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THE I MPACT OF ELECTRONI C PAYMENT ON AMAZON`S PROFI TABI LI TY: CASE

STUDY OF AMAZON`S E-BUSI NESS AND PAYMENT SYSTEM


Abstract
Through the use of internet world now becomes a global village. Today, the world is
encountering the profits of the web and the related appearance to its crest. The concept of e-
commerce and e-business now become very familiar. The web promoting and the deals is the
wonder that can't be overlooked by any sort of business. Amazon is one of the leading e-
businesses in current e-environment. The organizations are enormously utilizing and using the
instruments of computerized stages, for example, sites and the cell phones through offering
portable applications. The Amazon.co.uk is thought to be the world's biggest online commercial
center and considered as the pioneer of the advanced stages to deal and buy the items and things
by diverse clients and organizations. The organization is putting forth the world with the best of
site as a stage where the clients can discover what they require and the organizations can arrive
at to the clients straightforwardly. The huge information and the usage of the advanced
advertising through site is the real base for the accomplishment of the organization.
I ntroduction
The idea of E-Payment is not new. Electronic exchange of cash as an aftereffect of transaction
between two gatherings has been in practice for a long while anyway utilize fluctuations among
distinctive nations and additionally among business while doing transactions. The
straightforward meaning of E-business is the use of web to do business. A formal definition says
"e-business is one in which money related worth is exchanged electronically or digitally between
two elements as remuneration for the receipt of products and administrations." A substance
alludes to a bank, business, and individual purchasers. Be that as it may it is clear that any
installment that is not transacted by paper based instruments is considered as e-transaction has
become consistently by supplanting the customary installment ways predominantly on account of
broad utilization of engineering and suspicion that all is well and good that innovation is making
it conceivable. This paper inspects the profits of e-business and its framework that have rendered
books and apps grown on internet. Why e-business has gotten prominent and what profits it
renders are decently perceived anyway we have not seen any strong model in the writing that
gives mainstays of innovation and relates it with gainfulness. Albeit backhanded measure of
benefit through cast investment funds does offer engaging contentions, of course there is a
component of expense sparing both for banks and the client of managing an account benefit in
this case anyway we further go into the arrangement of productivity estimation coming about
because of e-business networks. In accordance with our destination we focus on the writing to
distinguish columns that help e-business. The model we mean to create will be of simple nature
as we have not yet gone over any such model from the writing, however there are number of
elements talked about in the writing to help e-business frameworks around the world. From the
investigation of writing on e-business we can discover six elements that have helped around the
adequacy of e-commerce network. We examine these components in a few points of interest and
will build a model that incorporates two gatherings of columns i.e. mainstays of e-business
coming about the viability of administration and gainfulness. The connection in the middle of
innovation and productivity is not a dark variable consider as money has positive effect on
Amazon business. They specified that Internet has changed the measurements of rivalry in the
retail keeping money division. It has additionally given chances to developing nations to develop
their monetary intermediation base.(Figiel et al., 1998)
The effective running of the business is to a great extent needy upon the systems or strategies
identified with the promoting and deals, which are to be utilized by the association. These
methods have immediate effect on the working and scale of benefit and misfortune. Among these
methodologies or the patterns advanced stages, cell phones and the huge information are most
noteworthy nowadays. It can additionally be said that the best approaches to arrive at to the
clients is the apparatus of cell phones and advanced stages. The correspondence through
advanced stages is simple whether to educate the clients regarding new items or to contact the
clients to recognize what their requests are. The enormous information is an alternate term which
is continuously utilized for the promoting procedures incorporating the correspondence with the
clients, data about the clients and their decisions about the items. The huge information is the
methodology which created the new courses for the organizations to investigate for their
prosperity and change of their deals and advertising strategies. These instruments are helping the
organizations to settle on better choices about their deals and the administrations that are to be
given by the associations to the buyers. Amazon.com is the biggest online retailer organization
which began its business as online book shop for the bookworms and purchasers. After at some
point the organization began to deal the product, hardware, sustenance things, feature
recreations, toys and Mp3 downloading programming. The organization is well known for the
reason that it creates the gadgets, for example, the fuel fire tablet and the encourage digital book
onlooker. Amazon has the arrangement of worldwide transportation of its items to the nations of
the world which is constantly done through the well-assembled site working in numerous
nations. The site of Amazon is working independently in distinctive nations, for example,
England, United States, Brazil, Italy, France, Germany, Japan, India China, Australia and Spain.
