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Gabrielle Guyton-Edmiston

Article Summaries
FRIT 7235
Dr. Clark
Summer 2014
Georgia Southern University

Article 1:

Lawrence, E. (2014). Librarians on the loose. Knowledge Quest, 42(4), 63-70.

Professional Practice Article

This article describes the steps Lawrence has taken to change and adapt her
traditional school library program to meet the needs of 21
century learners. Her
two main goals were to break down the virtual walls and the physical walls of her
media center. For her, breaking down the virtual walls included having a website
that she controlled that highlighted the online public access catalog that includes
book trailer videos made by students. She also created a Twitter account and
embedded the feed on the media center website for those who dont have accounts.
Lawrence worked to promote book discussions in a variety of formats including
using Follett Destiny Quests social media features.
To break down the physical walls, Lawrence got out of the library and visited
classrooms for information literacy skills instruction. She called going to the
students take-out compared to dining-in when they come to her. She dedicated a
section of the media center website to describing the options available for both.
While she has computer labs in the media center, she used the mobile laptop labs to
show students they dont need to be physically in the media center to access the
information available to them. Lawrence dedicated a year to team teaching in one
classroom to more accurately determine the impact of her teaching on student
learning. Finally, she would take carts of books to classrooms when time limited
students coming to her.

I think this article was a good showcase of how to take baby steps in tearing
down virtual and physical walls. Many modern school library media specialists face
push back when trying to collaborate with teachers and move from a library focused
on traditional services to one focused on cutting edge services. Lawrence shows
how you start small and work your way up from there. I think this would prove
inspirational to many media specialists trying to implement new and different
programs focusing on technology.
The only problem I have is she put a lot of emphasis on her year team
teaching. Based on the article, she has at least one other full time media specialist in
her high school. If she was the sole media specialist, as many are, I dont know how
feasible this would be. She also didnt explain the parameters around the team
teaching, so it was not clear how many hours she actually spent in that classroom.
Including this information wouldve been helpful in allowing readers to determine
the feasibility of them attempting the same thing.
As a future school library media specialist, this article reinforces the need to
immediately seek out willing collaborators. I know I will not have immediate buy-in
for technological changes, but change is possible with a small group who are willing
to pave the way. She also gave the great idea to add QR codes to the backs of books
that are linked to the student made book trailer videos. I think the more interactive
we can make the reading experience, the better we can reach 21
century learners
who are inherently social beings.

Article 2:

Guo-Liang, H., & Wu-Yuin, H. (2014). The effect of intrapsychology learning before
and after interpsychology activities with a web-based sharing mechanism.
Journal Of Educational Technology & Society, 17(1), 231-247.
Theory-into-Practice Article

Guo-Liang and Wu-Yuin looked at Vygotskys theory that interpsychology
and intrapsychology, in that order, are required in order for learning to take place.
They wanted to take a closer look at whether intra- before inter-psychology or
intra- after inter-psychology was more effective for learning. More specifically,
they wanted to determine the effects of Web-based sharing annotation mechanisms
on student learning.
Five classes of fifth graders were used for the study. Two were intra- before
inter-psychology groups, two were intra- after inter-psychology groups, and one
was a traditional group with no pre- or post- class work. One of the intra- before
inter-psychology classes and one of the intra- after inter-psychology classes used
the Web-based sharing annotation mechanism during self-study.
The post-tests showed the intra- before inter-psychology groups to have
the most success and the traditional group to have the least success. Of statistical
significance is that the class that had the sharing mechanism in the intra- before
inter-psychology group did better than everybody. However, while the intra- after
inter-psychology class using the sharing mechanism did better that the other
intra- after inter-psychology class, it was not statistically significant. Therefore,
the authors concluded that using the Web-based sharing mechanism during
intrapsychological learning followed by interpsychological learning is most

I found this study thorough and fascinating. I was surprised at how poorly
the traditional class did compared to the other classes whether or not the other
class used the Web-based sharing mechanism. This is important information for all
educators because we cant stick with the status quo. More importantly, its
important to let students preview materials before class. Teachers arent the holders
of knowledge with the power to dole it out whenever the bell rings, whether real or
metaphorical, signaling the start of class. Its vital to activate student thinking before
teaching so that students are already engaged in the topic and have already been
interacting with their peers about the topic.
I am a huge fan of the flipped classroom, and I believe this study shows that it
can have overwhelmingly positive results. However, the flipped classroom lessons
will have to have some sharing component in order to be most effective. My belief,
based on numerous studies, is that homework is largely ineffective. I think flipped
lessons should replace that homework time, and the authors give me support for my
argument should I ever attempt a grade level-wide or school-wide initiative.

