As an ASO you may not be able to move moun-
tains, but you can take action to transform them
into proverbial "mole hills"-and ensure safety.
I
I
,
,
)
" I
, J
/"
/
(, ~
59
NOTAMS
There has been some discussion
among our readers about the
article, "280 Feet Too Low,"
which appeared in the July issue of
the AVIATION DIGEST. Several have
inferred a criticism of USAASO in
the following recommendation of
the accident board published in the
AVIATIDN ACCIDENT
PREVENTION
FORUM
60
an interchange
of ideas
behMeen readers and
USAAAVS
on subiects of
aviation accident
prevention
article: tlThat approach plates pub-
lished in the Flight Information
Publication be current, accurate,
and not contain information which
may tend to degrade the accuracy
of an instrument approach." Ap-
proach plates are sometimes pub-
lished prior to a facility being
operational. USAASO does not
publish approach plates. However,
they do publish NOT AMS to point
out that a published approach p l ~ e
may not be totally correct. The
article did not state that a NOT AM
had been published several weeks
before the accident to correct the
procedure described in the ap-
proach plate. Keeping up with
NOTAMS is the pilot's responsi-
bility, and he should validate any
approach plate by checking it
against the NOT A MS.
Hearing Loss
I'm not sure how this should be
worded but consider it a sugges-
tion by an extremely disenchanted
ex-aviator.
I recently read your article in
the February AVIATION DIGEST
about ear protection and it struck
close to home. However, don't just
condemn aviators. Some of the
blame is the Army's for not de-
manding better soundproofing or
noise reduction on their aircraft.
Upon return from R VN, I was
medically grounded for my hear-
ing. I knew this was coming as I
couldn't listen to a telephone in
one ear. I flew CH -4 7Bs in R VN
and the commander's policy was to
have the soundproofing removed
so CEs could see all the integral
lines, pumps and parts. I wore an
SPH -4 helmet and earplugs but
still lost my hearing. True, my ears
must have been more susceptible
because I only logged 300 hours,
but most CH-47 pilots I know have
definite hearing losses.
The Army's tests were run on an
empty CH-4 7 A with soundproofing
installed. In a combat zone, the air-
craft is flown fully loaded most of
the time without soundproofing.
The Army needs to test these air-
craft as they are going to be flown
in combat. The difference is very
noticeable. The Army's test con-
firms that even with soundproofing
the noise level of the CH -47 is far
above the safety margin. With the
CH-47 fully loaded and without
soundproofing, an' SPH-4 simply
cannot bring the level down
enough.
There is no field for grounded
warrants without enlisted service,
so now I am forced to leave the
Army. If someone doesn't wake
up, many fine officers will be lost
in the same way. Let's see if this
can be prevented by a little closer
look at the requirements we set on
aircraft designers. It is too late for
myself but not for the many to
follow me. As you well know, the
only career field open for grounded
aviators is 671B, and at present,
that is dosed. The only alternative
is civilian life.-CW2, Aviator
Thank you for being interested
enough in someone else's welfare
to write such a thoughtful letter.
USAAAVS is aware of the prob-
lems involving noise levels in Army
aircraft, and we are continuously
attempting to keep appropriate
agencies informed of these prob-
lems. Accordingly, copies of your
letter have been forwarded to the
CH-47 Project Officer at U. S.
A rmy A viation Systems Command
and the U. S. Army Aeromedical
Research Lab.
Nomex Care
As troop safety officer, I have
advised all aviators of the proper
procedures for cleaning and caring
of the N omex uniform. This con-
cerned the temperatures for wash-
ing and drying, and the effects of
tailoring and starching.
As a result of this, a question
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
came to me regarding steam press-
ing of the Nomex uniform. I have
advised against it, due to the ex-
cessive temperatures involved.
However, I do not have any pub-
lished material that would give
reason not to steam press the
uniform.
I would like to request informa-
tion from USAAA VS concerning
the possible damage and tempera-
ture factors related to cleaning and
steam pressing of the Nomex. Any
assistance you could give me in this
matter would be greatly appreci-
ated.-CW2, ASO
According to U.s. Army Natick
Laboratories (the developer of the
Nomex uniform), no adverse effect
will result from steam pressing the
Nomex uniform. Both the May and
August 1971 AVIATION DIGEST
contained useful articles on the
laundry and maintenance of these
uniforms.
Nylon Panel
I do not understand the rationale
for approving a nylon panel to be
carried in the Nomex flight suit.
The relatively low melting point of
nylon and its ability to transfer heat
appear to be inconsistent with the
purpose of the Nomex flight cloth-
ing. Would not a cotton satin ma-
terial be more appropriate than
nylon?-CPT, ASO
We took your question to U. S.
Army Natick Laboratories person-
nel. They tell us that the 1.1 nylon
rip stock material is the only fabric
that will accept the reflective in-
ternational orange color with any
durability. In addition, the prob-
ability of a heat transfer hazard is
very doubtful because the survival
panel is enclosed in layers of
.N omex, there is a N omex layer
between the panel and the skin,
and the panel is folded compactly.