It has its client's administration focuses and programming administration focuses crosswise over
Europe, Asia, Africa, North America and Latin America. (Linden et al., 2003)
The organization propelled its site barters in 1999 and further in 2000 the organization
dispatched the Amazon commercial center where it began offering utilized books, Cds and Dvds.
With the progression of time the organization presented numerous other online administrations,
for example, the Amazon Fresh and possesses the e-business locales, for example, woot.com,
zappos.com and shopbop.com. The organization is ceaselessly extending its sites and
administrations over the computerized platforms.
Amazon.co.uk is thought to be the world's biggest online retailer with a different system of site
in UK. It has numerous different sites connected to Amazon in UK including the Slough,
Berkshire and Bedfordshire. The organization's point is to investigate new courses for the deals
and administrations that can prompt the change in the feeling of business and advertising.
Amazon is now searching for the better approaches to help and for this reason the organization
creates new plans and strategies through the computerized stages.
Amazon.co.UK
The organization need to concentrate on distinctive sorts of clients including the clients who
purchase the items from the sites, the traders who deal their items on the stages of the
Amazon.co.uk and the clients who create their items, for example, the movies, music, books et
cetera. The internet shopping and the retailing is the simpler path for the clients to shop and in
addition for the retailers to deal and stretch their business. Amazon.co.uk gives the stage to the
clients to deal and purchases new, collectable and utilized items. The site gives a stage to a large
number of the organizations to deal their items and permits a huge number of the clients over the
world to buy the things and items online whatever they need. With the end goal of giving the
stage to the clients and stakeholders to purchase and deal and with the end goal of making and
investigating new ways the organization has created client agreeable site and delivery system.
The online free shopping is simply a click far from the clients who have their records on the
Amazon system. The retailers, who need to deal their items through Amazon can put their things
and items in Amazon satisfaction focuses from where the items are straightforwardly picked,
prepared, pressed and delivered to the clients who have requested the item from the Amazon
Market puts in, the requests are for the most part satisfied through the stock put away in Amazon
UK.
2. PI LLARS OF E-PAYMENT
From the discourse in the writing we can discover six variables considered imperative for the
viability of e-business these elements are accommodation, decisions mixed bag, cost
diminishment, rate of transaction, security, and openness. Depending on their essential nature, as
obvious from writing we have assembled them to give a model which associations can apply to
build an e-business framework that goes for profitability. The components of our proposed
model are highlighted as takes after.(Skole and Tucker, 1993)
2.1 Convenience
We accept that where e-business framework has not yet arrived at to its true ability is because of
absence of registering offices and nonattendance of different variables talked about in the
accompanying areas.The most imperative element that pulls in Amazon clients to utilize e-
installment is its comfort. There are number of organizations which trust in effective transaction
to upgrade their turnover. As per Birch and Young (1997) comfort in transactions gives access to
aggressive returns and costs. There is no second supposition in regards to this gave all different
elements are available in the framework.
2.2 Choices Variety
The organization's pattern for promoting and deals is computerized stages and the enormous
information of the clients. The organization gathers the data about the clients, their decisions and
tastes from the site, the buy history of the clients and the data about the client's records. In the
wake of gathering such immense data about the clients, the organization analyzes the data
gathered from the client's records with the recently created items and things. In the wake of
finishing the methodology of correlation, the organization offers some new proposals that are
matching the tastes and the buy examples of the clients.
Mobile App:
The Amazon has likewise created the mobile application through which the clients can purchase
the wanted items. The mobile application is not difficult to download and in the wake of
downloading the effectively open application, clients can delight in free web shopping. The
mobile application holds the insights about the items and their costs. Clients can read surveys
about the items and can shop online without any danger.(Moran, 1981)
2.3 I mpact of cost reduction on policies of Amazon
The amazon.co.uk is the non-profit organization which goes for giving the right results of right
quality at the correct time to the clients. The site system of the Amazon Company guarantees its
clients that they will have the capacity to get to the sought items precisely how they need. The
site incorporates the arrangement of the offerings and the associations that are offering their
items or administrations through this stage. The clients can undoubtedly get the classification of
their decision and request the items. An alternate imperative gimmick of the site is that, it gives
the clients the data of the organizations and organization's results of the client's areas. This
peculiarity permits the clients to discover their favored things at their region.