Article 3:

Jacobs-Israel, M., & Moorefield-Lang, H. (2013). Redefining technology in libraries
and schools. Teacher Librarian, 41(2), 16-18.
Professional Practice Article

With a multitude of websites and apps available for teachers and students,
its not always easy to determine which ones are relevant for enhancing student
learning or transforming education. To help with this, the American Association of
School Librarians launched a list of 25 Best Websites for Teaching and Learning in
2009. This was followed by a list of 25 Best Apps for Teaching and Learning in 2013.
Both lists are now published annually.
These websites and apps substitute, augment, modify, and redefine
assignments through the use of technology. The authors emphasize that lessons
using technology should not allow the technology to guide the instruction but rather
allow the technology to be woven into the lessons. Several websites and apps that
meet these requirements are discussed with examples of how they are integrated
into lessons and student learning.

I know Ive run across these lists in the course of my studies, but I didnt
appreciate the work that went into developing them. Im very impressed with the
efforts the AASL committees put forth to develop lists that are relevant, cutting-
edge, engaging, and free. Its wonderful that a major part of their critique of sites
and apps is how well they line up the Standards for the 21
Century Learner.
The authors point out the proliferation of sites and apps out there and the
importance of having vetted lists. I think these vetted lists are useful to all teachers,
especially media specialists. The lists save time and energy for all educators looking
for the best of the best that add value to teaching and learning.
I feel like I know about many valuable websites and apps, but this article
mentioned several that Ive never heard of. This shows me that theres always more
to explore and more to learn. It also reminds me that there are a plethora of
resources out there to reach all learners. Students are going to respond differently
to technology, so I have a huge responsibility to find what engages and helps
educate each and every student in the school where Im employed.

Article 4:

Peerey, J. (2013). Ipads, QR codes, the big 15, and screencast-o-matic: Its all
happening in a library media center. Library Media Connection, 32(3), 34-37.
Professional Practice Article

In 2012, Smithfield High School in Virginia launched Isle-21 (Initiative for
Student Learning and Engagement in the 21
century). They launched with all
teachers and students getting their own iPads which led to great collaboration and
sharing of ideas between and among students and teachers. QR codes played a
central role in using technology to promote literature and literacy, and the kids
loved it. Peerey then used QR codes to promote their new reading initiative, The Big
15, which focused on getting students to read for 15 minutes during each
instructional block.
Next Peerey started a get caught reading campaign where students and
teachers used their iPads to photograph people reading, and the pictures were then
posted in the media center. She also used QR codes to create bookmarks for
students that included links to videos, reviews, and websites. Finally, Peerey used
Screen-O-Matic to engage students with how to videos for things such as how to
access the schools online catalog.

It was clear that the plan for Isle-21 went well beyond just putting an iPad
into the hands of all teachers and students. It was a focused effort that had clear
goals and objectives. I think the focus on using QR codes is great because it engages
students with the unknown of where the code will lead them. Peerey also did a good
job of having students and teachers interact with each other through the apps rather
than just engaging with the device.
One of the best ideas she implemented was Isle-21 Mentor Station where the
more tech savvy students can mentor students struggling with technology. Its an
effective way for students to interact with each other and learn from each other.
Additionally, it takes a chunk of the troubleshooting off the plates of the teachers
and media specialist.
The mentor station is my biggest takeaway from this article. I sometimes feel
anxious thinking about introducing so much new technology to students, but
allowing them to mentor each other takes some of the pressure off me. Peerey also
introduced me to new apps such as Educreation and Nearpod that Ive never heard
of before but look amazingly useful.