Fire Retardant Process
Recently, several helicopters
SEPTEMBER 1972
have been shot down, crashed and
burned in this command. In almost
all cases in which noncrew mem-
bers were on board, they suffered
more severe burns than the crew
members involved. The reason for
this, obviously, is that the crew
members were all wearing protec-
tive Nomex clothing whereas the
noncrew members were not.
I am concerned about those per-
sonnel who do not fly on a daily
basis and yet, if in the wrong air-
craft at the wrong time, need more
protection than jungle fatigues
provide. I recall there were some
special as well as homemade prep-
arations that we had several years
ago in which we would soak jungle
fatigues to provide a fire-resistant
capability for X number of days.
Request that you provide a listing
of any preparations with instruc-
tions that would be used in this
regard.
With many thanks.--Com-
mander.
Cotton fatigue uniforms may be
made fire retardant as follows:
1. Clean fatigues by washing
with detergent. Dry thoroughly.
2. After they are thoroughly
dried, submerge and agitate fa-
tigues 10 minutes at 100 degrees
F. in the solution described be-
low: .
6 gallons of water
2 pounds of borax (FSN GA
6810-264-9056)
1 pounds of boric acid
(FSN GM 6750-174-5454)
1 pounds of ammonium
phosphate, dibasic (FSN
6810-264-6547)
3. Hang to dry. CA UTION:
Do not dry in automatic dryer or
wring dry. DO NOT IRON.
Fire retardant qualities gained
through this process are lost after
fatigues are washed or exposed to
soaking rainstorms. The process
must be repeated for protection.
Readers are invited
to participate in
this forum.
Send ideas, comments
and recommendations to
Commanding Office'r,
USAAAVS,
ATTN: E&P Department,
Ft. Rucker, AL 36360
Statistics
I am attending C&GS and need
some aviation safety statistics to
use in a staff study. Is this type
of information available to stu-
dents?-MAI , Aviator
Students and others interested in
aviation safety may obtain, upon
written request, aviation safety sta-
tistics from USAAAVS. We must
point out, however, that the data
available are those required for us
to conduct our mission, and if this
information is not what you need,
money and workload make it im-
possible for us to create computer
programs to meet individual re-
quests. We hope what we have
available will meet your require-
ments.
Flight Records
I will soon be getting out of the
Army. Will my flight records be
on file at USAAA VS after I am
discharged?-ES, Crewchief
Negative. Make sure you have
all the information you may need
about your flight hours, orders,
etc., before you are discharged or
retired. USAAAVS does not re-
ceive completed DA Forms 759
and 759-1 for nonaviator crew
members. Your flight records re-
main in your unit and, according
to AR 95-64, only the latest DA
Form 759 will be forwarded with
your 201 file when you leave the
unit.
61

In war s
FORT HOOD, TEXAS-CPT Elias B. Baker
(center) was presented the Broken Wing Award
by MAl George R. Nelson (right), acting commander,
227th Aviation Battalion, 1st Cavalry Division, Fort
Hood, as CPT Robert N. Lichtenberger, Battery com-
mander, looks on. CPT Baker was on an AH-1G
rocket run demonstration in Vietnam when he ex-
perienced hang fires in the number seven tubes of
both XM-158 pods. When the rockets broke loose,
8 inches of the tubes blew out, resulting in a series
of events, which caused loss of the tail rotor and
90-degree gearbox and extensive damage to the IRS
shield, right engine cowling and pylon cowling.
Having difficulty maintaining directional control, he
flew to a nearby airfield and gradually descended. On
landing, the helicopter turned 90 degrees right and
CPT Baker applied full right aft cyclic to prevent
62
the aircraft from overturning. The AH-IG slid 30
feet and turned 150 degrees to the right before
coming to rest upright, with no damage.
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
MOBILE, ALABAMA-Army Aviation's Broken
Wing Aviation Safety Award was presented to
CPT Richard J. Williams (right) by COL Clarence
C. Newsom, commanding officer, 226th Field Depot,
Alabama Army National Guard. CPT Williams was
on an OH-23C night training mission when his
engine failed during climbout at 500 feet over a
heavily populated area, river and dense vegetation.
He autorotated to a 200- by ISO-foot clearing be-
hind a nursing home, surrounded by dense 60-foot
trees with a flagpole located two-thirds of the way
upwind. He then made a 270-degree turn to reach
the longer axis of the landing area and landed
without damage. CPT Williams, a former member
of the 226th Field Depot, is now assigned as com-
manding officer, Company B, 230th Engineer Bat-
talion, Fort Whiting' Armory, Mobile, AL.