By selecting the patterns, for example, the advanced stages and the cell phones, the organization
is stretching its business and offerings over the globe. The working and the running of the
business is developing step by step because of the site's simple working and the alternatives gave
by the site to the clients. The site is thought to be the biggest web promoting stage which permits
the clients to buy the things as well as permits them to give data with the goal that the
organization can prescribe the items matching their needs. The clients have the trust and trust
over the site that holds gigantic measure of information and data about the items it is offering
alongside the surveys and the costs. The organization has likewise evacuated the strategy of free
conveyance on some of its thing which would permit the organization to buy and convey the
comparative things further in the one day from now of its working. The free conveyance
approach has been uprooted on some of its things which are ease, through uprooting the free
conveyance arrangement the clients will be swaying the organization to buy the same low value
items to extend the classification of lower evaluated things. The structure of the organization is
additionally affected because of the strategies and patterns created by the organization as the
structure is completely created and without any structural defects permitting a large number of
the clients to purchase, deal and partake in the business successfully. The operations or the
standards of the organization are overall created and composed in a manner that the clients can
check the requests, survey and nature of the items, the affirmation of the transportation and
offerings through the site.(Shukla et al., 1990)
2.4 Speedy Payment
The fast installments are among numerous components that make e-business attractive. Speed
however off and on again gets influenced by numerous components that must be handled
suitably to keep the e-installment working admirably. For instance site speed and downloading
materials, user`s figuring equipment and association methods. Our stance however goes past
these components and presents a model containing six columns.
One of the primary profits of the electronic business for Amazon is to upgrade the rate of
exchanging installment between gatherings working together. As per masters the preferences of
electronic installments are;1) decrease in transaction costs, 2) change of installment productivity
rank, 3) expand in accommodation of making installments, 4) diminishment in the costs of the
exchange of products and administrations, 5) rapid installment which could be made remotely
utilizing different gadgets, 6) profits for e-business, and 7) might be utilized for different
purposes, for example, paying bills, charges, and so forth.
2.5 Security
This is one the most important factors that an online business needs to take into account
accurately, like Amazon. The security and avoidance of related dangers is obliged when the data
is debilitated or assaulted. Some individuals contended that security is considered as a business
necessity; in light of the fact that it is identified with the venture in the long haul, so business
prerequisites are isolated into four measurements. To begin with, data security ensures the
organization`s capacity to capacity. Besides, it empowers a safe operation of uses actualized on
the organization`s IT frameworks. Security of online money related transaction is prime concern
of any business. Security means ensuring data and its crucial parts, including the electronic
frameworks and fittings that are utilized, for putting away and transmitting data. Data security is
influentially interfaced to the essentialness of data itself.. Third measurement is that data security
secures the information that association gathers and employments. Fourth data security protects
the innovation stakes utilized by the association. Data security is not just helpful for routine
specialized or business utilizes additionally could be viewed as critical for lawful matters. As
indicated by late data security is really turning into a lawful prerequisite for associations to
sufficiently watch their business stakes, secure data about people in their supervision or in their
demographic. Coming up short data security intimates lawful suits on protection infringement.