Article 5:

Frederick, K. (2013). Visualize this: Using infographics in school libraries. School
Library Monthly, 30(3), 24-25.
Professional Practice Article

Frederick demonstrates how infographics arent just for teachers and
librarians to make. Students can make them, too. In fact, infographics are an
effective way to present complex facts in a simplified, user-friendly format. She
points out that creating infographics can be used as part of the learning process, as a
culminating activity, and/or as an assessment tool. The images, words, numbers,
and symbols allow students to put a lot of information into one visual presentation.

I think this article is more relevant to middle and high school media
specialists than elementary media specialists. However, elementary media
specialists could introduce students to the basics so theyre prepared if/when they
are required to make infographics in later years. Frederick makes an excellent point
that inofgrapic creation appeals to many learning styles, so its a good tool for the
tool bag for educators of all age groups.
Im a fan of creating infographics but for some reason, Ive never thought of
having students make them. The jump from creating them myself to instructing
students in creating them is a simple one. Infographics seem like an especially
powerful tool when students are grappling with how to present large amounts of
statistics. Additionally, I think students will enjoy reading the statistics presented by
their peers more if its in an infographic.

Article 6:

Barach, L. (2012). The league of extraordinary librarians. School Library Journal,
58(11), 24-27.
Research Article

The results of the 2012 School Library Journals School Technology Survey
were released in November of that year. The survey results showed that school
librarians are leading the way in integrating web 2.0 tools in classrooms across the
country. In spite of constraints on time and money, librarians are able to integrate
technology into teaching in part because of free web-based apps and resources. The
major trends discovered are significant increases in the use of ebooks, mobile
devices, and social apps as well as an increase in one-to-one technology initiatives.
School filtering can be a hindrance to some technology access, but librarians are
making progress in negotiating relaxed filtering. Overall, technology use, led by
teacher librarians, is on the rise.

I was pleased with the progress made between 2011 and 2012. However, I
question the validity of the findings as a true picture of the average media center.
First, the survey was only sent to School Library Journal print and enewsletter
subscribers, and they received 1,250 responses. This makes me question if the data
truly reflects whats going on in libraries across the nation. Yet I realize that even if
the statistics arent a true picture of whats going on nation-wide, the stats do show
significant growth within the same sample population.
The author touted the fact that 44% of respondents officially serve on their
schools tech team. This, to me, says that school librarians are drastically
underrepresented on tech teams. However, I assume this is a significant jump from a
decade or so ago.
The main personal implication for me is that I will seek out a place on the
tech team if its not already a role expected of the media specialist. Im a firm
believer that the media center and the technology department should be working
hand in hand to promote technology and student success using technology. If
technology use by the media specialist is not embraced, then its to the detriment of
the schools students, and I will not accept that.

Article 7:

Duff, M. (2012). 10 steps to creating a cutting-edge STEM school library. Young Adult
Library Services, 10(2), 24-28.
Professional Practice Article

Duff presents ten strategies for converting a school media center into a STEM
library. The first step is to put a spotlight on the STEM resources the library already
has. Then ask for recommendations from students, staff, and other teacher
librarians in order to build the STEM collection. Put an emphasis on STEM books
when ordering from the vendor, and ask the vendor representative for further
recommendations. When it comes to technology, make sure the media center
website emphasizes STEM resources and that there is ample hardware and software
available in the media center. Once these things are in place, have STEM-themed
library orientations to emphasize available STEM resources.
Students are accustomed to book talks around fiction books, but a STEM
library should also have numerous opportunities for STEM book talks. Its also
important to communicate regularly to students and staff about the available STEM
resources. In order to allow students to have STEM role models, provide
opportunities for STEM guest speakers to present to the students. Make sure the
parents and community members understand that it is a STEM library, why thats
beneficial to students, and how they can help support the initiative. Finally, the data
on how, when, and how often STEM resources are being used needs to be presented
regularly to all stakeholders.

