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# Momentum Demonstration

## By: Jeremy T. Rosen

Momentum
Momentum is a property of moving matter.
Momentum describes the tendency of objects
to keep going in the same direction with the
same speed.
Changes in momentum result from forces or
create forces.
We dont want to lose our momentum
In everyday language something with a lot of momentum is hard to stop
Momentum Defined
p = m v
p = momentum vector
m = mass
v = velocity vector
Momentum Facts
p = m v
Momentum is a vector quantity!
SI unit for momentum: kg m /s (no special name).
Momentum is directly proportional to both mass and speed.
Something big and slow could have the same momentum as
something small and fast.
Equivalent Momenta
Bus: m = 9000 kg; v = 16 m /s
p = 1.44 10
5
kg m /s
Train: m = 3.6 10
4
kg; v = 4 m /s
p = 1.44 10
5
kg m /s
Car: m = 1800 kg; v = 80 m /s
p = 1.44 10
5
kg m /s
continued on next slide
Question 1
Which has the greater
momentum, an 18-wheeler
parked at the curb or a
Volkswagen rolling down a hill?
Equivalent Momenta (cont.)
The train, bus, and car all have different masses and
speeds, but their momenta are the same in magnitude. N
Note: We can only say that the magnitudes of their
momenta are equal since theyre arent moving in the
same direction.
The difficulty in bringing each vehicle to rest--in terms of a
combination of the force and time required--would be the
same, since they each have the same momentum.
Change in Momentum = F t
Impulse
Impulse is an interaction that changes an
objects momentum. It is a force acting for a
certain time.

So an impulse equals the change in
momentum

Ft = (mv) and we get F= (mv)/t
(the units of impulse are equal equivalent to those of momentum)
Question 2
Which of the following will cause
the larger change in the
momentum of an object- a force
of 2 newtons acting for 10
seconds or a force of 3 newtons
acting for 6 seconds?
Question 3
Now take an instance where you
are in a car crash. Are you safer
when the impulse takes longer or
shorter?
Conservation on Momentum
In the absence of an external net force the
momentum of a closed system is conserved
We assume frictional forces are negligible.

Scientists use this find out a lot of information
like how fast a car was going before it crashed.
Conservation of linear momentum
If the net external force on a system is zero,
the total linear momentum of the system
does not change.
Person standing on giant skateboard at rest
Rifle and bullet
What is total momentum of person on skateboard?
What happens to the skateboard when the person walks
to the right? To the left? (Newtons 3
rd
law: For every
force there is always an equal and opposite force)

Law of Conservation of Momentum
In a closed system, the vector sum of
the momenta before and after an
impact must be equal.
Before After
m
1
v
1
+m
2
v
2
= m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2

Even though the person and the
skateboard are moving and,
individually, have momentum, the
total momentum remains zero.

m(person)*v(person) + m(skateboard)*v(skateboard) = 0
Example 1: Recoiling Cannon
A cannon of mass 750kg shoots a cannon
ball of mass 30kg with a velocity of 20m/s.
Find the recoil velocity of the cannon.

m
1
v
1
+m
2
v
2
= m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2

Problem 3
A 45 kg student is riding on a 7kg scateboard
with a velocity of +4m/s. The student jumps of
the cart with a velocity of -1m/s. Find the
velocity of the scateboard after the student
jumped off.