As indicated by an expert alternate essential component influencing the acknowledgement and
reception of new advancement is the level of security or danger connected with it. Indeed in
nations where Internet keeping money has long been secured, a standout amongst the most
essential elements abating advancement on e-installments has been the consumers sympathy
toward security of fiscal transactions over the Internet. An exact overview of Australian
purchasers affirmed this. We derive that electronic business must be fruitful given there is
finished security in transactions relating online installments, henceforth making it one of the key
column.(Mahar, 1989)
Software and I T system:
The innovation which is constantly utilized for the working of the business in the Amazon UK is
Linux based. The Amazon is the third biggest Linux information base with the limits of the 7.8
TB, 18.5 TB and 24.7 Tb. The structural planning of the Amazon's innovation is organized and
supported by the huge number of the go down operations consistently furthermore focused
around the questions put by the outsider dealers. The server of the Amazon is the safe attachment
layer convention which is in charge of the sparing of the client's subtle elements, credits and
Master card points of interest. The points of interest of the clients and the Visa number have been
spared by the server on day by day bases. The server additionally records the information about
the conduct of both clients and the business persons that empowers the organization to
investigate better approaches to offer new items and make suggestions for clients to meet their
prerequisites. The clients can discover the results of their inclination and needs. The multi-level-
e-business is the essential method of the business at the Amazon, concentrating on the business-
to-client connections alongside the business to business procedures. The stage of the
Amazon.com permits its clients to deal anything they need, and post the Amazon interfaces and
permit the clients to win benefits. The arrangement of the product is simple and open for the
clients, who are making the Amazon to expand their strength in the commercial center while
rivaling others.
2.6 Accessibility
Analysts prescribed a system involving seven measurements for measuring the nature of online
administration. These are unwavering quality, access, convenience, personalization, security,
believability, and responsiveness. As per an overview, access to the Internet is a critical necessity
for the execution of electronic business and Internet keeping money. As machines and Internet is
utilized within all part of life consequently open door for Internet managing an account is getting
to be effortlessly available. Absence of access to machines considered as one of the plausible
purposes behind the moderate execution of Internet business. The UK government in a
movement to sway buyers to grasp data engineering has supported buys of machines in the most
recent two years. According to an analyst underlined openness one of the six components to
measure the nature of saving money administrations. The six components they displayed are
openness; accommodation/correctness, input/grumbling administration, productivity; line
administration, and customization. In the light of writing six variables talked about are
interlinked for the viable e-business framework and thusly coordinate them as columns that can
hold the arrangement of e-commerce for effective procedures.(Binswanger, 1991)
3. Techniques to be used
The organization's execution through the site is focused around the multi-level e-trade and the
server of the data engineering that permits the organization to arrive at all over the place on the
planet. The basic and uncomplicated arrangement of the organization is undoubtedly a standout
amongst the most solid frameworks of the world heading associations that are going through
web. The server is based and went down by the organization on day by day bases and the data
accumulated by the organization is to be kept mystery and secure. The Amazon.co.uk needs to
create the framework which can keep the credit points of interest and the charge card amounts of
the clients as it is the real concern of the server. The usage of the cell phone needs to be
produced through the sending of the quick messages and the email promoting. The clients need
to be educated through the quick messages and the email about their requests and delivery and
the subtle elements of items they buy. The low estimated things and the items ought to be cost
free for the clients and the low valued things must be offering without any expense. The client
administration focuses must be growing all through the globe as the site is working in very
nearly every nation of the world. The stockroom conditions for the laborers are exceptionally
poor as the organization is concentrating on the offering and the buying of the products just.
While the specialists are working in poor conditions and off and on again the laborers need to
work in such circumstances where they can't work legitimately and endure numerous wellbeing
issues, for example, drying out. The organization is additionally pulling in the clients who can't
have entry to the items or the things offered at the site. For this reason the organization needs to
concentrate on the administration focuses and the conveyance of the items to the individuals
pulled in to the things.
3.1 Return on Assets (ROA)
Return on Assets (ROA) measures the rate of profit for the aggregate holdings (shareholder
value in addition to liabilities). It measures a company's proficiency at creating benefits from
shareholders' value in addition to its liabilities. ROA indicates how well an organization utilizes
what it needs to produce profit. ROA can differ radically crosswise over businesses. Thusly,
return on stakes ought not to be utilized to come close organizations in diverse commercial
enterprises. For retailers, a ROA of higher than 5% is normal. For instance, Wal-Mart (WMT)
has a ROA of something like 8% starting 2012. According to a recent survey the results of
Amazon are as below.
Return on assets is figured as net income separated by its aggregate possessions. Amazon.com
Inc's annualized net income for the quarter that finished in Mar. 2014 was $432 Mil.