I feel that Duff did a thorough job of explaining how to create a STEM library
without breaking the budget. However, I think she seems a little too focused on
STEM, and I worry she deemphasizes fiction in her media center. I recognize that I
dont know this for sure, but I believe its a disservice to students to overemphasize
either fiction or nonfiction. There has to be a balance. Given that statistically the
United States is lacking in adequately preparing students for STEM careers, I think
Duffs ideas are good for any media center.
I think her best idea is to start with existing STEM materials. First, the media
specialist doesnt have to spend any money to do this. Second, it forces the media
specialist to take a close look at STEM materials to determine areas of strength and
weakness. This is vital for when it does come time to spend money to improve and
round out the STEM collection.
I personally prefer to read fiction over nonfiction books, and I know I cant let
my bias impede my ability to do the best job possible. These ideas are great for me
to have to have quick and easy ways to focus on nonfiction STEM books. I want all
teachers, including Science and Math teachers, to feel that the media center is a
useful place to them, and focusing on STEM is a great way to start.

Article 8:

Kimmel, S. C. (2012). Deep reading: Using technology to engage, connect, and share.
Library Media Connection, 30 (5), 10-12.
Professional Practice Article

Kimmel tackles the proposal put forth by author Nicholas Carr that
technology is keeping readers from deep reading as a result of changes to the brain.
She asserts that while the reading experience is changing, technology can support
deep reading in a variety of ways. First, we need to make sure that students with
smart phones have access to books on those phones. Furthermore, students should
be adding a dictionary, atlas, and audio resources to cell phones.
A majority of students today are active on social media sites like Facebook
and Twitter. It is a small jump to lead students to socializing on a reading website
such as Goodreads. Students can comment on what others are reading, follow
readers, and send each other messages. This social aspect of reading allows for deep
reading and conversation in spite of potential changes to the brain. The socialization
can extend to blogs and fan fiction.

As first I had trouble following Kimmels point of view when she started
giving quotes from a Kaiser Family Foundation study. Then it flowed together when
she linked the handheld technology students have to engaging with ebooks. I
particularly liked her idea of having a map app on the phone so that students can
look up the geographic location of places theyre reading about. Her ideas of
working with technology instead of fighting it are important for technology skeptics
to read.
I am a social reader in a face-to-face capacity, but I have been thinking
recently about starting a blog on childrens literature. This article encourages me to
do so in order to keep track of books Ive read so that I can make the best
recommendations to students. Additionally, Kimmel got me thinking about
Goodreads; Ive only used it as a reference when choosing a book based on the
number of starts it received, but I think it can be a powerful tool for networking
with students, teachers, and other teacher librarians.

Article 9:

Foote, C. (2012). Ipads for everyone. School Library Journal, 58(10), 30-33.

Professional Practice Article

Foote is a high school media specialist at a high school in Texas who launched
a 1:1 iPad initiative. It all started in 2010 with a mere six iPads for 4,100 students
and many teachers. Through creative sharing, students throughout the school,
including special education and physically challenged students, were able to use the
iPads. It was obvious to all that the iPads were beneficial to all students who used
them across the curriculum. The American Sign Language class even used the iPads
to Skype with students at a school for the deaf allowing them an authentic way to
practice their skills.
Following the initial success, forty teachers and 1,600 juniors and seniors
were chosen to be part of WIFI (Westlake Initiative for Innovation). Foote and her
campus technology coordinator vetted apps and chose relevant, cross-curricular
apps to be downloaded on all the iPads. To assist students and teachers navigating
unfamiliar waters, she set up a caf-type help desk in the media center. The
widespread use of iPads allowed Foote to increase literacy instruction, expand
copyright instruction, and support curriculum throughout the school.
Teachers, with the knowledge that their lessons are still more important than
the device, responded positively to the initiative. Student responded
overwhelmingly positively to surveys. Therefore, the 1:1 initiative spread to all
students and teachers the following school year. Also, Foote notes that the iPads
have not diminished traffic in the media center.