FORT RUCKER, ALABAMA-WOI Clifford
W. Lemen (left) received the Broken Wing Avia-
tion Safety Award from LTC James T. Bridges,
commander of the 6th Student Aviation Battalion
at Rucker. WO I Lemen was cited for extraordinary
skill, judgment and technique when he experienced
TH-SSA engine failure and autorotated to a rough
and narrow confined area, surrounded by obstruc-
tions. At the time -of the emergency, WOI Lemen
was a student pilot at Fort Wolters, TX, with only
68 hours of flying experience.
63
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64
The U. S. Army Aeronautical Services Office discusses
C leared As FOed-(?): POot I. M. Happy has just received his preflight briefing, dutifully filed
his flight plan and requested 6,000 feet altitude, submitted his departure time and is
hanging loose, raring to go. At last he hears the good old efficient air traffic controller
announce, "Army 6-8-1-4-1, cleared as filed, maintain 4,000, report passing Cherry
Intersection," and good old Happy is on his way salling blissfully through the blue cloud-studded
skies. He makes a few routine last minute cockpit corrections, checks his charts, lights a
cigarette, leans back and relaxes and begins watching the scenery below slowly passing by as
he tools along at 6,000 feet. Alas, poor Happy forgot, or did not fully understand, the
abbreviated IFR departure clearance procedures relating to specified altitudes.
The air traffic controller will sometimes issue an abbreviated IFR departure clearance, based
on the route of flight filed by the pOot in the IFR flight plan, provided the filed route can be
a,pproved with little or no revision. However, a controller will not issue an abbreviated clearance
if he has knowledge that the original filed route of flight has been subsequently changed or will
not be accepted by the pOot. In this case the pOot will request a detailed clearance be issued
by ATC. A pilot in his initial radio communication with the facility concerned will state:
aircraft identification, location, type of operation planned (IFR) and point of first intended
landing (destination airport).
The abbreviated clearance as issued will be considered as a clearance to the destination
airport filed in the flight plan. The destination airport will not be stated in the clearance.
A specific SID, including a transition route, if appropriate, filed by the pilot, will be
considered part of the route of flight. A TC may specify an SID if not previously filed. It may
be necessary for ATC to clear an aircraft via an SID which differs from that filed
or the filed route with a minor change.
Enroute altitudes filed in an IFR !light plan are not part of the abbreviated flight plan
program. In aU cases the assigned enroute altitude/flight level will be stated in the
clearance; it- mayor may not be the same as the altitude/flight level filed.
Clearances are normally issued for the altitude/flight level and route filed by the pilot.
However, due to traffic conditions it is frequently necessary for ATC to specify an altitude/flight
level or route different from that requested by the pilot. You should pay partiCUlar attention
to the clearance and not assume that the route and altitude/flight level are the same as
requested in your flight plan.
It is suggested that pilots make a written record of clearances at the time they are received
and verify, by a repeat back, any portions that are complex or about which a doubt exists.
It is the responsibility of each pilot to accept or refuse the clearance issued. Further, to ensure
the success of the abbreviated clearance program pilots should: (1) Include specific
SID /transitions and preferred routes in flight plans whenever such routes meet pilots' needs.
(2) If feasible, avoid making changes to a filed flight plan just prior to departure. (3) Request
route/altitude verification or clarification from ATC if any portion of clearance is not clearly
understood. Also, remember, ATC will issue a detailed clearance when requested by the pOot.
Above all, when planning your flight consult your DOD FLIPs and check your sectional or
other VFR charts too. Don't get yourself involved in an OUR; play it safe!
U. S. ARMY AVIATION DIGEST
M
ow
ma. , y
man, that weather out th re I
a lot lower than _1Ie
ported. I d iln't s.e t
way until I was ~ be w
their 300 foot celiingl'
Well, we hear it a lot till
time of the year at the weat r
station. Actually, what you hi
was true. The altitude at wh ch
you saw the runway did vary
from the reported fiel d condi-
tions. This phenomenon occurs
during obscurations to visibility
and is called II pilot's effective
ceiling (PEC).II In most cases this
ceiling (vertical visibility) is
lower than the reported field
conditions. Why? Because PEC
is basically determined by
s'lant range visibility and there
is no way to determine how
this visibility will appear to
you, the pilot of a moving air-
craft, as you approach the
runway.
We can and do report hori-
zontal visibility and vertical
visibility. In fact, these are the
items given to you in surface
weather reports. The horizontal
visibility reported is the hori-
zontal prevailing visibility
along the ground. Also, during
SEPTEMBER 1972
Our thanks to the autho , LT Di k
CPT Ken Well of th U. S. Air
th 4500th Air Ba Wing.1
I er, Langl y AFI, VA,
print thi article. It wa b,rought
DIG ST' aHention by 1 LT Jon
USAF' Detachment 9, 16th W.lCIII1te
at Ft Rucker, AL. The autho a
to the Ba Weather 5ervic at La
her Tid
ma n,
"Sorry, a ' t tie done. In
fact, much to our sorrow the
best we can do is provide you
me asured visibility out and up
and advise you to expect
lower than reported ceilings
during obscurationsi you'll see
a bunch of them this winter."
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