Amazon.com Inc's aggregate assets for the quarter that finished in Mar.2014, was $36,364 Mil.
Accordingly, Amazon.com Inc's annualized profit for assets (ROA) for the quarter that finished.


3.2 Return on EQUI TY (ROE)
Also known as Dupont analysis the return on equity is the most important one ratio that are
supposed to be considered by all the shareholders in any company. It basically describes the
comparison between the net profit or a companys income and the amount invested by the share
holders. The ROE depicts the end results or outcomes of the analysis of structured financial
programs and it is returned to the shareholders out of the companys income according to the
amount invested by them respectively. It is a ratio of companys net income to the equity of the
shareholders. It specifies the capabilities of a company to generate growth by using the
investment funds. (Bates, 1862)
The return on equity for the amazon.com has been following downward trend in the year 2011
and 2012 but afterwards remarkable rise has been seen in their return on equity since last two
years. The data displays that its return on equity in March 2014 quarterly has been 3.16%
whereas its ROE in September and December 2013 quarterly has been 1.52% and 3.03%
respectively. On the other hand its ROE has improved to 2.8% since last year.
3.3 I ntegrated Model Of E-Payment And E-banking profitability
When the profits are the main concern, the company looks forward to the implementation of such
strategies in various plans that can yield them huge profits. The company analyzes the extents to
which the various systems employed by them make remarkable profits for them. The integrated
model of e-payment in the amazon.inc allows the customers to make their own personal profiles
at the site and then buy online. It allows direct marketing with the customers by building
relationship through them. The API-level integration provides seamless experiences to the
customers and allows them to buy anything from the site by using any kind of device. The
customers make their profiles and then buy directly using their own login. This way of marketing
online has remained profitable to the amazon.inc as they impart trust in their customers by
allotting them private accounts. In addition to this the amazon.inc has provided the simple e-
banking model to their customers which has divert their attentions towards online purchasing
because of ease offered by the amazone.inc. it has lead to a great customer support and
amazon.inc is leading with the annual sales of $3 billion.

4 Models Validation
According to the model adopted by the amazon.inc, the e-payment system as well as the building
up of an effective relationship between e-payment and the profit of the company is very
necessary. It depicts that whether the model being adopted justifies the companys goals or not.
Various factors amalgamate in order to validate the accuracy of the model being utilized. If the
following hypothesis according to the companies following e-payment models are justifies then
it means that a model is validated to a certain extent.
H1: it states that if the e-payment system is has been running successfully by drawing easy
transactions then it will increase the turnover rate of the company. In other words it will provide
with large number of customers that will in short make massive profits for the amazon.inc.
H2: according to it the e-payment system provides the customers visiting the sites with a large
variety of products being available and offered thus it promotes impulse buying in the customers.
Secondly easy transactions call out for more purchasing by them.
H3: the e-payment system is very advanced. The amazon.inc offers the products available at the
site at a relatively lower price that attracts the customers. It prompts the purchasing of items with
great pleasure when they are being sold with discounts in them. This saves the cost to a favorable
extent.
H4: it also leads to saving ones time. Since the e-payment follows online payment procedures
which are quite efficient and fast. Within few seconds you are provided with the virtue of getting
anything you desire from another side of the world.
H5: since amazone.inc facilitates the customers with the opportunity of making their own
accounts at the site, it somehow secures the customers with the feeling that their card numbers
are not being used by someone else. This model has been largely validated by this aspect in case
of the largest online selling company amazon.inc.(Adams et al., 1995)
H6: it also provides people with the awareness of new technologies that is a must have in todays
world.
H7: the data shows that there is a positive and effective relationship between the amazon.inc e-
payment system and the profits received by the company on the behalf of this system.
H8: as the amazone.inc is earning huge profits because of the e-payment system by providing
customers with comfort as well as desired variety, it leads to the increase in return on equity of
the company and the shareholders who have invested are provided with more net incomes.
H9: all the factors when proceed positively, they impart increase return on assets to the company
also.