Foote impressed me with her use of iPads across the curriculum and with
students of all abilities. I was at a school recently where the gifted students were the
only ones using the iPads. All students can benefit from carefully chosen apps, and
Foote chose some in particular to support special education students. I was also
impressed with her collaboration with the campus technology coordinator.
However, what impressed me most is that Foote expanded the program from a total
of six iPads to an iPad for each student and teacher. Thats an impressive feat and
one that should serve as an inspiration to those who say they just cant do it with
such little technology.
I will admit that I probably wouldve scoffed if Id been offered six iPads to
launch an initiative in a school of 4,100 students. So I will keep this in mind to spur
me on if I have to start extremely small with a technology project. The best
takeaway for me is Footes use of Appy Hours after school to introduce new apps
to teachers. That is an idea I will definitely use even if attendance is voluntary.

Article 10:

Lamb, A. & Johnson, L. (2012). Technology swarms for digital learners. Teacher
Librarian, 39(5), 67-72.
Professional Practice Article

Lamb and Johnson compare digital learners to a hive of bees divided among
six swarms of technology users. They assert some learners are the searchers who
use technology to search for quality information. The searchers use tools such as
Google Image and Instagrok. The next swarm is the curators who use a variety of
online tools to organize, store, and access information. Some tools they use are
Scoop.it, Bagtheweb, and Only2Clicks. Inquirers make up the third swarm, and they
need to build personal learning networks to manage and organize their inquiries.
They use personal portals, RSS feeds, bookmarking, highlighting and annotating, and
note taking as tools.
The fourth swarm is made up of socializers who require making connections
with the outside world. They use blogging, dynamic sticky walls, back channeling,
social networks, the cloud, polls and surveys, and live conferencing as their digital
tools. The organizers create the next swarm, and they use technology to process and
organize information. Organizers use charts and graphs, graphic organizers,
timelines, and citation services. Storytellers make up the final swarm, and they need
to share understanding. Their tools for creation include animation, audio, comics,
maps, videos, and word clouds.

Keeping the six swarms in mind can help any media specialist differentiate
lessons to meet the technology needs of the entire hive. Its also an effective way to
break up the tasks of a larger project. I think the authors did a good job describing
the swarms and providing useful resources to reach all learners. However, I think a
weakness is that they didnt provide enough resources for the searchers or the
As a future media specialist, I think it would be useful to look at the swarms
and see which ones transition into other ones the most seamlessly. Its good to know
students strengths, but its also important to move them out of their comfort zones.
If I determine which swarms are most closely related, I can help students branch out
while using their previous swarm as scaffolding.

Article 11:

Mashriqi, K. (2011). Implementing technology and gaming lessons in a school
Library. Knowledge Quest, 40(1), 24-28.
Professional Practice Article

Mashriqi worked to make her media center technology rich through grants,
additional school funding, and creative budgeting. Once that was achieved, she set to
work to immerse students in technology and games. She sees technology and
gaming as vehicles for nurturing a love of reading and learning. Kindergarten
students can use simple games on websites like Starfall while older students can
play games using the schools online public access catalog.
The games played by students are both individual, small group, and whole
group using computers and the interactive whiteboard. The lessons can be content-
related or related to media skills such as the Dewey Decimal System, cyber-safety, or
using the Boolean search method. Mashriqi uses a combination of web-based games
and games she has created using the interactive whiteboard.

When the author describes how she differentiates using a two-pronged
approach, I had to critique both. First, she states she uses diverse ways of teaching
to make sure she reaches all learners. That is not specific, and really just gives a
mini-definition of differentiation rather than how she differentiates. Then she
describes how she differentiates activities by giving leveled worksheets based on
ability. Worksheets are not activities, and thats only effective differentiation if its a
take home assignment. To her credit, she later gives examples of how kinesthetic,
visual, and auditory learners access information differently, so I know shes not
totally off base when it comes to differentiation.
While I took issue with Mshriqis use of the word differentiation, shes only
been on the job for four years. She took important first steps to get the technology in
the media center, get the administration to better support the media center,
incorporate games, and increase student involvement. I could feel her passion in the
writing, and I think shell get even better as time goes on.
As for me, its a lesson in hitting the ground running, not being afraid to ask
for what you need, and getting to the root of why Im in this. Im in this to help
students love reading and love learning and love technology from a young age. Im
in this so that students not only love those things but recognize and appreciate that
they go hand-in-hand-in-hand.