Methodology and data description
To check out the validation of the e-payment and e-business model adopted by the amazon.inc, a
quantitative research was conducted to know whether the hypothesis lie according to the
profitable criteria or not. Since the research was concerned with the customers of the amazon.inc.
it was considered as a quantitative research and the mean of research was chosen as the
questionnaires. Each questionnaire being produced consisted of 32 questions and was distributed
via mail to the customers of the amazon.inc. out of the 500 questionnaires, 420 questionnaires
were returned by them via mail and then the results were carried out in the form of statistical data
by using SPSS report software. The basic parameters that were calculated in order to evaluate
hypothesis included frequency, mean, standard deviation and percentages.
Population of the study
The questionnaires were sent to the amazon.inc customers during the year 2011 and 2012
because at that time the e-banking systems were the more crucial aspect to be added in any
business.
5 Data Analysis And Results
The questionnaire samples that were returned by the customers of the amazon.inc were analyzed
to evaluate the hypothesis regarding e-payment systems and it was done by sing the software
named SPSS report.

Samples descriptive analysis
Four factors were considered on the basis of which the evaluation of the data obtained through
questionnaires was done. These factors were level of education, age, gender as well as
purchasing experience. The level of education included the people studying in high school to
those who are done with their PhD. Whereas the age included the people from all age groups but
the average age lied between 25 and 48. Both males and females constituted the participants of
the research who has been buying since last 5 years or more.(Henderson, 1995)
The results showed that the majority of the questionnaires are being returned by well-educated
customers and the percentage of the male customers was higher as compared to that of female
one. In addition to this the customers were having effective years of buying experience. All these
results show that we can rely on the questionnaires being filled by the people and returned for the
proceeding of this research.
After all these parameters were determined, the research was further processed to evaluate the
validation of the model being adopted by the amazon.inc.
The model components
The model adopted by the amazon.inc comprised of two basic components or features as
follows:
ELECTRONIC PAYMENT CONSTRUCT
PROFITABILITY CONSTRUCT
the most important parameters that were look after in the electronic payment construct included
the convenience, security of customers, speedy payment, choice or desired variety, accessibility
as well as cost reduction whereas the factors that were of interest and relied upon the former
parameters included the Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE).
6 Hypothesis testing
After analyzing the relationship between the e-payment system of the amazon.inc and the profit
to the company by the statistical data obtained through the SPSS report, the empirical validation
of the model was required and it was done by formulating several hypotheses through two
methods. These methods included standardized estimation of coefficients and the R
2
value. These
two methods demonstrated the relationship between the e-payment system of amazon.inc and the
pillars.
The following results were drawn by the statistical analysis regarding the e-payment system and
the role it has played in the success of the amazon.inc.
E-PAYMENT AND CONVENIENCE:
The beta value that depicted the positive relationship between the e-payment and the
convenience was 0.35 as well as the t-value that showed the validation of the model was
2.76. these results show that the e-payment system in the amazon.inc has imparted
convenience to the customers and there is a strong relationship between the system and
the comfort it is offering to the customers.
E-PAYMENT AND CHOICE VARIETY:
the beta value shown by the SPSS report was 0.28 and that of t-value was 2.96 that
showed this system has introduced the customers at amazon.inc with a lot of desired
variety.
E-PAYMENT AND COST REDUCTION:
The beta value for amazon.inc was 0.34 whereas the t-value calculated was 2.37 that
shows a positive relationship between the e-payment system and the discounts offered by
the amazon.inc to the customers.
SPEEDY PAYMENT:
The beta value that came out for the speedy payments was 0.31 whereas the t-value stated
2.25. this showed that the amazon.inc has offered speedy payments to its customers
through the e-payment system.
E-PAYMENT AND SECURITY:
0.33 was the calculated beta value whereas 3.34 was the t-value. It prompted that amazon
has established positive relationship between the security of the customers through this e-
payment system that is boosting up its profits.
PROFITABILITY AND RETURN ON EQUITY:
The beta value in this regard was 0.31 whereas the t-value for amazn.inc was 2.10. it
showed that the ROE of the company has been increased with the positive relationships
being established in the former aspects.
PROFITABILITY AND ELECTRONIC PAYMENT:
The beta value stated by the results was 0.31 and the t-value was 11.09. strong and
positive relationship developed between both terms.(Henderson, 1995)



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